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Sample records for total cultivation periods

  1. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  2. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper and zinc fractionation in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods

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    Ely S. A. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals on the biosolid, it is necessary to promote its phytoremediation. It is important to know the total content and chemical forms of these elements in the residue for analyzing its behavior and potential toxicity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the fractionation and behavior of Cu and Zn in biosolid cultivated with Pennisetum purpureum in different periods. The experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design. The treatments, with five replicates, corresponded to Pennisetum purpureum cultivation in biosolid for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting. The total contents of Cu and Zn in the biosolid remained below the critical limits established by the CONAMA Resolution 357, and there was a reduction in these values with Pennisetum purpureum cultivation. Furthermore, the increment in the grass cultivation period caused intense reduction of Zn contents bound to organic matter, but there was an increase in soluble Zn and residual Zn. Additionally, there was an intense reduction in the content of Cu bound to sulfides. Therefore, for biosolid phytoremediation purposes, the grass should be cultivated for 150 days.

  4. Competition and critical periods in spring sugar beet cultivation

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    Mansilla Martínez José

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High yields with low costs require that sugar beets be kept free of weeds, during critical periods, using labor or chemical treatments. Since the critical periods for this crop in Castilla - La Mancha (Spain are unknown, the first goal of this study was to determine the effect of early and late competition on yield. The second goal was to determine the critical periods, while taking into consideration the semiarid climatic conditions of this region. Two irrigation farms located in the province of Albacete are dedicated to sugar beet cultivation. These two farms were chosen to carry out the tests March (140,000-150,000 seeds ∙ ha-1 and harvested in October. Two simultaneous and complementary experiments were carried out in each year and farm. Two scenarios were considered with eight different treatments each. In the first one (With Weeds Until - WWU, plots were infested by weeds up to a certain date. In the second one (Free of Weeds Until - FWU, plots were kept free of weeds up to a certain date. For each test, a randomised experimental blocked field was designed and there were four repetitions, each of them containing eight elemental plots (12 m2. Each plot was weeded by hand or weeds were left to grow till a definite date.The results indicated that a 1% loss of yield was reached in the early competition after 14 days, while a loss of 5% was reached after a period of 41 days after it was infested. The results also indicated that in late competition, if a crop is kept clean for 124 days and it is infested afterwards, a 1% loss is reached. However, the loss increases to 5% if the plot is kept clean for 111 days. For a 1% loss the critical period is 110 days and 70 days for a 5% loss.

  5. Total β-carotene content of orange sweetpotato cultivated under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MFaber

    vitamin A value, percentage contribution towards vitamin A requirements and serving size needed to provide 100% of the vitamin requirements. Months after planting. Root weight c. (g). Total β-. Carotene d. (µg 100 g-1). Vitamin A value e. (µg RAE 100 g-1). %RDA provided by 100 g f. Amount j needed to provide 100%.

  6. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

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    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  8. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Mapping soil total nitrogen of cultivated land at county scale by using hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Li Yan; Shu, Meiyan; Yang, Guijun

    2018-02-01

    Monitoring total nitrogen content (TNC) in the soil of cultivated land quantitively and mastering its spatial distribution are helpful for crop growing, soil fertility adjustment and sustainable development of agriculture. The study aimed to develop a universal method to map total nitrogen content in soil of cultivated land by HSI image at county scale. Several mathematical transformations were used to improve the expression ability of HSI image. The correlations between soil TNC and the reflectivity and its mathematical transformations were analyzed. Then the susceptible bands and its transformations were screened to develop the optimizing model of map soil TNC in the Anping County based on the method of multiple linear regression. Results showed that the bands of 14th, 16th, 19th, 37th and 60th with different mathematical transformations were screened as susceptible bands. Differential transformation was helpful for reducing the noise interference to the diagnosis ability of the target spectrum. The determination coefficient of the first order differential of logarithmic transformation was biggest (0.505), while the RMSE was lowest. The study confirmed the first order differential of logarithm transformation as the optimal inversion model for soil TNC, which was used to map soil TNC of cultivated land in the study area.

  10. Critical periods of sorghum and palisadegrass in intercropped cultivation for climatic risk zoning

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    Nino Rodrigo Cabral de Barros Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define critical periods for sorghum and palisadegrass cultivated on crop-livestock integrated systems under water deficit. An experiment was carried out in a completely random block design with four treatments (control and interruption of water supply in three periods and three replicates. Water supply was interrupted until soil water humidity was close to permanent wilting point at the phases: germination of palisadegrass seeds; start of tillering of palisadegrass and initiation of panicles of shorghum; start of shorghum flowering. Water deficit starting at palisadegrass germination delayed intital development of the plants because of the reduction in tillering. Water restriction at panicle initiation phase and at sorghum flowering determined reduction of grain production. Critical periods for intercrop of sorghum and palisadegrass correspond to palisadegrass germination phase and flowering and panicle inititation phase of sorghum.

  11. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

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    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  12. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  13. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  14. The effects of cultivation on the organic matter of total soil and in the different soil particle size separates using radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of cultivation on the organic matter and nutrients in the total soil and in five particle size separates were studied through chemical analyses and radiocarbon dating. Samples were taken from the A and B horizons of an uncultivated field and of fields cultivated during 5,60 and 90 years which had never received treatment with fertilizers. (M.A.) [pt

  15. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Total arsenic, lead, and cadmium levels in vegetables cultivated at the Andean villages of northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, F; Stegen, S; Restovic, M; Paz, M; Ostapczuk, P; Schwuger, M J; Muñoz, L

    2000-06-08

    Various vegetables (broad beans, corn, potato, alfalfa and onion) were sampled in northern Chile, Antofagasta Region. They are the basis of human nutrition in this region and of great relevance to human health. This region is characterized by volcanic events (eruptions, thermal springs, etc.). Most of the vegetables cultivated in this area enter the local markets for a population of approximately 4000 people, whose ancestors were mainly atacameños and quechuas (local indigenous people). The cadmium and lead in these foods was determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Results indicate that the highest concentration of Pb and Cd are in the potato skin, while the edible part of the potatoes contained a lower concentration of these metals. The INAA analyses of As in the vegetables from Socaire and Talabre, two towns located close to active volcanoes (e.g. Lascar), show a very high As content: 1850 microg/kg in corn (Socaire) and 860 microg/kg in potatoes (+ skin) (Talabre). These values exceed the National Standard for arsenic (500 microg/kg) by approximately 400% and 180%, respectively. In general, the data show a concentration of Pb greater than Cd with the potential for some vegetables to accumulate heavy metals, The values, expressed in fresh weight, vary from 0.2 to 40 microg/g for Cd and from 0.6 to 94 microg/g for Pb. These concentration intervals, except that of arsenic, are within the recommended standards in the Food Sanitary Regulation (Decree 977), which, expressed as fresh weight, must be equal to or smaller than 500 microg/kg for Pb. There is no legal standard for Cd.

  17. Periods of weed interference in maize crops cultivated in the first and second cycles

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    Caio Ferraz de Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interference of weeds in maize production may be reflected in grain yield losses that vary as a function of the density, stage and degree of aggressiveness of the species present. In the agricultural ecosystem, crops and weeds demand light, water, nutrients and space, which are frequently not available in sufficient quantities, leading to competition. The aim of this work was to determine the period of interference of weed plants, in particular of naked crabgrass (Digitaria nuda on maize crop in the first and second harvest. The treatments were defined as increasing periods of coexistence and increasing control of weed community (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days, two more controls, a control including one with weed control until the end of the culture cycle and another with coexistence until the harvest. For each period, were evaluated the stand of maize plants, length of ear, number of grains per row, number of rows per ear, cob, 100-grain weight, and grain productivity. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using the F test, with average treatments compared using Tukey’s test at 5% probability. Crop productivity was evaluated by means of regressions, the critical periods of interference were estimated. The critical timing of weed removal was 25 days for both harvests. The critical weed free period was 54 and 27 days for the first and second harvest respectively. For the conditions of the first and second harvest, the critical period of weed control was of 29 and 2 days respectively.

  18. Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan

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    Chin-Huang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM. Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM. The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value.

  19. Distribution of heavy metals in plants cultivated with wastewater irrigated soils during different periods of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Mireles, A.; Reyes-Solis, I.E.; Garcia-Calderon, N.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Pina, C.U.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mezquital valley is a vast area near Mexico city that has been irrigated with wastewater from Mexico city for more than 50 years. At present, this water source continues to be used while new irrigation areas are being incorporated according to rural demand. This research study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the accumulation of metals in soils and plants and the physicochemical properties of soils irrigated in this manner for 50 and 100 years, respectively. Soil properties such as pH and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined by conventional methods. Plant and soil total trace metals Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Lower pH and TOC contents were obtained for soils irrigated during 100 years, indicating a higher metal bioavailability. This is not reflected in plant content for most of the reported elements, but Zn and Pb show a higher absorption in 100 years old plots (26-79%) than in 50-year-olds plots, indicating a pH dependence

  20. Metabolic observations during the treatment of obese patients by periods of total starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van; Schwarz, F.; Kinderen, P.J. der; Veeman, W.

    Ten very obese female patients were treated by periods of total starvation lasting 10 days each. In the interval between these starvation periods, a diet of 600 calories was given. Twenty-one periods were completed, 6 patients went through 3 periods each. The fasting was generally well tolerated;

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Total Phenols of Wild and Cultivated Berries in Chile Capacidad Antioxidante, Antocianinas y Fenoles Totales de Berries Silvestres y Cultivados en Chile

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    Jaime Guerrero C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to incorporate a lot of natural antioxidants into the human organism by consuming berries which can prevent diseases generated by the action of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and thus protect the organism from the oxidative damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Berries stand out as one of the richest sources of antioxidant phytonutrients among various fruits and vegetables. The objective of this research was to determine antioxidant capacity (AC, total anthocyanins (TA, and total phenols (TP of wild and cultivated berries in different localities of La Araucanía and Los Ríos Regions in Chile. These parameters were analyzed by using the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH method, pH-differential, and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Percentages of DPPH discoloration of different berries studied were between 67.8% and 95.3% for red sarsaparilla and rosehip, respectively. Maqui berries showed a significantly higher TA content (2240.2 and 1445.3 mg L-1 cyanidin 3-glucoside than other berries, and a mean for all berries of 335.5 mg L-1. Higher phenol content levels were obtained in two cultivars of saskatoon (773.9 and 1001.9 mg L-1 gallic acid and wild rosehip (1457.0 and 1140.4 mg L-1 gallic acid. We conclude that there are significant differences in antioxidant capacity of wild and cultivated Chilean berries in this study which show a strong correlation between AC and TP content.Por medio del consumo de berries es posible incorporar al organismo una gran cantidad de antioxidantes capaces de prevenir múltiples enfermedades generadas por la acción de los radicales libres. Los antioxidantes actúan neutralizando los radicales libres y de esta forma protegen al organismo del daño oxidativo de lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Entre variadas frutas y hortalizas, se destacan los berries como una de las fuentes más ricas en fitonutrientes antioxidantes. El objetivo de esta investigaci

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soil aggregation as affected by cultivation of various crops during the sugarcane fallow period

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    Priscila Viviane Truber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Management systems involving crop rotation, ground cover species and reduced soil tillage can improve the soil physical and biological properties and reduce degradation. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of various crops grown during the sugarcane fallow period on the production of glomalin and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two Latosols, as well as their influence on soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted on an eutroferric Red Latosol with high-clay texture (680 g clay kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol with clayey texture (440 g kg-1 clay in Jaboticabal (São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block design involving five blocks and four crops [soybean (S, soybean/fallow/soybean (SFS, soybean/millet/soybean (SMS and soybean/sunn hemp/soybean (SHS] was used to this end. Soil samples for analysis were collected in June 2011. No significant differences in total glomalin production were detected between the soils after the different crops. However, total external mycelium length was greater in the soils under SMS and SHS. Also, there were differences in easily extractable glomalin, total glomalin and aggregate stability, which were all greater in the eutroferric Red Latosol than in the acric Red Latosol. None of the cover crops planted in the fallow period of sugarcane improved aggregate stability in either Latosol.

  3. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  4. Comment on ``Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with periodic structure''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wu, Qing-Song

    2008-07-01

    Lakatos [Phys. Rev. E 71, 011103 (2005)] have studied a totally asymmetric exclusion process that contains periodically varying movement rates. They have presented a cluster mean-field theory for the problem. We show that their cluster mean-field theory leads to redundant equations. We present a mean-field analysis in which there is no redundant equation.

  5. Physical health problems experienced in the early postoperative recovery period following total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szötz, Kirsten; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Hørdam, Britta

    2015-01-01

    of exercising in the early recovery period after discharge from hospital following total knee replacement. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. A total of 86 patients were included following first-time elective total knee replacement. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS......: The majority of the patients experienced leg oedema (90.7%). Secondary to this were pain (81.4%), sleeping disorders (47.7%) problems with appetite (38.4%) and bowel function (34.9%) were the most frequently identified physical health problems. In total, 69.8% of the patients indicated that they did...... not exercise or only partly exercise as recommended, but without associated experience of pain. CONCLUSION: Patients experienced a wide range of physical health problems following total knee replacement and deviation from recommended self-training was identified. These findings are valuable for health...

  6. Cultivation period, lighting conditions and BAP concentrations on in vitro induction shoots of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree

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    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of in vitro micropropagation allows the production of large amounts of plants. However, some aspects of the orchid’s in vitro micropropagation are still poorly studied. This study analyzed the lighting conditions, time of cultivation and BAP concentrations on in vitro budburst of Dendrobium phalaenopsis Deang Suree. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of biometric parameters of plants grown during 90 and 180 days on ½ MS medium under different lighting conditions (18.90 mol m-2 s-1, 14.85 mol m-2 s-1, 9.45 mol m-2 s-1 and concentrations of BAP (0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5 e 3 mg L-1. The best results of budburst were obtained during 180 days, under white fluorescent light (18.90 mol m-2 s-1 and using 1.5±0.1 mg L-1 of BAP.

  7. Shocks induced by junctions in totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under periodic boundary condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaoyan, E-mail: sunxiaoyan1@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangxi Teacher Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Xie, Yanbo [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); He, Zhiwei [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2011-07-11

    This Letter investigates a totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with junctions in a one-dimensional transport system. Parallel update rules and periodic boundary condition are adopted. Two cases corresponding to different update rules are studied. The results show that the stationary states of system mainly depend on the selection behavior of particle at the bifurcation point. -- Highlights: → For no preference case, the system exists three stationary phases. → For preference case, the system exists five stationary phases. → The road lengths have not qualitative influence on the fundamental diagram.

  8. Distance and total column density to the periodic radio star LSI + 61 deg 303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frail, D.A.; Hjellming, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    New observations toward the periodic radio star LSI + 61 deg 303 in the lines of H I at 21 cm and CO-18 at 2.7 mm are reported. Using the kinematic method, H I observations are interpreted in terms of the two-armed spiral shock model of Roberts (1972) to derive a distance to LSI + 61 deg 303 of 2.0 + or - 0.2 kpc. The results clearly show the presence of the Perseus arm shock and locate LSI + 61 deg 303 between this shock and the more distant postshock gas. In addition, by using the H I and CO-18 data, the total neutral and molecular gas column density is derived along the line of sight toward LSI + 61 deg 303. 32 refs

  9. Galactic cosmic rays in the periods of an inversion of the total solar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnev, M.B.; Stozhkov, Yu.I.; Charakhch'yan, T.N.

    1984-01-01

    Anomalies in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) behaviour in the periods of the total solar magnetic field (TSMF) inversion are considered according to the data of neutron monitors and stratospheric measurements. These anomalies are interpreted as superpositions of two phenomena: phenomenon 1 and phenomenon 2. Phenomenon 1 is conditioned by the decrease and following strengthening of the regular interplanetary field strong strength in heliosphere in the periods of TSMF inversion. Phenomenon 2 consists in exess of GCR nuclei intensity over the expeited one, corresponding to the level of solar activity after TSMF inversion with dMsub(Z)/dt > 0 (inversion of 1969-1971) and also in decrease of observed GCR nuclei intensity as compared to the expected one after TSMF inversion with dMsub(Z)/dt < 0 (Msub(Z)-projection of magnetic field dipole moment on solar axis of rotation). The phenomenon 1 is slightly late in respect to TSMF inversion, as the phenomenon 2 takes part in the process only approximately 1 year after inversion completing

  10. Approaching total absorption of graphene strips using a c-Si subwavelength periodic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Tian; Wang, Rui; Li, Junlang; Zhou, Jianyu; Wang, Yueke

    2018-04-01

    Approaching total absorption of graphene strips at near infrared using a crystalline-silicon (c-Si) subwavelength periodic membrane (SPM) is presented. The absorption in graphene strips in a c-Si SPM is enhanced by a resonant tip, which is resulted from the coupling between the guided mode and the radiation mode through symmetry breaking of the structure at near-normal incidence. The enhancement of the electric field intensity is increased 1939 times and the group velocity of light is decreased to 3.55 ×10-4c at resonance, and 99.3% absorption in graphene strips can be achieved by critical coupling at the incident angle of 2°. High absorption of the graphene strips can be maintained as the etching thickness, the strip width, and the period are altered. When this type of c-Si SPM with graphene strips is used in refractive index sensors, it shows excellent sensing properties due to its stable near-unity absorption.

  11. [Prevention and treatment of perioperative period complication of total ankle replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiang; Gao, Zhizeng; Huang, Shanhu; Yang, Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    To explore the cause of the perioprative period complication of scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR) and to summarize the experience in the treatment and prevention. From March 1999 to November 2006, 35 patients were given total ankle replacement (TAR) with STAR system. There were 19 males and 16 females with an average age of 50.5 years (27 to 68 years), including 12 cases of posttraumatic arthritis, 8 cases of osteoarthritis and 15 cases of rheumatoid arthritis. All patients had pain of ankle joint, swelling and limitation of joint motion. The disease course was 9-64 months. The curative effect was estimated by Kofoed total ankle scoring system. The mean preoperative ankle score was 29 (6-48); the mean pain score was 18.3 (0-35); the mean function score was 11.7 (6-18); and the mean activity score was 9.2 (3-12). The type of all complications were record, and its cause, prevetion and treatment were analyszed. Thirty-three patients achieved healing by first intention, 2 achieved delayed union because of infection. Twenty-eight patients were followed up 3-80 months (mean 43.5 months). Medial malleolus fracture occurred in 2 cases, unstable ankle joint introversion in 2 cases, limitation of ankle dorsiextension in 1 case and 1 case had hypoesthesia at intermediate dorsal skin of foot and 3rd-5th metatarsal skin without obvious dysfunction; all were treated with symptomatic medication. The postoperative mean ankle score was 85.5 (58-95); the mean pain score was 48.3 (35-50); the mean function score was 20.7 (18-30); the mean activity score was 17.2 (16-20). There were statistically significant differences when compared with preoperative score (P<0.01). The clinical results were excellent in 16 patients, good in 9 patients and fair in 3 patients. The X-ray films showed no loosening and subsidence of prosthesis. Although STAR can retain the functions of the operated joint, it has its special complications. It is important to obey operation principle with

  12. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November. In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  13. The synergistic effects for the co-cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus on the biomass and total lipids accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chen, Li-Juan

    2015-05-01

    In this co-culture of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus, microalgae potentially acts as an oxygen generator for the growth of aerobic yeast while the yeast mutually provides CO2 to the microalgae as both carry out the production of lipids. To explore the synergistic effects of co-cultivation on the cells growth and total lipids accumulation, several co-culture process parameters including the carbon source concentration, temperature and dissolved oxygen level would be firstly investigated in the flask trials. The results of co-culture in a 5L photobioreactor revealed that about 40-50% of biomass increased and 60-70% of total lipid increased was observed as compared to the single culture batches. Besides the synergistic effects of gas utilization, the providing of trace elements to each other after the natural cells lysis was believed to be another benefit to the growth of the overall co-culture system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  15. [Dendrobium officinale stereoscopic cultivation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Liao, Xin-Yan; Zhu, Yu-Qiu; Li, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to make the most of available space of Dendrobium officinale cultivation facility, reveal the yield and functional components variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale, and improve quality, yield and efficiency. The agronomic traits and yield variation of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were studied by operating field experiment. The content of polysaccharide and extractum were determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method and 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" Appendix X A. The results showed that the land utilization of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale increased 2.74 times, the stems, leaves and their total fresh or dry weight in unit area of stereoscopic cultivated D. officinale were all heavier than those of the ground cultivated ones. There was no significant difference in polysaccharide content between stereoscopic cultivation and ground cultivation. But the extractum content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum were significantly higher than those of the ground cultivated ones. In additional, the polysaccharide content and total content of polysaccharide and extractum from the top two levels of stereoscopic culture matrix were significantly higher than that of the ones from the other levels and ground cultivation. Steroscopic cultivation can effectively improves the utilization of space and yield, while the total content of polysaccharides and extractum were significantly higher than that of the ground cultivated ones. The significant difference in Dendrobium polysaccharides among the plants from different height of stereo- scopic culture matrix may be associated with light factor.

  16. On the totality of periodic motions in the meridian plane of a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markellos, V.V.; Halioulias, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of the periodic solutions of the Stoermer problem, representing the magnetic field of the Earth, is examined by considering the equatorial oscillations of the charged particle and their 'vertical' bifurcations with meridian periodic oscillations. An infinity of new families of simple-periodic oscillations are found to exist in the vicinity of the 'thalweg' and four such new families are actually established by numerical integration. (Auth.)

  17. Period Study and Analyses of 2017 Observations of the Totally Eclipsing, Solar Type Binary, MT Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Danny R.; Samec, Ronald G.; Caton, Daniel B.

    2018-06-01

    We report here on a period study and the analysis of BVRcIc light curves (taken in 2017) of MT Cam (GSC03737-01085), which is a solar type (T ~ 5500K) eclipsing binary. D. Caton observed MT Cam on 05, 14, 15, 16, and 17, December 2017 with the 0.81-m reflector at Dark Sky Observatory. Six times of minimum light were calculated from four primary eclipses and two secondary eclipses:HJD I = 24 58092.4937±0.0002, 2458102.74600±0.0021, 2458104.5769±0.0002, 2458104.9434±0.0029HJD II = 2458103.6610±0.0001, 2458104.7607±0.0020,Six times of minimum light were also calculated from data taken by Terrell, Gross, and Cooney, in their 2016 and 2004 observations (reported in IBVS #6166; TGC, hereafter). In addition, six more times of minimum light were taken from the literature. From all 18 times of minimum light, we determined the following light elements:JD Hel Min I=2458102.7460(4) + 0.36613937(5) EWe found the orbital period was constant over the 14 years spanning all observations. We note that TGC found a slightly increasing period. However, our results were obtained from a period study rather than comparison of observations from only two epochs by the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) Program. A BVRcIc Johnson-Cousins filtered simultaneous W-D Program solution gives a mass ratio (0.3385±0.0014) very nearly the same as TGC’s (0.347±0.003), and a component temperature difference of only ~40 K. As with TGC, no spot was needed in the modeling. Our modeling (beginning with Binary Maker 3.0 fits) was done without prior knowledge of TGC’s. This shows the agreement achieved when independent analyses are done with the W-D code. The present observations were taken 1.8 years later than the last curves by TGC, so some variation is expected.The Roche Lobe fill-out of the binary is ~13% and the inclination is ~83.5 degrees. The system is a shallow contact W-type W UMa Binary, albeit, the amplitudes of the primary and secondary eclipse are very nearly identical. An eclipse duration of ~21

  18. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  19. Quantification of differences between occupancy and total monitoring periods for better assessment of exposure to particles in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, A.; Bohgard, M.; Pagels, J. H.; Dahl, A.; Löndahl, J.; Hussein, T.; Swietlicki, E.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    For the assessment of personal exposure, information about the concentration of pollutants when people are in given indoor environments (occupancy time) are of prime importance. However this kind of data frequently is not reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in particle characteristics between occupancy time and the total monitoring period, with the latter being the most frequently used averaging time in the published data. Seven indoor environments were selected in Sweden and Finland: an apartment, two houses, two schools, a supermarket, and a restaurant. They were assessed for particle number and mass concentrations and number size distributions. The measurements using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and two photometers were conducted for seven consecutive days during winter in each location. Particle concentrations in residences and schools were, as expected, the highest during occupancy time. In the apartment average and median PM2.5 mass concentrations during the occupancy time were 29% and 17% higher, respectively compared to total monitoring period. In both schools, the average and medium values of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were on average higher during teaching hours compared to the total monitoring period by 16% and 32%, respectively. When it comes to particle number concentrations (PNC), in the apartment during occupancy, the average and median values were 33% and 58% higher, respectively than during the total monitoring period. In both houses and schools the average and median PNC were similar for the occupancy and total monitoring periods. General conclusions on the basis of measurements in the limited number of indoor environments cannot be drawn. However the results confirm a strong dependence on type and frequency of indoor activities that generate particles and site specificity. The results also indicate that the exclusion of data series during non-occupancy periods can improve the estimates of particle concentrations and

  20. Total parenteral alimentation via indwelling umbilical catheters in the newborn period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R T; Rhodes, P G

    1976-01-01

    Total parenteral alimentation (TPA) was delivered to 80 infants via indwelling umbilical artery and to 9 via indwelling umbilical venous catheters. The primary indication for catheter placement and maintenance was monitoring of arterial blood gases (umbilical venous catheter tip in left atrium) in a group of sick neonates requiring increased inspired oxygen or assisted ventilation. Results were compared with those from 23 infants who had tunnelled jugular catheters for a variety of chronic medical and surgical problems preventing gastric or intestinal feeding. A mean weight gain was achieved in both groups. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar in both groups. The most common complications were infection and thrombotic phenomena. Metabolic complications were few. It is concluded that infusing TPA solutions via indwelling umbilical catheters presents no greater risk than infusion via tunnelled jugular catheters, and provides a method for supplying adequate caloric intake for growth during the acute stage of illness. PMID:827978

  1. Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics in the ionospheric detrended total electron content during quiet and storm periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsua, B. O.; Laoye, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Tsallis non-extensive q-statistics in ionospheric dynamics was investigated using the total electron content (TEC) obtained from two Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver stations. This investigation was carried out considering the geomagnetically quiet and storm periods. The micro density variation of the ionospheric total electron content was extracted from the TEC data by method of detrending. The detrended total electron content, which represent the variation in the internal dynamics of the system was further analyzed using for non-extensive statistical mechanics using the q-Gaussian methods. Our results reveals that for all the analyzed data sets the Tsallis Gaussian probability distribution (q-Gaussian) with value q > 1 were obtained. It was observed that there is no distinct difference in pattern between the values of qquiet and qstorm. However the values of q varies with geophysical conditions and possibly with local dynamics for the two stations. Also observed are the asymmetric pattern of the q-Gaussian and a highly significant level of correlation for the q-index values obtained for the storm periods compared to the quiet periods between the two GPS receiver stations where the TEC was measured. The factors responsible for this variation can be mostly attributed to the varying mechanisms resulting in the self-reorganization of the system dynamics during the storm periods. The result shows the existence of long range correlation for both quiet and storm periods for the two stations.

  2. Estimation of Total Yearly CO2 Emissions by Wildfires in Mexico during the Period 1999–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Bautista Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of wildfires became a global environmental problem which demands estimations of their CO2 emissions. Wildfires have deteriorated the air quality increasingly. Using available information on documented wildfires and a data set of satellite detected hot spots, total yearly emissions of CO2 in Mexico were estimated for the period 1999–2010. A map of the main vegetation groups was used to calculate total areas for every vegetation type. The yearly number of hot spots per vegetation type was calculated. Estimates of emitted CO2 in a wildfire were then accomplished by considering parameters such as: forest fuel load, vegetation type, burning efficiency, and mean burned area. The number of wildfires and total affected areas showed an annual variability. The yearly mean of affected area by a single wildfire varied between 0.2 and 0.3 km2. The total affected area during the period 1999 to 2010 was 86800 km2 which corresponds to 4.3% of the Mexican territory. Total CO2 emissions were approximately 112 Tg. The most affected vegetation types were forest and rainforest.

  3. THE DYNAMICS OF TOTAL AMYLASE\\'S ACTIVITY IN PANICUM MILIACEUM AND SETARIA GLAUCA DURING THE GERMINATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : It was studied the dynamics of total amylase\\'s activity in millet (Panicum miliaceum and bristle grass (Setaria glauca during the germination period. The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method, the results obtained being expressed in M maltose / g. In both millet and bristle grass, it was evidenced that both parameters taken into study (the species and the germination time do influence the enzymatic activity, although to a different extent.

  4. Significant increase in cultivation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Alloscardovia omnicolens, Actinotignum schaalii, and Actinomyces spp. in urine samples with total laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene

    2018-04-13

    While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  5. A Long-Period Totally Eclipsing Binary Star at the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 Discovered with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Brogaard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single-lined spectros......We present the discovery of the totally eclipsing long-period (P = 771.8 d) binary system WOCS 23009 in the old open cluster NGC 6819 that contains both an evolved star near central hydrogen exhaustion and a low-mass (0.45 Msun) star. This system was previously known to be a single......-lined spectroscopic binary, but the discovery of an eclipse near apastron using data from the Kepler space telescope makes it clear that the system has an inclination that is very close to 90 degrees. Although the secondary star has not been identified in spectra, the mass of the primary star can be constrained using...... other eclipsing binaries in the cluster. The combination of total eclipses and a mass constraint for the primary star allows us to determine a reliable mass for the secondary star and radii for both stars, and to constrain the cluster age. Unlike well-measured stars of similar mass in field binaries...

  6. Variability of the total ozone trend over Europe for the period 1950─2004 derived from reconstructed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Borkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The total ozone data over Europe are available for only few ground-based stations in the pre-satellite era disallowing examination of the spatial trend variability over the whole continent. A need of having gridded ozone data for a trend analysis and input to radiative transfer models stimulated a reconstruction of the daily ozone values since January 1950. Description of the reconstruction model and its validation were a subject of our previous paper. The data base used was built within the objectives of the COST action 726 "Long-term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe". Here we focus on trend analyses. The long-term variability of total ozone is discussed using results of a flexible trend model applied to the reconstructed total ozone data for the period 1950–2004. The trend pattern, which comprises both anthropogenic and "natural" component, is not a priori assumed but it comes from a smooth curve fit to the zonal monthly means and monthly grid values. The ozone long-term changes are calculated separately for cold (October–next year April and warm (May–September seasons. The confidence intervals for the estimated ozone changes are derived by the block bootstrapping. The statistically significant negative trends are found almost over the whole Europe only in the period 1985–1994. Negative trends up to −3% per decade appeared over small areas in earlier periods when the anthropogenic forcing on the ozone layer was weak . The statistically positive trends are found only during warm seasons 1995–2004 over Svalbard archipelago. The reduction of ozone level in 2004 relative to that before the satellite era is not dramatic, i.e., up to ~−5% and ~−3.5% in the cold and warm subperiod, respectively. Present ozone level is still depleted over many popular resorts in southern Europe and northern Africa. For high latitude regions the trend overturning could be inferred in last decade (1995–2004 as the ozone depleted

  7. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1 Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clarke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously. In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K.

  8. Efficacy of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Shelokova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To study effect of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period (EPP after total hip arthroplasty (THA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. Primary THA was performed in 51 RA pts with hip damage (49 female, 2 male aged from 26 to 68 years. 42 THA were performed with “Endosystems and Implants” (ESI endoprosthesis, and 21 — with “Mathys” endoprosthesis. The pts were divided into two groups. Standard infusion-transfusion therapy with donor blood components was performed in group 1 pts (n=26 to compensate blood loss in EPP. In group 2 pts (n=25 drainage blood reinfusion was done with active aspiration system Handy Vac TM ATS (Unomedical. Group 1 pts had more prominent circulatory and neurologic disturbances in EPP: hypodynamic variant of circulation with elevation of peripheral vascular resistance till 5-7 day of postoperative period, prominent hypersympathicotonia and a large number of posttransfusion reactions. Evaluation of hemodynamic and vegetative disturbances showed advantage of blood loss compensation and vegetative disturbances normalization with drainage blood reinfusion in EPP after THA in comparison with standard pts management.

  9. Early rehabilitation after surgery program versus conventional care during perioperative period in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early rehabilitation after surgery program (ERAS in patients undergoing laparoscopic assisted total gastrectomy. Materials And Methods: This is a study where 47 patients who are undergoing lap assisted total gastrectomy are selected. Twenty-two (n = 22 patients received enhanced recovery programme (ERAS management and rest twenty-five (n = 25 conventional management during the perioperative period. The length of postoperative hospital stay, time to passage of first flatus, intraoperative and postoperative complications, readmission rate and 30 day mortality is compared. Serum levels of C-reactive protein pre-operatively and also on post-op day 1 and 3 are compared. Results: Postoperative hospital stay is shorter in ERAS group (78 ± 26 h when compared to conventional group (140 ± 28 h. ERAS group passed flatus earlier than conventional group (37 ± 9 h vs. 74 ± 16 h. There is no significant difference in complications between the two groups. Serum levels of CRP are significantly low in ERAS group in comparison to conventional group. [d1 (52.40 ± 10.43 g/L vs. (73.07 ± 19.32 g/L, d3 (126.10 ± 18.62 g/L vs. (160.72 ± 26.18 g/L]. Conclusion: ERAS in lap-assisted total gastrectomy is safe, feasible and efficient and it can ameliorate post-operative stress and accelerate postoperative rehabilitation in patients with gastric cancer. Short term follow up results are encouraging but we need long term studies to know its long term benefits.

  10. Total working period and other risk factors related to eating protein foods habits among civil pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Imelda Hutabarat

    2017-07-01

    pilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data from the survey of eating, drinking and physical exercise habits among civilian pilots in Indonesia 2016. Data collected were demographic characteristics, physical exercise habits, smoking habits, knowledge, body mass index and flight characteristics. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the dominant factors associated with protein eating habits. Results: Among 528 pilots aged 19-64 years, 194 (36.74% pilots had excessive protein eating habits . Long working period and body mass index were the dominant risk factors associated with protein eating habit in pilots. Compared to pilots with 1-9 years working period, pilots with 10-40 years working period had 35% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.65; 95% CI 0:49 - 0.87. Compared to pilots with normal body mass index, overweight pilots had 34% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.66; 95% CI 0:47 - 0.93. Conclusion: Long working period and overweight were protective factors from the risk of excessive protein eating habits Keywords: protein eating habits, total working periode, body mass index, civilian pilots Indonesia

  11. [Application and effect of auricular acupoint pressing for analgesia in perioperative period of total knee joint replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Pei-Jian; Wang, Hai-Dong; Ma, Zhen-Chuan

    2010-09-01

    To observe the effect of auricular acupoint pressing (AAP) for analgesia during perioperative period of total knee joint replacement. Sixty patients with osteoarthritis of ASA grade I - III scheduled to receive unilateral total knee joint replacement were equally randomized into the AAP group and the control group, 30 in each group. The general anesthesia on all patients was implemented by physicians of an identical group through endotracheal intubation. To the patients in the AAP group, AAP with Vaccaria seed was applied before operation, and the local analgesia on affected limb with acupoint pasting was used after operation. Besides, administering of celecoxib 400 mg on the day before operation, and celecoxib 200 mg twice daily post-operation was given to all patients. When the visual analogue scales (VAS) reached more than 7 points, 0.1 g of bucinnazine hydrochloride was given for supplement. Meantime, same post-operative training methods were adopted in both groups. The resting VAS pain scores, contentment of sedation, incidence of adverse event, postoperative range of motion (ROM) of knee joint and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score were recorded. The resting VAS pain scores at 6 h and 24 h after operation was 5.99 +/- 0.67 scores and 4.26 +/- 0.59 scores in the AAP group respectively, which was significantly lower than that in the control group at the corresponding time (7.02 +/- 0.85 scores and 4.92 +/- 0.43 scores, P 0.05); sedation contentment in the two groups was similar; incidence of adverse event in the AAP groups seemed lower (4 cases vs. 11 cases), but the intergroup difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). ROM before surgery were 75.63 degrees +/- 5.74 degrees and 75.43 degrees +/- 5.63 degrees in the two groups respectively, showing no significant difference (P > 0.05), two weeks after operation, the initiative ROM raised to 96.50 degrees +/- 3.79 degrees and 93.50 degrees +/- 3.50 degrees, and the passive ROM reached 107

  12. Influence, in organic cultivation of eggplant, of the doses of nitrogen and soil green cover on the incidence of Corythaica cyathicollis in different periods of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Lucena Duarte Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena L., eggplant, is a culture that suffers many problems through pests, being a host of diverse species of bacteria, fungi, mites and insects. The “chinch bug”, Corythaica cyathicollis (Costa, 1864 (Hemiptera, Tingidae is known to cause serious damage to the culture. This research was conducted in August of 2005, at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 200 and 300kg/ha, different soil coverings (grass and Arachis pintoi, and periods of the day (morning, afternoon, evening on the population of the insect C. cyathycollis associated with the culture of S. melongena under organic system production. The delineation was in randomized blocks, with 12 treatments and 4 replications. Interaction was not verified among the studied factors (doses of nitrogen, soil covering and period of the day, but it was observed that the use of soil covering and low doses of nitrogen caused a reduction in the number of insect. The majority of insects were found during the period of the morning (39.2%.

  13. Total spectrum of photon emission by an ultra-relativistic positron channelling in a periodically bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.; Korol, A.V.; Department of Physics, St Petersburg State Maritime Technical University, Leninskii prospect 101, St Petersburg 198262; Solov'yov, A.V.; AF Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Russia, Polytechnicheskaya 26, St Petersburg 194021; Greiner, W.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of numerical calculations of the channelling and undulator radiation generated by ultra-relativistic positron channelling along a crystal plane, which is periodically bent. The bending might be due to either the propagation of a transverse acoustic wave through the crystal, or the static strain as it occurs in superlattices. The periodically bent crystal serves as an undulator. We investigate the dependence of the intensities of both the ordinary channelling and the undulator radiations on the parameters of the periodically bent channel with simultaneous account for the de-channelling effect of the positrons. We demonstrate that there is a range of parameters in which the undulator radiation dominates over the channelling one and the characteristic frequencies of both types of radiation are well separated. This result is important, because the undulator radiation can be used to create a tunable source of x-ray and γ-radiation. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  14. Protective Effects of Cultivated Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese Against CCl4 and t-BHP Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Young-Jin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating live protection mechanism of Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese by inducing liver toxicity through and t-BHP in mice and evaluated serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, treated control group, and orally administered Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese experimental groups. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. In the induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. 2. In the t-BHP induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion : Taken together, Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese cannot be effectively used for recovering the liver functions in acute hepatotoxicity tests using and t-BHP. Further researches, for example treated long period, must be tried to verify the efficacies.

  15. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  16. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the

  17. Total On-line Access Data System (TOADS): Phase II Final Report for the Period August 2002 - August 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K. L. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Parang, M. [YAHSGS LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Landguth, D. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coleman, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-09-13

    TOADS (Total On-line Access Data System) is a new generation of real-time monitoring and information management system developed to support unattended environmental monitoring and long-term stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy facilities and sites. TOADS enables project managers, regulators, and stakeholders to view environmental monitoring information in realtime over the Internet. Deployment of TOADS at government facilities and sites will reduce the cost of monitoring while increasing confidence and trust in cleanup and long term stewardship activities. TOADS: Reliably interfaces with and acquires data from a wide variety of external databases, remote systems, and sensors such as contaminant monitors, area monitors, atmospheric condition monitors, visual surveillance systems, intrusion devices, motion detectors, fire/heat detection devices, and gas/vapor detectors; Provides notification and triggers alarms as appropriate; Performs QA/QC on data inputs and logs the status of instruments/devices; Provides a fully functional data management system capable of storing, analyzing, and reporting on data; Provides an easy-to-use Internet-based user interface that provides visualization of the site, data, and events; and Enables the community to monitor local environmental conditions in real time. During this Phase II STTR project, TOADS has been developed and successfully deployed for unattended facility, environmental, and radiological monitoring at a Department of Energy facility.

  18. Study on the Varying Patterns of Total Phospholipids, Selenium, Phosphorus, Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar, Hydrolyzed Amino Acids in the Velvet Antler of Northeast Sika Deer in Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shu-li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the varying patterns of total phospholipids, selenium, phosphorus, reducing sugar and total sugar, hydrolyzed amino acids in the velvet antler of Northeast sika deer in growth period were evaluated. Eighteen Northeast sika deer were allocated into 6 groups according to the antler shedding time. Results indicated that there was significant difference of the selenium content between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 1 and Group 2 or Group 5 and Group 6. About the phosphorus there was significant difference between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 4 and Group 5 or Group 2 and Group 3 or Group 1 and Group 2. Group 6 had the lowest total Phospholipids content. Both of the reducing sugar and total sugar showed an increasing pattern initially and then decrease gradually.

  19. Level of anxiety versus self-care in the preoperative and postoperative periods of total laryngectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Clara Inés Flórez; Ramos, Alfredo Jurado; Rodríguez-Borrego, María-Aurora

    2016-06-14

    estimate the prevalence of anxiety in laryngectomy patients in the pre and postoperative periods and its relation with the self-care level. observational research of 40 patients with stage IV laryngeal cancer. Three observations took place: in the preoperative phase, at seven and at 14 days after the surgery; between June 2010 and December 2012. Two self-care levels were defined: self-sufficient and needing help for activities of daily living and treatment-related activities. To assess the anxiety levels, Zigmond's hospital anxiety scale (1983) was used. in the preoperative and postoperative phases, the patients presented high levels of anxiety. Concerning self-care, on average, self-sufficient patients presented lower levels of anxiety than patients who needed help to accomplish activities of daily living and activities deriving from the surgery, without significant differences. anxiety is present at all times in laryngectomy patients and the reduction of the self-care deficit seems to decrease it, without putting a permanent end to it. estimar a prevalência de ansiedade do paciente laringectomizado no pré-operatório e pós-operatório e sua relação com o nível de autocuidado. pesquisa observacional de 40 pacientes com câncer da laringe estágio IV. Foram realizadas 3 observações: no pré-operatório, a 7 e 14 dias pós-operatório, no período de junho de 2010 a dezembro de 2012. Dois níveis de autocuidado foram definidos: autossuficientes e precisar ajuda para as atividades da vida diária e relacionadas ao tratamento. Para avaliar a ansiedade, foi utilizada a escala de ansiedade hospitalar de Zigmond (1983). no pré-operatório e pós-operatório, os pacientes apresentaram níveis elevados de ansiedade. Com relação ao autocuidado, os pacientes autossuficientes apresentaram na média níveis inferiores de ansiedades que os pacientes que precisavam de ajuda para realizar as atividades da vida diária y as derivadas da cirurgia, sem chegar a ser

  20. Reference values for maternal total and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Töz, Emrah; Ince, Onur; Özcan, Aykut; Polater, Kevser; Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Beyan, Emrah; Akkaya, Emrah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. The study population consisted of 40,325 pregnant women. A full blood count and automated differential leukocyte count were performed and all the haemogram results in the different trimesters of pregnancy were recorded. Percentiles were calculated using statistical software. A total of 82,786 complete blood count evaluations were performed in 40,325 subjects from the 6th to 41st week of pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period. The leukocyte counts increased from the 1st to the 3rd trimester and peaked in the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts may assist clinicians in distinguishing between leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood cell count during pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Impact statement Pregnancy requires profound adaptation by multiple systems to accommodate the demands of the developing foetus. Similar to all other systems, many haematological changes occur during pregnancy. Studies of normal variation in leukocyte counts were insufficient to distinguish normal from abnormal leukocyte counts during pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period, due to small numbers of patients and a lack of differential leukocyte counts. Without reference leukocyte levels, infections may be more difficult to assess during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In this study, we report the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for the total and differential leukocyte counts according to trimester in normal pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts in each trimester and the initial postpartum period may assist clinicians in distinguishing between normal leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood

  1. On the existence of positive periodic solutions for totally nonlinear neutral differential equations of the second-order with functional delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel K. Essel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the totally nonlinear second-order neutral differential equation \\[\\frac{d^2}{dt^2}x(t+p(t\\frac{d}{dt}x(t+q(th(x(t\\] \\[=\\frac{d}{dt}c(t,x(t-\\tau(t+f(t,\\rho(x(t,g(x(t-\\tau(t\\] has positive periodic solutions by employing the Krasnoselskii-Burton hybrid fixed point theorem.

  2. Results of cultivation experiment at clean farm (vegetable plant). 1. Clean farm (yasai kojo) ni okeru saibai jikken kekka. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaishi, T; Kawagishi, K; Matsuzaki, O; Nakahara, M [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1991-03-31

    This paper reports a summary of the facilities in an experimental plant constructed by the Kyushu Electric Power Company in 1988, and a result of experiments on cultivating salad and lettuce. The plant has environmentally controlled cultivating rooms of solar beam combined type and totally artificial light type, each having a floor area of 50 m {sup 2}, disposed with cultivating stages divided into three divisions of seedling culture, growth, and forced culture, nutritious liguid feeding devices of circulation type, and air conditioning equipment. The paper describes results of the tests aimed at realizing an increase in yield and profit, an optimum cultivating system, and economic facilities at the vegetable plant. Included in the tests are that (a) four kinds of salads and five kinds lettuce were selected for cultivation to decide most suitable kinds, based on literature survey and preliminary experiments; (b) varying the environmental conditions for the culture, such as temperature, radiating condition, concentration of the nutritious liquid, and concentration of carbon dioxide, conditions optimum or suitable for the plant growth were selected; (c) the plant was compared with glass green houses with respect to the required cultivating period of time, vitamin C content and color tones of the products; (d) the solar beam combined type room and the totally artificial light rooms were compared with respect to power consumption and heat capacity that passes through the cultivation room walls, and the latter was concluded being superior in economics and stability. 12 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Optimising multi-product multi-chance-constraint inventory control system with stochastic period lengths and total discount under fuzzy purchasing price and holding costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador

    2010-10-01

    While the usual assumptions in multi-periodic inventory control problems are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review) or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review), in this article, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming that the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space and service level constraints, total discount are considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid meta-heuristic intelligent algorithm is proposed. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and to compare its performance with one of the existing algorithms in real world inventory control problems.

  4. Interplay between total thickness and period thickness in the phonon thermal conductivity of superlattices from the nanoscale to the microscale: Coherent versus incoherent phonon transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Polanco, Carlos A.; Addamane, Sadhvikas; Zhang, Jingjie; Ghosh, Avik W.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the room temperature thermal conductivity of AlAs-GaAs superlattices (SLs), in which we systematically vary the period thickness and total thickness between 2 -24 nm and 20.1 -2 ,160 nm , respectively. The thermal conductivity increases with the SL thickness and plateaus at a thickness around 200 nm, showing a clear transition from a quasiballistic to a diffusive phonon transport regime. These results demonstrate the existence of classical size effects in SLs, even at the highest interface density samples. We use harmonic atomistic Green's function calculations to capture incoherence in phonon transport by averaging the calculated transmission over several purely coherent simulations of independent SL with different random mixing at the AlAs-GaAs interfaces. These simulations demonstrate the significant contribution of incoherent phonon transport through the decrease in the transmission and conductance in the SLs as the number of interfaces increases. In spite of this conductance decrease, our simulations show a quasilinear increase in thermal conductivity with the superlattice thickness. This suggests that the observation of a quasilinear increase in thermal conductivity can have important contributions from incoherent phonon transport. Furthermore, this seemingly linear slope in thermal conductivity versus SL thickness data may actually be nonlinear when extended to a larger number of periods, which is a signature of incoherent effects. Indeed, this trend for superlattices with interatomic mixing at the interfaces could easily be interpreted as linear when the number of periods is small. Our results reveal that the change in thermal conductivity with period thickness is dominated by incoherent (particlelike) phonons, whose properties are not dictated by changes in the AlAs or GaAs phonon dispersion relations. This work demonstrates the importance of studying both period and sample thickness dependencies of thermal conductivity to understand the

  5. Opioids Consumed in the Immediate Post-Operative Period Do Not Influence How Patients Rate Their Experience of Care After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheson, Jennifer I; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; George, Nicole E; Virani, Sana; Mont, Michael A; Delanois, Ronald E

    2018-04-01

    Patient perception of care, commonly measured with Press Ganey (PG) surveys, is an important metric used to determine hospital and provider reimbursement. However, post-operative pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) may negatively affect patient satisfaction. As a result, over-administration of opioids may occur, even without marked evidence of pain. Therefore, this study evaluated whether opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative period bears any influence on satisfaction scores after THA. Specifically, this study assessed the correlation between post-operative opioid consumption and 7 PG domains: (1) Overall hospital rating; (2) Communication with nurses; (3) Responsiveness of hospital staff; (4) Communication with doctors; (5) Hospital environment; (6) Pain Management; and (7) Communication about medicines. Our institutional PG database was reviewed for patients who received THA from 2011 to 2014. A total of 322 patients (mean age = 65 years; 61% female) were analyzed. Patient's opioid consumption was measured using a morphine milli-equivalent conversion algorithm. Bivariate correlation analysis assessed the association between opioid consumption and Press-Ganey survey elements. Pearson's r assessed the strength of the association. No correlation was found between total opioid consumption and Overall hospital rating (r = 0.004; P = .710), Communication with nurses (r = 0.093; P = .425), Responsiveness of hospital staff (r = 0.104; P = .381), Communication with doctors (r = 0.009; P = .940), Hospital environment (r = 0.081; P = .485), and Pain management (r = 0.075; P = .536). However, there was a positive correlation between total opioid consumption and "Communication about medicines" (r = 0.262; P = .043). Our report demonstrates that PG patient satisfaction scores are not influenced by post-operative opioid use, with the exception of PG domain, "Communication about medications." These results suggest that opioid medications should be

  6. Test results of cultivation of vegetables with fish breeding water; Yogyosui riyo ni yoru yasai saibai shiken kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, S. [Hokuriku Electric Power Co. Inc., Toyama (Japan)

    1997-10-28

    Entrails of fish, fowls and domestic animals are mostly incinerated at large expenses, although partly used as foods. This study is to test `possibility of vegetable cultivation with fish breeding water,` where the entrail wastes are used as baits for fish breeding, and fish excretions are used as the fertilizer for vegetable cultivation to purify water for fish breeding. The cultivation bed consists of two sections, one for fish breeding/vegetable cultivation and the other for vegetable cultivation by the normal method. Vegetable grow notably less in the former than in the latter, 54.6 to 79.5 versus 100. Spinach contains slightly higher contents of vitamins A and C by 6 and 13%, when cultivated in the former than in the latter. Quantities of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as the fertilizer components in the former are 49, 49 and 1.7% of those in the latter. It is predicted, judging from growth of the vegetables, that the former gives a harvest comparable with that by the latter, when given a 6 to 13 days longer cultivation period. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Revision of failed hip resurfacing to total hip arthroplasty rapidly relieves pain and improves function in the early post operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead-Allwood Sarah K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent revision of a hip resurfacing prosthesis to a total hip replacement. Revisions were performed for recurrent pain and effusion, infection and proximal femoral fractures. Both components were revised in 20 cases. There were 12 male and 13 female patients with average time to revision of 34.4 and 26.4 months respectively. The mean follow up period was 12.7 months (3 to 31. All patients reported relief of pain and excellent satisfaction scores. Two patients experienced stiffness up to three months post operatively. Pre operative Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were 39.1, 36.4 and 52.2 respectively. Mean post operative scores at last follow up were 17.4, 89.8 and 6.1 respectively (p

  8. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KleinJan, Hetty; Jeanthon, Christian; Boyen, Catherine; Dittami, Simon M

    2017-01-01

    Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal-bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E . subulatus -associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus -associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains), of which Halomonas ( Gammaproteobacteria ), Bosea ( Alphaproteobacteria ), and Limnobacter ( Betaproteobacteria ) were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%), although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered as part

  9. Exploring the Cultivable Ectocarpus Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetty KleinJan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas form the major habitat of brown macroalgae, photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes that have great ecological value and industrial potential. Macroalgal growth, development, and physiology are influenced by the microbial community they accommodate. Studying the algal microbiome should thus increase our fundamental understanding of algal biology and may help to improve culturing efforts. Currently, a freshwater strain of the brown macroalga Ectocarpus subulatus is being developed as a model organism for brown macroalgal physiology and algal microbiome studies. It can grow in high and low salinities depending on which microbes it hosts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unclear. Cultivation of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria is the first step toward the development of a model system for in vitro functional studies of brown macroalgal–bacterial interactions during abiotic stress. The main aim of the present study is thus to provide an extensive collection of cultivable E. subulatus-associated bacteria. To meet the variety of metabolic demands of Ectocarpus-associated bacteria, several isolation techniques were applied, i.e., direct plating and dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, each with chemically defined and undefined bacterial growth media. Algal tissue and algal growth media were directly used as inoculum, or they were pretreated with antibiotics, by filtration, or by digestion of algal cell walls. In total, 388 isolates were identified falling into 33 genera (46 distinct strains, of which Halomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Bosea (Alphaproteobacteria, and Limnobacter (Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant. Comparisons with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data showed that culturability in this study was remarkably high (∼50%, although several cultivable strains were not detected or only present in extremely low abundance in the libraries. These undetected bacteria could be considered

  10. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops in rewetted peatland (paludiculture) is considered as a possible land use option to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, bioenergy crops like reed canary grass (RCG) can have a complex influence on GHG fluxes. Here we determined the effect of RCG...... and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of 1 year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively...... from ER were obviously the dominant RCG-derived GHG flux, but above-ground biomass yields, and preliminary measurements of gross photosynthetic production, showed that ER could be more than balanced due to the photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by RCG. Our results support that RCG cultivation could be a good...

  11. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  12. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  13. Cultivation of native seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedrassoli Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the cultivation of Gracilaria domingensis in a mussel farming urbanized area in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Relative growth rate was the parameter used to evaluate the cuttings attachment methods on the cultivation rope, cuttings density, cultivation period and cystocarpic versus unfertile thalli performance. The cultivation was feasible only when protected by net cages due to herbivory. The tie-tie attachment method presented the best results. No differences were observed when comparing the cuttings densities and reproductive phase. Future studies should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of producing the species in net cages and its potential as biofilter.

  14. Action de I'AlA sur la teneur en azote total et protéinique des graines de céréales cultivées à different niveau de la capacité capillaire en eau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available L'action de I'AIA sur la teneur en azote total et en azote protéinique des graines du Triticum vulgare, d'Hordeum vulgare et d'Avena sativa cultivés a 30%, 60% et 90% de la capacité capillaire en eau du sable a tété étudiée au cours de trois ans (1969, 1970, 1971. La teneur en g-protéines totales liée au rendement des graines de céréales examinees a été plus élevée dans les conditions de sécheresse (30% de la capacite capillaire en eau à la suite d'un traitement auxinique. La teneur (% en azote total et proteinique ne semble pas etre tellement modifiee dans les graines de cereales à la suite d'un traitement auxinique.

  15. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  16. Categorization of ber varieties in relation to blooming period, fruit setting and harvesting time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, N.; Abbas, M.M.; Ishfaq, M.; Memon, N.U.N.

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four local Ber varieties were evaluated at Horticultural Research Institute AARI, Faisalabad, Horticultural Research Station Bahawalpur (Punjab) and Jujube Research Station, Tandojam (Sindh). Traits viz. total period of blooming (dates), peak period of blooming (dates), total period of fruit set (dates), peak period of fruit set (dates), total period of fruit harvest (dates), peak period of fruit harvest (dates), total flowering days, peak flowering days, total fruit setting days, peak fruit setting days, total harvesting days and peak harvesting days were studied. The results revealed significant differences in parameters studied except total period of blooming under Tandojam, Sindh conditions. Varieties were classified as early, mid and late season for both provinces. Local varieties had potential for further manipulation in terms of variety improvement to attract growers for extensive ber cultivations under changing global climatic scenario. (author)

  17. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  18. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  19. Total nuclear photoabsorption cross section in the range 0.2 - 1.0 GeV for nuclei throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the total photoabsorption cross section for nuclei ranging from 4 He up to 238 U has been performed in the energy range 0.2-1.0 GeV. Mean total photoabsorption cross sections have been obtained by summing up the contributions from partial photo reactions, and found to follow an A l -dependence in the 0.2-1.0 GeV range. A review of the available total photoabsorption cross section data is also presented. Comparisons have been made with cross section values calculated by considering both the quasi-deuteron and π-meson photoproduction mechanism of primary nuclear photo interaction. (author)

  20. Total nuclear photoabsorption cross section in the range 0.2-1.0 GeV for nuclei throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the total photoabsorption cross section for nuclei ranging from 4 He up to 238 U has been performed in the energy range 0.2-1.0 GeV. Mean total photoabsorption cross sections have been obtained by summing up the contributions from partial photoreactions, and found to follow an A 1 -dependence in the 0.2-1.0 GeV range. A review of the available total photoabsorption cross section data is also presented. Comparisons have been made with cross section values calculated by considering both the quasi-deuteron and π-meson photoproduction mechanism of primary nuclear photointeraction. (orig.)

  1. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Transition in nori cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Alyne

    2011-01-01

    . Technological change has had a profound impact on both the manner of nori production as well as the household division of labor and work and gender roles. Women play a key role in nori production today. With better understanding of such outward manifestations of culture and society we can bring the human...... of social and environmental sustainability, we must understand both society and cultural institutions. With this in mind, this article focuses on the division of labor among cultivators, particularly along gender lines and the impacts, on a cultural level, of technological change on nori production...

  3. Total external dose equivalent and effective dose derived to the Piedmont population in the period 30 Apr 1986 - 22 Sep 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissone, C.; Giacomelli, R.; Spezzano, P.; Porzio, L.

    1988-01-01

    Some dosimetric evaluations concerning the population of the Piemonte Region, obtained after the measurements made following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The individual effective mean dose equivalent derived from the exposure and intake in the period April 30, 1986 - September 22, 1987, is about 0.50 mSv

  4. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  5. Long-term total solar radiation variability at the Polish Baltic coast in Kołobrzeg within the period 1964-2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleniewska, M.; Chojnicki, B. H.; Acosta, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-40 ISSN 2299-3835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : total solar radiation * Kołobrzeg * dimming * brightening Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Soil protection through almond tree cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; Masciandaro, G.; Mennone, C.; Ceccanti, B.

    2009-01-01

    Most threat to soil are particularly severe in areas with steps slopes and suffering dry periods followed by heavy rain such as the Mediterranean regions. Severity is aggravated by lacking or inappropriate farming systems. Therefore the objective of this work was to demonstrate that land management based on cultivation of new varieties of local crops (almond trees) suited to these conditions may result in a sustainable system to prevent soil degradation. (Author)

  7. Influência do oeríodo de cultivo de Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia na fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram Influence of Panicum maximum cultivation period on phytoremediation of soil contaminated with picloram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Carmo

    2008-06-01

    four periods of soil cultivation with the species Panicum maximum (cv. Tanzania (0, 60, 80 and 100 days and three doses of picloram (0, 80 and 160 g ha-1. At the end of each pre-established time of soil cultivation with the phyto-remediating species, seeds of tomato and soybean plants, used as bio-indicators of picloram presence, were sown on soil. The bio-indicators showed high sensitivity to picloram in soil, as their cultivation was not feasible without a prior phyto-remediation procedure. The previous cultivation of Tanzania for 60 days ensured a satisfactory initial growth of both soybean and tomato plants when the initial contamination level was lower than 80 g ha-1 of picloram. Above this dose, phyto-remediation provided by Tanzânia plants provide a lower soybean and tomato plants growth, indicating that a longer period of decontamination is required.

  8. Influência do período de cultivo do capim-pé-de-galinha-gigante (Eleusine coracana na fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram Influence of Eleusine coracana cultivation period on phytoremediation of soil contaminated with picloram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Carmo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do período de cultivo do capim-pé-de-galinha-gigante (Eleusine coracana sobre a fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no período de setembro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro períodos de cultivo da espécie vegetal Eleusine coracana (0, 60, 80 e 100 dias e três doses do picloram (0, 80 e 160 g ha-1, totalizando 12 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Como substrato para o crescimento das plantas, utilizaram-se amostras de solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Ao término do período estabelecido de atuação da espécie fitorremediadora, efetuou-se a semeadura das espécies bioindicadoras da presença do picloram: tomate (cultivar Santa Clara e soja (cultivar Monsoy 6101. As espécies bioindicadoras demonstraram alta sensibilidade à presença do picloram no solo, sendo inviável o cultivo dessas culturas em áreas contaminadas com esse herbicida sem a execução de algum procedimento remediador. O cultivo prévio de E. coracana por 60 dias reduziu a contaminação do solo com picloram e permitiu crescimento inicial satisfatório das plantas de soja e de tomate cultivadas em solo que recebeu previamente a aplicação de até 160 g ha-1 de picloram; contudo, essas plantas bioindicadoras apresentaram ainda sintomas visíveis de intoxicação do herbicida.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Eleusine coracana cultivation period on phytoremediation of soil contaminated with picloram. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse from September 2006 to February 2007, in 12 treatments combining four Eleusine coracana cultivation periods ((0, 60, 80 and 100 days and three picloram rates (0, 80 and 160 g ha-1, arranged in a completely

  9. Single or paired increase of total alkalinity and hardness of water for cultivation of Nile tilapia juveniles, Oreochromis niloticus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.12003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at evaluating the effects of single or paired increase of water’s total alkalinity (TA and total hardness (TH on the performance of Nile tilapia juveniles’ growth and culture water quality. Twenty five 25-L outdoor polyethylene aquaria were used to hold experimental fish (0.82 ± 0.06 g; 10 fish per aquarium for 6 weeks. There were two conditions of TA (low or high and of TH (moderate or high in the culture water, obtained by the application of different salts (CaCO3, Na2CO3 and CaSO4 upon a previously acidified water, all at the same rate. Water quality and growth performance variables were observed in each replicate. The acidification of the supply water with HCl has resulted in significantly lower final body weight (p < 0.05. Except for the Na2CO3, growth performance of tilapia has improved significantly after CaCO3 liming or CaSO4 application (p < 0.05 and no significant difference was detected between these last two fish groups (p > 0.05. It was concluded that beyond a minimum level of TA (≥ 20 mg L-1 CaCO3 and TH (≥ 20 mg L-1 CaCO3, it is also important that fish culture waters have a TH/TA ratio higher than 1.

  10. Cultivated Land Changes and Agricultural Potential Productivity in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xiao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapid and continuous population growth and the associated declining quality of cultivated land, food security in China has been attracting the attention of scholars both domestically and internationally. In recent decades, the implications of the cultivated land balance policy have promoted spatial changes of cultivated land. Estimating the agricultural potential productivity and assessing its response to cultivated land changes could provide a scientific basis for strategic decision-making concerning grain production and thus guarantee food security. In the present study, the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ model was applied to estimate the agricultural potential productivity. Data from the second national land survey were first applied to characterize the changes of cultivated land (by comparing the cultivated land in 2009 with that in 2012 and their influence on potential productivity in Mainland China. We propose a utilization degree of total potential productivity (UTP and its ratio coefficient (RUTP to reveal the utilization status of potential productivity and its change characteristics at the provincial level. It was found that there was a trend for cultivated land to be shifted away from cities, and the average productive capability per hectare of cultivated land declined from 7386.5 kg/ha to 6955.2 kg/ha by occupying highly productive cultivated land generally near the cities and compensating less productive cultivated land in remote areas. UTPs and RUTPs indicate a significant difference in the utilization status of potential productivity among the 31 provinces of Mainland China. Grain production with the aim of sustainable development should be strategized according to the particular facts of each province. The methods we applied can mine the impacts of cultivated land changes on potential productivity and the utilization of potential productivity effectively.

  11. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  12. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  13. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  14. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up......-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual...... analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3...

  15. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  16. Biodiversity, evolution and adaptation of cultivated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigouroux, Yves; Barnaud, Adeline; Scarcelli, Nora; Thuillet, Anne-Céline

    2011-05-01

    The human diet depends on very few crops. Current diversity in these crops is the result of a long interaction between farmers and cultivated plants, and their environment. Man largely shaped crop biodiversity from the domestication period 12,000 B.P. to the development of improved varieties during the last century. We illustrate this process through a detailed analysis of the domestication and early diffusion of maize. In smallholder agricultural systems, farmers still have a major impact on crop diversity today. We review several examples of the major impact of man on current diversity. Finally, biodiversity is considered to be an asset for adaptation to current environmental changes. We describe the evolution of pearl millet in West Africa, where average rainfall has decreased over the last forty years. Diversity in cultivated varieties has certainly helped this crop to adapt to climate variation. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Periodicity and time trends in the prevalence of total births and conceptions with congenital malformations among Jews and Muslims in Israel, 1999-2006: a time series study of 823,966 births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital malformations (CMs) are a leading cause of infant disability. Geophysical patterns such as 2-year, yearly, half-year, 3-month, and lunar cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of all life on Earth and may affect birth and birth outcomes in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare trends and periodicity in total births and CM conceptions in two Israeli populations. METHODS Poisson nonlinear models (polynomial) were applied to study and compare trends and geophysical periodicity cycles of weekly births and weekly prevalence rate of CM (CMPR), in a time-series design of conception date within and between Jews and Muslims. The population included all live births and stillbirths (n = 823,966) and CM (three anatomic systems, eight CM groups [n = 2193]) in Israel during 2000 to 2006. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health. RESULTS We describe the trend and periodicity cycles for total birth conceptions. Of eight groups of CM, periodicity cycles were statistically significant in four CM groups for either Jews or Muslims. Lunar month and biennial periodicity cycles not previously investigated in the literature were found to be statistically significant. Biennial cycle was significant in total births (Jews and Muslims) and syndactyly (Muslims), whereas lunar month cycle was significant in total births (Muslims) and atresia of small intestine (Jews). CONCLUSION We encourage others to use the method we describe as an important tool to investigate the effects of different geophysical cycles on human health and pregnancy outcomes, especially CM, and to compare between populations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M.; Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 μg/m 3 ), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 μg/m 3 ) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions, meteorological and

  19. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelloni, L.; Fontanelli, M.; Frasconi, C.; Raffaelli, M.; Pirchio, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands) during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha), yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days) led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  20. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Fontanelli, M.; Frasconi, C.; Raffaelli, M.; Pirchio, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands) during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha), yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days) led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  1. [Effects of different cultivation patterns on soil aggregates and organic carbon fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-Lei; Zong, Liang-Gang; Liu, Yi-Fan; Du, Xia-Fei; Luo, Min; Wang, Run-Chi

    2015-03-01

    Combined with the research in an organic farm in the past 10 years, differences of soil aggregates composition, distribution and organic carbon fractions between organic and conventional cultivation were studied by simultaneous sampling analysis. The results showed that the percentages of aggregates (> 1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and organic cultivation were 9.73%, 18.41%, 24.46% and 43.90%, respectively. The percentage of organic cultivation than that in conventional cultivation. Organic cultivation increased soil organic carbon (average of 17.95 g x kg(-1)) and total nitrogen contents (average of 1.51 g x kg(-1)). Among the same aggregates in organic cultivation, the average content of heavy organic carbon fraction was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation. This fraction accumulated in organic carbon. In organic cultivation, the content of labile organic carbon in > 1 mm macro-aggregates was significantly higher than that in conventional cultivation, while no significant difference was found among the other aggregates, indicating that the labile organic carbon was enriched in > 1 mm macro-aggregates. Organic cultivation increased the amounts of organic carbon and its fractions, reduced tillage damage to aggregates, and enhanced the stability of organic carbon. Organic cultivation was therefore beneficial for soil carbon sequestration. The findings of this research may provide theoretical basis for further acceleration of the organic agriculture development.

  2. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Dobrowolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  3. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  4. Cultivating Audiences: Taming, Teaching, Transforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolucci, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying and successful school concerts require an active, empathic, and cooperative partnership between performers and audience members. As music educators work to prepare artful, dignified, and confident performers, "audiences" for these performers must be cultivated just as purposefully. Concertgoers can be motivated to consume school…

  5. Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of

  6. Spatial distribution models of erosion on slopes cultivated with vineyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaez, J.; Ortigosa, L.; Ruiz-Falno, P.; Llorente, J. A.; Lasanta, T.

    2009-01-01

    Soils cultivated with vineyards have high rates of erosion. In the Mediterranean area, this is related to the environmental characteristics and the management of cultivation techniques. Indeed, in this region the rainfall intensity and the location of vineyards on slopes favour the erosive activity of runoff. The total area of vineyards in La Rioja (Spain) is currently almost 40,000 ha. Vineyards are located on hillsides between 400 and 60 m.a.s.l. Of the vineyards of La Rioja 81,7% are planted on slopes with a gradient between 3 degree centigrade and 9 degree centigrade. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  8. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Shah, Riddhi; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David; Rempe, Caroline S; Davison, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    The bioenergy crop switchgrass was grown hydroponically from tiller cuttings in 50 % D 2 O to obtain biomass with 34 % deuterium substitution and physicochemical properties similar to those of H 2 O-grown switchgrass controls. Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potentially enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50 % D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by (1)H- and (2)H-NMR. This capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  9. Motivation of farmers to cultivate organic rice in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmiyatun, T.; Eddy, B. T.; Sumekar, W.; Mardiningsih, D.

    2018-01-01

    The consumer’s need for organic agricultural products increases sharply along with awareness of health, lifestyle and environmental concern. This research was intended to determine the relationship between social factors and the motivation of farmers for cultivating organic rice in Central Java. The research has been done by survey to farmers groups at three regions i.e. Semarang, Sragen and Demak. The determination of the location was carried out by means of purposive i.e. farmer groups that conduct organic rice cultivation (not semi organic). The determination of the sample was conducted purposively for a number of 50 people each regencies. Data were analyzed descriptive analysis and rank Spearman correlation analysis. The results showed that social factors include age, cultivated area, education, farming experience have correlation with motivation. education and cultivated area of land has a fairly close relation with correlation value 0,463% and 0,242%. Based on the motivation level, 33% of farmers have high motivation, motivation of farmers varied but most of them, 54% of total farmers stated that the motivation to cultivate organic rice is the quality of organic rice products and high income.

  10. Hydroponic cultivation of Oncidium baueri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, orchid cultivation has been increasing steadily over the last few years and contributing significantly to the economy. It has been reported that several vegetable crops and ornamentals have been successfully grown by soilless cultivation. The orchid Oncidium baueri Lindl. is grown on pot substrates. Nevertheless, hydroponics is an excellent alternative, especially for the production of cut flowers and bare root plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of Oncidium baueri on two soilless systems: (a pots containing Amafibra® coconut fiber, carbonized rice husk, and pine bark (1:1:1 irrigated with nutrient solution every 15 d; and (b a nutrient film technique (NFT hydroponic system irrigated with nutrient solution daily. Shoot height, pseudobulb diameter, and number of sprouts were evaluated monthly. The number of flowering plants, number of flowers, dry mass of shoots, and dry mass of roots were evaluated 11 months after onset of experiment. The pot cultivation system yielded more flowers and higher values for all vegetative parameters than the NFT hydroponic system.

  11. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine and life......Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine...... and lifestyle change on levels of total bilirubin in an overweight or obese, cardiovascular high-risk population. Data from the first 4 weeks of the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome study were analyzed. A total of 10 198 patients provided body weight measurements before and after 4 weeks...... of sibutramine treatment (10 mg daily), of whom 1059 (10.4%) gained weight, 1467 (13.7%) lost greater than 0% to 1%, 2492 (23.2%) lost greater than 1% to 2%, 2280 (21.2%) lost greater than 2% to 3%, 1498 (13.9%) lost greater than 3% to 4%, and 1402 (13.1%) lost greater than 4% of their initial weight...

  12. The carbon count of 2000 years of rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus; Fiedler, Sabine; Kölbl, Angelika; Amelung, Wulf; Bräuer, Tino; Cao, Zhihong; Don, Axel; Grootes, Piet; Jahn, Reinhold; Schwark, Lorenz; Vogelsang, Vanessa; Wissing, Livia; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long-term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000-year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the Yangtze delta, China. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170-178 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29-84 kg organic carbon ha(-1) a(-1) during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  14. Lisianthus cultivation using differentiated light transmission nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercilio Viegas Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lisianthus stands out as one of the ten most cut flowers sold in the world. The use of meshes in a different light transmission is gaining more space in horticulture with promising results in greenhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of lisianthus grown in different light transmission meshes in blue, black, red and control treatments, which were transplanted 20 seedlings to cultivate Snow white with three replications, and therefore, 60 plants 240 plants per treatment in total. Agronomic characteristics such as plant height and length of the top pair of leaves were evaluated at 15, 38, 59, 82 and 105 days after transplanting. Other features such as early flowering, thick stem, distance between us and weight of the harvested stems were obtained at harvest stage. At the end of the evaluations, the treatment of red net was the most consistent with a significant difference in stem height and earliness in flowering.

  15. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Fungi colonising the above-ground parts of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (Bromus inermis Leyss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in 1999-2001 in the experimental field in Knopin near Dobre Miasto to determine the intensity of fodder galega diseases cultivated in pure sowing and mixed with smooth brome-grass (the Hillstrand and Auld' s modified scale, 1982. The fungi colonising the phyllosphere of fodder galega were analysed in a laboratory (Chruoeciak , 1974. The following symptoms were observed in fodder galega: ascochyta blight (Ascochyta sp., gray mould (Botrytis cinerea and plant wilting (Fusarium oxysporum.. The climatic conditions had an effect on the development of diseases. The greatest intensity of gray mould (Ii = 24.3% and plant wilting (17.9% of plants with the disease symptoms were observed in 2001. Ascochyta blight occurred with the lowest intensity and the highest infection index in 1999 in the cultivation of fodder galega mixed with smooth brome-grass was only 12.1%. The type of cultivation also modified fodder galega disease intensity. Gray mould and plant wilting developed better in pure sowing than in mixed sowing with smooth brome-grass. Throughout the entire experiment period the average infection index was 22.8% and 15.9% of plants with the wilt symptoms. Ascochyta blight found better conditions for development in plants cultivated in a mix with smooth brome-grass (average infection index - 10.0%. The fodder galega phyllosphere provided 4149 fungal isolates represented by 17 species and yeast-like fungi. Yeast-like fungi dominated (75.6% of the total isolates. The following species were less numerous: Botrytis cinerea, Humicola brevis, Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. From the leaves of fodder galega cultivated in pure sowing, 3.8% more fungi were obtained than from the leaves of plants cultivated with a mix of smooth brome-grass, including more frequently isolated pathogenic fungi representing the genera of Fusarium and the species of Botrytis cinerea.

  17. Plants cultivation in controlled containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The plants cultivation in controlled containments permits to the - Departement d'Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie (DVEM) - of the CEA to lead several topics of research. The works of DVEM which are based on the molecular labelling, technique adapted to plants, contribute to understand the plant - soil relationships and the plant growth process. In addition, the staff of DVEM study the impact of pollutant heavy metals, existing in the soil, on plants and the plant stress induced by oxygen, light, ionizing radiations,... and defence mechanisms of plants (F. M.)

  18. A combined flamer-cultivator for weed control during the harvesting season of asparagus green spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Martelloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Weed competition during spears harvesting reduces asparagus yields. The application of herbicides during this period is illegal, and alternative non-chemical practices are needed. This research tested the effectiveness and efficiency of a custom-built combined flamer-cultivator to control weeds (both in the inter- and intra- spears production bands during the spears harvest season. It also analysed the effects of various liquefied petroleum gas (LPG doses on total asparagus yield, mean spear weight, and total number of marketable spears. In both years, the asparagus spears were generally not damaged by flame weeding using LPG doses of between 43 to 87 kg/ha. The same LPG doses were effective in controlling weeds, showing the same total marketable yields as the weed-free control. At high LPG doses (e.g. 130 and 260 kg/ha, yields decreased as a consequence of the damage caused to the spears, resulting in a lower number of marketable spears. Flaming did not affect the mean spear weight, and can be applied repeatedly during harvesting to maintain the weeds at a level that does not lead to a yield reduction. The repeated use of the combined flamer-cultivator (every seven days led to higher yields than plots where weed control was not conducted. The new machine can be used in a period when herbicides are not possible. Flaming could be introduced by asparagus producers as an alternative, or in addition to herbicides applied in the pre-emergence and post-harvest of spears.

  19. Variation in growth and quality of Saccharina latissima cultivated in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Ortind, Elma; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    Macroalgal cultivation is a developing industry in the western part of the world, and in the Faroe Islands experimental cultivation including Alaria esculenta, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharina latissima, has been carried out since 2005. The cultivation experiments with A. esculenta and S....... latissima have shown promising results with regard to growth and yield, but the quality and composition of the cultivated biomass has not been investigated. Protein level and amino acid composition are essential factors when estimating the quality of the produced biomass for food and/or feed, but how does e.......g. seasonality, exposure and nutrient levels affect these factors. Current work investigated growth and yield in cultivated S. latissima in a sound in the Faroe Islands, and studied the variation in total Kjeldal nitrogen, nitrate and protein content and changes in amino acid composition with regard to season...

  20. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L. plants in depending on cultivation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sałata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated from transplants produced flowers earlier than those obtained from crowns. Plants grown from seeds sown in the ground did not produce flowering shoots. They remained as leaves through the whole vegetation period. Definitely more anthodiums produced plants those cultivated from crowns in comparison with obtained from transplants and seeds. Anthodiums which developed on shoots of plants cultivated from transplants and cuttings characterized bigger average height and diameter than anthodiums of plants cultivated from crowns. Artichoke plants differed in the number of leaves. More leaves of smaller length produced plants cultivated from transplants than plants obtained from cuttings and crowns.

  1. Inferring ancient Agave cultivation practices from contemporary genetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C; Parker, Albert J

    2010-04-01

    Several Agave species have played an important ethnobotanical role since prehistory in Mesoamerica and semiarid areas to the north, including central Arizona. We examined genetic variation in relict Agave parryi populations northeast of the Mogollon Rim in Arizona, remnants from anthropogenic manipulation over 600 years ago. We used both allozymes and microsatellites to compare genetic variability and structure in anthropogenically manipulated populations with putative wild populations, to assess whether they were actively cultivated or the result of inadvertent manipulation, and to determine probable source locations for anthropogenic populations. Wild populations were more genetically diverse than anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles and allelic richness. Anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: fixed heterozygosity for several loci in all populations (nonexistent in wild populations); fewer multilocus genotypes, which differed by fewer alleles; and greater differentiation among populations than was characteristic of wild populations. Furthermore, manipulated populations date from a period when changes in the cultural context may have favoured active cultivation near dwellings. Patterns of genetic similarity among populations suggest a complex anthropogenic history. Anthropogenic populations were not simply derived from the closest wild A. parryi stock; instead they evidently came from more distant, often more diverse, wild populations, perhaps obtained through trade networks in existence at the time of cultivation.

  2. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137 Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137 Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant 137 Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137 Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg -1 ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  4. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  5. Possible Biogeophysical Effects of Cultivated Land Conversion in Northeast China in 2010–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There will be substantial cultivated land change in China as the society strives to meet the growing food demands, which will greatly influence the future climate. This study analyzed the possible biogeophysical effects of cultivated land change on the climate in Northeast China during 2010–2030 on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model. Scenario analysis was first carried out on the possible changing trends of cultivated land. Then the climate effects of the cultivated land change were analyzed on the basis of the simulation with the WRF model. The simulation results indicate that the total cultivated land area in Northeast China will decrease during 2010–2030, mainly converting into urban and built-up land and forests due to the urbanization and governmental policies. Besides, the cultivated land change will lead to the increase of the sensible heat flux in the regions where a lot of cultivated land will change into urban and built-up land, while it will make the latent heat flux increase in the regions where the cultivated land will be mainly converted into forests through influencing the evapotranspiration. All these results can provide theoretical support for implementing the future land management in Northeast China.

  6. [Species diversity of ex-situ cultivated Chinese medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ling; Chi, Xiu-Lian; Zang, Chun-Xin; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Min; Yang, Guang; Jin, An-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Ex-situ conservation is an important means to protect biological genetic resources. Resource protection has received more and more attention with the continuous improvement of the comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine resources. In this paper, the research and compilation of the species list of ex-situ cultivated medicinal plants in 12 Chinese Academy of Sciences botanic gardens and 19 specialized medicinal botanic gardens in China were carried out. Based on the Species 2000(2017) and other classification databases, species diversity of medicinal plants ex-situ cultivated in these botanical gardens were analyzed. The study found that there were 16 351 higher plant species in our country, belonging to 276 families and 1 936 genera. Of these, 6 949 specieswere medicinal plants, accounting for 50.4% of the total medicinal plants. There were 1 280 medicinal plants were in threatened status, accounting for 19.6% of all threatened species in the Chinese Biodiversity Red List, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 59.5%. And 3 988 medicinal plants were Chinese endemic species, accounting for 22.5% of all Chinese endemic species, with ex-situ cultivated proportion of 53.3%. This article has reference significance for the management and protection of medicinal plant resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Recovery of Biomass Following Shifting Cultivation in Dry Tropical Forests of the Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Read, L; Lawrence, Deborah; Foster, David Russell

    2003-01-01

    Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprecedented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico. We sampled stems .1 cm diameter at breast height at 36 study sites in t...

  8. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  9. Multiple outcomes of cultivation in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laura Vang; Reenberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    A default assumption about the Sahel is that farmers consider food provision for the family as the sole reason for cultivation. The degree to which this ‘cultivation for food’ assumption has been embedded in the scientific literature on land use changes is signified by the fact that hardly any...

  10. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  11. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, K.H.; Jo, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, G.R.; Lee, G.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, Y.R.; Han, B.S.; Yoon, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  12. Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in sludge extracts from 2,4,6-TCP wastewater treatment for toxicity removal and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiurong; Wang, Hualin; Zhang, Yuying; Tang, Qingjie; Li, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in different proportions of activated sludge extracts, which was from the treatment of the synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The nutrients, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were removed over 45% and 90%, respectively. The maximum reduction amount of ecotoxicity and total organic carbon (TOC) occurred in the 100% sludge group on the 8th day (68%; 86.2 mg L -1 ). The variations of Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) and TOC indicated that extracellular organic matters (EOM) produced by algae led to TOC increase in the medium. The cell density was close to each other for groups with sludge extract proportion below 50%; sludge extracts (below 75% addition) had a stimulating effect on the accumulation of chlorophyll-a in per unit algal cell. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) variation demonstrated that C. vulgaris response positively to sludge extracts addition. Lipid content in C. vulgaris was up to its maximum value on the 8th day. Considering the performance on nutrients removal, toxicity reduction and algal growth, the optimal cultivation period for C. vulgaris before harvesting was around 8 days with sludge extracts proportion below 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  14. Production method and cost of commercial-scale offshore cultivation of kelp in the Faroe Islands using multiple partial harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandorf Bak, Urd; Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Gregersen, Olavur

    2018-01-01

    was conducted. The total cost per kg dw of cultivated S. latissima decreased when the number of possible harvests without re-seeding was increased (from € 36.73 to € 9.27). This work has demonstrated that large-scale kelp cultivation is possible using multiple partial harvesting in the Faroe Islands...

  15. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    current economical conditions. Cladoceran cultivation is especially important during the period of its active consumption by fish in summer months, when a depletion of the natural forage base occur in ponds.

  16. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Yimin; Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species.

  17. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species. PMID:29304141

  18. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation.

  19. The organic fertilization in the onion cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Llorente Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha-1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha-1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  20. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bauer

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.

  1. Effect of Different Proportions of Agrowaste on Cultivation Yield and Nutritional Composition of the Culinary-Medicinal Jelly Mushroom Auricularia polytricha (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Shih, Hsin-Der; Liang, Zeng-Chin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Auricularia polytricha was cultivated on a sawdust basal substrate supplemented with different proportions (30%, 45%, and 60%, respectively) of agrowastes-sugarcane bagasse (SB), rice straw (RS), and rice husk (RH)-to evaluate the alternative substrates. The mycelial growth rate, total colonization time, time to first primordia, biological efficiency, and chemical composition of the fruiting bodies were determined. Results indicated that the 60% SB substrate was the best substrate for mycelial growth of A. polytricha, with a corresponding total colonization period of 35.2 days, followed by the control (35.5 days) and 45% SB (36.2 days) substrates. The most suitable substrate with a high biological efficiency was 60% RS substrate (159.14%), followed by the 45% SB (128.45%), and 20% RH (124.47%) substrates. The nutrient values of fruiting bodies showed the largest amounts of ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy cultivated on 60% SB, 60% SB, 30% SB, 30% RH, and 30% RH/the control substrates, respectively. The results indicated that 60% RS was an appropriate substrate for A. polytricha cultivation.

  2. Dissolved triazines in watersheds under sugarcane cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portocarrero, Rocio; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane is an important extensive crop in north western of Argentina. Chemical weed control have been increasing over the last years. The typical period of this practice takes place from October to December, at beginnig of rainy season. Atrazine and ametryn are the main herbicides used, they have moderate to high potential mobility in soils, which is a potential source of contamination for nearby streams. The aim of this study was to quantify both atrazine and ametryn contamination levels in two streams of the southeast of Tucuman (Argentina) under sugarcane production. This area has a subtropical climate, and a monsoon rainfall regime with an annual average of 700 mm. Five sampling points of Mista and Saladillo streams were monitored from September to April, during three growing season. In each growing season, four sampling moments were defined: M1) Before the herbicides application; M2) Beginning of the rainy season and during the chemical weed control period; M3) High accumulated rainfall; M4) End of the rainy season. Water samples were taken and stored in polypropylene bottles at -20°C until analysis. Samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (Waters® ACQUITY® UPLC) coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS/MS Quattro Premier XE Waters). Atrazine was quantified in all samples and the highest concentrations were found in M2 (0.03-3.07 μg L-1). For the others sampling moments, atrazine concentrations were ranged from 0.003 to 0.2 μg L-1. Ametryn was detected in the 90% of the samples. Ametryn concentrations in M2 varied from 0.004 to 0.32 μg L-1, and in the rest sampling moments were less than 0.11 μg L-1. Both herbicides were highly detected in the study area. Although atrazine is authorized for other crops in the area, ametryn is only authorized for sugarcane, the largest cultivation in the area.

  3. Comparing the hydrology of grassed and cultivated catchments in the semi-arid Canadian prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, G.; Hayashi, M.; Gallén, D.

    2003-02-01

    At the St Denis National Wildlife Area in the prairie region of southern Saskatchewan, Canada, water levels in wetlands have been monitored since 1968. In 1980 and 1983 a total of about one-third of the 4 km2 area was converted from cultivation to an undisturbed cover of brome grass. A few years after this conversion all the wetlands within the area of grass dried out; they have remained dry since, whereas wetlands in adjacent cultivated lands have held water as before. Field measurements show that introduction of undisturbed grass reduces water input to the wetlands mainly through a combination of efficient snow trapping and enhanced infiltration into frozen soil. In winter, the tall brome grass traps most of the snowfall, whereas in the cultivated fields more wind transport of snow occurs, especially for short stubble and fallow fields. Single-ring infiltration tests were conducted during snowmelt, while the soil was still frozen, and again in summer. The infiltrability of the frozen soil in the grassland is high enough to absorb most or all of the snowmelt, whereas in the cultivated fields the infiltration into the frozen soil is limited and significant runoff occurs. In summer, the infiltrability increases for the cultivated fields, but the grassland retains a much higher infiltrability than the cultivated land. The development of enhanced infiltrability takes several years after the conversion from cultivation to grass, and is likely due to the gradual development of macropores, such as root holes, desiccation cracks, and animal burrows.

  4. Improving Former Shifted Cultivation Land Using Wetland Cultivation in Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Degraded forest area in Kalimantan could be caused by shifted cultivation activity that be conducted by local peoples in the surrounding forest areas. Efforts to improve the former shifted cultivation area (non productive land is developing the settled cultivation by use of irrigation system, better paddy seed, land processing, fertilizing, spraying pesticide, weeding, and better acces to the market.  Local peoples, especially in Kalimantan, has been depended their food on the shifted cultivation pattern since the long time ago.  This tradition could cause forest damage, forest fire, forest degradation, deforestation, and lose out of children education because they were following shifted cultivation activity although itsspace is very far from their home.  This research was aimed to improve former shifted cultivation lands using wetland cultivation in order to improve land productivity and to support food securityin the local community. This research was administratively located in Tanjung Rendan Village, Kapuas Hulu Sub-Ddistrict, Kapuas District, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.  Data of rice yield from settled cultivation and shifted cultivation were got from 15 households that was taking by random at 2010 to 2011. Homogeneity test, analysis of variants, and least significant different (LSD test using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Result of this research showed that     paddy yield at settled cultivation was significantly differentand better than shifted cultivation at 0.05 level. LSD test also indicated that all paddy yields from settled cultivation were significantly different compare to shifted cultivation at the 0.05 level.  The community in Tanjung Rendan Villages preferred settled cultivation than shifted cultivation, especially due to higher paddy production. Profit for settled cultivation was IDR10.95 million ha-1, meanwhile profit for shifted cultivation was just IDR 2.81 million ha-1 only.  Settled cultivation pattern could

  5. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  6. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected warm water periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL1_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  7. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  8. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  9. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  10. Cultivation of parasitic leptospires: effect of pyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R C; Walby, J; Henry, R A; Auran, N E

    1973-07-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 mug/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes.

  11. Advancing gut microbiome research using cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten OA

    2015-01-01

    Culture-independent approaches have driven the field of microbiome research and illuminated intricate relationships between the gut microbiota and human health. However, definitively associating phenotypes to specific strains or elucidating physiological interactions is challenging for metagenomic...... approaches. Recently a number of new approaches to gut microbiota cultivation have emerged through the integration of high-throughput phylogenetic mapping and new simplified cultivation methods. These methodologies are described along with their potential use within microbiome research. Deployment of novel...... cultivation approaches should enable improved studies of xenobiotic tolerance and modification phenotypes and allow a drastic expansion of the gut microbiota reference genome catalogues. Furthermore, the new cultivation methods should facilitate systematic studies of the causal relationship between...

  12. How to Cultivate the Student's Cultural Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    tian xiu ying

    2008-01-01

    Language and culture are inseparable and cultural awareness must be integrated with language teaching. How to cultivate the learners' cultural awareness is an important issue that we have to carry out in teaching practice in China.

  13. Identification of cultivated land using remote sensing images based on object-oriented artificial bee colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Xiufang

    2017-04-01

    Cultivated land resources is the key to ensure food security. Timely and accurate access to cultivated land information is conducive to a scientific planning of food production and management policies. The GaoFen 1 (GF-1) images have high spatial resolution and abundant texture information and thus can be used to identify fragmentized cultivated land. In this paper, an object-oriented artificial bee colony algorithm was proposed for extracting cultivated land from GF-1 images. Firstly, the GF-1 image was segmented by eCognition software and some samples from the segments were manually identified into 2 types (cultivated land and non-cultivated land). Secondly, the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm was used to search for classification rules based on the spectral and texture information extracted from the image objects. Finally, the extracted classification rules were used to identify the cultivated land area on the image. The experiment was carried out in Hongze area, Jiangsu Province using wide field-of-view sensor on the GF-1 satellite image. The total precision of classification result was 94.95%, and the precision of cultivated land was 92.85%. The results show that the object-oriented ABC algorithm can overcome the defect of insufficient spectral information in GF-1 images and obtain high precision in cultivated identification.

  14. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  15. The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva for algal biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3 and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m(-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day(-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0 ± 8.8 g dry weight m(-1 (228.7 ± 115.4 g fresh weight m(-1 was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5 ± 7.3 g dry weight m(-1 (120.2 ± 71.8 g fresh weight m(-1 over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

  16. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-07-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  17. Effects on watershed hydrology after rain forest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-12-31

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  18. Effects on watershed hydrology after rainforest conversion to shifting cultivation and agroforestry in Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, Nils

    1998-01-01

    A paired catchment study was conducted in Mendolong, Sabah, Malaysia, to monitor the hydrological effects from conversion of secondary rain forest to shifting cultivation and agroforestry land-uses. Four different treatments were investigated: (1.) Agroforestry with initial burning and planting of fast-growing trees (Acacia mangium) and one rotation of hill rice, (2.) Agroforestry treatment as in no. 1, but without burning, (3.) Shifting cultivation with burning and one rotation of hill rice and (4.) No burning and one rotation of hill rice. A fifth catchment was used as untreated control. Waterflow was continuously measured in the streams during 41 months, between May 1994 to November 1997. 11 months were used as a calibration period before clear-felling and treatments. The data were used to determine water budgets (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration), runoff increases after clear-felling and changes in streamflow regimes. Regression analyses on runoff from each catchment versus the control catchment during the calibration period were used to determine the increase in runoff after clear-felling. Some unexpected losses and gains of water across the borders of the divided catchments were detected in three of the five catchments. The estimated transferred water volumes under forest cover range between 10 % and 22 % of total runoff. After clear-felling the losses and gains of water across the borders increased. The water transfer did mainly occur as sub-surface flow, probably in more permeable parts in the lower soil profile like cracks in the bedrock. Generally, the risk of deep leakage seams to increase with distance from the ridge. Hydrological effects could still be calculated through amalgamation of two of the catchments, and since the third catchment had a stable level of water gain due to unchanged conditions in the surrounding catchments. The mean areal rainfall during the period was higher than earlier measurements in the area, 4061 mm. The mean

  19. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  20. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  1. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected cool water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL3_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL3_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of up to 76...

  2. Five-minute grid of the total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected neutral water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL2_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL2_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of up to 76...

  3. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an irrigation control device based on solar radiation and its adaptability for cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, M.; Shibuya, K.; Kubai, K.; Komatsu, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    An irrigation control device based on solar radiation was developed to allow automatic irrigation management for high soluble solid tomato fruit production in root zone restriction culture. Its adaptability for long-term cultivation (planting carried out in early September and harvesting ending in late June) of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture was examined. The following results were obtained: 1. The control device was composed of generally available electronic parts. A change of setting was possible for the irrigation starting point, the irrigation time period, and the once amount of irrigation. For the first irrigation of the day, one of two irrigation control modes can be chosen; the first determines irrigation dependent on the solar radiation after the irrigated time of the previous day. The second mode irrigates at a set time. 2. The correlation between the total integrated solar radiation and the evapotranspiration rate of tomato plants were investigated. Positive correlations were observed for each month from October to June. Moreover, total integrated solar radiation per unit evapotranspiration was different for each month. 3. In long-term cultivation of tomato fruit using this device, the marketable yield of high soluble solid tomato fruit (more than Brix 8%) was 9.7t/10a. 4. This device exhibited the necessary adaptability for use in long-term cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture, by changing the set value of the irrigation starting point and the irrigation time period in accordance with the growth period

  5. Long term variability of total ozone yearly minima and maxima in the latitudinal belt from 20° N to 60° N derived from the merged satellite data in the period 1979-2008

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Mikšovský, J.; Kozubek, Michal; Wang, G. C.; Bai, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2011), s. 2016-2022 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10077; GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : annual cycle * total ozone * trends in annual cycle * long–term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117711005436

  6. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  7. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  8. The Cultivation and SeleniumEnrichment of SeleniumEnriched Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Xiao-fei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a bio-carrier, Eisenia fetida was fed with cow dung that added with sodium selenite in order to transfer inorganic selenium(Se into organic selenium. Targeting on survival rate and selenium content, the effects of five Se concentrations(0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg·kg-1 and four cultivation periods(15, 30, 45, 60 don earthworm growth and Se contents were investigated. The cultivation method with high survival rate, high Se content of earthworm and short breeding time would be screened out. The experimental results showed that the earthworm survival rate decreased and the Se content in earthworm increased with the increase of Se application and the extension of breeding time. The most optimummethod was screened out when the Se concentration was 80 mg·kg-1 and the cultivation period was 45 days, Se content in earthworm was up to 33.25 mg·kg-1.

  9. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  10. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  11. A comparative proteomic characterization and nutritional assessment of naturally- and artificially-cultivated Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ping; Alolga, Raphael N; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yin, Xiaojian

    2018-03-30

    Cordyceps sinensis has gained increasing attention due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Herein, we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to explore the proteome differences between naturally- and artificially-cultivated C. sinensis. A total of 22,829 peptides with confidence ≥95%, corresponding to 2541 protein groups were identified from the caterpillar bodies/stromata of 12 naturally- and artificially-cultivated samples of C. sinensis. Among them, 165 proteins showed significant differences between the samples of natural and artificial cultivation. These proteins were mainly involved in energy production/conversion, amino acid transport/metabolism, and transcription regulation. The proteomic results were confirmed by the identification of 4 significantly changed metabolites, thus, lysine, threonine, serine, and arginine via untargeted metabolomics. The change tendencies of these metabolites were partly in accordance with changes in abundance of the proteins, which was upstream of their synthetic pathways. In addition, the nutritional value in terms of the levels of nucleosides, nucleotides, and adenosine between the artificially- and naturally-cultivated samples was virtually same. These proteomic data will be useful for understanding the medicinal value of C. sinensis and serve as reference for its artificial cultivation. C. sinensis is a precious and valued medicinal product, the current basic proteome dataset would provide useful information to understand its development/infection processes as well as help to artificially cultivate it. This work would also provide basic proteome profile for further study of C. sinensis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Hydroponic cultivation improves the nutritional quality of soybean and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-11

    Hydroponic cultivation allows the control of environmental conditions, saves irrigation water, increases productivity, and prevents plant infections. The use of this technique for large commodities such as soybean is not a relevant issue on fertile soils, but hydroponic soybean cultivation could provide proteins and oil in adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, the compositions of four cultivars of soybean seeds and their derivates, soy milk and okara, grown hydroponically were compared to that of the same cultivar obtained from soil cultivation in an open field. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of phytic acid and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds, soy milk, and okara. Results demonstrated that, independent from the cultivar, hydroponic compared to soil cultivation promoted the accumulation of fats (from 17.37 to 21.94 g/100 g dry matter) and total dietary fiber (from 21.67 to 28.46 g/100 g dry matter) and reduced isoflavones concentration (from 17.04 to 7.66 mg/kg dry matter), whereas protein concentration was unaffected. The differences found in seed composition were confirmed in the respective okara products, but the effect of cultivation system was not significant looking at the soy milk composition. Data showed that hydroponic cultivation improved the nutritional quality of soybean seeds with regard to fats and dietary fiber. They also suggest that specific cultivars should be selected to obtain the desired nutritional features of the soybean raw material depending on its final destination.

  13. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  14. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of an Inter-Row Cultivator for Sugarcane Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Khaehanchanpong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to design and fabricate an inter-row cultivator for mounting on a medium-sized tractor (25.3 or 37.3 kW for sugarcane fields, and to assess the performance of the cultivator when harvesting is conducted either by hand or with a sugarcane harvester. Moreover, this study was also designed to assess the performance of the cultivator in mixing sugarcane residues in the field. The inter-row cultivator has a working width of 80 cm, a rotor shaft speed of 500 rpm, and a total weight of 518 kg. The cultivator comprises 18 European C-type blades attached to three disk holder flanges arranged in a spiral formation. Two notch-cutting discs were mounted on the front to cut and press the sugarcane leaves before they were chopped and mixed by the inter-row cultivator. The working performance test was conducted for different thicknesses of trash blankets while using the inter-row cultivator mounted on 25.3 kW- and 37.3 kW-size tractors. The effective field capacity for trash incorporation of the inter-row cultivator was 0.30 ha·h−1 when trash was left through harvesting by hand. On the other hand, effective field capacity was 0.31 ha·h−1 when a sugarcane harvester was used. Moreover, the field efficiency exceeded 90% in all tested fields, with greater soil inversion. The results also showed that the fuel consumption of both tractors was higher when harvesting by hand compared with harvesting using a harvester.

  15. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  16. Zeolites as possible biofortifiers in Maitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vunduk Jovana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of Ni, Cu and Mg in Grifola frondosa (also known as Maitake mushroom fruit body produced on zeolite Minazel Plus (MG-supplemented substrate were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Two different concentrations of MG were added to the substrate for mushroom cultivation. Levels of selected metals were measured in cultivated dry carpophores. The content of Ni increased in fruit bodies produced on supplemented substrate, while in case of Cu, a pronounced decrease was observed. When two different concentrations of MG were implemented, the Mg level showed both positive and negative trend, depending on the applied concentration of zeolite. MG in a concentration of 1% showed the strongest influence on the observed elements in the cultivated fruiting body of Maitake mushroom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010

  17. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils.

  18. Functional State Modelling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasen Hristozov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of functional state approach for modelling of yeast cultivation is considered in this paper. This concept helps in monitoring and control of complex processes such as bioprocesses. Using of functional state modelling approach for fermentation processes aims to overcome the main disadvantage of using global process model, namely complex model structure and big number of model parameters. The main advantage of functional state modelling is that the parameters of each local model can be separately estimated from other local models parameters. The results achieved from batch, as well as from fed-batch, cultivations are presented.

  19. Characterization and cultivation of Psilocybe barrerae

    OpenAIRE

    E. Montiel; J. C. Barragán; I. Tello; V. M. Mora; I. León; D. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    A strain of Psilocybe barrerae (Strophariaceae) was isolated, characterized, and cultivated under laboratory conditions. Mycelial colonies were white to off-white, showing average growth rates of 3.9 mm/day on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and 3.6 mm/day on corn meal agar (CMA). The production of biomass varied from 0.2872 g dry weight/L/day (CMA) to 0.1353 g dry weight/L/day (PDA). One flush of fruit bodies, cultivated on a mixture of sand and compost as substrate, was produced reaching a biolo...

  20. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  1. Evaluation of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) for N2O mitigation after grassland cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang

    Temporary grasslands cover ca. 11 million ha and constitute more than 10% of the total arable land within EU-28; in Denmark, ca. 60% of the grasslands are included in crop rotations. The high productivity and the positive residual effect on succeeding crops are the main reasons of placing...... archaea (AOA), as revealed by mRNA transcripts of amoA gene. This inhibitory effect could be limited to the soil volume in close contact with residues, where residue decomposition and subsequent nitrification took place. In the field study, there was a trend towards lower biomass yield and N...... grasslands in crop rotations. At the transition phase, the mineralization of grass and clover residues incorporated by grassland cultivation can supply nitrogen to a succeeding crop; however, the plant N-uptake is low for several weeks at the early growth stage. During this period, as a result of increasing...

  2. Closure of mass exchange under use of a vegetable conveyer cultivated on a neutral and soil-like substrates as applied to BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velitchko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander; Ushakova, Sofya

    To increase a closure level of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) including a human a technology of plants cultivation on a soil-like substrate (SLS) consisting in a gradual decomposition of inedible plants biomass under its addition in the SLS was developed at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Russia). In the given work the effect of periodical introduction of inedible plant biomass in the SLS on plants photosynthetic productivity and on the closure of mass exchange has been analyzed. Thereupon CO2 gas exchange and the certain vegetables' productivity under their cultivation in a conveyor regime on the SLS and on a neutral substrate with reference to the closure of mass exchange processes in BLSS have been studied in this work. The vegetables Raphanus sativus L., Brassica caulorapa L. Daucus carota L. and Beta vulgaris L. being prospective plantsrepresentatives of the BLSS phototrophic unit were taken as the research objects. The SLS was taken as an experiment substrate and an expanded clay aggregate as the control. The changeable Knop solution was used for the control, and an irrigation solution with the SLS extract was used for the experiment. Rapidity dynamics of CO2 consumption showed sharp distinctions of the ‘plants-SLS' system from the ‘plantsexpanded clay aggregate' system connected with the oxidation processes coursing in the SLS. The intensity of CO2 evolution from the SLS on average was 70% of the total plants conveyor's respiration. Thus a balance between the system's respiration and photosynthesis was often determined by the processes coursing in the SLS. Here the sharp CO2 evolution was recorded after introduction of the plants inedible biomass in the SLS. That peak was gradually coming down during 10-14 days after the beginning of every cycle of plants cultivation that was connected with intensification of plants photosynthesis and drop of decomposition intensity of the biomass introduced. Comparative

  3. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...

  4. Production and chemical composition of grasses and legumes cultivated in pure form, mixed or in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.

  5. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  6. THE ORIGIN OF GRAPEVINE CULTIVATION IN ITALY: THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marvelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine remains show that this plant has been important for humans since ancient times. This paper presents a synthesis of archaeobotanical studies on grapevine remains (pollen, wood, charcoal, seed/fruit and other botanical remains from Epigravettian to Bronze Age sites. Carpological remains are the most important ones, because they often allow to distinguish cultivated and wild grapevines. Grapevine findings are rare in Mesolithic sites, they increase during Neolithic period and become frequent in Bronze Age. Archaeobotanical data show that during Neolithic and in the Early Bronze Age a good level of knowledge concerning grapevine utilization was already acquired; during Middle and Late Bronze Age the grapevine diffusion increases. Based on archaeobotanical data, the wild grapevine evolution by indigenous people was probably accompanied by an input of allochtonous vines from Mycenaean world, and then from Hellenic world. Therefore, the critical period of grapevine domestication can be placed between Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

  7. Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ruf Kasim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5 kg was growth to 22.5 ± 1.40 kg and 38.8 ± 1.6 kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50 g was 107.8 ± 7.0 g and 152.5 ± 7.9 g during April, and 132.0 ± 8.0 g and 218.8 ± 8.6 g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43% day−1 and 3.69% day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

  8. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  9. Escherichia coli in the surface waters and in oysters of two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay - Paraná - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Forcelini,Helenita Catharina Dalla-Lana; Kolm,Hedda Elisabeth; Absher,Theresinha Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the contamination of Escherichia coli in the surface waters and oysters from two cultivations of Guaratuba Bay and to analyze the correlation patterns among the concentrations of E. coli in the waters and in the oysters with the local physical-chemical parameters. Samples were collected in the spring of 2007 and summer, autumn and winter of 2008 from two points of the bay (internal point and external point). From each cultivation and sampling period, 18 oyst...

  10. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  11. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivated through conventional farming and micropropagation method. Survival rate, biomass and tuber yield of both micropropagated and tuber propagated potatoes was evaluated. Survival percentages of potatoes were 90% for conventional ...

  12. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  13. Cultivating Visionary Leaders to Transform Our World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coers, Natalie J.

    2018-01-01

    Vision has long been a quality and characteristic defining leadership. To cultivate vision among undergraduate students in a course, the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals are utilized as a foundation to inspire a vision that connects local service and personal interests to global, complex issues. Students select a goal to work with for…

  14. Cultivation of the bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... increase of bioprocess efficiency parameters (yield coefficient and productivity) were observed compared with the batch cultivation. On the basis of the obtained results, repeated batch technique appeared to be the most suitable for the bacterial biomass production at industrial scale. Key words: Azotobacter chroococcum, ...

  15. Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonu

    Comparative study of potato cultivation through micropropagation and conventional farming methods .... and Murate potash were used as fertilizer source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively (Table 1) ..... through Tissue culture- Application and Feasibility. U.S.D.A.,. Beltsville. Agric. Res. Sci. Educ. Admin.

  16. Cultivation of Parasitic Leptospires: Effect of Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.; Walby, J.; Henry, R. A.; Auran, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Sodium pyruvate (100 μg/ml) is a useful addition to the Tween 80-albumin medium for the cultivation of parasitic serotypes. It is most effective in promoting growth from small inocula and growth of the nutritionally fastidious serotypes. Images PMID:4580191

  17. Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Presents a critical analysis of how cultivation (long-term formation of perceptions and beliefs about the world as a result of exposure to media) has been conceptualized in theory and research. Analyses the construct of television exposure. Suggests revisions for conceptualizing the existing theory and extending it. (RS)

  18. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different......Few comparative and validated reports exist on the isolation and growth of colonoscopically obtained colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for the cultivation of colonoscopically obtained colonocytes. Forty patients, who underwent routine colonoscopy...

  19. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  20. Evaluation of nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients status of soils under rice cultivation in Cross River State Nigeria was evaluated to ascertain the present status and suggest management practices needed for an increased rice production. A reconnaissance survey of the entire State was undertaken. A total number of eight Local Government Areas, namely ...

  1. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  3. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yaoqi Zhang; Wei Geng; Yueqin Shen; Yanling Wang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD) in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing mor...

  4. Microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA) for cultivating and analyzing environmental microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Navarroli, Dena; Naimark, Jared; Zhang, Weiwen; Chao, Shih-Hui; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2013-01-09

    The use of culture-independent nucleic acid techniques, such as ribosomal RNA gene cloning library analysis, has unveiled the tremendous microbial diversity that exists in natural environments. In sharp contrast to this great achievement is the current difficulty in cultivating the majority of bacterial species or phylotypes revealed by molecular approaches. Although recent new technologies such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can provide more functionality information about the microbial communities, it is still important to develop the capacity to isolate and cultivate individual microbial species or strains in order to gain a better understanding of microbial physiology and to apply isolates for various biotechnological applications. We have developed a new system to cultivate bacteria in an array of droplets. The key component of the system is the microbe observation and cultivation array (MOCA), which consists of a Petri dish that contains an array of droplets as cultivation chambers. MOCA exploits the dominance of surface tension in small amounts of liquid to spontaneously trap cells in well-defined droplets on hydrophilic patterns. During cultivation, the growth of the bacterial cells across the droplet array can be monitored using an automated microscope, which can produce a real-time record of the growth. When bacterial cells grow to a visible microcolony level in the system, they can be transferred using a micropipette for further cultivation or analysis. MOCA is a flexible system that is easy to set up, and provides the sensitivity to monitor growth of single bacterial cells. It is a cost-efficient technical platform for bioassay screening and for cultivation and isolation of bacteria from natural environments.

  5. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  6. Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... of plant residues, and they have been found to be nutritionally and ... In most countries, there is a well-established consumer accep- tance for cultivated ... temperature, dampness, CO2, cultivation methods and tecniques etc.

  7. Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  8. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-throughput micro-scale cultivations and chromatography modeling: Powerful tools for integrated process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Pascal; Hahn, Tobias; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Upstream processes are rather complex to design and the productivity of cells under suitable cultivation conditions is hard to predict. The method of choice for examining the design space is to execute high-throughput cultivation screenings in micro-scale format. Various predictive in silico models have been developed for many downstream processes, leading to a reduction of time and material costs. This paper presents a combined optimization approach based on high-throughput micro-scale cultivation experiments and chromatography modeling. The overall optimized system must not necessarily be the one with highest product titers, but the one resulting in an overall superior process performance in up- and downstream. The methodology is presented in a case study for the Cherry-tagged enzyme Glutathione-S-Transferase from Escherichia coli SE1. The Cherry-Tag™ (Delphi Genetics, Belgium) which can be fused to any target protein allows for direct product analytics by simple VIS absorption measurements. High-throughput cultivations were carried out in a 48-well format in a BioLector micro-scale cultivation system (m2p-Labs, Germany). The downstream process optimization for a set of randomly picked upstream conditions producing high yields was performed in silico using a chromatography modeling software developed in-house (ChromX). The suggested in silico-optimized operational modes for product capturing were validated subsequently. The overall best system was chosen based on a combination of excellent up- and downstream performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Noormahayu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 200 farmers who cultivate oil palm on peat soil. Some of the data were cross-tabulated against farmers’ ages in order to identify any age-related trends in education level, the area of land farmed, annual income and knowledge about oil palm cultivation. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to model the financial output from oil palm in terms of the costs of chemical inputs and labour. The results indicated that cultivation of this crop gives decreasing returns to scale on peatland in Sungai Panjang, and that chemical inputs are more important than labour cost in determining the level of financial output. Finally, the financial viability of oil palm cultivation for farmers was assessed by calculating three financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR. This can be a profitable investment so long as growth conditions, costs, selling price and interest rate do not fluctuate substantially. Greater annual returns can be achieved over 20–25 years than over shorter periods, especially of less than 10 years.

  11. Growth and yield of cucumber under no-tillage cultivation using rye as a cover crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jelonkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first two years of study, method of cultivation did not affect the emergence of cucumber seedlings. In the third year, a drought occurring during the spring was the cause of poor seedling emergence on no-tilled plots. Six weeks after seed sowing, the shoots of cucumbers grown on the no-tilled plots were much shorter, especially in the last study year. At the time of cucumber seed sowing, no-tilled soil contained less phosphorus and potassium and in the middle of the fructification period the content of these elements in cucumber leaves was higher under no-tillage cultivation. Additional spring fertilization of rye with ammonium nitrate resulted in a higher N-NO3 content in soil and later in a higher nitrogen content of cucumber leaves. The content of calcium and magnesium in soil and than in cucumber leaves was independent of the cultivation method. In the first two years, method of cultivation did not affect the yield of cucumber fruits and in the third year the yield was much lower under no-tillage because of poor seedling emergence. Moreover, in the third year the fruits were smaller and dry matter content of the fruit was significantly higer under no-tillage cultivation.

  12. Possible effects of cultivated plants in the development of allergy in population of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waqar, M.A.; Khan, M.; Hasnain, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Among the various biological particles, pollen grains and fingal spores stand as the two major factors that can cause asthma and allergic rhinitis. Pollen grains can be released by the domestic plants cultivated in and around as omamentals, on road verges and parklands etc. However. those plants are considered allergenic which are wind pollinated, called anemophilous, and very less attention is paid pollen sensitivity of cultivated plants. The purpose of this publication is to explain the types of flowering plants cultivated in Sindh, their flowering periods and the possibility of their pollen grains to induce IgE mediated hypersensitive reaction in people living in tile selected geographical region. In this survey. we have taken into consideration 60 species of plants that are being cultivated in tile province of Sindh. These species are divided into two major groups: the first group includes allergenic pollen producing species. while the second group included 38 species that are known to be non-allergenic. Our results show that most of the abundantly cultivated plants may be considered as secondary potential allergens and/or occupational or cross-reacting allergens. (author)

  13. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  15. Effect of cultivation ages on Cu accumulation in Greenhouse Soils in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Guo, Wenmiao; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we determined the influence of cultivation age on Cu accumulation in greenhouse soils. The concentration of plant available Cu (A-Cu) decreased with depth, and the contents of top soils (0-40 cm) in greenhouses were higher than those of the open field. There was a positive correlation between A-Cu concentrations in soils and cultivation ages (R2=0.572). The contents of total Cu (T-Cu) decreased with depth, and positively correlated with cultivation ages in top soils (0-20cm) (R2=0.446). The long-term usage of manures can cause Cu increase and accumulation in greenhouse soils in comparison to the open field.

  16. Comparative assessment of sugar and malic acid composition in cultivated and wild apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiquan; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Hongyu; Fang, Ting; Ogutu, Collins; Li, Shaohua; Han, Yuepeng; Wu, Benhong

    2015-04-01

    Soluble sugar and malic acid contents in mature fruits of 364 apple accessions were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fructose and sucrose represented the major components of soluble sugars in cultivated fruits, whilst fructose and glucose were the major items of sugars in wild fruits. Wild fruits were significantly more acidic than cultivated fruits, whilst the average concentration of total sugars and sweetness index were quite similar between cultivated and wild fruits. Thus, our study suggests that fruit acidity rather than sweetness is likely to have undergone selection during apple domestication. Additionally, malic acid content was positively correlated with glucose content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. This suggests that selection of fruit acidity must have an effect on the proportion of sugar components in apple fruits. Our study provides information that could be helpful for future apple breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of 137 Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of 137 Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013-0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  18. Phytoremediation of radiocesium in different soils using cultivated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasukazu; Saito, Takashi; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    A huge amount of radionuclides were released into the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Radiocesium, which is one of the more prevalent radionuclides, was deposited in the soil. It is well known that radiocesium is adsorbed into the soil and binds strongly to clay. As a result, it is difficult to reduce the contamination level in the soil. We examine the possibility of decontamination by means of phytoremediation. Four species of plants (sunflower, sorghum, amaranth, and buckwheat) were sown in light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil. When the plants matured, they were harvested and separated into their different parts, i.e., flower, leaf, stem, and root. The removal percentage of "1"3"7Cs for the aboveground parts, which is defined as the ratio of the total content of "1"3"7Cs in the aboveground biomass of plants to that in the cultivated soil of 0-15 cm depth, was 0.013- 0.93% for the light-colored Andosol and 0.0072-0.038% for the gray lowland soil. The plants exhibiting the highest value cultivated in the light-colored Andosol and gray lowland soil were amaranth (0.093%) and sunflower (0.038%), respectively. This indicates that it is difficult to remove radiocesium from contaminated soil by means of phytoremediation. (author)

  19. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity.

  20. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  1. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  2. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  3. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  4. Resource-saving inter-row cultivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rudenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-row cultivators have some shortcomings: design is complicated due to placing on each section of a 4-unit (parallelogram suspension of working tools; as the copying means use wheels which are mounted at distance from working tools, in other vertical plane, and have negative effect on variability of tillage depth; working tools are V-shaped hoes with a crumbling angle not more than 16 degrees. In the operation course the parts of a leg and a hoe, moving in the soil, raise it and throw to the side, creating not aligned surface grooves are formed, imposed moist soil. These processes are exacerbated by increasing the operating speed of the cultivator. The authors offered a resource-saving inter-row cultivator with a radial suspension of working tools. A flat plate spring was used as a beam. This simplifies the design, eliminates the horizontal oscillations of the working tools, provides a constant pressing them in the process. The working tool in the form of a flat lancet plowshares with a spiral fixed on the leg was designed. Operating width of a ploughshare is of 420 mm, thickness equals 4 (5 mm. The spiral with a diameter of 50 mm is made of a carbon spring wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm. One hoe is set instead of three-five tines on each section, that significantly reduces material consumption. A plough share with a spiral form the swinging-loosening element that provides creating a fine lumpy topsoil. The ploughshare performs the copying functions therefore the additional copying wheels are not required. Tests showed that the new working tool of a cultivator allows to operate qualitatively at a speed up to 14-18 km/h.

  5. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  6. REE Distribution in Cultivated and No Cultivated Soils in Two Viticultural Areas of Central Chile: Mineralogical, Pedological and Anthropic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P.; Townley, B.; Aburto, F.

    2017-12-01

    Within the scope of a Corfo-Innova Project (I+D Wines of Chile-University of Chile) we have recognized remarkable REE patterns in soils of two vineyards located in traditional vinicultural areas: Casablanca and Santa Cruz. Both vineyards have granitic parent rock, with similar petrographic features and REE patterns. We studied REE distribution on twelve cultivated soil profiles at each vineyard, where a full mineralogical, geochemical and pedogenic sampling and characterization was performed. To establish the effect of management no cultivated soil profiles were included from each vineyard location. REE in soil samples were measured by ICP-MS using two digestion methods: lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion to obtain REE contents in total soil and MMI® partial extraction technique for REE contents on bioavailable phases.Soils display similar signatures of REEs respect to the rock source at both vineyards, but showing relative enrichments in soils of Casablanca and depletion in soils of Santa Cruz. Bioavailable phase data indicates a relative depletion of LREEs compared to HREEs and different anomalies for Ce (positive vs negative) in different areas of the same vineyard. Similar patterns of soils and parent rock suggest that REEs are adequate tracers of lithological source. Enrichments and/or depletions of REE patterns in soils respect to the rock source and Ce anomalies, evidence differential pedogenetic processes occurring at each sampled site. Results of bioavailable phase are coherent with the immobilization and fractionation of LREEs by stable minerals within soils as clays and Fe oxides. Mineralogical results in soil thin sections of Casablanca evidence the occurrence of Ti phases as sphene, ilmenite and rutile, which probably control the relative REE enrichment, since these minerals are considered more stable under pedogenic conditions.Finally, cultivated soils show a depleted but analogous pattern of REE regarding to no cultivated soil, indicating the

  7. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of waste material in cultivation substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardeners' practical experience and experimental work prove the affirmation that the used substrate is a very important base for the production of quality nursery products. It is important to emphasis the complexity and synergy of all factors influencing the ecosystem and there mutual relations. Physical, chemical and biological properties do not separately affect the growth and development of plants. In addition, the relations are not statical but differ in relation with other factors changes. This article is dealing with the possibility to use waste material from timber processing in cultivation substrates. The large scale use of such substrates would enable people to reach a relative independence from peat substrates, of which the global reserve is gradually decreasing.Our research activities focus on the use of bark. The basic problems of a bark substrate are easy dehydration and unbalanced nutrition of trees and shrubs. The suggested and experimented cultivation technology solves these problems. It is based on the cultivation of woody species in bark substrates, using modern irrigation systems, slow release fertilisers (Silvamix Forte and special soil conditioners (TerraCottem. This technology was tested on the following species of trees and shrubs: Malus and Buxus.

  9. Bioremediation efficiency in the removal of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the red seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis, cultivated in the open sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peimin; Xu, Shannan; Zhang, Hanye; Wen, Shanshan; Dai, Yongjing; Lin, Senjie; Yarish, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The bioremediation capability and efficiency of large-scale Porphyra cultivation in the removal of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from open sea area were studied. The study took place in 2002-2004, in a 300 ha nori farm along the Lusi coast, Qidong County, Jiangsu Province, China, where the valuable rhodophyte seaweed Porphyra yezoensis has been extensively cultivated. Nutrient concentrations were significantly reduced by the seaweed cultivation. During the non-cultivation period of P. yezoensis, the concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P were 43-61, 1-3, 33-44 and 1-3 micromol L(-1), respectively. Within the Porphyra cultivation area, the average nutrient concentrations during the Porphyra cultivation season were 20.5, 1.1, 27.9 and 0.96 micromol L(-1) for NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively, significantly lower than in the non-cultivation season (p0.05). The highest tissue nitrogen content, 7.65% in dry wt, was found in December and the lowest value, 4.85%, in dry wt, in April. The annual biomass production of P. yezoensis was about 800 kg dry wt ha(-1) at the Lusi Coast in 2003-2004. An average of 14708.5 kg of tissue nitrogen and 2373.5 kg of tissue phosphorus in P. yezoensis biomass were harvested annually from 300 ha of cultivation from Lusi coastal water. These results indicated that Porphyra efficiently removed excess nutrient from nearshore eutrophic coastal areas. Therefore, large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis could alleviate eutrophication in coastal waters economically.

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: CULTIVATION OF CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina SÎRBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creative achievement is obvious in the arts but it is essential in all other fields including the sciences and business. Creativity allows for the making of connections across different domains of knowledge. It is possible in all areas of human activity and all young people and adults have creative abilities. It is cultivated through rigorous training and by practicing of dynamic capabilities over an extended period of time. Creativity needs time, flow, interaction, suspension of judgement. It is influenced by much more than the shape and content of the formal school curriculum. The roles of teachers are to recognise young people's creative capacities; and to provide the creative climate in which they can be realised. Educational actors have the power to unlock the creative and innovative potential of the young. Creative learning requires innovative and flexible teaching. Creative education involves a balance between teaching knowledge and skills, and encouraging innovation.

  11. [Formation of purple membranes during salt bacteria cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekulaeva, L N; Korolev, Iu N; Telegin, N L; Rikhireva, G T

    1975-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on cultivation of halophile with probe selection in the interval of 1--2 hours to record the spectra of repeated disturbed completed inner reflection. Periodicity in the changes of spectral characteristics of the culture with the interval of 20--24 hours is revealed. A clearly expressed dichroism of the amid II band of the membrane complex is found, the absence of this dichroism in the protein isolated from the membrane complex is stated. It is suggested that dichroism revealed is a specific feature of the presence of purpuric membranes in the cells. Spontaneous plane orientation of protein macromolecules in purpuric membranes is established. The level of dichroism of amid II band is shown to depend on fermentation conditions of salt bacteria.

  12. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES; FED-BATCH CULTIVATION AND STATISTICAL MEDIA OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Berekaa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus megaterium SW1-2 showed enhanced growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production during cultivation on date palm syrup (DEPS or sugar cane molasses. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic analyses of the polymer accumulated during growth on DEPS revealed specific absorption peaks characteristic for PHB. 1.65 g/L of PHB (56.9% CDW was produced during growth on medium supplemented with 2 g/L of DEPS. Approximately, 36.1% CDW of PHB were recorded during growth on sugar cane molasses. Six runs of different fed-batch cultivation strategies were tested, the optimal run showed approximately 6.87-fold increase. Modified E2 medium was prefered recording 10.11 and 11.34 g/L of total PHB produced for runs 1 and 2, at the end of 96 h incubation period, respectively. Decrease in PHB was recorded during growth on complex medium (run 3 and run 4. In another independent optimization strategy, ten variables were concurrently examined for their significance on PHB production by Plackett-Burman statistical design for the first time. Among variables, DEPS-II and inoculum concentration followed by KH2PO4 and (NH42SO4 were found to be the most significant variables encourage PHB production. Indeed, DEPS-II or Fresh syrup is more significant than commercial syrup DEPS-I (p-value= 0.05. RPM, incubation period have highly negative effect on PHB production. Role of ago-industrial wastes, especially DEPS, in enhancement of PHB production was closely discussed.

  13. Impact of tillage on soil magnetic properties: results over thirty years different cultivation plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesson, Julien; Kessouri, Pauline; Buvat, Solène; Tabbagh, Alain

    2010-05-01

    Cultivation may favour or not different processes such as air and water circulation, organic matter and fertilizers supplies..., consequently it can a priori induce significant changes in local oxido-reduction conditions which determine the magnetic properties of soils: the soil magnetic signal. If laboratory measurements on soil samples can be slow and irreversible, it is also possible to perform in field measurements by using electromagnetic devices that allow quick and easy measuring over the relevant soil thicknesses both in time (TDEM) and frequency (FDEM) domains. The object of this study is to compare the variation of two magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, measured by FDEM apparatus and magnetic viscosity measured by TDEM apparatus) and there ratio along depth for three different types of tillage (no tillage, ploughing, and simplified tillage). An experimental plot of 80 m by 50 m total area, on which these three types of tillage have been conducted for more than thirty years, was surveyed. The plot is divided in five strips of 16 m by 50 m area, each of which being cultivated by one type of tillage only. Each strip is divided in two parts, one half with nitrogen-fixing crop during intercultivation winter period and the other half with bare soil during this period. On each part, the variation along depth of both magnetic properties was assessed by surveying with different devices corresponding to three different volumes of investigation. For the magnetic susceptibility measurements the devices used were the MS2 of Bartington Ltd with the MS2D probe and the CS60 a slingram prototype use in VCP and HCP configurations. For the magnetic viscosity, the devices used were the DECCO from Littlemore ltd. And the VC100, a slingram prototype, used at two heights. Eleven values of the two magnetic properties have been recorded using each device and their medians calculated. The data were inverted to define the median magnetic profiles of each half

  14. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  15. Research and development project for large industrial technologies in fiscal 1992 (latter half period). Achievement report on research and development of a manganese concretion mining system (The separate volume No. 1/5) (The total system version); 1988 nendo mangan dankai saiko system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1/5. Total system hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    With an objective to assure stable supply of such non-ferrous metal resources as nickel, cobalt, copper and manganese, and to enhance the marine development technology, research and development has been performed on a technology to mine manganese concretion existing in ocean bottoms as deep as 4,000 to 6,000 meters. This paper describes a total system (an experimental system). In the comprehensive marine experiments, discussions were given on optimizing the experiment plans and the experiment execution procedures in association with focusing the experimental ocean areas and the experimental systems. Discussions were also given on the conditions for feeding back the experimental systems to designing. Furthermore, survey data were discussed on the non-discussed portions of the ocean areas scheduled of performing the experiments. In the research of the mining systems, discussions were given subsequently from the previous year on the structure and basic design conditions for a mining system to produce 2,000,000 tons per year. With regard to environment preservation, discussions were executed on the environment observation plan relative to the comprehensive experiment, role sharing in the experimental systems, factors influencing the environment and the quantity thereof. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 Development of technologies for optimization control of reducing power loss during the service period. Report on the research and development results of the 'building total cooperation control by micro-internet technologies'; 2000 nendo kadoji denki sonshitsu sakugen saiteki seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Micro internet gijutsu ni yoru biru total kyocho seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The research and development project is implemented for development of the energy-saving optimization/control system which continuously monitors/controls all of the energy-consuming appliances in a building for their optimization, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for the sensing technologies involves a human tracking system aided by fish-eye images and human region sensing technologies based on the neuro technologies, and introduces an animated image simulation system aided by a personal computer. The researches on the building total cooperation control involve establishment of the system designs for controlling heat sources, based on the thermal loads predicted by the information network system. The researches on the micro-internet technologies involve development of the prototype unit which collects information from indoor environment sensors (e.g., for room temperature, luminous intensity and CO2 concentration), and interface devices which collect information from the sub-systems, e.g., air conditioners and heat sources. These systems are completed. The demonstration and assessment program involves designs of the instrumentation systems and network environments. The designs are completed, and various sensors and monitors are installed. (NEDO)

  17. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.

  18. Contamination and health risks from heavy metals in cultivated soil in Zhangjiakou City of Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian; Xue, Zhan-Jun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Shu-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A total of 79 topsoil samples (ranging from 0 to 20 cm in depth) were collected from a grape cultivation area of Zhangjiakou City, China. The total concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soil samples were determined to evaluate pollution levels and associated health risks in each sample. Pollution levels were calculated using enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo). Health risks for adults and children were quantified using hazard indexes (HI) and aggregate carcinogenic risks (ACR). The mean concentrations of measured heavy metals Cd, Hg, and Cu, only in the grape cultivation soil samples, were higher than the background values of heavy metals in Hebei Province. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the anthropogenic activities related to agronomic and fossil fuel combustion practices attributed to higher accumulations of Cd, Hg, and Cu, which have slightly polluted about 10-40% of the sampled soils. However, the HI for all of the heavy metals were lower than 1 (within safe limits), and the ACR of As was in the 10(-6)-10(-4) range (a tolerable level). This suggests the absence of both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for adults and children through oral ingestion and dermal absorption exposure pathways in the studied area. It should be also noted that the heightened vulnerability of children to health risks was accounted for higher HI and ACR values. Consequently, heavy metal concentrations (e.g., Cd, Hg, Cu) should be periodically monitored in these soils and improved soil management practices are required to minimize possible impacts on children's health.

  19. Land use changes after the period commodities rising price in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: At the end of the 20th and early 21st century, agricultural systems incorporated definitively a new mission: to generate goods for a world population that continues to grow and whose way of life demand food with low environmental impact. Soybean is the main raw material for the production of biodiesel in Brazil, accountably responsible for 82.4% of the total produced between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, which is formed by the Pampa and the Atlantic forest biomes, was responsible for 35.7% of the country's biodiesel production in the referred period. The aim of this paper was to verify the impact of the increased area of soybean cultivation in land use in Rio Grande do Sul State, in the period between 1990 and 2015, considering separately its two biomes (Pampa and Atlantic Forest original areas, using both census dataset and satellite images. We used the period from 1990 to 2000 as before commodity rising price (BCRP and the period from 2000 to 2013 as commodity rising price (CRP. The 505,162 ha from Atlantic Forest biome and 1,192,115ha from Pampa biome were added to soybean production in the CRP period. In the Atlantic Forest, this enlargement occurred in the border of the main production area, while in Pampa biome conversion of natural grassland to crop land was the main reason for the large increment in the cultivated area.

  20. Effect of light on contents of coumarin compounds in shoots of Ruta graveolens L. cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoots of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae were cultivated in stationary liquid culture under different light conditions: constant artificial light (900 lx, darkness, constant artificial light (900 ix following irradiation with UV-C light. The contents of five furanocoumarins: psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, as well as biogenetic precursor of these metabolites, umbelliferone, were determined by HPLC method in shoots cultivated in vitro and in overground parts of plants growing in open air. It was shown that light conditions, tested in these experiments, significantly influenced contents of the metabolites in shoots cultivated in in vitro culture. Total content of the coumarin compounds in shoots cultivated under constant artificial light (900 lx was equal or higher than in plants growing under natural conditions. Therefore, it is suggested that stationary liquid shoot culture of R. graveolens. can be an alternative source for obtaining biologically active furanocoumarins.

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WILD AND CULTIVATED Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. ACCESSIONS ANALYZED USING THIRTY MORPHO-AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sathyanarayana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and relatedness among 31 wild and 9 cultivated Mucuna pruriens accessions collected from diverse eco-climatic regions in India were evaluated using 30 morpho-agronomical characters. The experiments were carried by growing the plants in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD in four replications for two seasons. The results of PCA for 22 quantitative and 8 qualitative characters indicated that the first two PCs together explained 65.18% and 67.50% of the total variation respectively, which were drawn across a range of traits. Cluster analysis demonstrated on the whole high morphological diversity (63.05% amongst wild and cultivated accessions and low diversity (36.95% within cultivated accessions. Analysis of six yield traits based on LSD5% values revealed distinct genotypes under each category which are of potential value in breeding programs. Low morphological diversity within cultivated accessions emphasizes the need for expanding its genetic base in India.

  2. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  3. Estoques totais de carbono orgânico e seus compartimentos em argissolo sob floresta e sob milho cultivado com adubação mineral e orgânica Total stocks of organic carbon and its pools in acrisols under forest and under maize cultivated with mineral and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. C. Leite

    2003-10-01

    were: a to evaluate the effect of maize production systems under organic and mineral fertilization on total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks and on organic carbon pools (C in an Acrisol; and b to estimate the contribution of these systems in the atmospheric CO2 sequestration or emission. The production systems included two levels of organic compost: level 0 (control and level 1 (40 m³ ha-1; and three levels of mineral fertilizer (0, 1 and 2, which correspond to 0,250 (AM1, and 500 kg ha-1 (AM2 of the 4-14-8 formula. Organic and mineral fertilizer were combined and applied during 16 years. As a reference of the steady state, soil samples were collected from an adjacent area of the same soil type, under secondary Atlantic Forest (AF. Where organic compost was added, the production systems presented higher organic C and N soil storage, light fraction carbon (C LF and labile carbon (C L than production systems without fertilization or with mineral fertilizer only. This confirms the importance of organic fertilizer utilization as a management strategy to improve soil quality. However, the soil under AF showed higher values of organic C and N storage and carbon pools than soils under production systems. Due to their higher sensitivity, the stocks of the C LF and C L were more severely decreased than the TOC stocks and thus, may be used as indicators of the anthropogenic impact or the influence of management alterations on the soil organic matter.

  4. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis; Mancini, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic...... activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method....... Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540 mg NH3-N L-1....

  5. Evaluation of the air quality regarding total suspended particles and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) in the Hermosillo city, Sonora, Mexico, during a yearly period; Evaluacion de la calidad del aire respecto de particulas suspendidas totales y metales pesados (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) en la Ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, durante un periodo anual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, M. E.; Quintero N, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Instituto de Ingenieria, Campus Mexicali, Calle de la Normal s/n, y Blvd. Benito Juarez, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico); Gomez A, A.; Varela S, J., E-mail: martincruzcampas@hotmail.com [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Blvd. Rosales y Luis Ensina s/n, Edificio 5B, Col. Centro, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the air quality of the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico was assessed considering total suspended particulates (tsp) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr) from June 2001 through May 2002 in three monitoring sites Centro (Mazon), Nor este (CESUES) and Noroeste (CBTIS). The filter-samples used for that purpose were provided by the Air Quality Evaluation and Improvement Program (PEMCA) of the municipality of Hermosillo. The sampling method was based on high volume sampling frequency set every 6 days with non-simultaneous sampling among the three sampling sites. Filters were dissolved for metal determination by acidic-extraction, and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results indicate that tsp concentrations at Centro and Noroeste sites were frequently higher than the maximum daily permissible level (260 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), while in the three sites the annual average was higher than the maximum annual permissible level (75 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) both established in the standard NOM-024-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994a). According to the Air Quality Standard Index (US EPA 1992a), used in Mexico by Air Quality Metropolitan Index (IMECA) the results indicate that the air quality in the city of Hermosillo regarding tsp was placed between no satisfactory and poor. In regard to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr), concentrations detected were below the maximum permissible levels and/or criteria taking into account the standard NOM-026-Ssa-1993 (Ssa 1994b), the Who criterion (2000), the European Union criterion (Cec 2003), and the European Environmental Agency criteria (EEA 2004). Such findings would mean that airborne metals are of no concern; however, air quality is still classified as no satisfactory due to high particulate matter concentrations. Keeping air quality parameters monitoring is recommended in order to get extensive data for use in risk studies of air quality and health (morbidity/mortality), as well as topographic conditions

  6. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-03-08

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, T.P.

    2013-10-01

    Cultivated peatlands are significant sources of CO{sub 2} as the drainage and subsequent agricultural practices such as tillage and fertilization enhances the decomposition of soil organic carbon. However, use of the peatlands for perennial energy crop production could help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions as annual ploughing is avoided in perennial cropping systems and fertilizer requirements is also lower compared to annual arable crops. However, crop managements such as fertilization and harvesting of those energy crops are also important in respect to total GHG balance. Moreover, economical viability of energy crop production in peatland need to be considered which requires studies on best management practices to produce high biomass and energy per hectare of land with as little input of resources as possible. In the first study, annual net ecosystem balance of CO{sub 2} from a riparian fen peatland used for annual arable crop and perennial energy crop cultivation was compared. Fluxes of CO{sub 2} were measured with closed chambered methods which were later partitioned into light depended gross photosynthesis (GP) and light independent ecosystem respiration (R{sub E}). The annual flux of CO{sub 2} was estimated by modelling GP and R{sub E} separately and extrapolating the obtained parameters in relation to environmental and biomass measurements. Model performances of commonly used GP and R{sub E} models were enhanced by introducing ratio vegetation index (RVI) as proxy for active leaf area index. Both GP and R{sub E} showed strong seasonal pattern as expected. An expected higher annual GP was observed in the RCG cultivation system which was favored by a longer growth period, but R{sub E} was also higher which was mainly contributed by higher plant respiration. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} was close to zero for both cropping systems and thus no apparent advantage of the energy cropping system was observed during crop cultivation. Another

  8. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  9. Redemption in Totality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Wagner is in his music dramas, philosophy and cultural critique a common ancestor of both the art forms of avant-garde and totalitarianism. Figures such as the architect Peter Behrens and the illustrator Fidus demonstrates how unpredictable the barriers ar between Wagnerian cultivators of...

  10. Parental material and cultivation determine soil bacterial community structure and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Jusheng; Huang, Ting; Kendall, Joshua R A; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are the key components of the soil environment, playing important roles during soil development. Soil parent material provides the foundation elements that comprise the basic nutritional environment for the development of microbial community. After 30 years artificial maturation of cultivation, the soil developments of three different parental materials were evaluated and bacterial community compositions were investigated using the high-throughput sequencing approach. Thirty years of cultivation increased the soil fertility and soil microbial biomass, richness and diversity, greatly changed the soil bacterial communities, the proportion of phylum Actinobacteria decreased significantly, while the relative abundances of the phyla Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Armatimonadetes and Nitrospira were significantly increased. Soil bacterial communities of parental materials were separated with the cultivated ones, and comparisons of different soil types, granite soil and quaternary red clay soil were similar and different with purple sandy shale soil in both parental materials and cultivated treatments. Bacterial community variations in the three soil types were affected by different factors, and their alteration patterns in the soil development also varied with soil type. Soil properties (except total potassium) had a significant effect on the soil bacterial communities in all three soil types and a close relationship with abundant bacterial phyla. The amounts of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as well as the abundances of the nifH gene in all cultivated soils were higher than those in the parental materials; Burkholderia and Rhizobacte were enriched significantly with long-term cultivation. The results suggested that crop system would not deplete the nutrients of soil parental materials in early stage of soil maturation, instead it increased soil fertility and changed bacterial community, specially enriched the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to accumulate

  11. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  12. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  13. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  14. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  15. Cultivating nursing leadership for our envisioned future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Lee A

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been called upon to lead and partner in the transformation of health care. Leadership is a component of the scope of nursing practice; however, the optimal approach to development of leadership competency has not been established. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies on leadership development was conducted to enhance an understanding of conditions that nurses reported to support or hinder their development as leaders. Noblit and Hare's approach was used for the metasynthesis process. Three overarching themes emerged. Opportunity structure, the relationship factor, and organizational culture are essential factors contributing to the successful cultivation of leadership competencies in nurses.

  16. Shifting cultivation effects on creek water quality around Barkal Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; Sohag Miah

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of shifting cultivation on water quality in 16 creeks investigated once in 2007 and twice in 2008 in 16 apparently similar small neighboring watersheds,each of 3 to 5 ha,at four locations around Barkal sub-district under Rangamati District of Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh.Concentrations of SO42-and K+,and pH in creek water were lower,and NO3-N and Na+ concentrations were higher in shifting-cultivation land compared to land with either plantation or natural forest or a combination of these cover types.Shifting cultivation effects on some water quality parameters were not significant due to change in land cover of the watershed between two sampling periods either through introduction of planted tree species or naturally regenerated vegetation.Conductivity and concentrations of HCO3-.PO43-,Ca2+ and Mg2+ in creek water showed no definite trend between shifting cultivation and the other land cover types.At one area near the Forest Range Office of Barkal,creek water pH was 5.8 under land cover with a combination of shifting cultivation and plantation.At this area Na+ concentration in shifting-cultivation land ranged from 32.33 to 33.00 mg·L-1 and in vegetated area from 25.00 to 30.50 mg·L-1 in 2007.At another area,Chaliatali Chara,SO42-concentration in a shifting-cultivation watershed ranged from 4.46 to 10.51 mg·L-1,lower than in a vegetated watershed that ranged from 11.69 to 19.98 mg·L-1 in 2007.SO42-concentration in this shifting-cultivation area ranged from 1.28 to 1.37 mg·L-1 and in the vegetated area from 1.37 to 3.50 mg·L-1 in 2008.

  17. The dynamics of cultivation and floods in arable lands of Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Viglizzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although floods in watersheds have been associated with land-use change since ancient times, the dynamics of flooding is still incompletely understood. In this paper we explored the relations between rainfall, groundwater level, and cultivation to explain the dynamics of floods in the extremely flat and valuable arable lands of the Quinto river watershed, in central Argentina. The analysis involved an area of 12.4 million hectare during a 26-year period (1978–2003, which comprised two extensive flooding episodes in 1983–1988 and 1996–2003. Supported by information from surveys as well as field and remote sensing measurements, we explored the correlation among precipitation, groundwater levels, flooded area and land use. Flood extension was associated to the dynamics of groundwater level. While no correlation with rainfall was recorded in lowlands, a significant correlation (P<0.01 between groundwater and rainfall in highlands was found when estimations comprise a time lag of one year. Correlations between groundwater level and flood extension were positive in all cases, but while highly significant relations (P<0.01 were found in highlands, non significant relations (P>0.05 predominate in lowlands. Our analysis supports the existence of a cyclic mechanism driven by the reciprocal influence between cultivation and groundwater in highlands. This cycle would involve the following stages: (a cultivation boosts the elevation of groundwater levels through decreased evapotranspiration; (b as groundwater level rises, floods spread causing a decline of land cultivation; (c flooding propitiates higher evapotranspiration favouring its own retraction; (d cultivation expands again following the retreat of floods. Thus, cultivation would trigger a destabilizing feedback self affecting future cultivation in the highlands. It is unlikely that such sequence can work in lowlands. The results suggest that rather than responding directly

  18. Optimisation of cultivation parameters in photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation using the A-stat technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Hoogakker, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Light availability inside the reactor is often the bottleneck in microalgal cultivation and for this reason much attention is being given to light limited growth kinetics of microalgae, aiming at the increase of productivity in photobioreactors. Steady-state culture characteristics are commonly used

  19. Photobioreactor cultivation strategies for microalgae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Katuwal, Sarmila; Anderson, Gary A; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2018-03-08

    The current burden on fossil-derived chemicals and fuels combined with the rapidly increasing global population has led to a crucial need to develop renewable and sustainable sources of chemicals and biofuels. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. While there have been substantial amounts of research directed at scaling-up production from these microorganisms, several factors have proven difficult to overcome, including high costs associated with cultivation, photobioreactor construction, and artificial lighting. Decreasing these costs will substantially increase the economic feasibility of these production processes. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe various photobioreactor designs, and then provide an overview on lighting systems, mixing, gas transfer, and the hydrodynamics of bubbles. These factors must be considered when the goal of a production process is economic feasibility. Targets for improving microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation media, including water reduction strategies will also be described. As fossil fuel reserves continue to be depleted and the world population continues to increase, it is imperative that renewable chemical and biofuel production processes be developed toward becoming economically feasible. Thus, it is essential that future research is directed toward improving these processes. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Evaluation of 222radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U.; Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the 222 Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S

  1. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the

  2. Evaluation of cell number and DNA content in mouse embryos cultivated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundt, Mirian S.; Cabrini, Romulo L.

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of the degree of development, the number of cells and the DNA content, were used to evaluate the embryotoxicity of uranium. Embryos at a one cell stage were cultured with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) at a final concentration of uranium (U) of 26, 52 and 104 μgU/ml. At 24 hs of culture, the embryos at the 2 cell stage, were put in new wells with the same concentrations of U as the previous day, until the end of the period of incubation at 72 hs. At 72 hs of culture, 87% of the original one cell embryos were at morula stage, and in those cultivated with uranium, the percentage decreased significantly to 77; 63.24 and 40.79% respectively for the different U concentrations. Those embryos that exhibited a normal morphology, were selected and fixed on slides. The number of cells per embryo was evaluated in Giemsa stained preparations. The DNA content was evaluated cytophotometrically in Feulgen stained nuclei. The number of cells decreased significantly from 20,3 ± 5.6 in the control to 19 ± 6; 14 ± 3 and 13.9 ± 5.6 for the different concentrations. All the embryos evaluated showed one easy recognizable polar body, which was used a haploid indicator (n). The content of DNA was measured in a total of 20 control embryos and 16 embryos cultivated with UN. In control embryos, 92,7% of the nuclei presented a normal ploidy from 2n to 4n, 2,9% nuclei were hypoploid and 4,4% were hyperploid. The percentage of hypoploid nuclei rose in a dose-dependent fashion to 3.45; 44.45 and 50.34% respectively for the embryos cultured at the different U concentrations. The results indicate that U is embryotoxic, that its effects are dose dependent at the concentrations used in this study and that even those embryos that show a normal morphology, can be genetically affected. We show that the model employed is extremely sensitive. It is possible to use the preimplantation embryos, as a model to test the effect of possibly mutagenic agents of the nuclear industry. (author)

  3. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  4. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  5. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  6. ECOLOGICAL FACTOR SCORE OF THE TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. Архіпова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the quality and safety of tobacco cultivation in Ukraine was described in the article. Asfar as the cultivation of this plant is accompanied by using of the pesticides and other hazardous chemicals,the problem requires the solution in the nearest future. The techniques of "organic" tobacco cultivation,which are used in other countries and can be adopted in Ukraine, have been considered

  7. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  8. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  9. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-06

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  10. Indigenous systems of forest classification: understanding land use patterns and the role of NTFPs in shifting cultivators' subsistence economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delang, Claudio O

    2006-04-01

    This article discusses the system of classification of forest types used by the Pwo Karen in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand and the role of nontimber forest products (NTFPs), focusing on wild food plants, in Karen livelihoods. The article argues that the Pwo Karen have two methods of forest classification, closely related to their swidden farming practices. The first is used for forest land that has been, or can be, swiddened, and classifies forest types according to growth conditions. The second system is used for land that is not suitable for cultivation and looks at soil properties and slope. The article estimates the relative importance of each forest type in what concerns the collection of wild food plants. A total of 134 wild food plant species were recorded in December 2004. They account for some 80-90% of the amount of edible plants consumed by the Pwo Karen, and have a base value of Baht 11,505 per year, comparable to the cash incomes of many households. The article argues that the Pwo Karen reliance on NTFPs has influenced their land-use and forest management practices. However, by restricting the length of the fallow period, the Thai government has caused ecological changes that are challenging the ability of the Karen to remain subsistence oriented. By ignoring shifting cultivators' dependence on such products, the involvement of governments in forest management, especially through restrictions imposed on swidden farming practices, is likely to have a considerable impact on the livelihood strategies of these communities.

  11. Estimate of the latent flux by the energy balance in protected cultivation of sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, A.R. da; Escobedo, J.F.; Klosowski, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize and bring into relationship the net radiation with the latent heat flux equivalent to water mm, in sweet pepper crops in the field and in protected cultivation. The estimate of latent heat flux was made by the energy balance method through the Bowen ratio. Instantaneous measures were made of net radiation (Rn), sensitive (H) and latent (LE) heat fluxes, heat flux into the soil (G), and of psychrometers gradients in the crop canopy. In protected cultivation, the conversion of the available net radiation in total dry matter and fruit productivity was more efficient than in the field, in spite of lower amounts of global solar radiation received by the crop. Ratios of G/Rn and LE/Rn were lower, and that of H/Rn was higher in protected cultivation, with an equivalent latent heat flux in millimeters, 45.43% lower than that determined in the field. Available net radiation and energy losses were also lower in protected cultivation, showing a higher water use efficiency. (author) [pt

  12. Temperature affects Chrysanthemum flower characteristics differently during three phases of the cultivation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Abi-Tarabay, H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of the number of flowers per plant including flower buds (NFPP), flower size, position and colour was investigated in cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. `Reagan Improved¿). Plants were grown either in a glasshouse at constant 24 h mean temperatures

  13. The Cultivation of Wisdom in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Reams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a research project that was designed to inquire into the cultivation of wisdom in the classroom in the context of a newly implemented school subject called Glück (English: happiness. Glück was introduced in order to make a difference in traditional mainstream schooling as a reaction to school curricula that emphasize data and knowledge transfer. It is different and new because it embraces the kind of learning that includes the senses, the mind, body, spirit and the guts. Its multidimensional approach makes an attempt to validate a renunciation of the reductionistic perspective of traditional and contemporary schooling. How it is implemented served as a transformational process through a set of experiential exercises, group discussions, contemplative practices, teamwork etc. It is my aim to give an insight into what I understood as an alternative learning arena embedded in a traditional schooling system and the implications for further development beyond the transfer of data and information in adolescents. Zooming in on Glück, I aim to provide some perspectives on how key experiences and the reflection upon them can lead to the cultivation of wisdom. The understanding of cultivating wisdom I have gained from this study is that it is a dynamic process where the creation of new structures of meaning making emerge through the interaction with others, with oneself and the reflection upon one’s own interior processes that can help unfold, know how to use and refine tacit knowledge. Part of this process is actively discovering and transforming complex information in order to embody it and make it one’s own. Due to the assumption that traditional schooling mostly puts an emphasis on conveying informational knowledge (Hart, 2009; Sternberg, 2001 (to the more or less attentive students and another assumption that wisdom is often seen in connection to age, this article makes an attempt to give an alternative perspective. In

  14. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  15. Microalgae: cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Marcondes M; Hoeltz, Michele; Moraes, Maria S A; Schneider, Rosana C S

    2015-01-01

    Generation of liquid and gaseous effluents is associated with almost all anthropogenic activities. The discharge of these effluents into the environment without treatment has reduced the availability and quality of natural resources, representing a serious threat to the balance of different ecosystems and human health. Universal access to water and global warming are topics of intense concern and are listed as priorities in the vast majority of global scientific, social and political guidelines. Conventional techniques to treat liquid and gaseous effluents pose economic and/or environmental limitations that prevent their use in certain applications. The technique of phycoremediation, which uses microalgae, macroalgae, and cyanobacteria for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, is an emerging technology that has been highlighted due to its economic viability and environmental sustainability. This literature review discusses different techniques of microalgae cultivation and their use in the phycoremediation of contaminants in wastewater.

  16. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  17. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  18. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  19. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  20. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main active components of wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Gao, Yu-Ming; Cui, Gan; Liu, Jie; Guo, Li-Nong; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    The present study is to compare specific chromatograms and main acitive components between wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by HPLC. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ clumn (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹ (0-50 min,30%-50%A;50-80 min,50% A,80-85 min,50%-30%A;85-100 min,30% A). The detection wavelength was 203 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 10 μL. HPLC specific chromatograms of wild and cultivated rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were established and nine steroidal saponins were simultaneously determined by the above method. The mean contents of paris saponin Ⅶ, paris saponin H and total average contents of four pennogenyl saponins in Rhizomes of wild samples were significantly higher than those of cultivated ones. However, this result is opposite from the average content of paris saponin Ⅰ and total average contents of five dioscins in the wild and cultivated samples. Because the significant differences occurred for the specific chromatograms and main active components between the wild and cultivated P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, much more pharmacological and clinical researches are therefore necessary. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Burdyliuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15. A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α-dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  2. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  3. Analysis of structural chromosomal rearrangements in hematological neoplasias; Study of structural chromosomal rearrangements of cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia after DSP30/IL2 stimulated cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubá, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is difficult because of their low proliferative activity. To obtain sufficient number of mitoses for performing chromosomal analysis a suitable stimulation of cell division is needed. Using DSP30/IL2 stimulated cultivation 391 CLL samples were investigated in 5 years' period. The cultivation was showed to have high success rate (96%; 375/391) with also high rate of detection of pathological clones by both karyotype and metaph...

  4. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  5. Molecular Characterization of Cultivated Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Using RAPD Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen Huang; Desmond R. Layne; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-four extant pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] cultivars and advanced selections representing a large portion of the gene pool of cultivated pawpaws were investigated using 71 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to establish genetic identities and evaluate genetic relatedness. All 34 cultivated pawpaws were uniquely...

  6. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  7. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

  8. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  9. Cultivating Discontinuity: Pentecostal Pedagogies of Yielding and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahinsky, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Exploring missionary study at an Assemblies of God Bible college through ethnography and training manuals demonstrates systematic pedagogies that cultivate sensory capabilities encouraging yielding, opening to rupture, and constraint. Ritual theory and the Anthropology of Christianity shift analytic scales to include "cultivation," a…

  10. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  11. Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Leisz, S.; Rasmussen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the Nghe An Province of Vietnam's Northern Mountain Region produces a characteristic land-cover pattern of small and larger fields. The pattern is the result of farmers cultivating either individually or in spatially clustered groups. Using spatially explicit agent...

  12. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  13. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  14. Compound serum and hemin free medium for cultivation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum free cultivation of Leishmania is cost-effective and improves large scale production of well defined parasite material. Moreover, the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins requires cultivation of the host in a culture medium free of animal materials, so several culture media for Leishmania tarentolae ...

  15. Agronomic performance of five banana cultivars under protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana has been grown both in open-field and protected cultivation in Turkey. So far protected cultivation is very popular due to the high yield and quality. The objective of the study was to evaluate agronomic performance of five new banana cultivars under plastic greenhouse. ‘MA 13’, ‘Williams’, ‘...

  16. Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and Causes of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Cultivated Fields of South Welo, Ethiopia. ... In most of the highlands, crop cultivation is carried out without any type of terracing, while about 74 per cent of this land requires application of contour plowing, broad-based terracing, or bench terracing. The third group of ...

  17. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented or well researched, particularly in low-and middle-income countries with high rates of tobacco cultivation.

  18. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  19. A guideline for comprehensive evaluation of a licensee's effort to cultivate safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Ishii, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Japan had held excellent performance in safety in the world during 90's. However recent events stem from organizational factors and defects of safety culture are pointed out in their contexts. In order to reduce accidents caused by organizational factors, the Japanese Regulatory body NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) decided to evaluate a licensee's effort for the cultivation of safety culture, and to order all licensses to add the provision of cultivating safety culture to their safety preservation rules. The inspection for the new safety preservation rules started in December, 2007. For a measure of evaluation by resident inspectors, NISA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) prepared a guideline for the prevention of degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. In this guideline, 14 items were defined as the components of the safety culture or as the viewpoints to evaluate the effort made to prevent any degradation of safety culture and organizational climate in the daily safety preservation activities. The 14 items are also used to establish the method to comprehensively evaluate the effort to prevent degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. This method consists of 10 steps: two steps to taken prior to start of the evaluation, two steps to be taken during the evaluation period, 5 steps to be taken during a comprehensive evaluation period and a final step to be taken for comprehensive findings for safety culture. This paper mainly describes the viewpoints to evaluate comprehensively a licensee's effort for cultivation of safety culture. (author)

  20. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  1. Economic benefit analysis of cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qinlan; Gong, Mingfu; Tang, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus with rape straw not only can save the cultivation cost of P. ostreatus, but also can reuse the resources and protect the environment. By adding different proportion of rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus, the reasonable amount of rape straw was selected and the economic benefit of P. ostreatus cultivated with the optimum amount of rape straw was analyzed. The results showed that adding 10% to 40% rape straw to the cultivation material of P. ostreatus did not affect the yield and biological conversion rate of P. ostreatus, and the ratio of production and investment of the amount of rape straw in the range of 10% to 50% was higher than of cottonseed husk alone as the main material of the formula.

  2. Aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of the microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunli; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tianzhong

    2015-10-01

    Biofilm cultivation of microalgae may be useful for biofuel production. However, many aspects for this cultivation method have not been well assessed. Accordingly, aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus has been explored. Biomass, lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) productivity in increased S. dimorphus as the CO2 concentration increased within 0.038-0.5% and kept constant with further increases. The biomass, lipid and TAG productivity increased with the speed increasing and an obvious threshold point was observed at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1). The lipid and TAG content was unaffected by the aeration rate. Both the CO2 concentration as well as aeration speed affected the growth of S. dimorphus in biofilm cultivation. The optimized aeration strategy for biofilm cultivation was continuous air flow enriched with 1% CO2 (v/v) at 6.6 ml(-2) min(-1).

  3. The Cultivation of Cultural Awareness in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the information age,the cultivation of intercultural communicative competence has been extremely important. Thus foreign language teaching lays stress on the cultivation of language comprehensive application ability. Culture awareness is an important part of language comprehensive application ability. The cultivating of students’ cultural awareness is beneficial to improve their humanistic quality,broaden their international view,strengthen their patriotism spirit and sense of national mission,and achieve their all-round development. The paper will discuss the current situation of cultural awareness cultivation in English teaching. In view of the problems and its causes existing in the cultural awareness cultivation,three count measures have been proposed.

  4. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  5. Soil organic carbon stock and distribution in cultivated land converted to grassland in a subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Li, F C; Wang, Y; Xiong, D H

    2014-02-01

    Land-use change from one type to another affects soil carbon (C) stocks which is associated with fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. The 10-years converted land selected from previously cultivated land in hilly areas of Sichuan, China was studied to understand the effects of land-use conversion on soil organic casrbon (SOC) sequestration under landscape position influences in a subtropical region of China. The SOC concentrations of the surface soil were greater (P\\0.001) for converted soils than those for cultivated soils but lower (P\\0.001) than those for original uncultivated soils. The SOC inventories (1.90–1.95 kg m-2) in the 0–15 cm surface soils were similar among upper, middle, and lower slope positions on the converted land, while the SOC inventories (1.41–1.65 kg m-2) in this soil layer tended to increase from upper to lower slope positions on the cultivated slope. On the whole, SOC inventories in this soil layer significantly increased following the conversion from cultivated land to grassland (P\\0.001). In the upper slope positions, converted soils (especially in 0–5 cm surface soil) exhibited a higher C/N ratio than cultivated soils (P = 0.012), implying that strong SOC sequestration characteristics exist in upper slope areas where severe soil erosion occurred before land conversion. It is suggested that landscape position impacts on the SOC spatial distribution become insignificant after the conversion of cultivated land to grassland, which is conducive to the immobilization of organic C. We speculate that the conversion of cultivated land to grassland would markedly increase SOC stocks in soil and would especially improve the potential for SOC sequestration in the surface soil over a moderate period of time (10 years).

  6. Feeding and Development of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on Cultivated Olive, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Rigsby, Chad M; Peterson, Donnie L

    2017-08-01

    We examined the suitability of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L., as a host for emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. In a bioassay using cut stems from a field-grown olive tree (cv. 'Manzanilla') we found that 45% of larvae that had emerged from eggs used to inoculate stems, were recovered alive, many as larvae or prepupae, during periodic debarking of a subset of stems. Three intact stems that 19 larvae successfully entered were exposed to a simulated overwintering treatment. Four live adults emerged afterwards, and an additional pupa and several prepupae were discovered after debarking these stems. Cultivated olive joins white fringetree as one of the two species outside of the genus Fraxinus capable of supporting the development of emerald ash borer from neonate to adult. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Higher Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonols, and Specific Quercetin Glucosides in Two Different Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties Grown under Organic Production: Results from a 6-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Kerry, Joseph P; Gaffney, Michael; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-06-28

    We carried out a 6-year study to assess the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on bioactive compounds (flavonoids, anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity in onion. Total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, individual flavonols, individual anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were measured in two varieties ('Hyskin' and 'Red Baron') grown in a long-term split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. This is the first report of repeated measurements of bioactive content over an extensive time period in a single crop type within the same trial. Antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonol content, and levels of Q 3,4' D and Q 3 G were higher in both varieties under fully organic compared to fully conventional management. Total flavonoids were higher in 'Red Baron' and when onions were grown under organic soil treatment. Differences were primarily due to different soil management practices used in organic agriculture rather than pesticide/ herbicide application.

  8. Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-11-01

    Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.

  9. Modeling of biodiesel production in algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion (ACAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morken, John [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway); Sapci, Zehra [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway); Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bitlis Eren University, 13000 Bitlis (Turkey); Strømme, Jon Eivind T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a model of an ecotechnology that combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion in order to recycle nutrients and to reduce the need for external energy. The concept is to convert organic waste into several products, such as electricity, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. It is labeled as the ACAD biorefinery. The simulation model of the ACAD biorefinery proved itself to be a powerful tool for understanding the symbioses and dynamics of the system, and therefore also a good tool for reaching political decisions. The model shows that the ACAD biorefinery could be totally independent of external energy supplies. Energy calculations indicate that more energy can be produced by combining the algae cultivation and anaerobic digestion processes. For every unit of energy entering the system in feedstock, 0.6 units of energy are exported as either biodiesel or electricity. The exported electricity accounts for approximately 30% of the total exported energy, while the remaining 70% is exported as biodiesel. By producing its own energy, the biorefinery improves its renewability and level of carbon neutrality. - Highlights: • The model combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion. • In the model nutrients and carbon dioxide are recycled. • Organic waste is converted into electrical power, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. • Results showed that more energy can be produced by combining the processes.

  10. Modeling of biodiesel production in algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion (ACAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morken, John; Sapci, Zehra; Strømme, Jon Eivind T.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a model of an ecotechnology that combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion in order to recycle nutrients and to reduce the need for external energy. The concept is to convert organic waste into several products, such as electricity, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. It is labeled as the ACAD biorefinery. The simulation model of the ACAD biorefinery proved itself to be a powerful tool for understanding the symbioses and dynamics of the system, and therefore also a good tool for reaching political decisions. The model shows that the ACAD biorefinery could be totally independent of external energy supplies. Energy calculations indicate that more energy can be produced by combining the algae cultivation and anaerobic digestion processes. For every unit of energy entering the system in feedstock, 0.6 units of energy are exported as either biodiesel or electricity. The exported electricity accounts for approximately 30% of the total exported energy, while the remaining 70% is exported as biodiesel. By producing its own energy, the biorefinery improves its renewability and level of carbon neutrality. - Highlights: • The model combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion. • In the model nutrients and carbon dioxide are recycled. • Organic waste is converted into electrical power, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. • Results showed that more energy can be produced by combining the processes

  11. Water Use for Cultivation Management of Watermelon in Upland Field on Sand Dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Iwao; Senge, Masateru; Itou, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Early-maturing cultivation of watermelon in a plastic tunnel was invetigated in upland field on sand dune on the coast of the Japan Sea to find water use to control blowing sand and to transplant seedlings. This region has low precipitation, low humidity, and strong wind in March and April, when sand is readily blown in the field. Water is used to control blowing sand on days with precipitation below 5 mm, minimum humidity below the meteorological average in April, and maximum wind velocity above the meteorological average in April. For the rooting and growth of watermelon seedlings, soil temperature needs to be raised because it is low in April. Ridges are mulched with transparent, porous polyethylene films 10 or more days before transplanting the seedlings and irrigated with sprinklers on fine days for the thermal storage of solar energy. The stored heat steams the mulched ridges to raise soil temperature to 15°C or higher on the day of transplanting the seedlings. The total amount of irrigation water used for watermelon cultivation was 432.7 mm, of which 23.6 mm was for blowing sand control and 26.6 mm was for transplanting the seedlings. The combined amount, 50.2 mm, is 11.6% of the total amount of water used for cultivation management.

  12. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni .

  13. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  14. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  15. The evolution of crop cultivation and paleoenvironment in the Longji Terraces, southern China: Organic geochemical evidence from paleosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Shijie; Chen, Wei; Cai, Desuo; Liu, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The Longji ancient agricultural terraces in the Longji Mountain area (Guilin, southern China), which still remain in use, are famous for their magnificent terraced landscape with a mix of ecosystem and human inhabitation. Previous research has revealed the genesis and preliminary paleoenvironmental record of the agricultural terraces, but little is known about variations in crop cultivation over time. In this study, organic geochemical analyses and radiocarbon dating of an aggradational cultivated soil from a terrace profile were used to explore crop type variation and relevant paleoenvironmental change during the period of cultivation on the Longji Terraces. Hydroponic farming with rice (C 3 ) planting has been the dominant cultivation mode since the initial construction of the terraces. Warm-dry climate contributed to the growth of drought-tolerant crop (C 4 ) cultivation in the late 15th century. Temperature deterioration during the Little Ice Age had a negative impact on dry and hydroponic farming activities from the late 15th century to the late 19th century, while climate warming after the Little Ice Age promoted the redevelopment of hydroponic farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  17. Effects of Different Cultivation Practices and Postharvest Treatments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These preharvest treatments were combined with three disinfection and two storage treatments. The tomatoes were periodically analyzed for weight loss, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and marketability. Preharvest ComCat® and ComCat® + manure treatments improved the quality of tomato during ...

  18. Technical evaluation of photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes the description and assessment of various solutions applied for the design of photobioreactors as the type of apparatus, which can provide high output of green algae biomass. The design of such apparatus plays an important role in the context of the concurrent fulfillment of ecological and economic requirements, which are necessary to conduct an efficient and effective technology using cheap and easily accessible resources to produce different goods. Nowadays, algae is seen as one of the most promising sustainable way to produce energy in the future (biofuels, electricity, thermal energy but technologies of biomass production and processing are still under development particularly to increase biomass and energy output. The cultivation costs in closed systems are still high, limiting their commercial applications to high-valued compounds but they can be reduced by efficient bioreactor designs, which are able to achieve high areal biomass productivities. This paper focuses on the advantages and drawbacks associated with the application of the particular types of bioreactors in algae production, description of their operation parameters and area for practical application, pointing of the constructions (tubular, flat panel, bubble column that can contribute to improvement the profitability of large-scale production.

  19. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  20. Cultivating gratitude and giving through experiential consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jesse; Kumar, Amit; Gilovich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Gratitude promotes well-being and prompts prosocial behavior. Here, we examine a novel way to cultivate this beneficial emotion. We demonstrate that 2 different types of consumption-material consumption (buying for the sake of having) and experiential consumption (buying for the sake of doing)-differentially foster gratitude and giving. In 6 studies we show that reflecting on experiential purchases (e.g., travel, meals out, tickets to events) inspires more gratitude than reflecting on material purchases (e.g., clothing, jewelry, furniture), and that thinking about experiences leads to more subsequent altruistic behavior than thinking about possessions. In Studies 1-2b, we use within-subject and between-subjects designs to test our main hypothesis: that people are more grateful for what they've done than what they have. Study 3 finds evidence for this effect in the real-world setting of online customer reviews: Consumers are more likely to spontaneously mention feeling grateful for experiences they have bought than for material goods they have bought. In our final 2 studies, we show that experiential consumption also makes people more likely to be generous to others. Participants who contemplated a significant experiential purchase behaved more generously toward anonymous others in an economic game than those who contemplated a significant material purchase. It thus appears that shifting spending toward experiential consumption can improve people's everyday lives as well as the lives of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Technical evaluation of photobioreactors for microalgae cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, Małgorzata; Patyna, Agnieszka; Witczak, Stanisław

    2017-10-01

    This paper undertakes the description and assessment of various solutions applied for the design of photobioreactors as the type of apparatus, which can provide high output of green algae biomass. The design of such apparatus plays an important role in the context of the concurrent fulfillment of ecological and economic requirements, which are necessary to conduct an efficient and effective technology using cheap and easily accessible resources to produce different goods. Nowadays, algae is seen as one of the most promising sustainable way to produce energy in the future (biofuels, electricity, thermal energy) but technologies of biomass production and processing are still under development particularly to increase biomass and energy output. The cultivation costs in closed systems are still high, limiting their commercial applications to high-valued compounds but they can be reduced by efficient bioreactor designs, which are able to achieve high areal biomass productivities. This paper focuses on the advantages and drawbacks associated with the application of the particular types of bioreactors in algae production, description of their operation parameters and area for practical application, pointing of the constructions (tubular, flat panel, bubble column) that can contribute to improvement the profitability of large-scale production.

  2. CHANGE OF CHOSEN SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHERNOZEM AFTER SEVEN YEARS OF NO-TILL SOIL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarna Hrckov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical properties were investigated in two types of growing systems - integrated no-till system and conventional system with ploughing, in 1999 2005 on chernozem in maize growing region. Bulk density decreased and total porosity increased during 7 years in both growing systems. In integrated system the improvement of soil physical properties could be explained by remaining of plant residues on soil surface. In conventional system the plant residues were incorporated into soil by ploughing. This led to the higher proportion of organic matter in soil. Soil cultivated conventionally had significantly higher value of reduced bulk density, significantly lower porosity and significantly higher values of soil moisture compared to soil in integrated no-till system. Maximum capillary water capacity was not significantly influenced by soil cultivation. Values of investigated soil physical properties in both systems were not markedly different from the typical values of cultivated chernozem.

  3. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Mancini, Enrico; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-05-01

    Bioaugmentation with ammonia tolerant-methanogenic consortia was proposed as a solution to overcome ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion process recently. However, appropriate technology to generate ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia is still lacking. In this study, three basic reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method. Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540mgNH 3 -NL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  6. Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus using anaerobic digestate as a nutrient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hajar, Husam A; Riefler, R Guy; Stuart, Ben J

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus was cultivated phototrophically using unsterilized anaerobic digestate as a nutrient medium. A bench-scale experiment was conducted by inoculating the microalga S. dimorphus with 0.05-10% dilutions of the anaerobic digestate supernatant. It was found that 1.25-2.5% dilutions, which is equivalent to 50-100 mg N/L total nitrogen concentrations and 6-12 mg P/L total phosphorus concentrations, provided sufficient nutrients to maximize the growth rate along with achieving high concentrations of algal biomass. The microalgae cultivation was scaled up to 100 L open raceway ponds, where the effect of paddlewheel mixing on the growth was investigated. It was concluded that 0.3 m/s water surface velocity yielded the highest specific growth rate and biomass concentration compared to 0.1 and 0.2 m/s. The microalga S. dimorphus was then cultivated in the raceway ponds using 2.5% diluted anaerobic digestate at 317 and 454 μmol/(m 2  × s) average incident light intensities and 1.25% diluted anaerobic digestate at 234 and 384 μmol/(m 2  × s) average incident light intensities. The maximum biomass concentration was 446 mg/L which was achieved in the 2.5% dilution and 454 μmol/(m 2  × s) light intensity culture. Moreover, nitrogen, phosphorus, and COD removal efficiencies from the nutrient media were 65-72, 63-100, and 78-82%, respectively, whereas ammonia was completely removed from all cultures. For a successful and effective cultivation in open raceway ponds, light intensity has to be increased considerably to overcome the attenuation caused by the algal biomass as well as the suspended solids from the digestate supernatant.

  7. Maize Endophytic Bacterial Diversity as Affected by Soil Cultivation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Arone, Gregorio J

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity). The numbers of OTUs in the libraries from the maize-cultivated soils were significantly higher than those found in the libraries from fallow soils. A mean of 30 genera were found in the fallow soil libraries and 47 were in those from the maize-cultivated soils. Both alpha and beta diversity indexes showed clear differences between bacterial endophytic populations from plants with different soil cultivation history and that the soils cultivated for long time requires a higher diversity of endophytes. The number of sequences corresponding to main genera Sphingomonas, Herbaspirillum, Bradyrhizobium and Methylophilus in the maize-cultivated libraries were statistically more abundant than those from the fallow soils. Sequences of genera Dyella and Sreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the libraries from the fallow soils. Relative abundance of genera Burkholderia, candidatus Glomeribacter, Staphylococcus, Variovorax, Bacillus and Chitinophaga were similar among libraries. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relative abundance of the main genera showed that the four libraries distributed in two clearly separated groups. Our results suggest that cultivation history is an important driver of endophytic colonization of maize and that after a long time of cultivation of the soil the maize plants need to increase the richness of the bacterial endophytes communities.

  8. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos.

  9. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island......, Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although...

  10. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohd Shamzi; Wei, Lai Zee; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2011-08-01

    High cell density cultivation of microalgae via heterotrophic growth mechanism could effectively address the issues of low productivity and operational constraints presently affecting the solar driven biodiesel production. This paper reviews the progress made so far in the development of commercial-scale heterotrophic microalgae cultivation processes. The review also discusses on patentable concepts and innovations disclosed in the past four years with regards to new approaches to microalgal cultivation technique, improvisation on the process flow designs to economically produced biodiesel and genetic manipulation to confer desirable traits leading to much valued high lipid-bearing microalgae strains.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  12. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  13. Impacts of shrimp farming cultivation cycles on macrobenthic assemblages and chemistry of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luisa F.; Eça, Gilmara F.; Barros, Francisco; Hatje, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a shrimp farm cultivation cycle in the composition of sediments and on the structure of macrobenthic assemblages. Concentrations of nutrients, Zn and Cu were significantly higher in impact than control areas. In general, the level of contaminants was highest during the harvesting period and in sites closest to the discharge of effluents. Abundances and number of taxa of benthic invertebrates were at least one order of magnitude smaller in impacted areas than in controls. The structure of the benthic assemblages was significantly different at these two treatments. The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of impacts caused by shrimp cultivation. The results provide the basis for a better understanding of impacts of this activity and can subsidize the development of better management practices for coastal areas. - Highlights: • Aquaculture impacts significantly the ecosystems that surround a shrimp farm. • Negative impacts were observed through contamination and benthic macrofauna. • Concentrations of metals and nutrients were higher in impact than control sites. • Negative impacts changed the structure of benthic assemblages. • Regulation is urgently needed to avoid the jeopardizing of ecosystem services. - The combined use of biological and chemical data showed to be efficient to provide precise answers regarding the extent of temporal and spatial impacts caused by shrimp cultivation.

  14. Analysis of Selected Environmental Indicators in the Cultivation System of Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltysová Božena Š

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

  15. Evaluation of Wild Lentil Species as Genetic Resources to Improve Drought Tolerance in Cultivated Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Y. Gorim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly unpredictable annual rainfall amounts and distribution patterns have far reaching implications for pulse crop biology. Seedling and whole plant survival will be affected given that water is a key factor in plant photosynthesis and also influences the evolving disease spectrum that affects crops. The wild relatives of cultivated lentil are native to drought prone areas, making them good candidates for the evaluation of drought tolerance traits. We evaluated root and shoot traits of genotypes of cultivated lentil and five wild species grown under two water deficit regimes as well as fully watered conditions over a 13 week period indoors. Plants were grown in sectioned polyvinyl chloride (PVC tubes containing field soil from the A, B, and C horizons. We found that root distribution into different soil horizons varied among wild lentil genotypes. Secondly, wild lentil genotypes employed diverse strategies such as delayed flowering, reduced transpiration rates, reduced plant height, and deep root systems to either escape, evade or tolerate drought conditions. In some cases, more than one drought strategy was observed within the same genotype. Sequence based classification of wild and cultivated genotypes did not explain patterns of drought response. The environmental conditions at their centers of origin may explain the patterns of drought strategies observed in wild lentils. The production of numerous small seeds by wild lentil genotypes may have implications for yield improvement in lentil breeding programs.

  16. Applications the Trichobiol 34 PH in the control the nematodes in house cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuany Pérez González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was done en the cultivation houses of ̈La Quinta ̈ of t he company of several cultivations of Sancti Spíritus in the months of March to July of 2011. In t wo house of cultivation of tomato 540 m 2. One week before the floor to reason of 0.5 kg/m2 (270kg blended with 2.16 kg of Trichoderma harzianum A-34 solid with a concentration of 2.5x 109 conidios for g(4g/m2 of floor. After the crop was incorporate to the floor a treatment of on experimental formulated of Trichoderma (Trichobiol 34 PH with the fatirriego system to reason of 5x1012 conidios/ha. With the objective of evaluate the levels of affe ctation for nematodes. The use of Trichoderma solid and blended with worm humus and the addition of a prepara tion of commercial powdered Trichobiol (34 PH reduce the contamination degree of nematodes 2, to degree 1 in a period of 13 days in the treated house and they statued at that level until the crop

  17. Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize; Sorghumhirse als Anbaualternative zum Mais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, Kerstin; Theiss, Markus; Poetzschke, Karen [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Due to their high dry matter yield potential Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum bicolor x sudanense are well fitted as feedstock for biogas production. Similar to maize, both species show a high efficiency in their use of water (C4-plants). However, Sorghum has a higher drought tolerance in comparison with maize but is more sensitive to low temperatures. Hence a cultivation of Sorghum is recommendable especially in dry and relatively warm regions, including recultivated areas and even on loess soil, provided that the required temperatures are given. Due to the fact that Sorghum is not affected by the corn root worm, it also could gain relevance in regions were the cultivation of maize is restricted. Furthermore, Sorghum is usable as a catch crop as well as a main crop because of its variable sowing time. Catch crop cultivation, however, yields a significantly lower amount of dry matter and -quality which is a result of its shorter vegetation period. Owing to its higher crude fiber concentration Sorghum achieves a lower theoretically attainable specific methane yield (Weissbach) than maize. Thus only on rare occasions Sorghum does achieve methane yields per hectare that are comparable to maize. Eventually, the competitiveness of Sorghum greatly depends on provision of enhanced cultivars achieved through genetic improvement. (orig.)

  18. The impact of hangingcleaning husbandry practices on Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk, cultivated in the Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Ionian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Centoducati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the stressful hanging-cleaning husbandry practices on the growth conditions of the cultured Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk, cultivated in the Mar Piccolo (Ionian Sea was investigated from November 2005 to June 2006. The experimental strings were randomly organized in four groups, with five replications, exposed to different time periods of hanging: Group A, none; Group B, once every 15 days; Group C, once every 30 days; Group D, once every 60 days. The study, carried out on a total of 2000 mussels, showed that the cleaning of the mussel strings using the hanging-cleaning practice exerted an adverse effect on mussel growth (SGR%=46.62 in Group A; 44.85 in Group D; 43.72 in Group C; 42.12 in Group B. In particular, the highest percentage of meat yield occurred in the mussels more frequently exposed to air (Group B, 4.2±0.43 g in spite of their lower morphometric variable values. In order to evaluate mussel condition, three different indexes were calculated. The hanging practice in mussel cultivation, commonly used in the basin of Taranto and in many mussel farms all over the world, would provide an economic benefit to the mussel farmers allowing the greatest production and the highest specific growth rate (SGR% of mussels, together with a more appreciable aesthetic for the consumer. Our findings suggest that the hanging practice every 60 days would provide an economic benefit allowing an increase of about 30% of total string weight compared to the 30-day hanging practice commonly in use.

  19. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  20. Cultivating Peace: Conflict and Collaboration in Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cultivating Peace presents original case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, ... experience on moving from conflict to collaborative modes of management. ... public health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  1. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  2. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  3. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  4. Cultivation of live food organisms - status and scope in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    In the hatchery production of cultivable shell-fishes and fin-fishes, a reliable and continuous supply of live food of appropriate size is of importance. The organisms cultured as live feed presently in India are the microalgae, turbellarians...

  5. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivation of durio in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. . Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 132-137. Durian is native of the region where the climate is tropical wet, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Durian plant species most widely known and cultivated in Indonesia is Durio zibethinus Murr. Improve the quality of fruit production in sufficient quantity to do with the increase in population as well as increasing fruit crop cultivation technology do. In addition to ensuring that products are safe to eat fruit cultivation technology needs to be done in an environmentally responsible in accordance with the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure and the concept of cultivation of GAP (Good Agriculture Practice.

  6. Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon And Nitrogen Requirements For The Cultivation Of Oyster Mushroom ... It was found that under these experimental conditions, the carbon compounds supported growth except ribose, starch and dextrin. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Macronutrient composition of three cucurbit species cultivated for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .) Matsum. & Nakai., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L.] largely cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire and consumed as sauce thickeners were analyzed for their proximate composition and compared to a local landrace of ...

  8. On Cultivating Students' Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小平

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the cultivation of motivation in second language acquisition based on shedding new light on the definition, the importance, and the classification of learners' motivation in second language acquisition.

  9. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  10. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated Curcuma longa ... Shoots were inoculated in MS culture medium with the addition of 30 g/L of sucrose ... flow cytometry, utilizing two reference standards, green pea, and tomato.

  12. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  13. Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological classification of genetic diversity in cultivated okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench using principal component analysis (PCA) and single linkage cluster analysis (SLCA). CC Nwangburuka, OB Kehinde, DK Ojo, OA Denton, AR Popoola ...

  14. Characterization of typical aquatic humic substances in areas of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, A.M.; Constantino, I.C. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Nuzzo, A.; Spaccini, R.; Piccolo, A. [Dipartimento Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, e dell' Ambiente, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Moreira, A.B. [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-06-15

    Aquatic humic substances (AHSs) differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. In addition, the effects of planting sugarcane on AHSs are not well known. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation during dry and rainy seasons. The main characteristics of the AHSs were obtained using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and off-line pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (off-line tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-GC–MS-thermochemolysis). The FTIR and NMR results were used to infer that no distinctions occurred between the sampling periods. The samples were composed of aromatic groups that were potentially associated with the presence of residual vegetable materials (lignin). The results of the off-line TMAH-GC–MS-thermochemolysis indicated that the structures of the AHSs had uniform compositions that were rich in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), polysaccharide derivatives, aliphatic biopolymers derived from plants, long hydrocarbon chains, branched alkyl groups and methylene carbons. Thus, the results showed that the AHSs obtained from the sugarcane cultivation area during the crop period mainly consisted of resistant aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are derivatives of lignin and FAMEs in compounds rich in humic acid. Therefore, we concluded that sugarcane cultivation produces changes in AHSs because greater amounts of lignin derivatives were observed during the dry season, corresponding to sugarcane cultivation. - Highlights: • AHSs differ from one environment to another depending on land use and occupation. • AHSs extracted from a river in a typical region of sugarcane cultivation. • AHSs from the sugarcane area are influenced by the soil use and occupation. • AHSs contain lignin derivatives, fatty acid methyl esters and others. • Lignin was observed with

  15. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries’ leaves (Fragariae folium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a member of the rose family (Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, tribe Potentilleae in the genus Fragaria. The cultivated varieties of commercial strawberries usually were designated as Fragaria ananassa. Root, leaf, flower and fruit have the healing properties. The strawberry leaves extract is used for blood cleaning, for treatment of oral inflammation, diarrhea, various gastro-intestinal inflammation, and hemorrhoids, as well as a diuretic. So far, many positive biological effects of strawberries (anticancer, antioxidant and anticoagulant effect have been proven. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract from cultivated strawberries (Fragariae folium, varieties Senga Sengana by using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, FIC, H2O2 and TBA-MDA. Ethanolic extract from strawberry leaves was obtained by reflux extraction at the boiling temperature. Total phenols and total flavonoids content was determined spectrophotometrically by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and by method with AlCl3, respectively. In the extract was determined high content of total phenols, while the total flavonoid content is much lower. The concentrations of extract required to neutralize 50% of the initial concentration of DPPH radicals (EC50 after 20 minutes incubation and immediately after adding DPPH radical solution were 7,91 and 19,46 μgcm-3, respectively. Extract was achieved the maximum iron ions chelating ability (67.89% at a concentration of 2 mgcm-3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of 70% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.03125 mgcm-3, while the maximum neutralization of H2O2 (30.47% was achieved by extract concentration of 0.5 mgcm-3. FRAP value of the investigated extract is 284.51 mgFe/g of dry extract. Presented results of the antioxidant activity show that the obtained extract from the cultivated strawberry leaves is a potential source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  16. Effect of different pre-sowing tillage on quantity and quality of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. root yield in ridge cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Konopiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parsnip is a very valuable vegetable due to its nutritional value and dietetic quality. It is moreover herbal raw material abundant in active substances. The yield quality of vegetables greatly depends on thorough pre-sowing soil tillage. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of different presowing soil tillage (medium-deep ploughing, cultivating and plant growing methods, flat or ridge cultivation, on the yield of parsnip and some biometric traits of its roots. The field experiment was carried out in 1999, 2000 and 2002 on lessive soil with the granulometric composition corresponding to medium silty loam. The parsnip cultivar 'Półdługi Biały' was the experimental plant species. The cultivation of parsnip on ridges had a significant influence on increased total yield of roots and decreased yield of small roots, as compared to flat cultivation. A significant increase in unit weight of the root and its diameter in the top part was also recorded in the latter type of cultivation. Spring pre-sowing tillage had no significant effect on parsnip yields. An increasing trend was observed only for total and marketable root yield in the ploughed plots. When parsnip is grown on lessive soil (which has an unstable structure, plants cultivated on ridges after spring pre-sowing plough are the most beneficial treatment combination.

  17. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  18. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias p...

  19. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  20. [Synthesis of protective antigens during submerged cultivation of Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, V A; Syrova, N A; Gromova, O V; Tershkina, N E; Devdariani, Z L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Beliakova, N I; Ermakov, N M; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of dot immunoanalysis for evaluating the dynamics of the synthesis of O-antigen, cholera toxin, neuraminidase, adhesin CFA1 in the process of the reactor cultivation of V. cholerae used for the production of oral chemical cholera vaccine is shown. The established regularities of the synthesis of the protective antigens of V. cholerae in the process of scaled-up cultivation are discussed.

  1. Development of everlasting flowers (Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. in three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Conceição Moreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing the inflorescences of Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. represents a source of income to many families from extractives communities in the portion of the Espinhaço Range located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cultivating this species stands out by allying income generation with conservation since the species is currently endangered. This study aimed to assess aspects of the development of C. elegans in three cultivation systems: beds, rows, and whole area. Sowing took place in January 2009 and the inflorescences were harvested in May 2010, which characterized the experimental period. Emergence; plant density; rates of flowering, mortality, resprouting, and recruiting of new individuals; and production of inflorescences per plant and per area were assessed. Emergence began approximately 50 days after sowing. Plant density ranged from 130 to 350 plants.m-2 among the three cultivation systems. The highest mortality rate (18% was observed at the peak of the dry season (August and the overall mortality rate over one reproductive cycle was 49%. Of the plants that lost the aerial part, 36% resprouted. Sprouting and seed germination accounted for 30 and 3% of the recruiting of new individuals, respectively. C. elegans had two bloom (AprilMay 2009 and April-May 2010: 5.4% of the plants bloomed in the first season and 78%, in the second. Each plant produced between three and 178 inflorescences and the highest inflorescence production in terms of weight (232 g.m-2 and number (2,910 inflorescences.m-2 was observed in the cultivation in beds at 1,624 kg.ha-1.

  2. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms: Approaches, applications and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno D; Mota, Andre; Teixeira, Jose A; Vicente, Antonio A

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of using photosynthetic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae, for converting light and carbon dioxide into valuable biochemical products has raised the need for new cost-efficient processes ensuring a constant product quality. Food, feed, biofuels, cosmetics and pharmaceutics are among the sectors that can profit from the application of photosynthetic microorganisms. Biomass growth in a photobioreactor is a complex process influenced by multiple parameters, such as photosynthetic light capture and attenuation, nutrient uptake, photobioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. In order to optimize productivity while keeping a standard product quality, a permanent control of the main cultivation parameters is necessary, where the continuous cultivation has shown to be the best option. However it is of utmost importance to recognize the singularity of continuous cultivation of cyanobacteria and microalgae due to their dependence on light availability and intensity. In this sense, this review provides comprehensive information on recent breakthroughs and possible future trends regarding technological and process improvements in continuous cultivation systems of microalgae and cyanobacteria, that will directly affect cost-effectiveness and product quality standardization. An overview of the various applications, techniques and equipment (with special emphasis on photobioreactors) in continuous cultivation of microalgae and cyanobacteria are presented. Additionally, mathematical modeling, feasibility, economics as well as the applicability of continuous cultivation into large-scale operation, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Cultivating Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda microalgae to degrade inorganic compounds and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Andrea; Sidella, Sarah; Barone, Valeria; Fragalà, Ferdinando; Silkina, Alla; Nègre, Michèle; Gennari, Mara

    2016-09-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of cultivating Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in wastewater from the hydroponic cultivation of tomatoes with the aim of purifying the water. S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris were also used in purification tests carried out on water contaminated by the following active ingredients: metalaxyl, pyrimethanil, fenhexamid, iprodione, and triclopyr. Fifty-six days after the inoculum was placed, a reduction was found in the concentration of nitric nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and soluble and total phosphorus. The decrease was 99, 83, 94, and 94 %, respectively, for C. vulgaris and 99, 5, 88, and 89 %, respectively, for S. quadricauda. When the microalgae were present, all the agrochemicals tested were removed more quickly from the water than from the sterile control (BG11). The increase in the rate of degradation was in the order metalaxyl > fenhexamid > iprodione > triclopyr > pyrimethanil. It was demonstrated that there was a real degradation of fenhexamid, metalaxyl, triclopyr, and iprodione, while in the case of pyrimethanil, the active ingredient removed from the substrate was absorbed onto the cells of the microalgae. It was also found that the agrochemicals used in the tests had no significant effect on the growth of the two microalgae. The experiment highlighted the possibility of using cultivations of C. vulgaris and S. quadricauda as purification systems for agricultural wastewater which contains eutrophic inorganic compounds such as nitrates and phosphates and also different types of pesticides.

  5. Estimation of soya cultivation efficiency in conditions of Belarus lands polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutseva, G.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Production of high-protein soya crop including lands polluted by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, causes to the necessity of carrying out research to study the radionuclide transfer into production of this crop. As a result of research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil into seeds and green mass of various soya varieties have been determined to allow a prediction of radionuclide transfer into production. Limiting densities of radionuclide pollution for moderately improved sod - podzol sandy soils for production of the soya products corresponding of 137Cs and 90Sr content to the national permissible levels are established. Use of the crop in plant cultivation and cattle-breeding branch is accompanied by high energy - conserving effects. Soya products contains high quantity of total energy per kilogram of forage. The most highly energy-conserving forages are waste products of soya processing: an oil cake - up to 87,4 Mj and soil-seed meal up to 79,7 Mj. High profitability of this crop cultivation is provided by production for seeds. It is economically defensible a soya beans cultivation for processing and for fodder. For reception of seeds for food purposes there are restrictions on pollution of soil: 1125 kBk/square ? (30 Ci/square km) and 90Sr to 2,6 kBk/square ? (0,07 Ci/square km)

  6. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Jonathan H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6% followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%. The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2% primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2% primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm

  7. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  8. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  9. Alternative method for vegetables cultivation in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Recchia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing countries populations, which are already vulnerable and food insecure, are likely to be the most seriously affected by the effects of climate change, e.g. yield decreases and price increases for the most important agricultural crops. The IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report for Africa describes a trend of warming at a rate faster than the global average and increasing aridity: in many parts of Africa, it seems that warmer climates and changes in precipitation will destabilise agricultural production and aggravates food security. The present work concerns the vegetables cultivation in the Parakou region in Benin, where agriculture employs approximately 70% of the active population and contributes to 36% of the Gross Domestic Product and 88% of export earnings. However, the agricultural sector has been regarded as unproductive with low adaptation capacities because of structural factors (e.g. high level of poverty among rural populations, weak mechanization and intensification of production modes, but also because of natural constraints (e.g. poor management of water and soils, leading to soil degradation. Considering the aridity, the low carbon content and the reduced level of nutrients available in the soil, the use of an hydroponic module has been hypothesised. In this way sufficient yields of the crops may be assured and no agricultural machines will be needed for the tillage operations. In addition, the nutrients can be added to the growing solution using residual materials as poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. In order to verify if some construction or maintenance problems can occur and if a growing solution can be easily obtained using agricultural wastes, some tests have been carried out. Moreover laboratory analyses have been done for different solutions that may be adopted with different shares of water, poultry manure, ashes and green wastes. The tests have indicated that the hydroponic module could be used in Benin

  10. Impact of intertidal oyster trestle cultivation on the Ecological Status of benthic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, James; O'Beirn, Francis X; O'Carroll, Jack Pj; Patterson, Adrian; Kennedy, Robert

    2015-06-15

    A considerable number of Ireland's shellfish production areas co-occur with or are adjacent to Natura 2000 sites which are protected under European legislation. To investigate the general interaction between trestle oyster cultivation and the surrounding intertidal environment, six sites were selected within designated Natura 2000 sites. At each trestle site three Treatment areas were sampled. One Treatment area corresponded to potential impacts associated with cultivation activities occurring at trestle structures (designated the Trestle Treatment) while one Treatment area corresponded to potential impacts due to cultivation activities occurring along access routes (the Access Treatment). An area not subject to any known anthropogenic activity was used as a control (the Control Treatment). Potential impacts associated with Trestle Treatment areas included changes in sediment total organic matter (TOM) levels underneath trestles due to the bio-deposition of faecal/pseudofaecal material while the predominant impact associated with Access Treatment areas was compaction of sediments due to heavy vehicle traffic. In this study, macrobenthic communities at the sites were highly variable and exhibited low levels of diversity which prevented the detection of general effects of cultivation activity on community structure, diversity and secondary production. To overcome this variability, the Infaunal Quality Index (IQI) was used to assess impacts on Ecological Status (ES) of benthic communities (sensu Water Framework Directive). Relative to Control and Trestle Treatment areas, activities occurring at Access Treatment areas had a significant negative impact on ES. This study highlights the potential of the IQI for the management of aquaculture activity and provides validation for the use of the IQI in Irish intertidal environments. This study also highlights the IQI as a potential tool for assessing the conservation status of designated habitats in Natura 2000 sites

  11. A quantitative model for estimating mean annual soil loss in cultivated land using 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao; Zhao Qiguo; Du Mingyuan; Minami, Katsuyuki; Hatta, Tamao

    2000-01-01

    The radioisotope 137 Cs has been widely used to determine rates of cultivated soil loss, Many calibration relationships (including both empirical relationships and theoretical models) have been employed to estimate erosion rates from the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivated soil profile. However, there are important limitations which restrict the reliability of these models, which consider only the uniform distribution of 137 Cs in the plough layer and the depth. As a result, erosion rates they may be overestimated or underestimated. This article presents a quantitative model for the relation the amount of 137 Cs lost from the cultivate soil profile and the rate of soil erosion. According to a mass balance model, during the construction of this model we considered the following parameters: the remaining fraction of the surface enrichment layer (F R ), the thickness of the surface enrichment layer (H s ), the depth of the plough layer (H p ), input fraction of the total 137 Cs fallout deposition during a given year t (F t ), radioactive decay of 137 Cs (k), and sampling year (t). The simulation results showed that the amounts of erosion rates estimated using this model were very sensitive to changes in the values of the parameters F R , H s , and H p . We also observed that the relationship between the rate of soil loss and 137 Cs depletion is neither linear nor logarithmic, and is very complex. Although the model is an improvement over existing approaches to derive calibration relationships for cultivated soil, it requires empirical information on local soil properties and the behavior of 137 Cs in the soil profile. There is clearly still a need for more precise information on the latter aspect and, in particular, on the retention of 137 Cs fallout in the top few millimeters of the soil profile and on the enrichment and depletion effects associated with soil redistribution (i.e. for determining accurate values of F R and H s ). (author)

  12. Avaliação clínica de cães submetidos à parada circulatória total por diferentes períodos de tempo através da técnica de "Inflow Occlusion" Clinical evaluation of dogs submitted to circulatory arrest for different periods of time by "Inflow Occlusion"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Garcia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de "Inflow Occlusion" pode ser utilizada em cirurgias cardíacas quando se pretende manter o coração aberto apenas por alguns minutos, para realização de pequenos reparos. No entanto, a parada circulatória total (PCT, evento decorrente da técnica em questão, pode acarretar severas alterações metabólicas e neurológicas ao paciente. Neste estudo foram utilizados 12 cães sem raça definida, os quais foram divididos em dois grupos, A e B, sendo os mesmos submetidos a 7 e 8 minutos de PCT, respectivamente, utilizando-se da técnica de "Inflow Occlusion". Tentou-se estabelecer normotermia durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos. Avaliações clínica e comportamental foram realizadas nos dois grupos após os procedimentos cirúrgicos e dados bioquímicos foram coletados para comparação entre os períodos pré e pós-operatórios. Ocorreram dois óbitos transoperatórios no grupo B. Alterações clínicas transitórias foram observadas no grupo A até o momento M7 (48 horas após cirurgia, e no grupo B, as mesmas foram mais intensas e presentes mesmo após M7; e em um animal do grupo B foi observada cegueira permanente por todo o período de acompanhamento. Apesar das alterações observadas, há indícios que seja seguro realizar a técnica de "Inflow Occlusion" por até 7 minutos, sendo contra-indicada, no entanto, para períodos mais prolongados."Inflow Occlusion" technique can be used in heart surgeries when heart is required to be opened just for few minutes, to allow quick repairs. However, circulatory arrest, event occasioned by this technique, may produce serious metabolic and neurological consequences to the patient. In this study, 12 mongrel dogs were used, divided into two groups, A and B, which were submitted to 7 and 8 minutes of total circulatory arrest, respectively, using "Inflow Occlusion" technique. Normothermia was tried during surgical procedures. Clinical and behavior evaluation were performed after surgery to

  13. Online optimal experimental re-design in robotic parallel fed-batch cultivation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Bournazou, M N; Barz, T; Nickel, D B; Lopez Cárdenas, D C; Glauche, F; Knepper, A; Neubauer, P

    2017-03-01

    We present an integrated framework for the online optimal experimental re-design applied to parallel nonlinear dynamic processes that aims to precisely estimate the parameter set of macro kinetic growth models with minimal experimental effort. This provides a systematic solution for rapid validation of a specific model to new strains, mutants, or products. In biosciences, this is especially important as model identification is a long and laborious process which is continuing to limit the use of mathematical modeling in this field. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by fitting a macro-kinetic differential equation model for Escherichia coli fed-batch processes after 6 h of cultivation. The system includes two fully-automated liquid handling robots; one containing eight mini-bioreactors and another used for automated at-line analyses, which allows for the immediate use of the available data in the modeling environment. As a result, the experiment can be continually re-designed while the cultivations are running using the information generated by periodical parameter estimations. The advantages of an online re-computation of the optimal experiment are proven by a 50-fold lower average coefficient of variation on the parameter estimates compared to the sequential method (4.83% instead of 235.86%). The success obtained in such a complex system is a further step towards a more efficient computer aided bioprocess development. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 610-619. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  15. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  16. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  17. Cultivation and harvesting of microalgae in photobioreactor for biodiesel production and simultaneous nutrient removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Il-Seung; Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jong-Oh; Govindwar, Sanjay P.; Kurade, Mayur B.; Lee, Minsun; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wastewater treatment with algal biomass production was evaluated in a bench-scale. • C. vulgaris and S. obliquus showed μ_o_p_t values of 1.39 and 1.41 day"−"1, respectively. • Complete removal (>99%) of TN and TP by both algal strains was observed. • Harvesting efficiency of M. oleifera was 81% for C. vulgaris and 92% for S. obliquus. - Abstract: Microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were cultivated in a small scale vertical flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) supplemented with municipal wastewater in order to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and biomass production for biofuel generation. Microalgal growth and nutrient removal including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and trace elements (Ca"2"+, Na"+, Mg"2"+ and Zn"2"+) were monitored during microalgae cultivation. C. vulgaris and S. obliquus showed optimal specific growth rates (μ_o_p_t) of 1.39 and 1.41 day"−"1, respectively, and the TN and TP were completely removed (>99%) from the wastewater within 8 days. Microalgal biomass in the PBR was harvested using a natural flocculant produced from Moringa oleifera seeds. The harvesting efficiency of M. oleifera was 81% for C. vulgaris and 92% for S. obliquus. The amounts of saturated, mono-unsaturated, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the harvested biomass accounted for 18.66%, 71.61% and 9.75% for C. vulgaris and 28.67%, 57.14% and 11.15% for S. obliquus, respectively. The accumulated fatty acids were suitable to produce high quality biodiesel with characteristics equivalent to crop seeds oil-derived biodiesel. This study demonstrates the potential of microalgae-based biodiesel production through the coupling of advanced wastewater treatment with microalgae cultivation for low-cost biomass production in a PBR.

  18. Qualitative characterisation of cultivated and wild edible plants: Mineral elements, phenols content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the qualitative characteristics of several edible wild herbaceous species, including those most consumed in Foggia Province (southern Italy. Analysis of qualitative characteristics was performed for the edible parts of 11 wild species (Beta vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Centaurea solstitialis L., Cichorium intybus L., Scolymus hispanicus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Borago officinalis L., Diplotaxis erucoides L., Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L. DC, Sinapis arvensis L., Portulaca oleracea L. and three cultivated species (C. intybus, B. officinalis, D. tenuifolia. The plants were collected from areas in the Foggia countryside, and the edible part of each species was analysed for dry matter, protein, cation and anion contents as well as total phenols and antioxidant activities. Among the cations, calcium was the most differentiated among species, ranging 784 mg kg–1 fresh weight (Fw for B. vulgaris to 5886 mg kg–1 Fw for S. hispanicus. The nitrate contents were also highly variable, from 75 mg kg–1 Fw for C. intybus to 3874 mg kg–1 Fw for D. tenuifolia. Total polyphenols ranged from 1054 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg kg–1 Fw for C. solstitialis to 3664 mg GAE mg kg–1 Fw for S. arvensis. Antioxidant activities ranged from 839 mg Trolox equivalents (TE kg–1 Fw for B. vulgaris to 5658 mg TE kg–1 Fw for C. intybus. Significant differences were also noted between wild and cultivated plants in the qualitative parameters. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were higher in wild C. intybus and B. officinalis than in their cultivated counterparts. Multivariate analysis (cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed integration of the ANOVA data to determine the qualitative characteristics of the wild species that contribute most to group differences. The results of the present study aims to improve current knowledge about edible wild species as vegetable sources in the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  1. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  3. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  4. [Community traits of soil fauna in forestlands converted from cultivated lands in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Yuan-Qiug; Guo, Sheng-Mao; Ke, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Zhao; Xiao, Xu-Bao; Liu, Wu

    2012-04-01

    This paper studied the variations of the community composition and individuals' number of soil fauna in limestone red soil region of Ruichang, Jiangxi Province after six years of converting cultivated lands into forestlands. Three converted forestlands, including the lands of mixed multiple-species forest, bamboo-broadleaved forest, and tree-seedling integration, were selected as test objects, with cultivated lands as the comparison. A total of 34 orders, 17 classes, and 6 phyla of soil fauna were observed in the converted forestlands. The dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 86.7% of the total, whereas Acarina, Enchytraeidae, and Collembola were the common groups. In the cultivated lands, soil fauna had 21 orders, 10 classes, and 5 phyla. The dominant group was also Nematoda, accounting 86.7% of the total, and Acarina and Enchytraeidae were the common groups. In the converted forestlands, the group number of rare species was greater than that in the cultivated lands (30 vs. 18), and, except in winter, the group number and average density were significantly higher than those in the cultivated lands (P soil fauna in the soil profiles showed an obvious surface accumulation, which was more apparent in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and the individuals' number had significant differences between the surface (0-5 cm) layer and the 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm layers (P soil fauna in the converted forestlands had a seasonal variation ranked in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter, and there was a significant difference between summer-autumn and spring-winter. The average density of the soil fauna also had a seasonal variation but ranked as autumn > summer > spring > winter, and the differences among the seasons were significant (P soil fauna was significantly higher in converted forestlands than in cultivated lands, and was the highest in mixed multiple-species forestland and the least in tree-seedling integration land.

  5. Blue and green water use of cultivating selected crops in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Siti Norliyana; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainability of water resources should be a concern parallel to the fast pace of economic development. This study was conducted to estimate the total water consumption of growing 9 crops in Peninsular Malaysia which divided into two category of crops; fruits and vegetables, i.e. mandarin, banana, mango, pineapple, watermelon, cucumber, eggplant, green bean and lettuce. The water footprint of these crops was estimated based on 9 years data of climate and crop (2005-2013). The crop water use was determined using CROPWAT 8.0 model and Penman-Monteith equation. It was found that the green water footprint for cultivating 9 crops was higher compared to blue water footprint. The blue water footprint ranged from 20.97m3/ton to 197.84m3/ton, whereas the green water footprint ranged from 129.8m3/ton to 1586.2m3/ton. Banana has the highest total water footprint (1717.10m3/ton) and the lowest total water footprint was obtained for cucumber (175.07m3/ton). In conclusion, water consumption for cultivating agricultural crops will accelerate the competition on the consumption of clean water with the other sectors. However, the availability of water resource in Peninsular Malaysia is still sufficient to fulfill the demands for water at the present time. Further study should include grey water as well as an indicator for water quality to help in assessing the sustainable, efficient and equitable use of water resources.

  6. [Simulation for balanced effect of soil and water resources on cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, Northeast China under the RCPs climate scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Lei, Guo Ping; Yang, Xue Xin; Zhao, Yu Hui; Zhang, Ji Xin

    2018-04-01

    Under the scenarios of climate change, balancing the land and water resources is one of the key problems needed to be solved in land development. To reveal the water dynamics of the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, we simulated the future scenarios by using the future land use simulation model based on Landsat Satellite images, the DEM data and the meteorological data. Results showed that the growth rate of cultivated land gradually decreased. It showed different changing characteristics in different time periods, which led to different balancing effect between land and water resources. In 1990, the water dynamics of the cultivated land resources was in good state, At the same time, the adjustment of crops structure caused the paddy fields increased dramatically. During 2002 to 2014, the cultivated land that in moderate and serious moisture shortage state increased slightly, the water deficit was deteriorating to a certain degree, and maintained sound development of water profit and loss situation gradually. By comparing the simulation accuracy with different spatial resolutions and time scales, we selected 200 m as the spatial resolution of the simulation, and simulated the land use status in 2038. The simulation results showed that the cultivated land's water profit and loss degree in the river basin showed significant polarization characteristic, in that the water profit and loss degree of the cultivated land would be further intensified, the area with the higher grades of moisture profit and loss degree would distribute more centralized, and partially high evaluated grades for the moisture shortage would expand. It is needed to develop the cultivated land irrigation schemes and adjust the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin to balance soil and water resources.

  7. Chemical and technological evaluation of the Phyllanthus niruri aerial parts as a function of cultivation and harvesting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea from Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, aerial parts is commonly used by Brazilian folk medicine for its benefits on the treatment of genitourinary disorders, for what the polyphenolic compounds are mainly responsible. The yield of such compounds may be influenced by several variables related with the plant growth. The effects of planting periods and harvesting conditions are investigated in this work, including four different seasons. The cultivation was characterized by dry mass yield of aerial parts, and the effect of pruning was analyzed. Leaves, stems and their mixtures were analyzed after drying and milling. Loss on drying and water soluble extractives were used as physical parameters for quality control. Flavonoid content and gallic acid were chosen as chemical markers for this work. The spectrophotometric trial based on the aluminum chloride complexes was applied to evaluate the total flavonoids content. Gallic acid contents were measured from the water extractive solutions by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pruning caused a positive influence on the amount of leaves and stems. The highest flavonoids and gallic acid contents were found in the leaves, which were developed over the summer and the winter, respectively, both from the second harvesting (after pruning. Chomatographic profile by HPLC was characterizes by the presence of gallic acid and two other major peaks (not identified substances, which relation was peculiar to each aerial part. In conclusion, these results suggest that even under less favorable climatic conditions, in winter, the pruning seems to cause a strong influence over the P. niruri polyphenolics production. Indeed, the total flavonoids content, as well as the HPLC profile, can be used as indicative parameters of the ratio of leaves and stem in the vegetal raw material.

  8. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 25�1�C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  9. Cultivating Microalgae in Domestic Wastewater for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha S.M. MOSTAFA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of nine species of microalgae (green and blue green microalgae on domestic waste water samples obtained from Zenein Waste Water Treatment Plant (ZWWTP, Giza governorate, Egypt. The species were cultivated in different kind of waste water; before treatment; after sterilization; with nutrients with sterilization and with nutrients without sterilization. The experiment was conducted in triplicate and cultures were incubated at 251C under continuous shaking (150 rpm and illumination (2000 Lux for 15 days. pH, electric conductivity (EC, optical density (OD , dry weight (DW, were done at the time of incubation and at the end of experiment, in addition to determine the percentage of lipid and biodiesel. The data revealed that, domestic waste water with nutrient media (T3 was promising for cultivation of five algal species when compared with conventional media, Moreover, domestic waste water after sterilization (T2 was selected media for cultivation of Oscillatoria sp and Phormedium sp. However, T1 media (waste water without treatment was the promising media for cultivation of Nostoc humifusum. The biodiesel produced from algal species cultivated in waste water media ranged from 3.8 to 11.80% when compared with the conventional method (3.90 to 12.52%. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient rich media offers a new option of applying algal process in ZWWTP to mange the nutrient load for growth and valuable biodiesel feedstock production.

  10. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Shorter Fallow Cycles Affect the Availability of Noncrop Plant Resources in a Shifting Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Paule. Dalle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation systems, one of the most widely distributed forms of agriculture in the tropics, provide not only crops of cultural significance, but also medicinal, edible, ritual, fuel, and forage resources, which contribute to the livelihoods, health, and cultural identity of local people. In many regions across the globe, shifting cultivation systems are undergoing important changes, one of the most pervasive being a shortening of the fallow cycle. Although there has been much attention drawn to declines in crop yields in conjunction with reductions in fallow times, little if any research has focused on the dynamics of noncrop plant resources. In this paper, we use a data set of 26 fields of the same age, i.e., ~1.5 yr, but differing in the length and frequency of past fallow cycles, to examine the impact of shorter fallow periods on the availability of noncrop plant resources. The resources examined are collected in shifting cultivation fields by the Yucatec Maya in Quintana Roo, Mexico. These included firewood, which is cut from remnant trees and stumps spared at the time of felling, and 17 forage species that form part of the weed vegetation. Firewood showed an overall decrease in basal area with shorter fallow cycles, which was mostly related to the smaller diameter of the spared stumps and trees in short-fallow milpas. In contrast, forage species showed a mixed response. Species increasing in abundance in short-fallow milpas tended to be short-lived herbs and shrubs often with weedy habits, whereas those declining in abundance were predominantly pioneer trees and animal-dispersed species. Coppicing tree species showed a neutral response to fallow intensity. Within the cultural and ecological context of our study area, we expect that declines in firewood availability will be most significant for livelihoods because of the high reliance on firewood for local fuel needs and the fact that the main alternative source of firewood, forest

  12. The effects of inter-crop cultivation Between rows of citrus crop on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa Ascospores and in the citrus black spot occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Miranda Bellotte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlighted the effect of planting coast-cross grass and forage peanut cv. Amarilis between rows of Natal oranges on spreading of Guignardia citricarpa ascospores and consequent citrus black spot control. Treatments evaluated were: 1- conventional cultivation, free of fungicides; 2- conventional cultivation, using protective fungicides; 3- inter-crop cultivation of coast-cross grass between rows of citrus crops and; 4- inter-cropping cultivation of forage peanut between the rows of citrus crops. Quest Volumetric Spore SystemTM traps were set in order to determine the number of ascospores released. A total of 33 inspections were conducted weekly, from the end of August until early September the following year. A diagrammatic scale was used to determine the severity of the disease as well as the percentage of fruits having a commercial standard. The coast-cross grass was more effective in reducing the number of ascospores produced, whose average statistics were lower than in the conventional treatments, free-fungicides. The inter-crop and conventional cultivation method coupled with fungicide treatment was more effective in reducing the severity of citrus black spot symptoms, and differs statistically from the fungicide-free control method. These methods also resulted in a higher percentage of fruits of a commercial standard, ranging from the 89% through the 91% percentile, and the cultivation, free of fungicides, fell within the 73%.

  13. Evaluation of {sup 222}radon occupational exposure in underground workplaces: tunnels used for mushroom cultivation in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, C.; Vecchiariello, S.; Angeloni, U. [Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity - Central Laboratory, ITALIAN RED CROSS, Rome (Italy); Trevisi, R.; Tonnarini, S. [Radon Measurement Laboratory - Department of Occupational Hygiene, ISPESL, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The mushroom cultivation in tunnels represents a working activity with interesting characteristics from a radiological protection point of view. The practice of using tunnels or caves for the cultivation of mushrooms is diffused in many countries as well as in several Italian regions. These places are characterized by micro climate conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) particularly adapted for the growth of mushrooms in every period of the year. This practice, like every working activity carried out in underground workplaces, is regulated by the Italian implementation of the European Union Basic Safety Standards (E.U. B.S.S., 1996). With the aim to evaluate the {sup 222}Rn exposure of workers in tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, a study has been undertaken. In particular, hygienic and micro climatic characteristics (depth, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, ventilation, etc.) and radiometric parameters (indoor radon concentration, radon decay products concentration, equilibrium factor F) have been investigated. In the present paper, the results of the two steps of the study are reported. In the first step, an operative protocol has been defined: the protocol was put through a series of measurements in two tuff tunnels in the area of Rome. In the second step, several tunnels used for mushroom cultivation, located in different Italian regions, have been monitored and experimental data have been used to estimate annual effective doses of workers due to radon inhalation.The experimental results have been analyzed in the context of the E.U. B.S.S.

  14. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus.

  15. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  16. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  17. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  18. Energy balance, costs and CO2 analysis of tillage technologies in maize cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šarauskis, Egidijus; Buragienė, Sidona; Masilionytė, Laura; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Avižienytė, Dovile; Sakalauskas, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    To achieve energy independence, Lithuania and other Baltic countries are searching for new ways to produce energy. Maize is a crop that is suitable for both food and forage, as well as for the production of bioenergy. The objective of this work was to assess the energy efficiency of maize cultivation technologies in different systems of reduced tillage. The experimental research and energy assessment was carried out for five different tillage systems: DP (deep ploughing), SP (), DC (deep cultivation), SC (shallow cultivation) and NT (no tillage). The assessment of the fuel inputs for these systems revealed that the greatest amount of diesel fuel (67.2 l ha −1 ) was used in the traditional DP system. The reduced tillage systems required 12–58% less fuel. Lower fuel consumption reduces the costs of technological operations and reduces CO 2 emissions, which are associated with the greenhouse effect. The agricultural machinery used in reduced tillage technologies emits 107–223 kg ha −1 of CO 2 gas into the environment, whereas DP emits 253 kg ha −1 of CO 2 . The energy analysis conducted in this study showed that the greatest total energy input (approximately 18.1 GJ ha −1 ) was associated with the conventional deep-ploughing tillage technology. The energy inputs associated with the reduced-tillage technologies, namely SP, DC and SC, ranged from 17.1 to 17.6 GJ ha −1 . The lowest energy input (16.2 GJ ha −1 ) was associated with the NT technology. Energy efficiency ratios for the various technologies were calculated as a function of the yield of maize grain and biomass. The best energy balance and the highest energy efficiency ratio (14.0) in maize cultivation was achieved with the NT technology. The energy efficiency ratios for DP, SP, DC and SC were 12.4, 13.4, 11.3 and 12.0, respectively. - Highlights: • Energetical and economic analysis of maize cultivation was done. • Reduced tillage technology reduces working time, fuel consumption

  19. Using Modified Remote Sensing Imagery to Interpret Changes in Cultivated Land under Saline-Alkali Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rapidly changing saline-alkali land under cultivation in the coastal areas of China is important not only for mitigating the negative impacts of such land on the environment, but also for ensuring long-term sustainability of agriculture. In this light, setting up rapid monitoring systems to assist decision-making in developing sustainable management plans is therefore an absolute necessity. In this study, we developed a new interpretation system where symbols are used to grade and classify saline-alkali lands in space and time, based on the characteristics of plant cover and features of remote sensing images. The system was used in combination with the maximum likelihood supervised classification to analyze the changes in cultivated lands under saline-alkali conditions in Huanghua City. The analysis revealed changes in the area and spatial distribution of cultivated under saline-alkali conditions in the region. The total area of saline-alkali land was 139,588.8 ha in 1992 and 134,477.5 ha in 2011. Compared with 1992, severely and moderately saline-alkali land areas decreased in 2011. However, non/slightly saline land areas increased over that in 1992. The results showed that the salinization rate of arable lands in Huanghua City decreased from 1992 to 2011. The moderately saline-alkali land southeast of the city transformed into non/slightly saline-alkaline. Then, severely saline-alkali land far from the coastal zone west of the city became moderately saline-alkaline. Spatial changes in cultivated saline-alkali lands in Huanghua City were such that the centers of gravity (CG of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in cultivated lands in the saline-alkali ecosystem included climate, hydrology and human activity. Thus, studies are required to further explore these factors in

  20. TERMS OF CULTIVATION FOR BEE-POLLINATED CUCUMBER KARAMBOL F1 IN WINTER GLASS GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Korol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of bee-pollinated hybrids of cucumber is one of the most demanded for growing in greenhouses in winterspring period. There are ‘Atlet F1’ ‘Karambol F1’ ‘Magnit F1’ ‘Kartel  F1’  and  also  hybrids  pollinators  ‘Kazanova  F1’, ‘Begunok  F1’  ‘Bodriyachok  F1’,  which  occupy  about  800 hectares of  area in  winter  greenhouses. All  hybrids  have attractive appearance, high taste qualities, and are transportable. Buttons are in a great demand and have a high price during  all  the  time  of  cultivation,  from  February to  July. However, the bee-pollinated  cucumbers in later period are also in need, particularly for end of year celebrations. The possibility  to  grow  these  bee  pollinated  cucumbers  like ‘Karambol F1’ in these terms of cultivation is regarded in the article.

  1. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cultivation of kelp species in the Limfjord, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegeberg, S.

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the scope of the work and yield of cultivating kelp species in the Danish waters for DONG Energy, Denmark, a pilot?scale cultivation project was initiated in connection with the review of the potential of algal biomass for bio?energy production in Denmark. Two species of large brown algae, sea girdles (Laminaria digitata) and sweet tangle (Saccharina latissima) were cultivated with the expectation to gain maximum biomass yield, partly because of the species' size and partly because of their growth strategy. The result of the pilot study was that sugar seaweed's average maximum length was 7-8 cm, while finger seaweed's length was only 5 cm. The relative small yield is attributable to an overgrowth of sessile animals (hydroids and sea squirts). (ln)

  3. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  4. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  5. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  6. A NEW APPROACH FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY A TYPE OF INTERACTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN CONSORTIUMS OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches for evaluation of types of interactions between individual monocultures in consortiums allow obtaining only qualitative results (synergistic, antagonistic, additive interaction as a whole, without regarding to changes in the cultivation process. Therefore, the development of a new approach for the quantitative determination of this indicator as a continuous function defined during the all period of cultivation is in need. In the course of the research a two-component consortium of lactic acid microorganisms cultivated on different mediums according to directed fermentation process in vegetable products was chosen to analyze types of interaction. As a result, the an original approach that was based on comparison of grow speed of biomass of microorganisms with calculated additive curve determined by results of dynamic analysis of titre of microorganism participating in consortium in monoculture during their cultivation has been elaborated. This approach is a convenient tool to identify complex regularity in changes of types of microorganism interaction in consortium represented by continuous function defined during all cultivation period.

  7. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  8. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  9. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A

    1961-01-01

    Several flower bulbs were fumigated with different concentrations of HF and SO/sub 2/. The most sensitive plants for both gases were: Ixia, Sparaxis and Crocus. Not sensitive for both gases was: Galanthus. Rather sensitive for SO/sub 2/ but not for HF appeared to be: Anemone and Eranthis. In an industrial area fruit trees and also vegetables (endive, carrot) were damaged; the injury of Crataegus hedges and of the weed Solanum nigrum indicated that SO/sub 2/ was probably the cause of the damage. In 1960 an investigation was started to measure light intensities in the field. On seven different localities photometers, which add the light quantities over a certain period, were placed in order to compare the daily light intensities. The aim is to check the light intensity in a horticultural area situated in the neighborhood of a rapidly expanding industrial district. On several locations in The Netherlands gas damage to plants occurs. Periodical investigations are carried out in the field in various places, to detect the nature of the poisoning agents. Particular attention is paid to organic vapors causing gradual discoloration and growth inhibition in ornamental plants. In most cases the damage originated from HF and SO/sub 2/.

  10. Cultivation of microalgae in industrial wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson

    cuvette. Fluorescence was demonstrated to be an order of magnitude more sensitive than optical density for detecting biomass growth, which increased the length of time in which exponential growth was observable from hours to days. This enabled growth rate-light intensity (µ-I) curves to be measured....... Ammonium removal varied from below 40% to 99%, while phosphate removal was always nearly total. When the biomass was characterized, it was found that fertilizer value N and P content increased with growth rate. For animal feed, the amino acid content was about 40% of biomass. The content...

  11. Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Lory Elen

    This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive

  12. Cytogenetic characterization of Encyclia caximboensis cultivated in vitro (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gizelly Mendes Silva; Tatiane Lemos Varella; Kaliane Maximiliano Cruz; Ilio Fealho Carvalho; Isane Vera Karsburg; Maurecilne Lemes Silva

    2015-01-01

    Encyclia caximboensis is an Amazonian species endemic to the Serra do Cachimbo, which is located between the northern of the Mato Grosso state and the southern part of Para state. Studies reporting in vitro cultivation and cytogenetic characterization of this species are still scarce. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics and to identify the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of the species E. Caximboensis, cultivated in vitro. Seeds of E. caxi...

  13. Nootropic activity of extracts from wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafin, R N; Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I; Kuvacheva, N V; Amelchenko, V P

    2011-01-01

    Antihypoxic and nootropic activities of extracts from aerial parts of wild and cultivated Alfredia cernua (L.) Cass. were studied on the models of pressure chamber hypoxia, open field test, and passive avoidance conditioning. The extracts of Alfredia cernua promoted retention of the orientation reflex and passive avoidance conditioned response and normalized orientation and exploratory activities disordered as a result of hypoxic injury. The efficiency of the extracts was superior to that of piracetam by the effect on retention of passive avoidance response throughout the greater part of the experiment. Nootropic activity of cultivated Alfredia cernua was not inferior to that of the wild plant.

  14. Robust, small-scale cultivation platform for Streptomyces coelicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Bapat, Prashant Madhusudan; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    rates of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: We observed good agreement of the physiological data obtained in the developed MTP platform with bench-scale. Hence, the described MTP-based screening platform has a high potential for investigation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Streptomycetes and other....... The MTP cultivations were found to behave similar to bench-scale in terms of growth rate, productivity and substrate uptake rate and so was the onset of antibiotic synthesis. Shake flask cultivations however, showed discrepancy with respect to morphology and had considerably reduced volumetric production...

  15. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  16. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  18. Influences of Urban Expansion on Cultivated Lands in China Since 1970S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Yu, S.; Wang, X.; Zuo, L.

    2018-04-01

    Urban expansion has far-reaching influences on cultivated lands, and has a serious effect on grain output and safety. However, relatively little attention has been paid to monitor cultivated land losses through urban expansion over a long timeframe and multi-frequency, especially its differences on national scale systematically. In this work, the characteristics of Chinese cultivated land dynamics were described using annual occupied area per city, contribution rate of cultivated lands to urban expansion and the classification method of basic trend of cultivated land losses. Results indicate that: (1) in the past four decades, large amount of cultivated lands have been occupied during the urban expansion process, and have become the first land source for Chinese urban expansion. (2) Cultivated land loss among municipalities, provincial capitals and other cities was obviously different. The higher of cities' administrative level was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (3) Cultivated land loss in five population-size cities was unbalanced, representing obviously different loss process and contribution on urban expansion. The bigger of cities' population size was, the more obvious of cultivated land loss in these cities appeared, and the earlier of acceleration loss stage of cultivated lands occurred. (4) Cultivated land losses during urban expansion process were imbalanced in China, and were classified into seven trends. (5) Chinese cultivated land protection has been carried out from the awakening stage to the deep implementation stage.

  19. Effects of Cultivation Techniques and Processing on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr. Pers. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Hui Wong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, a temperate mushroom, is currently cultivated in Malaysia. As cultivation and processing conditions may affect the medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of locally grown H. erinaceus have been investigated. The fruitbodies that were fresh, oven-dried or freeze-dried were extracted with methanol. Their properties were compared to those exhibited by mycelium extract of the same mushroom. Various extracts of H. erinaceus inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria but not of the tested fungus. Mycelium extract contained the highest total phenolic content and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The fresh fruitbody extract showed the most potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, oven-dried fruitbody extract was excellent in reducing the extent of β-carotene bleaching. The total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in the oven-dried fruitbody extract was high compared to the freeze-dried or fresh fruitbody extract. This may be due to generation and accumulation of Maillard’s reaction products (MRPs, which are known to have antioxidant properties. Thus, the consumption of H. erinaceus fruitbody grown in tropical conditions may have health promoting benefits. Furthermore, the production of H. erinaceus mycelium in submerged cultures may result in standardized antioxidant formulation for either human nutrition or therapy. Hence, it has been shown that the processing of fruitbody and not the cultivation conditions affects the selected bioactive properties of H. erinaceus.

  20. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-01

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1 st of June 2013 to 30 th of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen

  1. Feasibility Study on Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Inha

    2013-12-15

    This report on the 'Sterilization of Badge using Radiation and Cultivation by Nano-bubble Water for Matsutake Mushroom Cultivation' is belonged to the final report on the preliminary study of the first subject in 2013 for civilian project. This was complimented on the responsible of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for 1{sup st} of June 2013 to 30{sup th} of November 2013. We are going to make sterilization the badge using the gamma ray and supplying the oxygen by nano-bubble oxygen rich water for cultivating the Matsutake Mushroom, instead of the conventional process of sterilization of the badge by hot steam over 120 .deg. C consuming over 8 hours and expensive ventilation system for supplying the fresh air for delivering the oxygen.

  2. Uso de cateteres venosos totalmente implantados para nutrição parenteral: cuidados, tempo de permanência e ocorrência de complicações infecciosas Long-term central venous catheter for total parenteral nutrition: catheter care, permanence period, and incidence of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Del Lama de Unamuno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cateteres venosos totalmente implantados são utilizados em pacientes com síndrome do intestino curto, para realizar o suporte nutricional parenteral, o qual mantém estes pacientes vivos, pois fornece-lhes nutrientes que são absorvidos pela via digestiva. No entanto, estes cateteres não são isentos de complicações. As infecções relacionadas aos cateteres venosos são as complicações mais temidas e sua incidência varia de 3% a 20%, aumentando em pacientes mais graves. O objetivo do presente estudo é descrever as complicações infecciosas em pacientes recebendo nutrição parenteral por meio de cateteres venosos totalmente implantados. Tais cateteres são utilizados pela Divisão de Nutrição Clínica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, para realizar o suporte nutricional parenteral em pacientes submetidos a ressecções extensas de intestino delgado. Foram avaliadas as complicações infecciosas ocorridas com 21 cateteres, implantados em 16 pacientes. O tempo de permanência dos cateteres foi de 768±664,3 dias (mediana 529 dias e a taxa de infecção foi de 0,029 infecções/paciente/ano, resultados que se comparam às taxas de infecção observadas em países desenvolvidos. Concluiu-se que os cuidados observados no manuseio destes cateteres foram de fundamental importância para diminuir a incidência de infecção nestes pacientes.Long-term venous catheters are used for the total parenteral nutrition infusion, which is essential for feeding short-bowel syndrome patients. However, complications are likely to occur. The incidence of catheter related infections ranges from 3 to 20% in hospitalized patients. The Divisão de Nutrição Clínica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil, has been providing nutrition support to short-bowel syndrome patients, using totally implantable venous catheters. This is a

  3. [Activation of nucleolar organizers during in vitro cultivation of mouse R1 embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunafina, E R; Chaplina, M V; Filiasova, E I; Gibanova, N V; Khodarovich, Iu M; Larionov, O A; Zatsepina, O V

    2005-01-01

    We studies the activities of ribosomal genes (nucleolus forming regions of chromosomes) at successive stages of cultivation of the mouse R1 embryonic stem cells. The total number and number of active nucleolar organizers were estimated by means of in situ hybridization with mouse rDNA probes and argentophilic staining of nucleolus forming chromosomes regions from the 16th until the 32nd passages. The data we obtained suggest that the total number of nucleolar organizers per metaphase plate was constant (as a rule, eight), while the mean number of active nucleolar organizers progressively increased from the early (16th) to the late (32nd) passages: 5.2 +/- 0.4 versus 7.4 +/- 0.9 argentophilic organizers per cell. Cell heterogeneity by the number of active nucleolar organizers also increased during the late passages. Taken together, these data suggest activation of DNA transcription and synthesis of ribosomes during cultivation of mouse R1 embryonic stem cells. Based on the experimental and published data, it has been proposed that activation of ribosomal genes correlates in time with a decreased capacity of embryonic stem cells for pluripotent differentiation.

  4. Phosphorus content as a function of soil aggregate size and paddy cultivation in highly weathered soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baozhen; Ge, Tida; Xiao, Heai; Zhu, Zhenke; Li, Yong; Shibistova, Olga; Liu, Shoulong; Wu, Jinshui; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Red soils are the major land resource in subtropical and tropical areas and are characterized by low phosphorus (P) availability. To assess the availability of P for plants and the potential stability of P in soil, two pairs of subtropical red soil samples from a paddy field and an adjacent uncultivated upland were collected from Hunan Province, China. Analysis of total P and Olsen P and sequential extraction was used to determine the inorganic and organic P fractions in different aggregate size classes. Our results showed that the soil under paddy cultivation had lower proportions of small aggregates and higher proportions of large aggregates than those from the uncultivated upland soil. The portion of >2-mm-sized aggregates increased by 31 and 20 % at Taoyuan and Guiyang, respectively. The total P and Olsen P contents were 50-150 and 50-300 % higher, respectively, in the paddy soil than those in the upland soil. Higher inorganic and organic P fractions tended to be enriched in both the smallest and largest aggregate size classes compared to the middle size class (0.02-0.2 mm). Furthermore, the proportion of P fractions was higher in smaller aggregate sizes (2 mm). In conclusion, soils under paddy cultivation displayed improved soil aggregate structure, altered distribution patterns of P fractions in different aggregate size classes, and to some extent had enhanced labile P pools.

  5. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-10-05

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco.

  6. Ultrasonically extracted β-d-glucan from artificially cultivated mushroom, characteristic properties and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Sudheer, Surya; Lu, Ting-Jang; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2017-03-01

    Ganoderma mushroom cultivated recently in Malaysia to produce chemically different nutritional fibers has attracted the attention of the local market. The extraction methods, molecular weight and degree of branching of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucan polysaccharides is of prime importance to determine its antioxidant bioactivity. Therefore three extraction methods i.e. hot water extraction (HWE), soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (US) were employed to study the total content of (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans, degree of branching, structural characteristics, monosaccharides composition, as well as the total yield of polysaccharides that could be obtained from the artificially cultivated Ganoderma. The physical characteristics by HPAEC-PAD, HPGPC and FTIR, as well as the antioxidant in vitro assays of DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing power (FRAP) indicated that (1-3; 1-6)-β-d-glucans of Malaysian mushroom have better antioxidant activity, higher molecular weight and optimal degree of branching when extracted by US in comparison with conventional methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy and environmental impact analysis of rice cultivation and straw management in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Sampattagul, Sate; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2018-04-17

    Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation. The data were collected from the rice production cooperative in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, via onsite records and face-to-face questionnaires in 2016. The environmental impacts were evaluated from cradle-to-farm gate. The results showed that the total GHG emissions were 0.64 kg CO 2 -eq per kilogram of paddy rice, the total energy use was 1.80 MJ per kilogram of paddy rice and the PM10 emissions were 0.42 g PM10-eq per kilogram of paddy rice. The results of rice straw management scenarios showed that rice straw open burning had the highest GHG and PM10 emissions. However, rice straw utilization by incorporation into soil and direct combustion for electricity generation could reduce these impacts substantially.

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial phenolic compounds from extracts of cultivated and wild-grown Tunisian Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Ouerghemmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from cultivated and wild Tunisian Ruta chalepensis L. leaves, stems, and flowers were assessed. The leaves and the flowers exhibited high but similar total polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannin content. Moreover, two organs showed strong, although not significantly different, total antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability, and reducing power. Investigation of the phenolic composition showed that vanillic acid and coumarin were the major compounds in the two organs, with higher percentages in the cultivated organs than in the spontaneous organs. Furthermore, R. chalepensis extracts showed marked antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains, and the activity was organ- and origin-dependent. Spontaneous stems had the strongest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From these results, it was concluded that domestication of Ruta did not significantly affect its chemical composition and consequently the possibility of using R. chalpensis organs as a potential source of natural antioxidants and as an antimicrobial agent in the food industry.

  9. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  10. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  11. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  12. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  13. Vertebrate fauna of the Roman period, migrations period and Medieval period in Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmanović Darko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.

  14. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  15. Characterization and development of EST-derived SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yujun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently there exists a limited availability of genetic marker resources in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas, which is hindering genetic research in this species. It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in sweetpotato genetic research. With the newly developed next generation sequencing technology, large amount of transcribed sequences of sweetpotato have been generated and are available for identifying SSR markers by data mining. Results In this study, we investigated 181,615 ESTs for the identification and development of SSR markers. In total, 8,294 SSRs were identified from 7,163 SSR-containing unique ESTs. On an average, one SSR was found per 7.1 kb of EST sequence with tri-nucleotide motifs (42.9% being the most abundant followed by di- (41.2%, tetra- (9.2%, penta- (3.7% and hexa-nucleotide (3.1% repeat types. The top five motifs included AG/CT (26.9%, AAG/CTT (13.5%, AT/TA (10.6%, CCG/CGG (5.8% and AAT/ATT (4.5%. After removing possible duplicate of published EST-SSRs of sweetpotato, a total of non-repeat 7,958 SSR motifs were identified. Based on these SSR-containing sequences, 1,060 pairs of high-quality SSR primers were designed and used for validation of the amplification and assessment of the polymorphism between two parents of one mapping population (E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and eight accessions of cultivated sweetpotatoes. The results showed that 816 primer pairs could yield reproducible and strong amplification products, of which 195 (23.9% and 342 (41.9% primer pairs exhibited polymorphism between E Shu 3 Hao and Guang 2k-30 and among the 8 cultivated sweetpotatoes, respectively. Conclusion This study gives an insight into the frequency, type and distribution of sweetpotato EST-SSRs and demonstrates successful development of EST-SSR markers in cultivated sweetpotato. These EST-SSR markers could enrich the current resource of molecular markers for the sweetpotato community and would

  16. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  17. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  18. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  19. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  20. Review: Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2010. Biodiversity conservation strategy in a native perspective; case study of shifting cultivation at the Dayaks of Kalimantan. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 97-108. Native tribes generally are original conservationists; they build genuine conservation strategy of natural resources and environment for sustainable living. Dayak is a native tribe of Kalimantan that has been living for thousands of years; they use shifting cultivation to manage the communal forest lands due to Kalimantan’s poor soil of minerals and nutrients, where the presence of phosphorus becomes a limiting factor for crops cultivation. In tropical forests, phosphorus mostly stored in the trees, so to remove it, the forest burning is carried out. Nutrients released into the soil can be used for upland rice (gogo cultivation, until depleted; after that, cultivators need to open a forest, while the old land was abandoned (fallow until it becomes forest again (for 20-25 years. The consecutive land clearing causes the formation of mosaics land with different succession ages and diverse biodiversity. This process is often combined with agroforestry systems (multicultural forest gardens, where the will-be-abandoned fields are planted with a variety of useful trees that can be integrated in forest ecosystems, especially rubber and fruits. These systems of shifting cultivation are often blamed as the main factor of forest degradation and fires, but in the last 300 years, this system has little impact on forest degradation. But, this is relatively low in productivity and subsistent, so it is not suitable for the modern agriculture which demands high productivity and measurable, mass and continuous yield, as well as related to the market. The increased population and industrial development of forestry, plantation, mining, etc. make the communal forest become narrower, so the fallow periods are shortened (5-15 years and the lands are degraded into grasslands. In the future

  1. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.; Van Raay, A; Wolting, H G

    1969-01-01

    The equipment for continuous fumigation of plants during the whole period of growth made it possible to investigate the susceptibility of tulips, variety Paris, for very low concentrations of HF. The lowest concentration applied, 0.7 parts per billion, resulted finally in a leaf tip injury of a length of 4 cm. The toxicity of NO2 to tomato plants was determined by applying a concentration of 0.25 ppm NO2 continuously during the growth of the plants. The leaves very gradually discolored, starting with the lowest leaves; afterwards they dropped. The yield of fruits of the treated plants was 22% lower than that of the control. The injury occurring around the urbanized area West of Rotterdam was very probably caused by oxidizing agents. In May, field-grown spinach and in September, beans growing in glasshouses showed an injury which is typical for oxidizing agents. In the area surrounding some factories, the authors are investigating plant damage caused mainly by HF.

  2. Buddhist Pedagogy in Teacher Education: Cultivating Wisdom by Skillful Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2018-01-01

    This paper draws on research I have conducted about the cultivation of wisdom in Thailand and Australia. I examine the ancient pedagogy of pavi?aupaya skillful means investigating how this pedagogy can inform contemporary development of teacher educators and teachers. I examine the Panjaawi´tee Wisdom Method that has its foundations in the…

  3. Cultivating Teachers' Morality and the Pedagogy of Emotional Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are expected to act ethically and provide moral role models in performing their duties, even though teacher education has often relegated the cultivation of teachers' ethical awareness and moral development to the margins. When it is addressed, the main theoretical assumptions have relied heavily on the cognitivist developmental theories…

  4. Wanted: Information on the Distribution of Cultivated Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Lack of documentation makes it very difficult to discover where species of cultivated plants may be found in the United States. Plead for compilation of "campus floras and herbarium collections. Need for a rational locator file of available plant materials. Lists and reviews present sources of information. Bibliography of campus floras. (EB)

  5. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the characteristics of papillae of living, boiled and dried specimens of three wild populations, cultivated and hybrid Apostichopus japonicus in the laboratory. Visual observation showed that the appearance of the papillae was obviously different among the populations. For the first time, we established a ...

  6. On Design Experiment Teaching in Engineering Quality Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Design experiment refers to that designed and conducted by students independently and is surely an important method to cultivate students' comprehensive quality. According to the development and requirements of experimental teaching, this article carries out a study and analysis on the purpose, significance, denotation, connotation and…

  7. Status of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Usmani, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on imported fuels. Sustainable production of biodiesel presents an opportunity to reduce reliance on imported oil, save foreign-exchange reserves, reduce poverty and unemployment, stimulate rural development in areas with acute poverty and enhance access to renewable commercial energy. We are an agriculture-based economy; therefore, production of Bio diesel by utilizing agro-base cultivation will strengthen our agricultural sector and empower the farmers. Moreover, the country has immense potential to attain energy-security through domestic cultivation and processing of bio fuel crops. Some details of the processing plant and manufacturing are also given. This paper describes and delineates the present status of Jatropha cultivation in Pakistan. An attempt is made to project the future of bio diesel, through Jatropha seeds and simultaneous efforts to cultivate other bio diesel- producing seeds to make its cost as low as possible. This paper can also be taken as a base to predict the minimum time required to produce 5-10% replacement of mineral diesel by biodiesel. (author)

  8. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT)....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  9. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  10. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  11. Technologies of Self and the Cultivation of Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattam, Robert; Baker, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    In this article we engage with and against Foucault's provocation to think about diagrams of subjectivation. With Foucault we take up his meditation on spirituality and propose a Buddhist alternative to Greco-Roman technologies of self. Against Foucault's notion of an "arts of existence" we suggest instead "cultivation of…

  12. Seed constraint to cultivation and productivity of African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-availability of improved seeds constitutes a major constraint to the cultivation and productivity of the indigenous leaf vegetables (ILVs) of Africa. Research on African ILVs has focused mainly on the ethnobotany, collection, preservation, and the assessment of food value and chemical composition of the ILVs. No serious ...

  13. Religion and the Cultivation of Citizenship in Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has documented the escalating popularity of religion among student populations in China's higher education settings. Despite the changes sustained by China's religious policies throughout the post-Mao era, the state has not abandoned its long-standing approach of cultivating citizenship through Marxist-Leninist-oriented…

  14. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally available casing materials such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara, and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with perlite were ...

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...

  16. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2008-01-01

    a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital...

  17. Concerted Cultivation and Music Learning: Global Issues and Local Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    "Concerted cultivation" has been described as a common, urban middle-class practice concerning the enrollment of children in a variety of age-specific activities that may promote the learning of valuable life skills as well as the development of individual abilities (Lareau, 2003). Music is one such activity. This study investigated the…

  18. On the use of selective environments in microalgal cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with selective environments in microalgal cultivation. As explained in Chapter 1 microalgae have changed the course of life on Earth dramatically by performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In oxygenic photosynthesis electrons from water are used to reduce carbon dioxide to

  19. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  20. Cultivating Critical-Thinking Dispositions throughout the Business Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…

  1. Cultivation of algae in photobioreator and obtention of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Hobuss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we described the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a photobioreactor to algal biomass production. The dried biomass was used as feedstock for biodiesel production, it presented 26% lipids and via sonocatalysis stage of the methodology resulted in 60% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAME content was confirmed by Gas Chromatography (GC.

  2. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann

    2010-01-01

    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  3. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  4. What quantitative mechanical loading stimulates in vitro cultivation best?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natenstedt, Jerry; Kok, Aimee C.; Dankelman, Jenny; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage has limited regeneration capacities. One of the factors that appear to affect the in vitro cultivation of articular cartilage is mechanical stimulation. So far, no combination of parameters has been identified that offers the best results. The goal is to review the literature in

  5. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent...

  6. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  7. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic analysis of wild and cultivated germplasm of pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the efficiency of the use of single versus multiple markers, the genetic diversity was quantified among 12 diverse pigeonpea germplasm comprised of eight wild and four cultivated using both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and how well these two types ...

  9. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  10. Recent advances in periodontal microbiology: An update on cultivation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore G Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial members of the subgingival plaque community play a major role in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. Majority of these bacteria are anaerobic in nature and several anaerobic systems have been used for their cultivation. Among them anaerobic jars are the most popular and are routinely used for the detection of periodontal pathogens from clinical samples. Despite best efforts, a significant portion of oral microbes have not yet been cultivated and several hypotheses have been put forth to explain this anomaly. This has led to renewed efforts to cultivate the oral bacteria so far identified only by their molecular signatures resulting in improvisation of existing culture techniques and devising novel methods of isolation. Several devices have been used on environmental samples successfully: One method called "minitrap" has been successfully adapted to oral cavity and has shown great promise in isolation of not yet cultivated oral bacterial species. These newer techniques are sure to shed more light on the role of microbes in the etiology of periodontal diseases.

  11. Effects of different cultivation techniques on vineyard fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulas, J.; Kutasi, Cs.; Mark, V.; Balog, A.

    2002-01-01

    Green covering compared to soil cultivation enhanced the number of individuals of Araneae living on or near soil. No differences between the different soil management systems were found for the number of individuals of Staphylinidae and Carabidae. The typical main species of the two systems were different for all groups analyzed (Araneae, Staphylinidae and Carabidae).

  12. Sharing and Cultivating Tacit Knowledge in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Meng Yew; Karney, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Research on knowledge cultivation often focuses on explicit forms of knowledge. However, knowledge can also take a tacit form--a form that is often difficult or impossible to tease out, even when it is considered critical in an educational context. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have examined tacit knowledge issues in online…

  13. The art of cultivation (på kinesisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauxner, Malene

    2007-01-01

     All art forms have their own language. As music has its sound language, ballet has its step language and film has its film language, landscape architecture also has its specific language. As an art of cultivation it has two, which I call an agricultural and a pastoral language corresponding to two...

  14. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  15. Trends in shifting cultivation and the REDD mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole

    2009-01-01

    of the transitions taking place. The proposed mechanism for reduced greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) can be both a challenge and opportunity for shifting cultivators. Very limited literature is available on this dilemma, but a few sources point to benefits from ‘compensated...

  16. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  17. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  18. Self-Cultivation: Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapies in Confucian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kwang-Kuo; Chang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This article describes self-cultivation practices originating from the cultural traditions of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. It delineates the therapeutic implications of the three states of self pursued by these three traditions: namely, the "relational self", the "authentic self", and the "nonself". Several…

  19. Cultivation of the microalga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa , in biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the microalga was introduced to be cultivated in the biogas wastewater, which could not only bioremediate the wastewater, but also produce plenty of the microalga biomass that could be used for the exploitation of fertilizers, feed additives and biofuels. This study showed that the microalga, C. pyrenoidosa could ...

  20. Parenting Priorities and Pressures: Furthering Understanding of "Concerted Cultivation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Carol; Maxwell, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-examines the purposes of a planned and intentional parenting style--"concerted cultivation"--for different middle-class groups, highlighting that social class fraction, ethnicity, and also individual family disposition, guides understandings of the purposes of enrolling children in particular enrichment activities. We…

  1. Closing the water and nutrient cycles in soilless cultivation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerling, E.A.M.; Blok, C.; Maas, van der A.A.; Os, van E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soilless cultivation systems are common in Dutch greenhouse horticulture, i.e., less than 20% of the greenhouse area is still soil grown. For long, it was assumed that in these so-called closed systems the emission of nutrients and plant protection products (PPPs) was close to zero. However, Water

  2. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last few decades, rapid global demand for edible oils has resulted in a significant increase in the land area of oil crop cultivation. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate ...

  3. Suitability of Nigerian Weather Conditions for Cultivation of Microalgae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Client

    compared with optimal conditions for cultivation of various species of microalgae. ... The results of average hours of sunshine showed that Jos has the lowest number of hours ... Temperature stratification in ponds within Abakaliki was ... question of how we will feed the starving masses of our ever increasing world population.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  6. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  7. Cultivation of seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis enhanced biodiversity in a eukaryotic plankton community as revealed via metagenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhao Yang; He, Zhi Li; Deng, Yun Yan; Yang, Yu Feng; Tang, Ying Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Plankton diversity reflects the quality and health of waters and should be monitored as a critical feature of marine ecosystems. This study applied a pair of 28S rRNA gene-specific primers and pyrosequencing to assess the effects of large-scale cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis on the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community in the coastal water of Guangdong, China. With 1 million sequences (2,221 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) obtained from 51 samples, we found that the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community was significantly higher in the seaweed cultivation area than that in the nearby control area as reflected in OTU richness, evenness (Shannon-Wiener index) and dominance (Simpson index) for total plankton community and its four subcategories when Gracilaria biomass reached the maximum, while no such a significant difference was observed before seaweed inoculation. Our laboratory experiment using an artificial phytoplankton community of nine species observed the same effects of Gracilaria exposure. Principal component analysis and principal coordinates analysis showed the plankton community structure in cultivation area markedly differed from the control area when Gracilaria biomass reached its maximum. Redundancy analysis showed that G. lemaneiformis was the critical factor in controlling the dynamics of eukaryotic plankton communities in the studied coastal ecosystem. Our results explicitly demonstrated G. lemaneiformis cultivation could enhance biodiversity of plankton community via allelopathy, which prevents one or several plankton species from blooming and consequently maintains a relatively higher biodiversity. Our study provided further support for using large-scale G. lemaneiformis cultivation as an effective approach for improving costal ecosystem health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  9. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  10. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  11. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  12. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  13. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  14. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  15. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  16. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  18. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  19. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  20. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.

    1958-01-01

    In an area, where tulips had been damaged, experimental plots with tulip varieties of different sensitivities to HF were laid out in the open and in greenhouses. It was proven that the injury decreased with increasing distance from the factory. In the same area irises were injured. But in this case the cause of the damage proved to be SO2 derived from the stove in the greenhouse. In an industrial area, where fruit trees were damaged last year, potatoes were injured in a very typical way. Varieties of this crop also showed differences in sensitivity to air pollution. During another period of 1958 air pollution of high intensity occurred in the same area, so that several crops were severely damaged. The damage of the fruit and vegetables turned out to be caused by HF. In several other areas of air pollution the cause of the damage proved to be HF or SO2. Shrubs surrounding the fields were able to prevent the spread of the gases to a small extent. In an area, where the concentration of HF in the atmosphere proved to be too low to cause damage, a conifer species, Chamaecyparis, showed a rather high content of F in the leaves. It is possible that this tree species, which keeps its green color during the whole year, continuously absorbs small quantities of fluorine and may become injured. In an area surrounding an enamel industry plants were damaged by HF. Several new cases of air pollution were investigated. In two of these, the cause of the damage to the plants proved to be hydrochloric acid.