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  1. Functional exercise after total hip replacement (FEATHER a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaghan Brenda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged physical impairments in range of movement, postural stability and walking speed are commonly reported following total hip replacement (THR. It is unclear from the current body of evidence what kind of exercises should be performed to maximize patient function and quality of life. Methods/design This will be a single blind multi centre randomized control trial with two arms. Seventy subjects post primary total hip arthroplasty will be randomized into either an experimental group (n=35, or to a control group (n=35. The experimental group will attend a functional exercise class twice weekly for a six week period from week 12 to week 18 post surgery. The functional exercise group will follow a circuit based functional exercise class supervised by a chartered Physiotherapist. The control group will receive usual care. The principal investigator (BM will perform blinded outcome assessments on all patients using validated measures for pain, stiffness, and function using the Western Ontario and Mc Master Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC. This is the primary outcome measurement tool. Secondary outcome measurements include Quality of life (SF-36, 6 min walk test, Visual Analogue Scale, and the Berg Balance score. The WOMAC score will be collated on day five post surgery and repeated at week twelve and week eighteen. All other measurements will be taken at week 12 and repeated at week eighteen. In addition a blinded radiologist will measure gluteus medius cross sectional area using real time ultrasound for all subjects at week 12 and at week 18 to determine if the functional exercise programme has any effect on muscle size. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will add to the body of evidence on the relationship between muscle size, functional ability, balance, quality of life and time post surgery in patients following total hip arthroplasty. The CONSORT guidelines will be followed to throughout. Ethical

  2. Do Pilates-based exercises following total knee arthroplasty improve postural control and quality of life?

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    Karaman, Aysenur; Yuksel, Inci; Kinikli, Gizem Irem; Caglar, Omur

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effects of the addition of Pilates-based exercises to standard exercise programs performed after total knee arthroplasty on quality of life and balance. Forty-six volunteers were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 17) was assigned a standard exercise program after discharge; the study group (n = 17) was assigned Pilates-based exercises along with the standard exercise program. We carried out clinical evaluations of all patients on the day of discharge and after the completion of the 6-week exercise program. We also recorded sociodemographic data, Berg Balance test scores, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) health-related quality of life measurements. When we compared the differences between pre- and post-treatment balance scores of the groups, we found a significant change in favor of the Pilates-based exercise group (13.64 ± 1.45; p Pilates-based exercises group were found to be significant in terms of physical function (p = 0.001), physical role restriction (p = 0.01), and physical component score (p = 0.001). Pilates-based exercises performed along with standard exercise programs were more effective for improving balance and quality of life than standard exercise programs alone.

  3. Functional exercise after total hip replacement (FEATHER): a randomised control trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    Prolonged physical impairments in range of movement, postural stability and walking speed are commonly reported following total hip replacement (THR). It is unclear from the current body of evidence what kind of exercises should be performed to maximize patient function and quality of life.

  4. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

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    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  5. Unipedal standing exercise and hip bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Sakai, Akinori; Oshige, Toshihisa; Zenke, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Nagaishi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of unipedal standing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip in postmenopausal women. Japanese postmenopausal women (n = 94) were assigned at random to an exercise or control group (no exercise). The 6-month exercise program consisted of standing on a single foot for 1 min per leg 3 times per day. BMD of the hip was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no significant difference in age and baseline hip BMD between the exercise group (n = 49) and control group (n = 45). Exercise did not improve hip BMD compared with the control group. Stepwise regression analysis identified old age as a significant determinant (p = 0.034) of increased hip total BMD at 6 months after exercise. In 31 participants aged >/=70 years, the exercise group (n = 20) showed significant increase in the values of hip BMD at the areas of total (p = 0.008), intertrochanteric (p = 0.023), and Ward's triangle (p = 0.032). The same parameters were decreased in the control group (n = 11). The percent changes in hip BMD of the exercise group were not significantly different from those of the control group either in the participants with low baseline hip total BMD ( or =80% of the young adult mean). In conclusion, unipedal standing exercise for 6 months did not improve hip BMD in Japanese postmenopausal women. Effect of exercise on hip total BMD was age dependent. In participants aged > or =70 years, the exercise significantly increased hip total BMD.

  6. Vigorous exercise is associated with superior metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of total exercise expenditure.

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    Greenwood, Eleni A; Noel, Martha W; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2016-02-01

    To characterize metabolic features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by exercise behavior and determine relative health benefits of different exercise intensities. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic institution. Three hundred and twenty-six women aged 14-52 years-old with PCOS by Rotterdam criteria examined between 2006 and 2013. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) administered to classify patients into three groups based on Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Guidelines of vigorous, moderate, and inactive, along with physical examination and serum testing. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The DHHS guidelines for adequate physical activity were met by 182 (56%) women. Compared with moderate exercisers and inactive women, the vigorous exercisers had lower BMI and lower HOMA-IR; higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sex hormone-binding globulin; and a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for age, BMI, and total energy expenditure, every hour of vigorous exercise reduced a patient's odds of metabolic syndrome by 22% (odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62, 0.99). Women with PCOS who met DHHS guidelines for exercise demonstrated superior metabolic health parameters. Vigorous but not moderate activity is associated with reduced odds of the metabolic syndrome, independent of age, BMI, and total energy expenditure. PCOS patients should be encouraged to meet activity guidelines via vigorous physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aquatic exercises versus land based exercises for elderly patients after a total hip replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Miroljub Jakovljevič; Renata Vauhnik

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aquatic therapy allows secure, active exercise with pain reduction using a combination of the water’s buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure, resistance and warmth. By aquatic therapy, elderly patients after total hip replacement can achieve more positive effects than by land-based exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of aquatic-based exercises in the rehabilitation programme after a hip fracture surgery in elderly adults. Results: Both groups, regardless of the ty...

  8. Exercise 5+6 - Introduction to Control and Lab Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Exercises for the 2nd AAU and ECN EWTEC affiliated PhD course. The laboratory exercises are including both numerical and experimental work. A simulink model is provided to make realtime control on the laboratory setups. The groups are welcome to modify the program during the exercises. The groups...... are expected to make their own programs for numerical simulations on the device. Hydrodynamic parameters found using WAMIT are provided, but the groups are of course welcome to calculate their own parameters (e.g. using Nemoh). Exercise 5: Simple control and regular wave Exercise 6: Advanced control...

  9. Exercising self-control increases approach motivation.

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    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-07-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior--betting on low-stakes gambles--that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.

  10. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

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    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  11. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  12. Effect of exercise therapy on lower extremity deep venous thrombosis after total knee arthoplasty

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    Zhong-Wu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of exercise therapy in preventing the lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT after total knee arthoplasty (TKA. Methods: A total of 153 patients with osteoarthritis who were admitted in our hospital for TKA were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given continuous passive motion (CPM in combined with exercise therapy, while the patients in the control group were only given CPM. After 2-week treatment, the related coagulation indicators and femoral venous blood flow in the two groups were detected and compared. The occurrence rate of DVT in the two groups was calculated. Results: PT and APTT from 2 weeks to 2 months after operation in the two groups were shortened first and extended later when compared with before operation, while FIB and D-D contents were elevated first and reduced later, and the coagulation indicator levels 2 months after treatment in the two groups were significantly different from those before operation. The femoral venous blood flow peak and average velocity 1 week after operation in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before operation. The femoral venous blood flow peak and average velocity 1 week after operation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The occurrence rate of DVT in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Conclusions: CPM in combined with exercise therapy for patients after TKA can effectively prevent the formation of DVT, with a significant effect.

  13. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

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    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant

  14. Exercise therapy may postpone total hip replacement surgery in patients with hip osteoarthritis

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    Svege, Ida; Nordsletten, Lars; Fernandes, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown.......Exercise treatment is recommended for all patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA), but its effect on the long-term need for total hip replacement (THR) is unknown....

  15. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

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    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  16. The effects of Internet-based exercise compared with supervised group exercise in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.

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    Akinci, Buket; Yeldan, Ipek; Satman, Ilhan; Dirican, Ahmet; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of Internet-based exercise on glycaemic control, blood lipids, body composition, physical activity level, functional capacity, and quality of life with supervised group exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Single-blind, randomized controlled study. A Faculty of Health Sciences. A total of 65 patients with type 2 diabetes (47 women, 18 men). Group A ( n = 22), control group - physical activity counselling once with a brochure. Group B ( n = 22), supervised group-based exercise, three days per week for eight weeks. Group C ( n = 21), Internet-based exercise following the same programme via a website. Primary outcomes - glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and cholesterol. Secondary outcomes - waist and hip circumferences, body mass index, number of steps, six-minute walking test, and Euro-Quality of Life-5 Dimension. After treatment, glycaemic control (mean change for Group B; Group C; -0.80%, -0.91%, P = 0.003), waist circumference (-4.23 cm, 5.64 cm, P = 0.006), and quality of life (0.26, 0.15, P = 0.013) significantly improved in both training groups compared with the control group. Fasting blood glucose (-46.86 mg/dL, P = 0.009) and hip circumference (-2.7 cm, P = 0.011) were significantly decreased in Group B and total cholesterol (-16.4 mg/dL, P = 0.028), six-minute walking distance (30.5 m, P = 0.01), and number of steps (1258.05, P = 0.023) significantly improved in Group C compared with control group. Group B and Group C changed with equal magnitude. In type 2 diabetes, supervised group-based and Internet-based exercise can improve equally glycaemic control, waist circumference, and quality of life, and both are better than simply counselling.

  17. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

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    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  18. Psychosocial benefits of workplace physical exercise: cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-10-10

    While benefits of workplace physical exercise on physical health is well known, little is known about the psychosocial effects of such initiatives. This study evaluates the effect of workplace versus home-based physical exercise on psychosocial factors among healthcare workers. A total of 200 female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1) from 18 departments at three hospitals were cluster-randomized to 10 weeks of: 1) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure time for 10 min 5 days per week or 2) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 10 min 5 days per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise. Vitality and mental health (SF-36, scale 0-100), psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ, scale 0-100), work- and leisure disability (DASH, 0-100), control- (Bournemouth, scale 0-10) and concern about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, scale 0-10) were assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. Vitality as well as control and concern about pain improved more following WORK than HOME (all p health remained unchanged. Between-group differences at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) were 7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3 to 10] for vitality, -0.8 [95% CI -1.3 to -0.3] for control of pain and -0.9 [95% CI -1.4 to -0.5] for concern about pain, respectively. Performing physical exercise together with colleagues during working hours was more effective than home-based exercise in improving vitality and concern and control of pain among healthcare workers. These benefits occurred in spite of increased work pace. NCT01921764 at ClinicalTrials.gov . Registered 10 August 2013.

  19. Resistance exercise improves physical fatigue in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Ericsson, Anna; Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Bjersing, Jan; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-07-30

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects approximately 1-3 % of the general population. Fatigue limits the work ability and social life of patients with FM. A few studies of physical exercise have included measures of fatigue in FM, indicating that exercise can decrease fatigue levels. There is limited knowledge about the effects of resistance exercise on multiple dimensions of fatigue in FM. The present study is a sub-study of a multicenter randomized controlled trial in women with FM. The purpose of the present sub-study was to examine the effects of a person-centered progressive resistance exercise program on multiple dimensions of fatigue in women with FM, and to investigate predictors of the potential change in fatigue. A total of 130 women with FM (age 22-64 years) were included in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled multicenter trial examining the effects of person-centered progressive resistance exercise compared with an active control group. The intervention was performed twice a week for 15 weeks. Outcomes were five dimensions of fatigue measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Information about background was collected and the women also completed several health-related questionnaires. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to analyze predictors of change in fatigue in the total population. A higher improvement was found at the post-treatment examination for change in the resistance exercise group, as compared to change in the active control group in the MFI-20 subscale of physical fatigue (resistance group Δ -1.7, SD 4.3, controls Δ 0.0, SD 2.7, p = 0.013), with an effect size of 0.33. Sleep efficiency was the strongest predictor of change in the MFI-20 subscale general fatigue (beta = -0.54, p = 0.031, R (2) = 0.05). Participating in resistance exercise (beta = 1.90, p = 0.010) and working fewer hours per week (beta = 0.84, p = 0.005) were independent significant predictors of change in physical

  20. Muscle Oxygen Supply Impairment during Exercise in Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes

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    TAGOUGUI, SEMAH; LECLAIR, ERWAN; FONTAINE, PIERRE; MATRAN, RÉGIS; MARAIS, GAELLE; AUCOUTURIER, JULIEN; DESCATOIRE, AURÉLIEN; VAMBERGUE, ANNE; OUSSAIDENE, KAHINA; BAQUET, GEORGES; HEYMAN, ELSA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Aerobic fitness, as reflected by maximal oxygen (O2) uptake (V˙O2max), is impaired in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this impairment remain to be explored. This study sought to investigate whether type 1 diabetes and high levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) influence O2 supply including O2 delivery and release to active muscles during maximal exercise. Methods Two groups of patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (T1D-A, n = 11, with adequate glycemic control, HbA1c 8%) were compared with healthy controls (CON-A, n = 11; CON-I, n = 12, respectively) matched for physical activity and body composition. Subjects performed exhaustive incremental exercise to determine V˙O2max. Throughout the exercise, near-infrared spectroscopy allowed investigation of changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in the vastus lateralis. Venous and arterialized capillary blood was sampled during exercise to assess arterial O2 transport and factors able to shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Results Arterial O2 content was comparable between groups. However, changes in total hemoglobin (i.e., muscle blood volume) was significantly lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. T1D-I also had impaired changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels and increase during high-intensity exercise despite normal erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Finally, V˙O2max was lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. No differences were observed between T1D-A and CON-A. Conclusions Poorly controlled patients displayed lower V˙O2max and blunted muscle deoxyhemoglobin increase. The latter supports the hypotheses of increase in O2 affinity induced by hemoglobin glycation and/or of a disturbed balance between nutritive and nonnutritive muscle blood flow. Furthermore, reduced exercise muscle blood volume in poorly controlled patients may warn clinicians of microvascular dysfunction occurring even before overt

  1. Impaired postprandial fullness in Type 2 diabetic subjects is rescued by acute exercise independently of total and acylated ghrelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin levels are suppressed in obese subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise-stimulated decreases in plasma ghrelin are a proposed mediator of exercise-induced satiety in healthy subjects. However, exercise-induced satiety and the impact of impaired ghrelin levels...... in obesity-related disease are poorly understood. Therefore our objective was to investigate exercise-induced postprandial satiety and ghrelin responses in overweight subjects with T2DM (N = 8) and healthy controls (N = 7). Visual analog scale satiety questionnaires (assessing hunger, thirst, food that could...... be eaten, nausea, and fullness) and circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and total and acylated ghrelin were measured at baseline and in response to a 75 g oral glucose load, provided immediately after an aerobic exercise bout (1 h at 50% Wmax) or no exercise (rest trial), on two separate occasions...

  2. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis--treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement.

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    Kosek, E; Roos, E M; Ageberg, E; Nilsdotter, A

    2013-09-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters. The dataset consisted of knee (n = 66) and hip (n = 47) OA patients assigned for total joint replacement at Lund University Hospital undergoing pre-operative neuromuscular exercise and 43 matched controls. Sensitivity to pressure pain was assessed by pressure algometry at 10 sites. Subjects were then instructed to perform a standardized static knee extension. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the contracting quadriceps muscle (Q) and at the resting deltoid muscle (D) before and during contraction. The relative increase in PPTs during contraction was taken as a measure of localized (Q) or generalized (D) EIA. Patients were assessed at baseline, following on average 12 weeks of neuromuscular exercise and 3 months following surgery. We found a normal function of EIA in OA patients at baseline. Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of physical exercise on pain modulation in healthy subjects. However, no treatment effects on EIA were seen in OA patients despite the increase in muscle strength following neuromuscular exercise and reduced pain following surgery. Compared to controls, OA patients had increased pain sensitivity and no beneficial effects on pain sensitivity were seen following treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of EIA in OA patients. Despite increased pain sensitivity, OA patients had a normal function of EIA. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

  4. Effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision in Chinese women with perimenopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Mao, L; Chen, X; Bai, W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision on menopausal symptoms and diet/exercise habits. The randomized controlled study enrolled 60 patients with perimenopausal syndrome (Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI) score ≥15). The participants were randomized into either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). Women were interviewed with questionnaires about perimenopausal symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit. Their height and weight were measured. Women in the intervention group received health education, diet supervision and exercise supervision twice a week while those in the control group continued as normal. The total KMI score, scores of individual symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit were measured after intervention. The total KMI score, the individual KMI scores for paresthesia, irritability, depression/suspicious, fatigue, arthralgia/myalgia, and palpitations of the intervention group were significantly lower compared with the control group after intervention. The intake of cereal, meat, fats and oils of the intervention group were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. The percentage of women with a regular exercise habit was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention. Twelve weeks intervention of health education combining diet and exercise supervision could improve perimenopausal symptoms and help the patients establish good living habits.

  5. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  6. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  7. Aortopulmonary collateral flow quantification by MR at rest and during continuous submaximal exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Naira; Frank, Yvonne; Steinlechner, Eva; Calavrezos, Lenika; Meierhofer, Christian; Hager, Alfred; Martinoff, Stefan; Ewert, Peter; Stern, Heiko

    2017-11-06

    Aortopulmonary collateral flow is considered to have significant impact on the outcome of patients with single ventricle circulation and total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). There is little information on collateral flow during exercise. To quantify aortopulmonary collateral flow at rest and during continuous submaximal exercise in clinical patients doing well with TCPC. Prospective, case controlled. Thirteen patients with TCPC (17 (11-37) years) and 13 age and sex-matched healthy controls (18 (11-38) years). 1.5T; free breathing; phase sensitive gradient echo sequence. Blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta and superior vena cava were measured at rest and during continuous submaximal physical exercise in patients and controls. Systemic blood flow (Q s ) was assumed to be represented by the sum of flow in the superior caval vein (Q svc ) and the descending aorta (Q AoD ) at the diaphragm level. Aortopulmonary collateral flow (Q coll ) was calculated by subtracting Q s from flow in the ascending aorta (Q AoA ). Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test for comparison between groups and between rest and exercise. Absolute collateral flow in TCPC patients at rest was 0.4 l/min/m 2 (-0.1-1.2), corresponding to 14% (-2-42) of Q s . Collateral flow did not change during exercise (difference -0.01 (-0.7-1.0) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.97). TCPC patients had significantly lower Q s at rest (2.5 (1.6-4.1) vs. 3.5 (2.6-4.8) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.001) and during submaximal exercise (3.2 (2.0-6.0) vs. 4.8 (3.3-6.9) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.001), compared to healthy controls. The increase in Q s with exercise was also significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls (median 0.6 vs. 1.2 l/min/m 2 , P collateral flow at rest (14% of Q s ) compared to healthy controls, which does not change during submaximal exercise. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Exercise, adipokines and pediatric obesity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Ceballos-Ceballos, R J M; Poblete-Aro, C E; Hackney, A C; Mota, J; Ramírez-Vélez, R

    2017-04-01

    Adipokines are involved in the etiology of diabetes, insulin resistance, and the development of atherosclerosis and other latent-onset complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on adipokines in pediatric obesity. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of exercise interventions on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin) in pediatric obesity (6-18 years old). Fourteen randomized controlled trials (347 youths) were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant increase in adiponectin (WMD=0.882 μg ml -1 , 95% CI, 0.271-1.493) but did not alter leptin and resistin level. Likewise, exercise intensity and change in body fat; as well as total exercise program duration, duration of the sessions, and change in body fat all significantly influenced the effect of exercise on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Exercise seems to increase adiponectin levels in childhood obesity. Our results also suggested that exercise on its own, without the concomitant presence of changes in body composition levels, does not affect leptin levels.

  9. Effect of prepartum exercise, pasture turnout, or total confinement on hoof health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R A; van Amstel, S R; Krawczel, P D

    2017-10-01

    Lameness is a major welfare concern in the dairy industry, and access to physical activity during the dry period may improve hoof health. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forced exercise, pasture turnout, or total confinement of dry cows on horn growth and wear and sole thickness. Twenty-nine primiparous and 31 multiparous, pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey-Holstein crossbred (n = 2) dairy cows were assigned to either total confinement (n = 20), exercise (n = 20), or pasture (n = 20) treatments at dry-off using rolling enrollment from January to November 2015. Cows were managed with a 60-d dry period (58.5 ± 5.4 d) divided into far-off (dry-off to 2 wk before parturition) and close-up periods (2 wk before projected parturition). Cows were housed in a naturally ventilated, 4-row freestall barn at the University of Tennessee's Little River Animal and Environmental Unit (Walland, TN) with concrete flooring and deep-bedded sand freestalls. Cows assigned to confinement remained in the housing pen. Exercise cows were walked for a targeted 1.5 h at 3.25 km/h, 5 times/wk until calving. Pasture cows were turned out for a targeted 1.5 h, 5 times/wk until calving. Hoof growth and wear and sole thickness of the rear hooves were measured on d 2 and 44, relative to dry-off. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Cranial and caudal horn wear was greater for exercise cows than confinement and pasture cows. Exercise cows experienced more equal rates of horn growth and wear cranially. Confined cows tended to increase sole thickness from d 2 to 44, relative to dry-off. Frequent, short duration exercise on concrete did not impair the hoof health of late-gestation dry cows. Further, exercise may improve overall hoof health, potentially improving cow welfare. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular control during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R

    2003-01-01

    We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

  11. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain:Randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars L.; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard ...

  12. Multiaxis, Lightweight, Computer-Controlled Exercise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Leonard; Bachrach, Benjamin; Harvey, William

    2006-01-01

    The multipurpose, multiaxial, isokinetic dynamometer (MMID) is a computer-controlled system of exercise machinery that can serve as a means for quantitatively assessing a subject s muscle coordination, range of motion, strength, and overall physical condition with respect to a wide variety of forces, motions, and exercise regimens. The MMID is easily reconfigurable and compactly stowable and, in comparison with prior computer-controlled exercise systems, it weighs less, costs less, and offers more capabilities. Whereas a typical prior isokinetic exercise machine is limited to operation in only one plane, the MMID can operate along any path. In addition, the MMID is not limited to the isokinetic (constant-speed) mode of operation. The MMID provides for control and/or measurement of position, force, and/or speed of exertion in as many as six degrees of freedom simultaneously; hence, it can accommodate more complex, more nearly natural combinations of motions and, in so doing, offers greater capabilities for physical conditioning and evaluation. The MMID (see figure) includes as many as eight active modules, each of which can be anchored to a floor, wall, ceiling, or other fixed object. A cable is payed out from a reel in each module to a bar or other suitable object that is gripped and manipulated by the subject. The reel is driven by a DC brushless motor or other suitable electric motor via a gear reduction unit. The motor can be made to function as either a driver or an electromagnetic brake, depending on the required nature of the interaction with the subject. The module includes a force and a displacement sensor for real-time monitoring of the tension in and displacement of the cable, respectively. In response to commands from a control computer, the motor can be operated to generate a required tension in the cable, to displace the cable a required distance, or to reel the cable in or out at a required speed. The computer can be programmed, either locally or via

  13. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  14. Increasing Physical Activity in Mothers Using Video Exercise Groups and Exercise Mobile Apps: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya Nina; Chan, June Maylin; Vittinghoff, Eric; Van Blarigan, Erin Lynn; Hecht, Frederick

    2018-05-18

    Women significantly decrease their activity levels in the transition to motherhood. Digital health technologies are low cost, scalable, and can provide an effective delivery mechanism for behavior change. This is the first study that examines the use of videoconferencing and mobile apps to create exercise groups for mothers. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an individually adaptive and socially supportive physical activity intervention incorporating videoconferencing and mobile apps for mothers. The Moms Online Video Exercise Study was an 8-week, 2-armed, Web-based randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of a group exercise intervention with a waitlist control. Healthy mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 12 years were recruited through Facebook and email listservs. Intervention participants joined exercise groups using videoconferencing (Google Hangouts) every morning on weekdays and exercised together in real time, guided by exercise mobile apps (eg, Nike+, Sworkit) of their choice. Waitlist control participants had access to recommended mobile apps and an invitation to join an exercise group after the 8-week study period. Main outcomes assessed included changes in self-reported moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes per week in aggregate and stratified by whether women met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for sufficient aerobic activity at baseline. Outcomes were measured through self-assessed Web-based questionnaires at baseline and 8 weeks. The intervention was effective at increasing exercise for inactive women and proved to be feasible and acceptable to all participants. A total of 64 women were randomized, 30 to intervention and 34 to control. Women attended 2.8 sessions per week. There was a strong, but not statistically significant, trend toward increasing moderate, vigorous, and MVPA minutes for all women. As hypothesized, in

  15. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  16. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru; Tamura, Naoki

    2005-06-28

    Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  18. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Naoki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  19. Habitual exercise is associated with cognitive control and cognitive reappraisal success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Cantelon, Julie A; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Urry, Heather L; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-12-01

    Habitual exercise is associated with enhanced domain-general cognitive control, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, and working memory, all of which rely on the frontal cortex. However, whether regular exercise is associated with more specific aspects of cognitive control, such as the cognitive control of emotion, remains relatively unexplored. The present study employed a correlational design to determine whether level of habitual exercise was related to performance on the Stroop test measuring selective attention and response inhibition, the cognitive reappraisal task measuring cognitive reappraisal success, and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. 74 individuals (24 men, 50 women, age 18-32 years) participated. Higher habitual physical activity was associated with lower Stroop interference (indicating greater inhibitory control) and enhanced cognitive reappraisal success. Higher habitual exercise was also associated with lower oxygenated hemoglobin (O 2 Hb) in the PFC in response to emotional information. However, NIRS data indicated that exercise was not associated with cognitive control-associated O 2 Hb in the PFC. Behaviorally, the findings support and extend the previous findings that habitual exercise relates to more successful cognitive control of neutral information and cognitive reappraisal of emotional information. Future research should explore whether habitual exercise exerts causal benefits to cognitive control and PFC oxygenation, as well as isolate specific cognitive control processes sensitive to change through habitual exercise.

  20. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  1. Home exercise programmes supported by video and automated reminders compared with standard paper-based home exercise programmes in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Kellie B; Harding, Katherine E; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether patients with stroke receiving rehabilitation for upper limb deficits using smart technology (video and reminder functions) demonstrate greater adherence to prescribed home exercise programmes and better functional outcomes when compared with traditional paper-based exercise prescription. Randomized controlled trial comparing upper limb home exercise programmes supported by video and automated reminders on smart technology, with standard paper-based home exercise programmes. A community rehabilitation programme within a large metropolitan health service. Patients with stroke with upper limb deficits, referred for outpatient rehabilitation. Participants were randomly assigned to the control (paper-based home exercise programme) or intervention group (home exercise programme filmed on an electronic tablet, with an automated reminder). Both groups completed their prescribed home exercise programme for four weeks. The primary outcome was adherence using a self-reported log book. Secondary outcomes were change in upper limb function and patient satisfaction. A total of 62 participants were allocated to the intervention ( n = 30) and control groups ( n = 32). There were no differences between the groups for measures of adherence (mean difference 2%, 95% CI -12 to 17) or change in the Wolf Motor Function Test log transformed time (mean difference 0.02 seconds, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.1). There were no between-group differences in how participants found instructions ( p = 0.452), whether they remembered to do their exercises ( p = 0.485), or whether they enjoyed doing their exercises ( p = 0.864). The use of smart technology was not superior to standard paper-based home exercise programmes for patients recovering from stroke. This trial design was registered prospectively with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, ID: ACTRN 12613000786796. http://www.anzctr.org.au/trialSearch.aspx.

  2. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikura, Motoyasu; Yi, Siyan; Ichimura, Yasunori; Hori, Ai; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kudo, Koichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The proportions of total control (ACT = 25), well controlled (ACT = 20-24), and poorly controlled (ACT smoking status and alcohol drinking were not associated with asthma control. On the other hand, younger age (smoking, periodical exercise (> 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week), and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week) were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  3. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AND CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER AFTER CHRONIC EXERCISE RAT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Alp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand whether exercise and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has an effect on obesity and weight control, we investigated the effects of CAPE, and exercise on lipid parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and adipokine substances such as leptin and resistin in rats. 40 male rat were randomly assigned into 4 groups. It was determined that CAPE does not have any significant effect on these parameters but that lipid parameters and leptin values in exercise groups decreased considerably, while no significant change occurred in resistin levels. In order to understand whether diet has an effect on exercise, body weights of all animal groups in pre and post-exercise were compared. A significant weight gain was observed (p = 0.005 in all groups. This study concluded that exercise has a considerable effect on leptin and lipid parameters; however, exercise alone was not sufficient for weight control and could be effective in weight control only when accompanied by a restricted diet.

  4. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  5. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  6. Effects of exercise and respiration on blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Stenbøg, E

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about blood flow and its relationship to respiration during exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 11 patients 12.4+/-4.6 years (mean+/-SD) of age 5.9+/-2.8 years (mean+/-SD) after TCPC operation. Real-time MRI...

  7. Effect of lifestyle on asthma control in Japanese patients: importance of periodical exercise and raw vegetable diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT, and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The proportions of total control (ACT = 25, well controlled (ACT = 20-24, and poorly controlled (ACT 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week, and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.

  8. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  9. Regulation of oxidative stress in response to acute aerobic and resistance exercise in HIV-infected subjects: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deresz, L F; Sprinz, E; Kramer, A S; Cunha, G; de Oliveira, A R; Sporleder, H; de Freitas, D R J; Lazzarotto, A R; Dall'Ago, P

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects have increased levels of oxidative stress which could impair immunological function and therefore contribute to the progression of AIDS. These characteristics are usually evaluated at rest and responses to exercise have yet to be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a bout of aerobic exercise followed by resistance exercises on antioxidant system in HIV-infected and non-HIV subjects. There were included 14 cases (HIV-positive) and 14 controls (HIV-negative). The exercise protocol consisted of a single session of 20 minutes on a cycloergometer followed by a set of six resistance exercises. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase were measured in plasma samples, total glutathione (TGSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in erythrocytes. T CD4+ cells, T CD8+, viral load, complete blood count, and white blood count were also assessed. All measurements were performed at three times: baseline, after aerobic exercise, and after resistance exercises. At baseline, the HIV group had lower GST activity than controls, but after the exercise session GST values were similar in both groups. Compared to the control group TGSH was significantly lower in the HIV group at baseline, after aerobic and resistance exercises. The control group presented higher TBARS values after aerobic exercise compared to the HIV group. The neutrophil count was lower in the HIV group after aerobic and resistance exercises. These data indicate that HIV-infected subjects had lower antioxidant activity at rest. Physical exercise stimulated the enzymatic activity similarly in both groups.

  10. Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. health control reasons: the impact on eating disturbance and psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Gomes, A Rui

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise motivated by health and weight/shape reasons. In total, 301 participants (53.5% males) completed questionnaires assessing eating behaviors, affect, self-esteem and attitudes toward exercise. Almost 48% of the participants reported that their exercise is motivated by weight/shape reasons. These individuals were more likely to report eating problems and more positive affect after exercising. For both groups, gender, ideal weight, and the impact of weight gain on self-esteem significantly predict disordered eating. Body mass index, affect, and attitudes toward exercise also emerged as predictors for the health reasons group. Weight and shape control reasons for exercise participation were very common and related to eating disturbance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of a nurse-supervised home exercise programme on improving patients' perceptions of the benefits and barriers to exercise: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xingjuan; Chow, Susan Ka Yee; Wong, Frances Ky

    2017-09-01

    To explore the effects of a home exercise programme on patients' perceptions of the barriers and benefits to exercise and adherence to the programme. Great efforts have been made to encourage dialysis patients to participate in rehabilitation regimens. The promotion of exercise in this population is still limited. This was a post hoc analysis of a randomised, two-group parallel study. A total of 113 adult patients recruited from the haemodialysis units were randomised into two groups on a 1:1 ratio. Both groups received in-centre group exercise training weekly for 6 weeks. The intervention group patients were provided with an additional individualised nurse-led home exercise prescription and behavioural support for 12 weeks. The patients' perceptions of the barriers and benefits to exercise, adherence to the home exercise prescription and their exercise level at weeks 6 and 12 were evaluated. There was a significant between-group difference in the score on patient perceptions of the barriers and benefits to exercise, with the intervention group reporting a greater reduction in perceived barriers to exercise. Significant group differences were noted in exercise level upon the completion of the programme, with the intervention group reporting higher such levels. The average adherence rate to the negotiated exercise plans was 78.9%. The intervention group of patients did better at meeting or exceeding the minimum exercise goal than did the control group. Home exercise prescriptions and behavioural support provided by trained nurses are effective at helping patients to remove barriers to engaging in exercise training. Physical exercise in a clinical arena should not be considered the exclusive domain of physical therapists; the team could collaborate with nurses to play a core role in making physical exercise for patients an essential practice of care in a multidisciplinary team. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Theory-Based Exercise App to Enhance Exercise Adherence: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Elizabeth C; Oelke, Nelly D; Jung, Mary E

    2016-06-15

    Use of mobile health (mHealth) technology is on an exponential rise. mHealth apps have the capability to reach a large number of individuals, but until now have lacked the integration of evidence-based theoretical constructs to increase exercise behavior in users. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a theory-based, self-monitoring app on exercise and self-monitoring behavior over 8 weeks. A total of 56 adults (mean age 40 years, SD 13) were randomly assigned to either receive the mHealth app (experimental; n=28) or not to receive the app (control; n=28). All participants engaged in an exercise goal-setting session at baseline. Experimental condition participants received weekly short message service (SMS) text messages grounded in social cognitive theory and were encouraged to self-monitor exercise bouts on the app on a daily basis. Exercise behavior, frequency of self-monitoring exercise behavior, self-efficacy to self-monitor, and self-management of exercise behavior were collected at baseline and at postintervention. Engagement in exercise bouts was greater in the experimental condition (mean 7.24, SD 3.40) as compared to the control condition (mean 4.74, SD 3.70, P=.03, d=0.70) at week 8 postintervention. Frequency of self-monitoring increased significantly over the 8-week investigation between the experimental and control conditions (Pcomparison to those in the control condition (mean 1.95, SD 2.58, Psocial cognitive theory into an mHealth exercise self-monitoring app provides support for future research to feasibly integrate theoretical constructs into existing exercise apps. In addition, findings provide preliminary support for theory-based apps to increase self-monitoring and exercise behavior in comparison to a control, no-app condition.

  13. Neural control of blood flow during exercise in human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Barbara J; Sebranek, Joshua J; Proctor, Lester T; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-01

    α-Adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is greater during simulated exercise in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) when compared with control animals. In an attempt to translate such findings to humans, we hypothesized that adults with MetSyn (n = 14, 35 ± 3 years old) would exhibit greater α-adrenergic responsiveness during exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 16, 31 ± 3 years old). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) and forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) during dynamic forearm exercise (15% of maximal voluntary contraction). α-Adrenergic agonists (phenylephrine and clonidine) and an antagonist (phentolamine) were infused intra-arterially to assess α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness and restraint, respectively. Resting MSNA was ∼35% higher in adults with MetSyn (P exercise. Clonidine-mediated vasoconstriction was greater in adults with MetSyn (P  0.05). Interestingly, exercise-mediated vasodilatation was greater in MetSyn (P exercise blood flow during low-intensity hand-grip exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. These results suggest that adults with MetSyn exhibit compensatory vascular control mechanisms capable of preserving blood flow responses to exercise in the face of augmented sympathetic adrenergic activity. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ji Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results: In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  15. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  16. [Silent myocardial ischemia and exercise-induced arrhythmia detected by the exercise test in the total health promotion plan (THP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwane, M; Shibe, Y; Itoh, K; Kinoshita, F; Kanagawa, Y; Kobayashi, M; Mugitani, K; Ohta, M; Ohata, H; Yoshikawa, A; Ikuta, Z; Nakamura, Y; Mohara, O

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ischemic heart disease especially silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and arrhythmia in need of careful observation in the exercise stress tests in the Total Health Promotion Plan (THP), which was conducted between 1994-96 for the purpose of measuring cardiopulmonary function. All workers (n = 4,918, 4,426 males) aged 18-60 yr old in an occupational field were studied. Exercise tests with an ergometer were performed by the LOPS protocol, in which the maximal workload was set up as a presumed 70-80% maximal oxygen intake, or STEP (original multistage protocol). ECG changes were evaluated with a CC5 lead. Two hundred and fifteen people refused the study because of a common cold, lumbago and so on. Of 4,703 subjects, 17 with abnormal rest ECG and 19 with probable anginal pain were excluded from the exercise tests. Of 4,667 who underwent the exercise test, 37 (0.79%) had ischemic ECG change, and 155 (3.32%) had striking arrhythmia. These 228 subjects then did a treadmill exercise test with Bruce protocol. Twenty-two (0.47% of 4,703) showed positive ECG change, 9 (0.19%) of 22 had abnormal findings on a 201Tl scan. 8 (0.17%) were diagnosed as SMI (Cohn I), in which the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoker and positive familial history of ischemic heart disease was greater than that of all subjects. In a 15-30 month follow up, none has developed cardiac accidents. Exercise-induced arrhythmia was detected in 11 (0.23%) subjects. Four were non-sustained ventricular tachycardia without any organic disease, 4 were ventricular arrhythmia based on cardiomyopathy detected by echocardiography, 2 were atrial fibrillation and another was WPW syndrome. It is therefore likely that the ergometer exercise test in THP was effective in preventing sudden death caused by ischemic heart disease or striking arrhythmia.

  17. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  18. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L F D; Carvalho, Celso R F; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  19. Fall Preventive Exercise With or Without Behavior Change Support for Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial With Short-Term Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-02-27

    In Western countries, falls and fall-related injuries are a well-known threat to health in the aging population. Studies indicate that regular exercise improves strength and balance and can therefore decrease the incidence of falls and fall-related injuries. The challenge, however, is to provide exercise programs that are safe, effective, and attractive to the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of a home-based exercise program with or without motivational interviewing (MI) compared with standard care on physical performance, fall self-efficacy, balance, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency. A total of 175 older adults participated in this randomized controlled study. They were randomly allocated for the Otago Exercise Program (OEP) (n = 61), OEP combined with MI (n = 58), or a control group (n = 56). The participants' mean age was 83 years. The recruitment period was from October 2012 to May 2015. Measurements of physical performance, fall self-efficacy, balance, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency were done before and 12 weeks after randomization. A total of 161 participants were followed up, and there were no significant differences between groups after a period of 12 weeks of regular exercise. Within the OEP + MI group, physical performance, fall self-efficacy, physical activity level, and handgrip strength improved significantly; likewise, improved physical performance and fall self-efficacy were found in the control group. A corresponding difference did not occur in the OEP group. Adherence to the exercise was generally high in both exercise groups. In the short-term perspective, there were no benefits of an exercise program with or without MI regarding physical performance, fall self-efficacy, activity level, handgrip strength, adherence to the exercise, and fall frequency in comparison to a control group. However, some small

  20. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  1. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Henríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW. A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT and eight moderately trained (MT, who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s, and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1 analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s. Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05 and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05 and SD145-60s (p <0.05. The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.

  2. HEART: heart exercise and remote technologies: A randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Geoffrey

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is aimed at improving health behaviors to slow or reverse the progression of CVD disease. Exercise is a central element of CR. Technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet (mHealth offer potential to overcome many of the psychological, physical, and geographical barriers that have been associated with lack of participation in exercise-based CR. We aim to trial the effectiveness of a mobile phone delivered exercise-based CR program to increase exercise capacity and functional outcomes compared with usual CR care in adults with CVD. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. Methods A single-blinded parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. A total of 170 people will be randomized at 1:1 ratio either to receive a mHealth CR program or usual care. Participants are identified by CR nurses from two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand through outpatient clinics and existing databases. Consenting participants are contacted to attend a baseline assessment. The intervention consists of a theory-based, personalized, automated package of text and video message components via participants' mobile phones and the Internet to increase exercise behavior, delivered over six months. The control group will continue with usual CR. Data collection occurs at baseline and 24 weeks (post-intervention. The primary outcome is change in maximal oxygen uptake from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include post-intervention measures on self-reported physical activity (IPAQ, cardiovascular risk factors (systolic blood pressure, weight, and waist to hip ratio, health related quality of life (SF-36, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a mHealth exercise-based CR program. Results of this trial will provide much needed

  3. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  4. OBESITY: CHALLENGES TO VENTILATORY CONTROL DURING EXERCISE A BRIEF REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tony G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a national health issue in the US. Among the many physiological changes induced by obesity, it also presents a unique challenge to ventilatory control during exercise due to increased metabolic demand of moving larger limbs, increased work of breathing due to extra weight on the chest wall, and changes in breathing mechanics. These challenges to ventilatory control in obesity can be inconspicuous or overt among obese adults but for the most part adaptation of ventilatory control during exercise in obesity appears remarkably unnoticed in the majority of obese people. In this brief review, the changes to ventilatory control required for maintaining normal ventilation during exercise will be examined, especially the interaction between respiratory neural drive and ventilation. Also, gaps in our current knowledge will be discussed. PMID:23707540

  5. The feasibility of an exercise intervention in males at risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M Winzer

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility and safety of a 24-week exercise intervention, compared to control, in males with Barrett's oesophagus, and to estimate the effect of the intervention, compared to control, on risk factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma development.A randomized controlled trial of an exercise intervention (60 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions versus attention control (45 minutes stretching five days/week over 24 weeks; one supervised and four unsupervised sessions in inactive, overweight/obese (25.0-34.9 kg/m2 males with Barrett's oesophagus, aged 18-70 years. Primary outcomes were obesity-associated hormones relevant to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance [HOMA]. Secondary outcomes included waist circumference, body composition, fitness, strength and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 24-weeks. Intervention effects were analysed using generalised linear models, adjusting for baseline value.Recruitment was difficult in this population with a total of 33 participants recruited (target sample size: n = 80; 97% retention at 24-weeks. Adherence to the exercise protocol was moderate. No serious adverse events were reported. A statistically significant intervention effect (exercise minus control was observed for waist circumference (-4.5 [95% CI -7.5, -1.4] cm; p < 0.01. Effects on primary outcomes were not statistically significant.This small, exploratory trial provides important information to inform future trial development including recruitment rates and estimates of effect sizes on outcomes related to oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Future trials should investigate a combined dietary and exercise intervention to achieve greater weight loss in this

  6. Abnormal Neurocirculatory Control During Exercise in Humans with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neurocirculatory control during exercise is one important mechanism leading to exercise intolerance in patients with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will provide an overview of mechanisms underlying abnormal neurocirculatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies have shown that ESRD and CKD patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during both isometric and rhythmic exercise. Subsequent studies examining the role of the exercise pressor reflex in the augmented pressor response revealed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was not augmented during exercise in these patients, and metaboreflex-mediated increases in MSNA were blunted, while mechanoreflex-mediated increases were preserved under basal conditions. However, normalizing the augmented BP response during exercise via infusion of nitroprusside (NTP), and thereby equalizing baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA, an important modulator of the final hemodynamic response to exercise, revealed that CKD patients had an exaggerated increase in MSNA during isometric and rhythmic exercise. In addition, mechanoreflex-mediated control was augmented, and metaboreceptor blunting was no longer apparent in CKD patients with baroreflex normalization. Factors leading to mechanoreceptor sensitization, and other mechanisms underlying the exaggerated exercise pressor response, such as impaired functional sympatholysis, should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25458430

  7. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  8. Dimensions of Compulsive Exercise across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Subtypes and the Validation of the Spanish Version of the Compulsive Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauchelli, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET); a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to validate the Spanish version of the CET; (2) to compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; (3) to explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder [40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa (BN), and 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS)] and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. BN and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control, and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the BN and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales avoidance and rule

  9. Exercise to Enhance Smoking Cessation: the Getting Physical on Cigarette Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapavessis, Harry; De Jesus, Stefanie; Fitzgeorge, Lindsay; Faulkner, Guy; Maddison, Ralph; Batten, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Exercise has been proposed as a useful smoking cessation aid. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention program, with built-in maintenance components, on post-intervention 14-, 26- and 56-week cessation rates. Female cigarette smokers (n = 413) participating in a supervised exercise and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) smoking cessation program were randomized to one of four conditions: exercise + smoking cessation maintenance, exercise maintenance + contact control, smoking cessation maintenance + contact control or contact control. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence. Abstinence differences were found between the exercise and equal contact non-exercise maintenance groups at weeks 14 (57 vs 43 %), 26 (27 vs 21 %) and 56 (26 vs 23.5 %), respectively. Only the week 14 difference approached significance, p = 0.08. An exercise-aided NRT smoking cessation program with built-in maintenance components enhances post-intervention cessation rates at week 14 but not at weeks 26 and 56.

  10. Therapeutic exercises for the control of temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto da Rocha Moraes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a multifactorial disease. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an accurate and correct diagnosis. In this context, conservative treatments, including therapeutic exercises classified as stretching, relaxation, coordination, strengthening and endurance, are oftentimes prescribed. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of the present article was to conduct a literature review concerning the types of exercises available and the efficacy for the treatment of muscular TMD. METHODS: The review included researches carried out between 2000 and 2010, indexed on Web of Science, PubMed, LILACS and BBO. Moreover, the following keywords were used: Exercise, physical therapy, facial pain, myofascial pain syndrome, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. Studies that did not consider the subject "TMD and exercises", used post-surgery exercises and did not use validated criteria for the diagnosis of TMD (RDC/TMD were not included. RESULTS: The results comprised seven articles which proved therapeutic exercises to be effective for the treatment of muscular TMD. However, these studies are seen as limited, since therapeutic exercises were not applied alone, but in association with other conservative procedures. In addition, they present some drawbacks such as: Small samples, lack of control group and no detailed exercise description which should have included intensity, repetition, frequency and duration. CONCLUSION: Although therapeutic exercises are considered effective in the management of muscular TMD, the development of randomized clinical trials is necessary, since many existing studies are still based on the clinical experience of professionals.

  11. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donker Marieke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD. Method Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands were included between September 2003 and December 2005, and followed up for 12 weeks. Intervention: the patients were referred to a physical therapist for instruction in and monitoring of physical exercise of an intermediate intensity. Following the Dutch Guidelines for Healthy Physical Exercise, the patients were instructed to exercise at least five times a week, for at least 30 minutes per day. Control group: usual care from the GP Outcome Primary: improvement of general health after 6 weeks according to the 'general health' dimension of the Short-Form 36. Secondary: total days off work, percentage that resumed work after 6 and 12 weeks, change in distress score and change in remaining SF36 dimensions after 6 and 12 weeks. Results out of 102 randomised patients (mean age 43, 60 (59% female, 70 (68% completed the trial, of whom 31 were in the intervention group. After 6 weeks, the mean (SD general health score was 54.6 (22.1 for the intervention group and 57.5 (19.2 for the controls. The corresponding effect size (Cohen's d with 95% confidence interval from analysis of covariance was -0.06 (-0.41, 0.30 indicating no effect on general health. No significant effects of the intervention were detected for any secondary outcome parameter either. Conclusion Notwithstanding the relatively high drop-out rate, our results suggest that referral to a physical therapist for structured physical exercise is not likely to be very effective in improving recovery from SMD. Trial registry Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15609105

  12. Closed Loop Control Compact Exercise Device for Use on MPCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Chris; Funk, Justin; Funk, Nathan; Kutnick, Gilead; Humphreys, Brad; Bruinsma, Douwe; Perusek, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. To combat spaceflight physiological deconditioning, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimens for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the mass and volume available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact exercise device prototypes are being developed for human in the loop evaluations. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is managing Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation for all exploration mission profiles from Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) exploration missions (e.g., EM-2, up to 21 day) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day) missions. Numerous technologies have been considered and evaluated against HRP-approved functional requirements and include flywheel, pneumatic and closed-loop microprocessor-controlled motor driven power plants. Motor driven technologies offer excellent torque density and load accuracy characteristics as well as the ability to create custom mechanical impedance (the dynamic relationship between force and velocity) and custom load versus position exercise algorithms. Further, closed-loop motor-driven technologies offer the ability to monitor exercise dose parameters and adapt to the needs of the crewmember for real time optimization of exercise prescriptions. A simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is demonstrated in a prototype motor driven exercise device with comparison to resistive static and dynamic load set points and aerobic work rate targets. The resistive load term in the algorithm includes a constant force component (Fcmg) as well as inertial component (Fima) and a discussion of system tuning is presented

  13. Effects of chin tuck against resistance exercise versus Shaker exercise on dysphagia and psychological state after cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of stroke is high in China. The dysphagia caused by cerebral infarction (CI), seriously affects patients' life quality, and even endangers patients' lives. It is necessary to explore how to improve dysphagia caused by CI. To compare the effects of rehabilitation training on dysphagia and psychological state after CI between Shaker exercise and chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise. Control study. Blind. Inpatients. A total of 90 patients with dysphagia after CI were divided into CTAR group, Shaker group and control group by random digit table (each group with 30 patients). Video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were performed on all patients before intervention. VFSS was evaluated based on Penetration-Aspiration Scale. All patients received routine treatments including internal medicine, traditional rehabilitation training and routine nursing. The patients in control group only receive the routine treatments. Besides the routine treatments, the patients in CTAR group also received CTAR exercise, and the patients in Shaker group also received Shaker exercise. VFSS was performed again on all patients, respectively, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after exercise. SDS was performed again on all patients 6 weeks after exercise. There were no statistical differences amongst the three groups in VFSS and SDS before intervention (P>0.05). After intervention, all patients had various degrees of improvement for dysphagia in the three groups, especially between 2 and 4 weeks in CTAR and Shaker groups. The total effective rate was significantly higher in CTAR group (86.67%) and Shaker group (76.67%) than in control group (43.33%) (all Pdysphagia after CI, CTAR exercise can significantly relieve depression and has the similar effect on improving swallowing function as compared with Shaker group. This study suggests that in conscious patients CTAR exercises have greater impact on CI-related depression than Shaker exercises.

  14. Early self-managed focal sensorimotor rehabilitative training enhances functional mobility and sensorimotor function in patients following total knee replacement: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutzouri, Maria; Gleeson, Nigel; Coutts, Fiona; Tsepis, Elias; John, Gliatis

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effects of early self-managed focal sensorimotor training compared to functional exercise training after total knee replacement on functional mobility and sensorimotor function. A single-blind controlled clinical trial. University Hospital of Rion, Greece. A total of 52 participants following total knee replacement. The primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go Test and the secondary outcomes were balance, joint position error, the Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale, and pain. Patients were assessed on three separate occasions (presurgery, 8 weeks post surgery, and 14 weeks post surgery). Participants were randomized to either focal sensorimotor exercise training (experimental group) or functional exercise training (control group). Both groups received a 12-week home-based programme prescribed for 3-5 sessions/week (35-45 minutes). Consistently greater improvements ( F 2,98  = 4.3 to 24.8; P effect size range of 1.3-6.5. Overall, the magnitude of improvements in functional mobility and sensorimotor function endorses using focal sensorimotor training as an effective mode of rehabilitation following knee replacement.

  15. Effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenji; Makizako, Hyuma; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Suzukawa, Megumi

    2017-05-30

    Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults. A total of 24 elderly women (75-83 years old) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. Those in the intervention group attended 3 months of biweekly 90-min sessions focused on aerobic exercise, strength training, and physical therapy. We monitored changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during walking in both groups using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). All subjects completed the 3-month experiment and the adherence to the exercise program was 100%. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly greater step length in the right foot after 3 months of physical activity. The FDG-PET assessment revealed a significant post-intervention increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left posterior entorhinal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior temporopolar area in the intervention group. Interestingly, the control group showed a relative increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left premotor and supplemental motor areas, left and right somatosensory association cortex, and right primary visual cortex after the 3-month period. We found no significant differences in FDG uptake between the intervention and control groups before vs. after the intervention. Exercise training increased activity in specific brain regions, such as the precuneus and entorhinal cortices, which play an important role in episodic and spatial memory. Further

  16. Obesity: challenges to ventilatory control during exercise--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tony G

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a national health issue in the US. Among the many physiological changes induced by obesity, it also presents a unique challenge to ventilatory control during exercise due to increased metabolic demand of moving larger limbs, increased work of breathing due to extra weight on the chest wall, and changes in breathing mechanics. These challenges to ventilatory control in obesity can be inconspicuous or overt among obese adults but for the most part adaptation of ventilatory control during exercise in obesity appears remarkably unnoticed in the majority of obese people. In this brief review, the changes to ventilatory control required for maintaining normal ventilation during exercise will be examined, especially the interaction between respiratory neural drive and ventilation. Also, gaps in our current knowledge will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CoDuSe group exercise programme improves balance and reduces falls in people with multiple sclerosis: A multi-centre, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2017-09-01

    Imbalance leading to falls is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). To evaluate the effects of a balance group exercise programme (CoDuSe) on balance and walking in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, 4.0-7.5). A multi-centre, randomized, controlled single-blinded pilot study with random allocation to early or late start of exercise, with the latter group serving as control group for the physical function measures. In total, 14 supervised 60-minute exercise sessions were delivered over 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest analyses were conducted for self-reported near falls and falls in the group starting late. Primary outcome was Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A total of 51 participants were initially enrolled; three were lost to follow-up. Post-intervention, the exercise group showed statistically significant improvement ( p = 0.015) in BBS and borderline significant improvement in MS Walking Scale ( p = 0.051), both with large effect sizes (3.66; -2.89). No other significant differences were found between groups. In the group starting late, numbers of falls and near falls were statistically significantly reduced after exercise compared to before ( p balance and reduced perceived walking limitations, compared to no exercise. The intervention reduced falls and near falls frequency.

  18. Preoperative therapeutic exercise in frail elderly scheduled for total hip replacement: A randomized pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, T.J.; Dronkers, J.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Oosting, E.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of therapeutic exercise before total hip replacement in frail elderly. Design: A single-blind, randomized clinical pilot trial. Setting: Outpatient physiotherapy department. Subjects: Frail elderly with hip osteoarthritis awaiting

  19. Comparison of the effect of acupressure and pilates-based exercises on sleep quality of postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahmadinezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal women experience a variety of symptoms, among which sleep disorder is one of the most common problems. Acupressure and Pilates exercise programs are effective nonpharmaceutical treatments which can improve sleep quality. In the present study, we aimed to compare the effects of acupressure and Pilates-based exercises on the sleep quality of postmenopausal women referred to medical clinics. Materials and Methods: In this single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial, we recruited 108 women aged 40–60 years who were randomly assigned into one control and two intervention groups using balanced block randomization method (three groups of 36 each. The patients in the Pilates exercise group participated in an exercise training program of three 1-hour sessions per week for 6 consecutive weeks. The participants of acupressure group received acupressure intervention three times a week for 6 weeks. The sleep quality of all participants was assessed and recorded using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI once before and once after the intervention. Results: The results showed no statistically significant difference among the three groups on the total scores of sleep quality after the intervention. The intragroup comparison revealed that the changes in the mean total scores were significant in both the intervention groups (P < 0.001 but not in the control group (P = 0.76. Conclusions: Pilates-based exercises and acupressure can effectively improve women's sleep quality. Both techniques can be applied as effective alternative and complementary methods for improving sleep quality during the postmenopausal period.

  20. Effect of brief daily exercise on headache among adults--secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates secondary outcomes (headache) in a randomized controlled trial with physical exercise among office workers with neck/shoulder pain. METHODS: A total of 198 office workers with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly allocated to either one of two intervention...... were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Two minutes of daily resistance training for ten weeks reduces headache frequency among office workers with neck/shoulder pain. The vast number of adult workers suffering from one or two days of weekly headaches and who could potentially comply with and benefit from brief...... exercise programs stresses the applicability of our findings....

  1. The effectiveness of the use of a digital activity coaching system in addition to a two-week home-based exercise program in patients after total knee arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmelink, Karen E M; Zeegers, A V C M; Tönis, Thijs M; Hullegie, Wim; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart

    2017-07-05

    There is consistent evidence that supervised programs are not superior to home-based programs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), especially in patients without complications. Home-based exercise programs are effective, but we hypothesize that their effectiveness can be improved by increasing the adherence to physical therapy advice to reach an adequate exercise level during the program and thereafter. Our hypothesis is that an activity coaching system (accelerometer-based activity sensor), alongside a home-based exercise program, will increase adherence to exercises and the activity level, thereby improving physical functioning and recovery. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an activity coaching system in addition to a home-based exercise program after a TKA compared to only the home-based exercise program with physical functioning as outcome. This study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Both the intervention (n = 55) and the control group (n = 55) receive a two-week home-based exercise program, and the intervention group receives an additional activity coaching system. This is a hand-held electronic device together with an app on a smartphone providing information and advice on exercise behavior during the day. The primary outcome is physical functioning, measured with the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) after two weeks, six weeks and three months. Secondary outcomes are 1) adherence to the activity level (activity diary); 2) physical functioning, measured with the 2-Minute Walk Test (2MWT) and the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; 3) quality of life (SF-36); 4) healthcare use up to one year postoperatively and 5) cost-effectiveness. Data are collected preoperatively, three days, two and six weeks, three months and one year postoperatively. The strengths of the study are the use of both performance-based tests and self-reported questionnaires and the personalized tailored program after TKA given by specialized physical

  2. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Gustavo Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18–65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM. The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on

  3. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélio Gustavo; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Valentim, Daniela Pereira; da Silva, Patricia Rodrigues; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2016-12-22

    Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18-65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE) comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM). The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on adherence to the program, which may result in significant and

  4. Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000), the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; M age = 20.31, SD = 3.10) completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition), passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive), and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

  5. Influence of Goal Contents on Exercise Addiction: Analysing the Mediating Effect of Passion for Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicilia Álvaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985, 2000, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise goal contents on exercise addiction, taking into account the mediating effects of passion for exercise. A total of 384 university students (284 men and 100 women; Mage = 20.31, SD = 3.10 completed a questionnaire that measured exercise frequency and intensity, exercise goal contents (e.g. intrinsic: social affiliation, health management, skill development; extrinsic: image and social recognition, passion for exercise (e.g. harmonious and obsessive, and exercise addiction. After controlling the exercise frequency and intensity effects, results showed that goal contents did not directly predict exercise addiction. However, mediation analysis showed that goal contents predicted addiction through passion for exercise. These results support a motivational sequence in which extrinsic versus intrinsic goals influence exercise addiction because such goals are positively associated with obsessive passion for exercise and negatively associated with harmonious passion.

  6. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on additional core stability exercises training for improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Mª; du Port de Pontcharra-Serra, Helena; German-Romero, Ana; Urrútia, Gerard

    2017-11-01

    Analyse the effect of core stability exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy training three months after the intervention ended. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient services. Seventy-nine stroke survivors. In the intervention period, both groups underwent conventional physiotherapy performed five days/week for five weeks, and in addition the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 minutes/day. Afterwards, during a three-month follow-up period, both groups underwent usual care that could eventually include conventional physiotherapy or physical exercise but not in a controlled condition. Primary outcome was trunk control and dynamic sitting balance assessed by the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0 and Function in Sitting Test. Secondary outcomes were standing balance and gait evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Brunel Balance Assessment, Spanish-Version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke and activities of daily living using the Barthel Index. A total of 68 subjects out of 79 completed the three-month follow-up period. The mean difference (SD) between groups was 0.78 (1.51) points ( p = 0.003) for total score on the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0, 2.52 (6.46) points ( p = 0.009) for Function in Sitting Test, dynamic standing balance was 3.30 (9.21) points ( p= 0.009) on the Berg Balance Scale, gait was 0.82 (1.88) points ( p = 0.002) by Brunel Balance Assessment (stepping), and 1.11 (2.94) points ( p = 0.044) by Tinetti Test (gait), all in favour of core stability exercises. Core stability exercises plus conventional physiotherapy have a positive long-term effect on improving dynamic sitting and standing balance and gait in post-stroke patients.

  7. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luciana G; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Chris G; Hodges, Paul W; Nicholas, Michael; Tonkin, Lois; McAuley, James H; Stafford, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week) and function (patient-specific functional scale) at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415 PMID:18454877

  8. Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuley James H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem in Australia and around the world. Unfortunately the majority of treatments for this condition produce small effects because not all patients respond to each treatment. It appears that only 25–50% of patients respond to exercise. The two most popular types of exercise for low back pain are graded activity and motor control exercises. At present however, there are no guidelines to help clinicians select the best treatment for a patient. As a result, time and money are wasted on treatments which ultimately fail to help the patient. Methods This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week and function (patient-specific functional scale at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline. Discussion This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient. Trial registration number ACTRN12607000432415

  9. [Psychological distress and personality characteristics among individuals with primary exercise dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenni; Clementi, Cecilia; Grandi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess both psychological distress and personality characteristics associat with primary exercise dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), Muscle Dysmorphia Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found in the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as in the EDI-2 total score and 5 of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (n=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (n=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, as well as lower self-directness. Furthermore, primary exercise dependents scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the MDQ total score and the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to controls. These findings highlight the importance of performing a clinical assessment of psychological symptoms and personality characteristics that might be associated with primary exercise dependence.

  10. Comparison of control fasting plasma glucose of exercise-only versus exercise-diet among a pre-diabetic population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Wu, J; Wang, G; Persuitte, G; Ma, Y; Zou, L; Zhang, L; Zhao, M; Wang, J; Lan, Qin; Liu, Z; Fan, H; Li, J

    2016-04-01

    Exercise is considered a protective factor in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, although its role as a sole treatment for pre-diabetes remains unknown. The present meta-analysis compared the effect of exercise-only with exercise-diet interventions on plasma glucose levels among a pre-diabetic population. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the quality of each trial. Two reviewers independently performed quality assessment of all included articles. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled effect. A total of 4021 participants from 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis, 2045 of them were in the intervention group and 1976 were in the control group. Compared with the exercise-only interventions, the exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) =-0.22 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25, -0.18 (Z=12.06, Pexercise-only interventions did not produce a statistically significant result (WMD=-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.18, 0.00, Z=1.91, P>0.05). According to the intervention periods, the pooled effect in the ⩾2-year group was the highest, and its WMD (95% CI) was -0.24 mmol/l (-0.43,-0.05). The pooled effects were statistically significant among the elderly and those of American and European descent, with WMD (95% CI) being -0.19 mmol/l (95% CI: -0.22, -0.15), -0.17 mmol/l (-0.21,-0.12) and -0.22 mmol/l (-0.27, -0.17), respectively. Evidence from published trials indicates that exercise-diet interventions showed a significant effect on decreasing FPG levels.

  11. Facial exercises for facial rejuvenation: a control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Marie-Camille; Van den Brande, Helen; Boone, Barbara; Van Borsel, John

    2013-01-01

    Facial exercises are a noninvasive alternative to medical approaches to facial rejuvenation. Logopedists could be involved in providing these exercises. Little research has been conducted, however, on the effectiveness of exercises for facial rejuvenation. This study assessed the effectiveness of 4 exercises purportedly reducing wrinkles and sagging of the facial skin. A control group study was conducted with 18 participants, 9 of whom (the experimental group) underwent daily training for 7 weeks. Pictures taken before and after 7 weeks of 5 facial areas (forehead, nasolabial folds, area above the upper lip, jawline and area under the chin) were evaluated by a panel of laypersons. In addition, the participants of the experimental group evaluated their own pictures. Evaluation included the pairwise presentation of pictures before and after 7 weeks and scoring of the same pictures by means of visual analogue scales in a random presentation. Only one significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. In the experimental group, the picture after therapy of the upper lip was more frequently chosen to be the younger-looking one by the panel. It cannot be concluded that facial exercises are effective. More systematic research is needed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Improving Symptoms of Individuals With Schizophrenia: A Single Blinded Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Wei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotic treatment can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia; however, residual symptoms after antipsychotic treatment are frequent. The effects of exercise on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients under antipsychotic treatment are inconclusive. The aim of this randomized case-control study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise (AE on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In total, 33 and 29 participants being treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia were randomly assigned into the aerobic exercise (AE group and the control group, respectively. The severities of schizophrenic symptoms were measured using the Chinese version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention in both groups.Results: In total, 24 participants (72.7% in the AE group and 22 (75.9% in the control group completed the study. The results indicated that the severities of positive symptoms and general psychopathology in the AE group significantly decreased during the 12 weeks of intervention but did not further significantly change during the 3-month follow-up period. The severities of negative symptoms in the AE group decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention and continued decreasing during the 3-month follow-up period. Interaction effects between time and group on the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales were observed.Conclusion: AE can improve the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales in individuals with schizophrenia being treated with antipsychotics.

  13. The effectiveness of core stabilization exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Gözde; Ayhan, Cigdem; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-06-01

    Core stabilization training is used to improve postural balance in musculoskeletal problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of stabilization training in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A randomized controlled trial, pretest-posttest design. In total, 25 subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were randomly divided into two groups: stabilization group ( n = 12) and control group ( n = 13). The stabilization group received core stabilization in addition to traditional rehabilitation, and the control group received traditional rehabilitation for 10 weeks. Assessment included Cobb's angle on radiograph, apical vertebral rotation in Adam's test, trunk asymmetry (Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index), cosmetic trunk deformity (Trunk Appearance Perception Scale), and quality of life (Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire). Inter-group comparisons showed significantly greater improvements in the mean change in lumbar apical vertebral rotation degree and the pain domain of Scoliosis Research Society-22 in the stabilization group than those in the control group ( p adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical relevance Stabilization exercises are more effective in reducing rotation deformity and pain than traditional exercises in the conservative rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These improvements suggest that stabilization training should be added to rehabilitation programs in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  14. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  15. Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Colleen G; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T; Heritier, Stephane; Heller, Gillian Z; Howard, Kirsten; Allen, Natalie E; Latt, Mark D; Murray, Susan M; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Paul, Serene S; Song, Jooeun; Fung, Victor S C

    2015-01-20

    To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease. Two hundred thirty-one people with Parkinson disease were randomized into exercise or usual-care control groups. Exercises were practiced for 40 to 60 minutes, 3 times weekly for 6 months. Primary outcomes were fall rates and proportion of fallers during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes were physical (balance, mobility, freezing of gait, habitual physical activity), psychological (fear of falling, affect), and quality-of-life measures. There was no significant difference between groups in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.17, p = 0.18) or proportion of fallers (p = 0.45). Preplanned subgroup analysis revealed a significant interaction for disease severity (p falls in the exercise group compared with controls (IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.62, p falls in the exercise group (IRR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.86-3.03, p = 0.13). Postintervention, the exercise group scored significantly (p controls on the Short Physical Performance Battery, sit-to-stand, fear of falling, affect, and quality of life, after adjusting for baseline performance. An exercise program targeting balance, leg strength, and freezing of gait did not reduce falls but improved physical and psychological health. Falls were reduced in people with milder disease but not in those with more severe Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with Parkinson disease, a minimally supervised exercise program does not reduce fall risk. This study lacked the precision to exclude a moderate reduction or modest increase in fall risk from exercise. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000303347). © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Post-Exercise Protein Trial: Interactions between Diet and Exercise (PEPTIDE): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghannam, Abdullah F; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James; Betts, James A

    2014-11-24

    Performing regular exercise is known to manifest a number of health benefits that mainly relate to cardiovascular and muscular adaptations to allow for greater oxygen extraction and utilization. There is increasing evidence that nutrient intake can affect the adaptive response to a single exercise bout, and that protein feeding is important to facilitate this process. Thus, the exercise-nutrient interaction may potentially lead to a greater response to training. The role of post-exercise protein ingestion in enhancing the effects of running-based endurance exercise training relative to energy-matched carbohydrate intervention remains to be established. Additionally, the influence of immediate versus overnight protein ingestion in mediating these training effects is currently unknown. The current protocol aims to establish whether post-exercise nutrient intake and timing would influence the magnitude of improvements during a prescribed endurance training program. The project involves two phases with each involving two treatment arms applied in a randomized investigator-participant double-blind parallel group design. For each treatment, participants will be required to undergo six weeks of running-based endurance training. Immediately post-exercise, participants will be prescribed solutions providing 0.4 grams per kilogram of body mass (g · kg(-1)) of whey protein hydrolysate plus 0.4 g · kg(-1) sucrose, relative to an isocaloric sucrose control (0.8 g · kg(-1); Phase I). In Phase II, identical protein supplements will be provided (0.4 + 0.4 g · kg(-1) · h(-1) of whey protein hydrolysate and sucrose, respectively), with the timing of ingestion manipulated to compare immediate versus overnight recovery feedings. Anthropometric, expired gas, venous blood and muscle biopsy samples will be obtained at baseline and following the six-week training period. By investigating the role of nutrition in enhancing the effects of endurance exercise training, we will provide

  17. Effects of exercise and diet in nonobese asthma patients - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Meteran, Howraman; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied...... the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS: Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1...... of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV1...

  18. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  19. DIMENSIONS OF COMPULSIVE EXERCISE ACROSS EATING DISORDER DIAGNOSTIC SUBTYPES AND THE VALIDATION OF THE SPANISH VERSION OF THE COMPULSIVE EXERCISE TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sauchelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Compulsive exercise in eating disorders has been traditionally considered as a behavior that serves the purpose of weight/shape control. More recently, it has been postulated that there may be other factors that drive the compulsive need to exercise. This has led to the development of the Compulsive Exercise Test (CET; a self-reported questionnaire that aims to explore the cognitive-behavioral underpinnings of compulsive exercise from a multi-faceted perspective. The objectives of this study were threefold: 1 To validate the Spanish version of the CET; 2 To compare eating disorder diagnostic subtypes and a healthy control group in terms of the factors that drive compulsive exercise as defined by the CET; 3 To explore how the dimensions evaluated in the CET are associated with eating disorder symptoms and general psychopathology. Methods: The CET was administered to a total of 157 patients with an eating disorder (40 anorexia nervosa, 56 bulimia nervosa, 61 eating disorder not-otherwise-specified (EDNOS and 128 healthy weight/eating controls. Patients were assessed via a semi-structured interview to reach a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Additionally, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit to the original five-factor model of the CET. Bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients scored higher in the avoidance and rule-driven behavior, weight control and total CET scales in comparison to the healthy controls, and higher across all scales apart from the exercise rigidity scale compared to the anorexia nervosa patients. Mean scores of the anorexia nervosa patients did not differ to those of the control participants, except for the mood improvement scale where the anorexia nervosa patients obtained a lower mean score. Mean scores between the bulimia nervosa and EDNOS patients were equivalent. The CET scales

  20. An acute exercise session increases self-efficacy in sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel; Baum, George; Jovanovic, Jennifer; Carmack, Cindy; Greisinger, Anthony; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Self-efficacy can be affected by mastery experiences and somatic sensations. A novel exercise experience and associated sensations may impact self-efficacy and subsequent behaviors. We investigated the effect of a single exercise session on self-efficacy for sedentary endometrial cancer survivors compared with sedentary women of a similar age, but with no cancer history. Twenty survivors and 19 controls completed an exercise session performed as a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Sensations and efficacy were measured before and after exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Regression models were used to determine predictors of self-efficacy and subsequent exercise. Self-efficacy increased for both survivors and controls, but survivors had a higher rate of increase, and the change predicted subsequent exercise. The association between exercise-related somatic sensations and self-efficacy differed between the 2 groups. A novel exercise experience had a larger effect on self-efficacy and subsequent exercise activity for endometrial cancer survivors than controls. Somatic sensations experienced during exercise may differ for survivors, which may be related to the experience of having cancer. Understanding factors affecting confidence in novel exercise experiences for populations with specific cancer histories is of the utmost importance in the adoption of exercise behaviors.

  1. Exercise, Appetite and Weight Control: Are There Differences between Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alice E.; Deighton, Kevin; King, James A.; Stensel, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant research interest surrounding the interaction among exercise, appetite and energy balance, which has important implications for health. The majority of exercise and appetite regulation studies have been conducted in males. Consequently, opportunities to examine sex-based differences have been limited, but represent an interesting avenue of inquiry considering postulations that men experience greater weight loss after exercise interventions than women. This article reviews the scientific literature relating to the acute and chronic effects of exercise on appetite control in men and women. The consensus of evidence demonstrates that appetite, appetite-regulatory hormone and energy intake responses to acute exercise do not differ between the sexes, and there is little evidence indicating compensatory changes occur after acute exercise in either sex. Limited evidence suggests women respond to the initiation of exercise training with more robust compensatory alterations in appetite-regulatory hormones than men, but whether this translates to long-term differences is unknown. Current exercise training investigations do not support sex-based differences in appetite or objectively assessed energy intake, and increasing exercise energy expenditure elicits at most a partial energy intake compensation in both sexes. Future well-controlled acute and chronic exercise studies directly comparing men and women are required to expand this evidence base. PMID:27657127

  2. Time course of the acute effects of core stabilisation exercise on seated postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jordan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2017-09-20

    Core stabilisation exercises are often promoted for purposes ranging from general fitness to high-performance athletics, and the prevention and rehabilitation of back troubles. These exercises, when performed properly, may have the potential to enhance torso postural awareness and control, yet the potential for achieving immediate gains has not been completely studied. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a single bout of non-fatiguing core stabilisation exercise that consisted of repeated sets of 2 isometric exercises, the side bridge and the four-point contralateral arm-and-leg extension. Seated postural control, using an unstable balance platform on top of a force plate, was assessed before and after exercise, including multiple time points within a 20-minute follow-up period. Nine standard postural control variables were calculated at each time point, including sway displacement and velocity ranges, root mean squares and cumulative path length. Statistical analysis showed that none of the postural control variables were significantly different at any time point following completion of core stabilisation exercise. Thus, we conclude that a single bout of acute core stabilisation exercise is insufficient to immediately improve seated trunk postural control in young healthy individuals.

  3. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  4. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  5. Psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in exercising and sedentary coronary artery disease patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sardinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise has been shown to favorably influence mood and anxiety; however, there are few studies regarding psychiatric aspects of physically active patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in sedentary and exercising CAD patients. A total sample of 119 CAD patients (74 men were enrolled in a case-control study. The subjects were interviewed to identify psychiatric disorders and responded to the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire. In the exercise group (N = 60, there was a lower prevalence (45 vs 81%; P < 0.001 of at least one psychiatric diagnosis, as well as multiple comorbidities, when compared to the sedentary group (N = 59. Considering the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, sedentary patients presented higher scores compared to exercisers (mean ± SEM = 55.8 ± 1.9 vs 37.3 ± 1.6; P < 0.001. In a regression model, to be attending a medically supervised exercise program presented a relevant potential for a 35% reduction in cardiac anxiety. CAD patients regularly attending an exercise program presented less current psychiatric diagnoses and multiple mental-related comorbidities and lower scores of cardiac anxiety. These salutary mental effects add to the already known health benefits of exercise for CAD patients.

  6. Position controlled Knee Rehabilitation Orthotic Device for Patients after Total Knee Replacement Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaphan, Patsiri; Chanthasopeephan, Teeranoot

    2016-11-01

    Knee rehabilitation after total knee replacement arthroplasty is essential for patients during their post-surgery recovery period. This study is about designing one degree of freedom knee rehabilitation equipment to assist patients for their post-surgery exercise. The equipment is designed to be used in sitting position with flexion/extension of knee in sagittal plane. The range of knee joint motion is starting from 0 to 90 degrees angle for knee rehabilitation motion. The feature includes adjustable link for different human proportions and the torque feedback control at knee joint during rehabilitation and the control of flexion/extension speed. The motion of the rehabilitation equipment was set to move at low speed (18 degrees/sec) for knee rehabilitation. The rehabilitation link without additional load took one second to move from vertical hanging up to 90° while the corresponding torque increased from 0 Nm to 2 Nm at 90°. When extra load is added, the link took 1.5 seconds to move to 90° The torque is then increased from 0 Nm to 4 Nm. After a period of time, the speed of the motion can be varied. User can adjust the motion to 40 degrees/sec during recovery activity of the knee and users can increase the level of exercise or motion up to 60 degrees/sec to strengthen the muscles during throughout their rehabilitation program depends on each patient. Torque control is included to prevent injury. Patients can use the equipment for home exercise to help reduce the number of hospital visit while the patients can receive an appropriate therapy for their knee recovery program.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of aquatic and land-based exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H.; Weile, U.; Christensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    patients reported adverse events (i.e. discomfort) in land-based exercise, while only 3 reported adverse events in the aquatic exercise. Conclusion: Only land-based exercise showed some improvement in pain and muscle strength compared with the control group, while no clinical benefits were detectable after......Objective: To compare the efficacy of aquatic exercise and a land-based exercise programme vs control in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Primary outcome was change in pain, and in addition Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS). Standing balance and strength...... was also measured after and at 3-month follow-up. Seventy-nine patients (62 women), with a mean age of 68 years (age range 40-89 years) were randomized to aquatic exercise (n = 27), land-based exercise (n = 25) or control (n = 27). Results: No effect was observed immediately after exercise cessation (8...

  8. Androgenic-anabolic steroids inhibited post-exercise hypotension: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Jefferson F C R; Silva, Alexandre S; Cardoso, Glêbia A; Silvino, Valmir O; Martins, Maria C C; Santos, Marcos A P

    There is evidence of hypertensive effects caused by anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). A single exercise session promotes the acute reduction of blood pressure, but the effects of AAS on this phenomenon are unknown. To investigate the post-exercise blood pressure response in androgenic-anabolic steroid users. Thirteen AAS users (23.9±4.3 years old) and sixteen controls (22.1±4.5 years old) performed a session of aerobic exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure were assessed before exercise and during a 60min post-exercise resting period. Repeated ANOVA measures were used to determine differences between the groups. While the control group had a significant reduction in post-exercise systolic blood pressure of up to 13.9±11.6mmHg at 40min, this phenomenon was limited among AAS users who reached a maximum of 6.2±11.5mmHg at 60min. The between groups comparison revealed significant higher post-exercise hypotension (PEH) for the control group at 30min (-12.9±14.1mmHg versus -2.9±7.6mmHg), 40min (-13.9±11.6mmHg versus -2.5±8.3mmHg), 50min (-13.9±13.9mmHg versus -5.0±7.9mmHg) and 60min (-12.5±12.8mmHg versus -6.2±11.5mmHg). There was no significant diastolic PEH in any of the groups. This study demonstrated impaired systolic post-exercise hypotension as a new adverse effect of AAS usage. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Manufacturing Squares: An Integrative Statistical Process Control Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    In the exercise, students in a junior-level operations management class are asked to manufacture a simple product. Given product specifications, they must design a production process, create roles and design jobs for each team member, and develop a statistical process control plan that efficiently and effectively controls quality during…

  10. The Impact of Prenatal Yoga on Exercise Attitudes and Behavior: Teachable moments from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Shilpa; Porter, Blake W; Williams, Karen B

    2017-11-01

    Pregnancy serves as an opportune time for "teachable moments" to elicit positive behavior change. We evaluated change in exercise perception, behavior and gestational weight gain in participants engaged in a one-hour educational experience. Women between 28 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks with no prior yoga experience carrying a non-anomalous singleton fetus participated in a randomized controlled trial on prenatal yoga. The yoga group engaged in a one-hour yoga class; the attention control educational group, in a one-hour presentation on exercise, nutrition and obesity in pregnancy. Maternal perception of yoga, exercise effects and current health status was conducted before and after the intervention. Gestational weight gain (GWG) and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. A postpartum survey was performed to determine self-reported behavioral changes during and after pregnancy. Over 6 months, 52 women were randomized and 46 (88%) completed the study. Women reported a more positive attitude towards exercise and yoga after the yoga intervention. Total GWG was similar (yoga 32.9 versus education 32.8 pounds, p = 0.98). Stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, 13% gained within and 61% gained above the Institute of Medicine guidelines in each group. Of 29 inactive women prior to the intervention, 60% of the yoga group and 75% of the education group began prenatal exercises after the intervention and 50% of each group continued to exercise after delivery. There were no significant differences between groups. A one-time, one-hour intervention teaching a new exercise or educating women during pregnancy can positively impact pregnancy behaviors and perception with the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT02063711.

  11. A randomised controlled trial evaluating family mediated exercise (FAME therapy following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Emma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a leading cause of disability among adults worldwide. Evidence suggests that increased duration of exercise therapy following stroke has a positive impact on functional outcome following stroke. The main objective of this randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the impact of additional family assisted exercise therapy in people with acute stroke. Methods/Design A prospective multi-centre single blind randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Forty patients with acute stroke will be randomised into either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will receive routine therapy and additional lower limb exercise therapy in the form of family assisted exercises. The control group will receive routine therapy with no additional formal input from their family members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, post intervention and followed up at three months using a series of standardised outcome measures. A secondary aim of the project is to evaluate the impact of the family mediated exercise programme on the person with stroke and the individual(s assisting in the delivery of exercises using a qualitative methodology. The study has gained ethical approval from the Research Ethics Committees of each of the clinical sites involved in the study. Discussion This study will evaluate a structured programme of exercises that can be delivered to people with stroke by their 'family members/friends'. Given that the progressive increase in the population of older people is likely to lead to an increased prevalence of stroke in the future, it is important to reduce the burden of this illness on the individual, the family and society. Family mediated exercises can maximise the carry over outside formal physiotherapy sessions, giving patients the opportunity for informal practice. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the US NIH Clinical trials registry (NCT00666744

  12. Exercise during pregnancy and gestational diabetes-related adverse effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ruben; Pelaez, Mireia; Lopez, Carmina; Lucia, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effect of regular moderate-intensity exercise (three training sessions/week) on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, primary outcome). We also examined if the exercise intervention modifies the association between GDM and birth weight and risk of macrosomia, gestational age, risk of caesarean delivery and maternal weight gain (secondary outcomes). We randomly assigned 510 healthy gravida to either an exercise intervention or a usual care (control) group (n=255 each). The exercise programme focused on moderate-intensity resistance and aerobic exercises (three times/week, 50-55 min/session). GDM diabetes was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria and the International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). The intervention did not reduce the risk of developing GDM (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.40) when using the WHO criteria. We observed that the intervention reduced by 58% the GDM-related risk (WHO criteria) of having a newborn with macrosomia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.04 to 78.90 vs 4.22, 95% CI 1.35 to 13.19) in exercise and control groups, respectively), and by 34% the GDM-related risk of having acute and elective caesarean delivery (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.84 vs 1.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 4.06 in exercise and control groups, respectively). Gestational age was similar across the treatment groups (control, exercise) and GDM category (GDM or non-GDM), and maternal weight gain was ∼12% lower in the exercise group independent of whether women developed GDM. The results were similar when the IADPSG criteria were used instead. Regular moderate-intensity exercise performed over the second-third trimesters of pregnancy can be used to attenuate important GDM-related adverse outcomes.

  13. Meta-analysis: aerobic exercise for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

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    Bartley, Christine A; Hay, Madeleine; Bloch, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of exercise as a treatment for DSM-IV diagnosed anxiety disorders. We searched PubMED and PsycINFO for randomized, controlled trials comparing the anxiolytic effects of aerobic exercise to other treatment conditions for DSM-IV defined anxiety disorders. Seven trials were included in the final analysis, totaling 407 subjects. The control conditions included non-aerobic exercise, waitlist/placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. A fixed-effects model was used to calculate the standardized mean difference of change in anxiety rating scale scores of aerobic exercise compared to control conditions. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the effects of (1) comparison condition; (2) whether comparison condition controlled for time spent exercising and (3) diagnostic indication. Aerobic exercise demonstrated no significant effect for the treatment of anxiety disorders (SMD=0.02 (95%CI: -0.20-0.24), z = 0.2, p = 0.85). There was significant heterogeneity between trials (χ(2) test for heterogeneity = 22.7, df = 6, p = 0.001). The reported effect size of aerobic exercise was highly influenced by the type of control condition. Trials utilizing waitlist/placebo controls and trials that did not control for exercise time reported large effects of aerobic exercise while other trials report no effect of aerobic exercise. Current evidence does not support the use of aerobic exercise as an effective treatment for anxiety disorders as compared to the control conditions. This remains true when controlling for length of exercise sessions and type of anxiety disorder. Future studies evaluating the efficacy of aerobic exercise should employ larger sample sizes and utilize comparison interventions that control for exercise time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Counseling Combined with Music Skipping Rope Exercise on Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Lee, Bo Gyeong; Choi, Hee Won; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the effects of a transtheoretical model (TTM) based exercise counseling offered with music skipping rope exercise on components of the TTM (stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy), body mass index, glucose, and lipid profile of overweight/obese children in Korea. This study used a nonequivalent pretest and posttest experimental study design. A total of 75 overweight/obese children participated in the study. Eight sessions of exercise counseling combined with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks were offered for children in the experimental group, while one session of exercise counseling with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks was offered for children in the control group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and 6 months after the intervention. After the intervention, self-efficacy significantly improved among children in the experimental group (p = .049), while these children maintained their baseline BMI at 6-month follow-up (p > .05). Among children in the control group, BMI significantly increased (p effective in maintaining BMI and improving self-efficacy of overweight/obese children. The TTM-based counseling combined with exercise classes has potential to control weight among overweight/obese children, while involvement of parents and children in the development of the theory-based intervention may generate further benefits regarding health and well-being of overweight/obese children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Efficacy of different types of aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy and the optimal type and volume of aerobic exercise (AE) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are not established. We therefore assessed the efficacy of different types and volumes of AE in FMS. Methods The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychInfo and SPORTDISCUS (through April 2009) and the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews on AE in FMS were systematically reviewed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of AE compared with controls (treatment as usual, attention placebo, active therapy) and head-to-head comparisons of different types of AE were included. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. Results Twenty-eight RCTs comparing AE with controls and seven RCTs comparing different types of AE with a total of 2,494 patients were reviewed. Effects were summarised using standardised mean differences (95% confidence intervals) by random effect models. AE reduced pain (-0.31 (-0.46, -0.17); P physical fitness (0.65 (0.38, 0.95); P exercises with slight to moderate intensity and frequency of two or three times per week. Positive effects on depressed mood, HRQOL and physical fitness could be maintained at follow-up. Continuing exercise was associated with positive outcomes at follow-up. Risks of bias analyses did not change the robustness of the results. Few studies reported a detailed exercise protocol, thus limiting subgroup analyses of different types of exercise. Conclusions An aerobic exercise programme for FMS patients should consist of land-based or water-based exercises with slight to moderate intensity two or three times per week for at least 4 weeks. The patient should be motivated to continue exercise after participating in an exercise programme. PMID:20459730

  16. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Vascular Risk Factors in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Kazuki Uemura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of exercise intervention on vascular risk factors in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults who met the definition of MCI using the Petersen criteria (n = 100; mean age = 75.3 years were randomly allocated to the exercise (n = 50 or education control group (n = 50. Participants in the exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/day, 2 days/week, 80 times for 12 months. Anthropometric profiles, blood markers, blood pressure, and physical fitness (the 6-min walking test were measured. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C risk ratio measurements were taken from blood samples. Results: The exercise group showed significantly reduced TC and TC/HDL-C risk ratio after training compared with baseline levels (p Conclusion: Exercise intervention was associated with positive changes in important vascular risk factors related to cognitive decline and vascular disease in older adults with MCI.

  17. Dose-response relationships between exercise intensity, cravings, and inhibitory control in methamphetamine dependence: An ERPs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongshi; Zhou, Chenglin; Zhao, Min; Wu, Xueping; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-04-01

    The present study integrated behavioral and neuroelectric approaches for determining the dose-response relationships between exercise intensity and methamphetamine (MA) craving and between exercise intensity and inhibitory control in individuals with MA dependence. Ninety-two individuals with MA dependence were randomly assigned to an exercise group (light, moderate, or vigorous intensity) or to a reading control group. The participants then completed a craving self-report at four time points: before exercise, during exercise, immediately after exercise, and 50 min after exercise. Event-related potentials were also recorded while the participants completed a standard Go/NoGo task and an MA-related Go/NoGo task approximately 20 min after exercise cessation. The reduction in self-reported MA craving scores of the moderate and vigorous intensity groups was greater than that of the light intensity and control groups during acute exercise as well as immediately and 50 min following exercise termination. Additionally, an inverted-U-shaped relationship between exercise intensity and inhibitory control was generally observed for the behavioral and neuroelectric indices, with the moderate intensity group exhibiting shorter Go reaction times, increased NoGo accuracy, and larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes. Acute exercise may provide benefits for MA-associated craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals, as revealed by behavioral and neuroelectric measures. Moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with more positive effects, providing preliminary evidence for the establishment of an exercise prescription regarding intensity for MA dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise and health-related quality of life during the first year following acute stroke. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Birgitta; Stanghelle, Johan K; Lindmark, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of two different physiotherapy exercise regimes in patients after acute stroke on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to investigate how the degree of motor and balance function, gait capacity, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living influenced HRQoL. A longitudinal randomized controlled stratified trial of two interventions: the intensive exercise groups with scheduled intensive training during four periods of the first year after stroke and the regular exercise group with self-initiated training. There was a tendency of better HRQoL in the regular exercise group on NHP total score (p = 0.05). Patients with low scores in activities of daily living, balance and motor function and inability to perform 6-minute walk test on admission, scored lower on self-perceived health than patients with high scores and ability to perform the walking test. At 1 year post-stroke, total scores on NHP were moderately associated with motor function (r = -0.63), balance (r = -0.56), gait (r = -0.57), activities of daily living (r = -0.57) and instrumental activities of daily living (r = -0.49-0.58). The physical mobility sub-scale of NHP had the strongest association ranging from r = -0.47-0.82. The regular exercise group with self-initiated training seemed to enhance HRQoL more than the intensive exercise group with scheduled intensive training. The degree of motor function, balance, walking capacity and independence in activities of daily living is of importance for perceived HRQoL.

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 (n = 88 employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 (n = 88 included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a exercise before memory encoding, (b a control group with no exercise, (c exercise during memory encoding, and (d exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation. We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise (p = 0.521 or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise (p = 0.068. In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-11

    We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 ( n = 88) employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 ( n = 88) included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a) exercise before memory encoding, (b) a control group with no exercise, (c) exercise during memory encoding, and (d) exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation). We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list) of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise) ( p = 0.521) or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise) ( p = 0.068). In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  1. Eating in response to exercise cues: Role of self-control fatigue, exercise habits, and eating restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aliza T; Greathouse, Lee J; Otto, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Identifying moderators of compensatory eating is important for understanding the failure of many people to lose weight in response to increased exercise levels. A previous study demonstrated that individuals shown action words (e.g., "active" or "go") were primed by these words to increase energy intake. Further studies have demonstrated that individual differences (e.g. differences in body mass) affect susceptibility to relevant priming cues. Based on these findings, this study examined individual differences, including exercise habits, tendencies toward compensatory eating, dietary restraint, and body mass that may serve as moderators of compensatory eating in the context of conceptual priming. A 2 × 2 design was utilized to analyze the effects of both priming and a self-control task on energy intake. Participants were presented with several snack foods under the guise of a taste test, with energy intake (kcal) during this taste test as the primary outcome variable. Results of this study indicate that, among those with higher baseline levels of exercise, lower energy intake was found for those exposed to exercise cues relative to those who did not receive these cues. In addition, the influence of the self-control fatigue condition was dependent on body mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise, Manual Therapy, and Booster Sessions in Knee Osteoarthritis: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis From a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Smith, Kenneth J; Bise, Christopher G; Fritz, Julie M; Childs, John; Brennan, Gerard P; Abbott, J Haxby; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists regarding the cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The study objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 different combinations of exercise, manual therapy, and booster sessions for individuals with knee OA. This economic evaluation involved a cost-effectiveness analysis performed alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The study took place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Salt Lake City, Utah; and San Antonio, Texas. The study participants were 300 individuals taking part in a randomized controlled trial investigating various physical therapy strategies for knee OA. Participants were randomized into 4 treatment groups: exercise only (EX), exercise plus booster sessions (EX+B), exercise plus manual therapy (EX+MT), and exercise plus manual therapy and booster sessions (EX+MT+B). For the 2-year base case scenario, a Markov model was constructed using the United States societal perspective and a 3% discount rate for costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated to compare differences in cost per QALY gained among the 4 treatment strategies. In the 2-year analysis, booster strategies (EX+MT+B and EX+B) dominated no-booster strategies, with both lower health care costs and greater effectiveness. EX+MT+B had the lowest total health care costs. EX+B cost ${\\$}$1061 more and gained 0.082 more QALYs than EX+MT+B, for an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ${\\$}$12,900/QALY gained. The small number of total knee arthroplasty surgeries received by individuals in this study made the assessment of whether any particular strategy was more successful at delaying or preventing surgery in individuals with knee OA difficult. Spacing exercise-based physical therapy sessions over 12 months using periodic booster sessions was less costly and more effective over 2 years than strategies not containing booster sessions for

  3. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  4. Exercise, Insulin Absorption Rates, and Artificial Pancreas Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by an inability of a person to endogenously produce the hormone insulin. Because of this, insulin must be injected - usually subcutaneously. The size of the injected dose and the rate at which the dose reaches the circulatory system have a profound effect on the ability to control glucose excursions, and therefore control of diabetes. However, insulin absorption rates via subcutaneous injection are variable and depend on a number of factors including tissue perfusion, physical activity (vasodilation, increased capillary throughput), and other tissue geometric and physical properties. Exercise may also have a sizeable effect on the rate of insulin absorption, which can potentially lead to dangerous glucose levels. Insulin-dosing algorithms, as implemented in an artificial pancreas controller, should account accurately for absorption rate variability and exercise effects on insulin absorption. The aforementioned factors affecting insulin absorption will be discussed within the context of both fluid mechanics and data driven modeling approaches.

  5. Is exercise a therapeutic tool for improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus? A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Mona A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is associated with a high risk for early atherosclerotic complications especially risk of coronary heart disease. Objective To evaluate the impact of six months exercise prgram on glycemic control, plasma lipids values, blood pressure, severity and frequency of hypoglycemia, anthropometric measurements and insulin dose in a sample of adolescents with T1DM. Research design and methods A total of 196 type 1 diabetic patients participated in the study. They were classified into three groups: Group (A did not join the exercise program(n = 48, group (B attended the exercise sessions once/week (n = 75, group (C attended the exercise sessions three times/week (n = 73. Studied parameters were evaluated before and six months after exercise programe. Results Exercise improved glycemic control by reducing HbA1c values in exercise groups (P = 0.03, P = 0.01 respectively and no change in those who were not physically active (P = 0.2. Higher levels of HbA1c were associated with higher levels of cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides (P = 0.000 each. In both groups, B and C, frequent exercise improved dyslipidemia and reduced insulin requirements significantly (P = 0.00 both, as well as a reduction in BMI (P = 0.05, P = 0.00 respectively and waist circumference(P = 0.02, P = 0.00 respectively. The frequency of hypoglycemic attacks were not statistically different between the control group and both intervention groups (4.7 ± 3.56 and 4.82 ± 4.23, P = 0.888 respectively. Reduction of blood pressure was statistically insignificant apart from the diastolic blood presure in group C (P = 0.04. Conclusion Exercise is an indispensable component in the medical treatment of patients with T1DM as it improves glycemic control and decreases cardiovascular risk factors among them.

  6. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  7. Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART: a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet to be ascertained. There has been little scientific investigation into the effectiveness of manual therapy in hip OA. Only one randomized controlled trial (RCT found greater improvements in patient-perceived improvement and physical function with manual therapy, compared to exercise therapy. Methods and design An assessor-blind multicentre RCT will be undertaken to compare the effect of a combination of manual therapy and exercise therapy, exercise therapy only, and a waiting-list control on physical function in hip OA. One hundred and fifty people with a diagnosis of hip OA will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of 3 groups: exercise therapy, exercise therapy with manual therapy and a waiting-list control. Subjects in the intervention groups will attend physiotherapy for 6–8 sessions over 8 weeks. Those in the control group will remain on the waiting list until after this time and will then be re-randomised to one of the two intervention groups. Outcome measures will include physical function (WOMAC, pain severity (numerical rating scale, patient perceived change (7-point Likert scale, quality of life (SF-36, mood (hospital anxiety and depression scale, patient satisfaction, physical activity (IPAQ and physical measures of range of motion, 50-foot walk and repeated sit-to stand tests. Discussion This RCT will compare the effectiveness of the addition of manual therapy to exercise therapy to exercise therapy only and a waiting-list control in hip OA. A high quality methodology will be used in keeping with CONSORT guidelines. The

  8. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on exercise parameters in the treatment of patellofemoral pain: what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Harvie, Timothy O'Leary, Saravana Kumar International Centre for Allied Health Evidence (iCAHE, City East Campus, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia Purpose: There is research evidence which supports the effectiveness of exercise in reducing pain and increasing function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. However, what is unclear are the parameters underpinning this intervention. This has led to uncertainty when operationalizing exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome in clinical practice. The aim of this review was to evaluate the parameters of exercise programs reported in primary research, to provide clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for exercise prescription for patellofemoral pain. Methods: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. Only trials that identified exercise to be effective in treating patellofemoral pain were included. Appropriate databases and reference lists were searched using established keywords. Data relating to common exercise parameters such as the type of exercise, length, and frequency of intervention, intensity, repetitions, sets, and specific technique were extracted, along with details of co-interventions that may have been used. Results: A total of ten randomized controlled trials were included in this review and from these trials 14 interventions arms were evaluated. All 14 interventions focused on active exercises, all but two of which also included a passive stretching component. The current body of evidence demonstrates positive results with exercise interventions such as knee extension, squats, stationary cycling, static quadriceps, active straight leg raise, leg press, and step-up and down exercises for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A progressive regime of daily exercises of two to four sets of ten or more repetitions over an intervention period of 6 weeks or more, combined with exercises to address

  9. Cardiovascular rehabilitation soon after stroke using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise: study protocol of a randomised controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Schindelholz, Matthias; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2013-09-22

    After experiencing a stroke, most individuals also suffer from cardiac disease, are immobile and thus have low endurance for exercise. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in these individuals and does not reach reasonable levels after conventional rehabilitation programmes. Cardiovascular exercise is beneficial for improvement of aerobic capacity in mild to moderate stroke. However, less is known about its impact on aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life in severely impaired individuals. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the clinical efficacy and feasibility of cardiovascular exercise with regard to aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise in non-ambulatory individuals soon after experiencing a stroke. This will be a single-centred single blind, randomised control trial with a pre-post intervention design. Subjects will be recruited early after their first stroke (≤20 weeks) at a neurological rehabilitation clinic and will be randomly allocated to an inpatient cardiovascular exercise programme that uses feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (experimental) or to conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (control). Intervention duration depends on the duration of each subject's inpatient rehabilitation period. Aerobic capacity, as the primary outcome measure, will be assessed using feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary outcome measures will include gait speed, walking endurance, standing function, and quality-of-life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, after each 4-week intervention period, and before clinical discharge. Ethical approval has been obtained. Whether cardiovascular exercise in non-ambulatory individuals early after stroke has an impact on aerobic capacity, motor recovery, and quality-of-life is not yet known. Feedback-controlled robotics

  10. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  11. Body composition influenced by progressive elastic band resistance exercise of sarcopenic obesity elderly women: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia involves age-related decreases in muscle strength and muscle mass, leading to frailty and disability in elderly people. When combined with obesity, it is defined as sarcopenic obesity (SO), which can result in more functional limitations and metabolic disorders than either disorder alone. The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes after elastic band resistance training in elderly women with SO. Randomized single-blinded (assessor blinded) controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Thirty-five elderly (>60 years old) women with SO. This pilot randomized controlled trial focused on elderly women with SO. The study group underwent progressive elastic band resistance training for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The control group received only a 40-minute lesson about the exercise concept. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed before and after intervention to evaluate body composition. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the differences within and between these groups. In total, 35 elderly women with SO were enrolled and divided into study (N.=18) and control groups (N.=17). No difference was observed in age, biochemical parameters, or Body Mass Index between both groups. After the intervention, the fat proportion of body composition in the right upper extremity (P=0.03), left upper extremity (P=0.04), total fat (P=0.035), and fat percentage (P=0.012) had decreased, and bone mineral density (BMD) (P=0.026), T-score (P=0.028), and Z-score (P=0.021) had increased in the study group. Besides, statistical difference was observed in outcome measurements of right upper extremity (P=0.013), total fat (P=0.023), and fat percentage (P=0.012) between the groups. Our study demonstrated that progressive elastic band resistance exercise can reduce fat mass and increase BMD in elderly women with SO, and that this exercise program is feasible for this demographic. Additional studies with larger sample sizes

  12. Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization.

  13. Exacerbation of Brain Injury by Post-Stroke Exercise Is Contingent Upon Exercise Initiation Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengwu Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups. Exercise was initiated after 6 h, 24 h and 3 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after completion of exercise (and at corresponding time points in non-exercise controls, infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were examined. Early brain oxidative metabolism was quantified by examining ROS, ATP and NADH levels 0.5 h after completion of exercise. Furthermore, protein expressions of angiogenic growth factors were measured in order to determine whether post-stroke angiogenesis played a role in rehabilitation. As expected, ischemic stroke resulted in brain infarction, apoptotic cell death and ROS generation, and diminished NADH and ATP production. Infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were enhanced (p < 0.05 by exercise that was initiated after 6 h of reperfusion, but decreased by late exercise (24 h, 3 days. This exacerbated brain injury at 6 h was associated with increased ROS levels (p < 0.05, and decreased (p < 0.05 NADH and ATP levels. In conclusion, very early exercise aggravated brain damage, and early exercise-induced energy failure with ROS generation may underlie the exacerbation of brain injury. These results shed light on the manner in which exercise initiation timing may affect post-stroke rehabilitation.

  14. Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control in University Students in the Context of Regular Exercise Participation and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ali; Tekin, Gülcan; Çalisir, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the locus of control (LC) and sensation seeking (SS) levels of university female students according to regular exercise participation (REP) and gender (G). This descriptive study was initiated in 2016 and finished in 2017. A total of 623 students, 306 females and 317 males, from different academic departments…

  15. Exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status, control beliefs and exercise behavior: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Terra C; Rodgers, Wendy M; Fraser, Shawn N

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between control beliefs, socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. Specifically, we examined whether distal and proximal control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise intentions and behavior. A one time, cross sectional mail out survey (N = 350) was conducted in a large urban Canadian city. Distal (i.e., personal constraints) and proximal (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) control beliefs mediated the association between socioeconomic status and exercise, explaining approximately 30% of the variance. Proximal control beliefs (i.e., scheduling self-efficacy) partially mediated the association between socioeconomic status and intentions, with the models explaining approximately 50% of the variance. Compared to individuals with lower socioeconomic status, individuals with higher socioeconomic status reported more exercise and stronger intentions to exercise. This was at least partly because higher socioeconomic status respondents reported fewer barriers in their lives, and were more confident to cope with the scheduling demands of exercise.

  16. The effect of combining manual therapy with exercise for mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Roger M; Wearing, Jaxson; Gonski, Peter; Vemulpad, Subramanyam

    2017-06-17

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of disability and hospital admission. Current management strategies have not been successful in altering the loss of lung function typically seen as the disease progresses. A recent systematic review into the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) in the management of COPD concluded that there was low level evidence to support the view that a combination of SMT and exercise had the potential to improve lung function more than exercise alone in people with moderate to severe COPD. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the combination of exercise and manual therapy (MT) that includes SMT produces sustainable improvements in lung function and exercise capacity in people with mild COPD. The study is a randomised controlled trial of 202 people with stable mild COPD. The cohort will be divided into two equal groups matched at baseline. The first group will receive a standardised exercise program. The second group will receive MT that includes SMT plus the same standardised exercise program. Exercise will be administered a total of 36 times over an 18-week period, while MT will be administered in conjunction with exercise a total of 15 times over a 6-week period. The primary outcome measure is lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1 st second: FEV 1 and forced vital capacity: FVC). The secondary outcome measures are the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), quality of life questionnaire (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: SGRQ), anxiety and depression levels (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale: HADS), frequency of exacerbations, chest wall expansion measurements (tape measurements) and systemic inflammatory biomarker levels. Outcome measurements will be taken by blinded assessors on seven occasions over a 48-week period. Adverse event data will also be gathered at the beginning of each intervention session. This randomised controlled trial is designed to investigate whether the combination

  17. Exercise improves glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Anne L; Shields, Nora; Taylor, Nicholas F; Frawley, Helena C

    2016-10-01

    Does exercise improve postprandial glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus? A systematic review of randomised trials. Pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Exercise, performed more than once a week, sufficient to achieve an aerobic effect or changes in muscle metabolism. Postprandial blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, requirement for insulin, adverse events and adherence. This systematic review identified eight randomised, controlled trials involving 588 participants; seven trials (544 participants) had data that were suitable for meta-analysis. Five trials scored ≥ 6 on the PEDro scale, indicating a relatively low risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that exercise, as an adjunct to standard care, significantly improved postprandial glycaemic control (MD -0.33mmol/L, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.17) and lowered fasting blood glucose (MD -0.31 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.05) when compared with standard care alone, with no increase in adverse events. Effects of similar magnitude were found for aerobic and resistance exercise programs, if performed at a moderate intensity or greater, for 20 to 30minutes, three to four times per week. Meta-analysis did not show that exercise significantly reduced the requirement for insulin. All studies reported that complications or other adverse events were either similar or reduced with exercise. Aerobic or resistance exercise, performed at a moderate intensity at least three times per week, safely helps to control postprandial blood glucose levels and other measures of glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. PROSPERO CRD42015019106. [Harrison AL, Shields N, Taylor NF, Frawley HC (2016) Exercise improves glycaemic control in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 188-196]. Copyright © 2016 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Exercise motivational regulations and exercise addiction: The mediating role of passion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Manuel; Lirola, María-Jesús; Burgueño, Rafael; Maher, Anthony

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims The study explored the mediating role of forms of passion in the relationship between motivational regulations in exercise and exercise addiction (EA). Methods A total of 485 university students (368 males and 117 females; M age  = 20.43, SD = 3.21) completed a questionnaire measuring the frequency and intensity of exercise, motivational regulations in exercise, passion for exercise, and EA. Controlling the effects of age, frequency, and intensity of practice, the relationships between the study variables were examined though a path analysis. Results Both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation showed positive association with EA. The forms of motivation with greatest predictive power for EA were introjected and integrated regulations. Both forms of motivation had positive direct and indirect effects through obsessive passion (OP) on EA; however, integrated regulation also showed negative indirect effects through harmonious passion on EA. Conclusions Both forms of passion and, especially, OP, seem to affect how motivational regulations are associated with EA. These findings clarify the association found in previous studies between self-determined forms of motivation and EA.

  19. Independent exercise for glottal incompetence to improve vocal problems and prevent aspiration pneumonia in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Yoko; Tsunoda, Koichi; Kobayashi, Rika; Tonghyo, Chong; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Numata, Tsutomu; Ishii, Toyota; Kuroda, Reiko; Masuda, Sawako; Hashimoto, Sho; Misawa, Hayato; Shindo, Naoko; Mori, Takahiro; Mori, Hiroko; Uchiyama, Naoki; Kamei, Yuichirou; Tanaka, Masashi; Hamaya, Hironobu; Funatsuki, Shingo; Usui, Satoko; Ito, Ikuno; Hamada, Kohei; Shindo, Akihito; Tokumaru, Yutaka; Morita, Yoko; Ueha, Rumi; Nito, Takaharu; Kikuta, Shu; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Kondo, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takashi; Itoh, Kenji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Sumio

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of a self-controlled vocal exercise in elderly people with glottal closure insufficiency. Parallel-arm, individual randomized controlled trial. Patients who visited one of 10 medical centers under the National Hospital Organization group in Japan for the first time, aged 60 years or older, complaining of aspiration or hoarseness, and endoscopically confirmed to have glottal closure insufficiency owing to vocal cord atrophy, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The patients of the intervention group were given guidance and a DVD about a self-controlled vocal exercise. The maximum phonation time which is a measure of glottal closure was evaluated, and the number of patients who developed pneumonia during the six months was compared between the two groups. Of the 543 patients enrolled in this trial, 259 were allocated into the intervention group and 284 into the control; 60 of the intervention group and 75 of the control were not able to continue the trial. A total of 199 patients (age 73.9 ±7.25 years) in the intervention group and 209 (73.3 ±6.68 years) in the control completed the six-month trial. Intervention of the self-controlled vocal exercise extended the maximum phonation time significantly ( p < 0.001). There were two hospitalizations for pneumonia in the intervention group and 18 in the control group, representing a significant difference ( p < 0.001). The self-controlled vocal exercise allowed patients to achieve vocal cord adduction and improve glottal closure insufficiency, which reduced the rate of hospitalization for pneumonia significantly. gov Identifier-UMIN000015567.

  20. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome – the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15–20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917 PMID:26376093

  1. Comparative effects of meditation and exercise on physical and psychosocial health outcomes: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The total sample size across all studies was N = 325. Of the main outcomes assessed across the five studies, meditation was shown to be more effective than the exercise comparison arm when evaluating the psychosocial outcomes of anxiety, altruism, and life changes. Additionally, meditation was more effective at reducing chronic neck pain at rest and pain-related bothersomeness. Exercise, however, was more effective in improving physical health-related quality of life, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. The interventions were found to be comparable when evaluating the outcomes of well-being, ethanol consumption, and perceived stress levels. Four of the evaluated studies were determined to have an overall 'unclear' risk of bias and one study was found to have a 'high' risk of bias. Exercise and non-active meditation may uniquely influence various health-related outcomes. A continued exploration of the effects of exercise and non-active meditation in controlled trials may yield a better understanding of their benefits.

  2. Exercise effects on HRV in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, D; Vogt, L; Thiel, C; Schmidt, K; Bernhörster, M; Lungwitz, A; Jäger, E; Banzer, W

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of physical exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) in cancer patients. 3 matched groups of each 15 tumour patients (60.4±8.9 years, 27 male, 18 female) were recruited: Physical exercise group 1 (acute treatment), Physical exercise group 2 (post treatment) and non-intervention group (acute treatment, no exercise). Exercise group patients received counselling for exercise and participated in a Nordic-Walking program. Short-term HRV-recordings, assessments of fatigue and quality of life (QoL) were performed prior to and 16 weeks after the exercise program initiation. MANCOVA revealed group × time differences in total power frequency domain of HRV and QoL (pHRV-parameters and prolonged survival in cancer patients, improvement in autonomic control may be an important goal of exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Efficacy of Exercise for Menopausal Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Joseph C.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Roberts, Melanie; Caan, Bette J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine efficacy of exercise training for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. METHODS Late-peri and post-menopausal, sedentary women with frequent vasomotor symptoms (VMS) participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites: 106 to exercise and 142 to usual activity. The exercise intervention consisted of individual, facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week for 12 weeks. VMS frequency and bother were recorded on daily diaries at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Intent to treat analyses compared between group differences in changes in VMS frequency and bother, sleep symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire). RESULTS At the end of week 12, changes in VMS frequency in the exercise group (mean change of −2.4/day, 95% CI −3.0, −1.7) and VMS bother (mean change of −0.5 on a 4 point scale, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4) were not significantly different from those in the control group (−2.6 VMS/day, 95% CI −3.2, −2.0, p=0.43; −0.5 points, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4, p=0.75). The exercise group reported greater improvement in insomnia symptoms (p=0.03), subjective sleep quality (p=0.01), and depressive symptoms (p=0.04), but differences were small and not statistically significant when p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when considering treatment-adherent women only. CONCLUSION These findings provide strong evidence that 12-weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alleviate VMS but may result in small improvements in sleep quality, insomnia and depression in midlife, sedentary women. PMID:23899828

  4. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of exercise on depression in university students: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Jin, YinZhe; Oh, YongSeok; Choi, YoungJun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise on depression in university students. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library from their inception through December 10, 2014 to identify relevant articles. The heterogeneity across studies was examined by Cochran's Q statistic and the I2 statistic. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the effect of exercise on depression. Then, sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. In addition, publication bias was assessed by drawing a funnel plot. A total of 352 participants (154 cases and 182 controls) from eight included trials were included. Our pooled result showed a significant alleviative depression after exercise (SMD=-0.50, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.03, P=0.04) with significant heterogeneity (P=0.003, I2=67%). Sensitivity analyses showed that the pooled result may be unstable. Subgroup analysis indicated that sample size may be a source of heterogeneity. Moreover, no publication bias was observed in this study. Exercise may be an effective therapy for treating depression in university students. However, further clinical studies with strict design and large samples focused on this specific population should be warranted in the future.

  7. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effect of education and supervised exercise vs. education alone on the time to total hip replacement in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis. A randomized clinical trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Roos, Ewa M.; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background: The age- and gender-specific incidence of total hip replacement surgery has increased over the last two decades in all age groups. Recent studies indicate that non-surgical interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability, even at later stages of the disease when joint...... will receive 3 months of supervised exercise consisting of 12 sessions of individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training, and 12 sessions of intensive resistance training plus patient education (3 sessions). The control group will receive only patient education (3 sessions). The primary end...... measures are the five subscales of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, physical activity (UCLA activity score), and patient’s global perceived effect. Other measures include pain after exercise, joint-specific adverse events, exercise adherence, general health status (EQ-5D-5L), mechanical...

  10. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  11. Effect of exercising at minimum recommendations of the multiple sclerosis exercise guideline combined with structured education or attention control education - secondary results of the step it up randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Susan; Uszynski, Marcin; Herring, Matthew P; Hayes, Sara; Scarrott, Carl; Newell, John; Gallagher, Stephen; Larkin, Aidan; Motl, Robert W

    2017-06-24

    Recent exercise guidelines for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) recommend a minimum of 30 min moderate intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise twice per week. This trial compared the secondary outcomes of a combined 10-week guideline based intervention and a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) education programme with the same exercise intervention involving an attention control education. Physically inactive people with MS, scoring 0-3 on Patient Determined Disease Steps Scale, with no MS relapse or change in MS medication, were randomised to 10-week exercise plus SCT education or exercise plus attention control education conditions. Outcomes included fatigue, depression, anxiety, strength, physical activity, SCT constructs and impact of MS and were measured by a blinded assessor pre and post-intervention and 3 and 6 month follow up. One hundred and seventy-four expressed interest, 92 were eligible and 65 enrolled. Using linear mixed effects models, the differences between groups on all secondary measures post-intervention and at follow-up were not significant. Post-hoc, exploratory, within group analysis identified improvements in both groups post intervention in fatigue (mean ∆(95% CI) SCT -4.99(-9.87, -0.21), p = 0.04, Control -7.68(-12.13, -3.23), p = 0.00), strength (SCT -1.51(-2.41, -0.60), p exercise planning (SCT 5.88(3.37, 8.39), p Exercising at the minimum guideline amount has a positive effect on fatigue, strength and PA that is sustained at 3 and 6 months following the cessation of the program. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02301442 , retrospectively registered on November 13th 2014.

  12. The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports exercise as an intervention for many mental health concerns; however, randomized controlled investigations of the efficacy of different exercise modalities and predictors of change are lacking. The purposes of the current trial were to: (1) quantify the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance training on anxiety-related disorder (including anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) status, symptoms, and constructs, (2) evaluate whether both modalities of exercise were equivalent, and (3) to determine whether exercise enjoyment and physical fitness are associated with symptom reduction. A total of 48 individuals with anxiety-related disorders were randomized to aerobic exercise, resistance training, or a waitlist. Symptoms of anxiety-related disorders, related constructs, and exercise enjoyment were assessed at pre-intervention and weekly during the 4-week intervention. Participants were further assessed 1-week and 1-month post-intervention. Both exercise modalities were efficacious in improving disorder status. As well, aerobic exercise improved general psychological distress and anxiety, while resistance training improved disorder-specific symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and intolerance of uncertainty. Physical fitness predicted reductions in general psychological distress for both types of exercise and reductions in stress for aerobic exercise. Results highlight the efficacy of different exercise modalities in uniquely addressing anxiety-related disorder symptoms and constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, F.; Stuart, C.A.; Hartl, W.H.; Rosenblatt, J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies using indirect means to assess the response of protein metabolism to exercise have led to conflicting conclusions. Therefore, in this study we have measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis in normal volunteers at rest, at the end of 4 h of aerobic exercise (40% maximal O2 consumption), and after 4 h of recovery by determining directly the rate of incorporation of 1,2-[13C]leucine into muscle. The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed by 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion, and total urinary nitrogen excretion was also measured. There was an insignificant increase in 3-MH excretion in exercise of 37% and a significant increase (P less than 0.05) of 85% during 4 h of recovery from exercise (0.079 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.147 +/- 0.0338 mumol.kg-1.min-1 for rest and recovery from exercise, respectively). Nonetheless, there was no effect of exercise on total nitrogen excretion. Muscle fractional synthetic rate was not different in the exercise vs. the control group at the end of exercise (0.0417 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.0477 +/- 0.010%/h for exercise vs. control), but there was a significant increase in fractional synthetic rate in the exercise group during the recovery period (0.0821 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.0654 +/- 0.012%/h for exercise vs. control, P less than 0.05). Thus we conclude that although aerobic exercise may stimulate muscle protein breakdown, this does not result in a significant depletion of muscle mass because muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in recovery

  14. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Lan, Xiulu; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2013-12-05

    The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not been completely established. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students through a rigorous randomization, parallel-controlled design. We will conduct a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet the eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated into Baduanjin training or usual exercise control group. Baduanjin training will last 12 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lumbar proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, will be evaluated by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher-quality evidence to better inform the college students regarding their selection about whether to receive such exercise. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003329. Registration date: 18 July, 2013.

  15. A Randomized Control Intervention Investigating the Effects of Acute Exercise on Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Rhodes, Ryan E; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    Exercise may help to cope with hectic or demanding events after a stressful situation occurs. Limited research has evaluated whether exercise, prior to a stressor, helps to facilitate subsequent emotional regulation. This pilot study addresses this novel paradigm. We employed a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of acute exercise on emotional regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to stretch (control group, N = 10), walk (N = 9), or jog (N = 8) for 15-minutes, after which they were exposed to a film clip intended to elicit a negative emotional response. Participants' emotions were monitored before and during exercise, as well as after the film clip. Emotional responses were evaluated using the Exercise Induced Feeling Inventory and Affective Circumplex Scale. A group x time splitplot interaction effect was significant for anger (p = .046) and anxiousness (p = .038). Follow-up analyses showed that only the stretching group (p = .048) had a significantly increased anger score from baseline to post-film clip, suggesting a protective emotional effect from walking and jogging. Exercise was effective in regulating anger and anxiousness after a stressful event. These findings provide evidence for potential preventive effects of exercise in facilitating emotional regulation.

  16. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercises versus laser acupuncture in treatment of postmenopausal hot flushes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhosary, Eman Abdelfatah Mohamed; Ewidea, Mahmoud Mohamed; Ahmed, Hamada Ahmed Hamada; El Khatib, Ayman

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] To compare the effect of aerobic exercises versus laser acupuncture in treatment of postmenopausal hot flushes. [Subjects and Methods] This study was designed as single blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 48 postmenopausal women complained of hot flushes. Their ages ranged between 45 to 55 years and were randomly assigned into 2 equal groups: group (A), which received an aerobic exercises, and group (B), which received laser acupuncture. Both groups recieved 3 sessions per week for two months. The level of follicular stimulating hormone, lutelizing hormone, and hot flushes dairy card were assessed the severity of hot flahes before and after treatment program. [Results] There were Significant reduction in FSH, LH, and menopausal daily hot flush scale in group A compared with group B at the post treatment. [Conclusion] Eight week program of an aerobic exercises yields improvement in FSH, LH, and decrease in severity of hot flushes assessed by hot flush dairy card than laser acupuncture in the treatment of postmenopausal hot flashes.

  18. Functional outcome in contemporary children with total cavopulmonary connection - Health-related physical fitness, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Julia; Reiner, Barbara; Neidenbach, Rhoia C; Oberhoffer, Renate; Hager, Alfred; Ewert, Peter; Müller, Jan

    2018-03-15

    Children and adolescents with an univentricular heart after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) have functional impairments. This study assesses health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and exercise capacity, as well as their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with an univentricular heart after total-pulmonary connection (TCPC). Between July 2014 and October 2016 a total of 78 children and adolescents with TCPC (12.0±3.2years, 21 female) performed a motor test including five tasks for strength and flexibility during their routine follow-up appointment. They also underwent a symptom limited cardio-pulmonary exercise test and filled in a HRQoL questionnaire (KINDL-R). Patients' data were compared to a recent sample of healthy children (n=1650, 12.6±2.4years, 49% female). Multivariable regressions corrected for sex, age and BMI showed that TCPC patients achieved 12.4 repetitions of curl-ups (pflexibility (-4.7cm; pmotor competence and exercise capacity, early screening for HRPF and early treatment, if indicated, is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise habit strength, planning and the theory of planned behaviour: an action control approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Action control refers to the successful translation of intention into behaviour. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of extending intention-exercise profiles with past exercise behaviour and exercise habit strength and the potential discriminative effect of

  20. Electromyography-controlled exoskeletal upper-limb-powered orthosis for exercise training after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joel; Narendran, Kailas; McBean, John; Krebs, Kathryn; Hughes, Richard

    2007-04-01

    Robot-assisted exercise shows promise as a means of providing exercise therapy for weakness that results from stroke or other neurological conditions. Exoskeletal or "wearable" robots can, in principle, provide therapeutic exercise and/or function as powered orthoses to help compensate for chronic weakness. We describe a novel electromyography (EMG)-controlled exoskeletal robotic brace for the elbow (the active joint brace) and the results of a pilot study conducted using this brace for exercise training in individuals with chronic hemiparesis after stroke. Eight stroke survivors with severe chronic hemiparesis were enrolled in this pilot study. One subject withdrew from the study because of scheduling conflicts. A second subject was unable to participate in the training protocol because of insufficient surface EMG activity to control the active joint brace. The six remaining subjects each underwent 18 hrs of exercise training using the device for a period of 6 wks. Outcome measures included the upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale and the modified Ashworth scale of muscle hypertonicity. Analysis revealed that the mean upper-extremity component of the Fugl-Meyer scale increased from 15.5 (SD 3.88) to 19 (SD 3.95) (P = 0.04) at the conclusion of training for the six subjects who completed training. Combined (summated) modified Ashworth scale for the elbow flexors and extensors improved from 4.67 (+/-1.2 SD) to 2.33 (+/-0.653 SD) (P = 0.009) and improved for the entire upper limb as well. All subjects tolerated the device, and no complications occurred. EMG-controlled powered elbow orthoses can be successfully controlled by severely impaired hemiparetic stroke survivors. This technique shows promise as a new modality for assisted exercise training after stroke.

  1. Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice on exercising muscle vascular control in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2013-01-15

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation, via its reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and subsequent conversion to nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen intermediates, reduces blood pressure and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise in humans. Despite these observations, the effects of dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation on skeletal muscle vascular control during locomotory exercise remain unknown. We tested the hypotheses that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) would reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increase hindlimb muscle blood flow in the exercising rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-6 months) were administered either NO(3)(-) (via beetroot juice; 1 mmol kg(-1) day(-1), BR n = 8) or untreated (control, n = 11) tap water for 5 days. MAP and hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance (radiolabelled microsphere infusions) were measured during submaximal treadmill running (20 m min(-1), 5% grade). BR resulted in significantly lower exercising MAP (control: 137 ± 3, BR: 127 ± 4 mmHg, P exercising hindlimb skeletal muscle blood flow (control: 108 ± 8, BR: 150 ± 11 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1), P exercise predominantly in fast-twitch type II muscles, and provide a potential mechanism by which NO(3)(-) supplementation improves metabolic control.

  2. Moderate intensity sports and exercise is associated with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, S F; Hedderson, M M; Brown, S D; Sternfeld, B; Chasan-Taber, L; Feng, J; Adams, J; Ching, J; Crites, Y; Quesenberry, C P; Ferrara, A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the association of regular, unsupervised sports and exercise during pregnancy, by intensity level, with glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Prospective cohort study of 971 women who, shortly after being diagnosed with GDM, completed a Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire assessing moderate and vigorous intensity sports and exercise in the past 3 months. Self-monitored capillary glucose values were obtained for the 6-week period following the questionnaire, with optimal glycaemic control defined≥80% values meeting the targetssports and exercise ([MET×hours]/week), the highest quartile, compared to the lowest, had significantly increased odds of optimal control (OR=1.82 [95% CI: 1.06-3.14] P=0.03). There were significant trends for decreasing mean 1-hour post breakfast, lunch and dinner glycaemia with increasing quartile of moderate activity (all Psports and exercise was associated with decreased mean 1-hour post breakfast and lunch glycaemia (both Psports and exercise, reported shortly after GDM diagnosis, were significantly associated with increased odds of achieving glycaemic control. Clinicians should be aware that unsupervised moderate intensity sports and exercise performed in mid-pregnancy aids in subsequent glycaemic control among women with GDM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  4. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  5. Application of Adaptive Starling-Like Controller to Total Artificial Heart Using Dual Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon C; Smith, Peter A; Nestler, Frank; Timms, Daniel; Cohn, William E; Lim, Einly

    2017-03-01

    The successful clinical applicability of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to research interest in devising a total artificial heart (TAH) using two rotary blood pumps (RBPs). The major challenge when using two separately controlled LVADs for TAH support is the difficulty in maintaining the balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. In this study, a starling-like controller (SLC) hybridized with an adaptive mechanism was developed for a dual rotary LVAD TAH. The incorporation of the adaptive mechanism was intended not only to minimize the risk of pulmonary congestion and atrial suction but also to match cardiac demand. A comparative assessment was performed between the proposed adaptive starling-like controller (A-SLC) and a conventional SLC as well as a constant speed controller. The performance of all controllers was evaluated by subjecting them to three simulated scenarios [rest, exercise, head up tilt (HUT)] using a mock circulation loop. The overall results showed that A-SLC was superior in matching pump flow to cardiac demand without causing hemodynamic instabilities. In contrast, improper flow regulation by the SLC resulted in pulmonary congestion during exercise. From resting supine to HUT, overpumping of the RBPs at fixed speed (FS) caused atrial suction, whereas implementation of SLC resulted in insufficient flow. The comparative study signified the potential of the proposed A-SLC for future TAH implementation particularly among outpatients, who are susceptible to variety of clinical scenarios.

  6. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  7. Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Carraça, Eliana V; Andrade, Ana M; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Sardinha, Luis B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2009-11-01

    Successful weight management relies on at least two health behaviors, eating and exercise. However, little is known about their interaction on a motivational and behavioral level. Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle weight control program. The authors further investigated whether general, treatment-related, and exercise motivation underlie the relation between increased exercise and improved eating regulation. Overweight/obese women participated in a 1-year randomized controlled trial (N = 239). The intervention focused on promoting physical activity and internal motivation for exercise and weight loss, following Self-Determination Theory. The control group received general health education. General and exercise specific self-determination, eating self-regulation variables, and physical activity behavior. General self-determination and more autonomous exercise motivation predicted eating self-regulation over 12 months. Additionally, general and exercise self-determination fully mediated the relation between physical activity and eating self-regulation. Increased general self-determination and exercise motivation seem to facilitate improvements in eating self-regulation during weight control in women. These motivational mechanisms also underlie the relationship between improvements in exercise behavior and eating regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Chinese Traditional Exercise-Baduanjin on Physical and Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Moyi; Fang, Qianying; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Tao, Jing; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Lan, Xiulu; Chen, Bai; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world, therefore, it is important to improve their health during college period. Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese exercise which combines movements with breath and mind, may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, the effect of Baduanjin exercise on college students has not been established. In this study, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise on physical and mental health of college students by a rigorous randomized, parallel-controlled design. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and randomly allocated at an equal ratio into control or Baduanjin training. Participants in control group were informed to maintain their original activity habit, and those in Baduanjin exercise group received a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of 1 hour per day and 5 days per week on the basis of their original activity habit. The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lower limb proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of 12-week intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Compared with controls, significant improvements in Baduanjin exercise group at the end of 12-week intervention period were found on lower limb proprioception function (the rate of average trace error on right lower limb (%): control 23.50±5.50, Baduanjin 21.92±6.54, P=0.004; the rate of average trace error on left lower limb (%): control 22.32±6.62, Baduanjin 20.63±4.62, P=0.046), cardiorespiratory endurance (step test index: control 47.66±5.94, Baduanjin 50.07±9.30, P=0.025), flexibility

  9. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David J.; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions--a control group, a group that exercised for…

  10. Older Women with Controlled Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Exercise and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubolsakka-Jones, Chulee; Sangthong, Benjarat; Aueyingsak, Sahachat; Jones, David A

    2016-06-01

    Exercise is generally regarded as beneficial for health, but the consequent increases in blood pressure might pose a risk for hypertensive subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine blood pressure responses to dynamic exercise and sustained handgrip in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) who were stable on medication. Nineteen female ISH patients (66 ± 5 yr) and 19 age-matched normotensive (NT) female controls undertook a 5-min cycle exercise (60% heart rate reserve [HRR]) and a 2-min handgrip exercise (30% maximum voluntary contraction). Blood pressure responses were measured using an oscillometric cuff, together with heart rate and resting brachial pulse transit times. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels after cycle exercise were 194 ± 18 and 153 ± 19 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively, with the increase above resting being greater for ISH (P exercise, SBP rose to 168 ± 19 and 140 ± 8 mm Hg for ISH and NT, respectively. The increases above baseline were greater for ISH both during the exercise and postexercise circulatory occlusion (P = 0.017). The increase in DBP levels during exercise and postexercise occlusion were similar in ISH and NT, suggesting little difference in metaboreflex sensitivity. Pulse transit time was shorter for ISH compared with NT (166 ± 6 ms and 242 ± 24 ms, respectively, P exercises, which may constitute a risk for cardiovascular incidents.

  11. Drug abusers have impaired cerebral oxygenation and cognition during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell Grandjean da Costa

    Full Text Available Individuals with Substance Use Disorder (SUD have lower baseline metabolic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC associated with impairment of cognitive functions in decision-making and inhibitory control. Aerobic exercise has shown to improve PFC function and cognitive performance, however, its effects on SUD individuals remain unclear.To verify the cognitive performance and oxygenation of the PFC during an incremental exercise in SUD individuals.Fourteen individuals under SUD treatment performed a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with continuous measurements of oxygen consumption, PFC oxygenation, and inhibitory control (Stroop test every two minutes of exercise at different intensities. Fifteen non-SUD individuals performed the same protocol and were used as control group.Exercise increased oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and total hemoglobin (tHb by 9% and 7%, respectively. However, when compared to a non-SUD group, this increase was lower at high intensities (p<0.001, and the inhibitory cognitive control was lower at rest and during exercise (p<0.007. In addition, PFC hemodynamics during exercise was inversely correlated with inhibitory cognitive performance (reaction time (r = -0.62, p = 0.001, and a lower craving perception for the specific abused substance (p = 0.0189 was reported immediately after exercise.Despite SUD individuals having their PFC cerebral oxygenation increased during exercise, they presented lower cognition and oxygenation when compared to controls, especially at elevated intensities. These results may reinforce the role of exercise as an adjuvant treatment to improve PFC function and cognitive control in individuals with SUD.

  12. Aerobic exercise in obese diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized and controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD are generally physically inactive, have a high mortality rate, and may benefit from an exercise program. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized controlled feasibility study comparing aerobic exercise plus optimal medical management to medical management alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2, and stage 2-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with persistent proteinuria. Subjects randomized to exercise underwent thrice weekly aerobic training for 6 followed by 18 weeks of supervised home exercise. The primary outcome variable was change in proteinuria. Results Seven subjects randomized to exercise and 4 control subjects completed the study. Exercise training resulted in an increase in exercise duration during treadmill testing, which was accompanied by slight but insignificant decreases in resting systolic blood pressure and 24-hour proteinuria. Exercise did not alter GFR, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, serum lipids, or C-reactive protein (CRP. Caloric intake and body weight and composition also did not change with exercise training. Conclusion Exercise training in obese diabetic patients with CKD is feasible and may have clinical benefits. A large-scale randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of exercise on renal functions, cardiovascular fitness, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetic patients with CKD is planned.

  13. Psychosocial effects of workplace physical exercise among workers with chronic pain: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Persson, Roger; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil

    2017-01-01

    While workplace physical exercise can help manage musculoskeletal disorders, less is known about psychosocial effects of such interventions. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace physical exercise on psychosocial factors among workers with chronic musculoskeletal pain.The trial design was a 2-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment. A total of 66 slaughterhouse workers (51 men and 15 women, mean age 45 years [standard deviation (SD) 10]) with upper limb chronic musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to group-based strength training (physical exercise group) or individual ergonomic training and education (reference group) for 10 weeks. Social climate was assessed with the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work, and vitality and mental health were assessed with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. All scales were converted to 0 to 100 (higher scores are better). Between-group differences from baseline to follow-up were determined using linear mixed models adjusted for workplace, age, gender, and baseline values of the outcome.Mean baseline scores of social climate, mental health, and vitality were 52.2 (SD 14.9), 79.5 (SD 13.7), and 53.9 (SD 19.7), respectively. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained from 30 and 31 from the physical exercise and reference groups, respectively. The between-group differences from baseline to follow-up between physical exercise and reference were 7.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 14.9), -2.3 (95% CI -10.3 to 5.8), and 10.1 (95% CI 0.6 to 19.5) for social climate, mental health, and vitality, respectively. For social climate and vitality, this corresponded to moderate effect sizes (Cohen d = 0.51 for both) in favor of physical exercise. There were no reported adverse events.In conclusion, workplace physical exercise performed together with colleagues improves social climate and vitality among workers with chronic musculoskeletal

  14. Effectiveness of an exercise program on postural control in frail older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfieri FM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fábio Marcon Alfieri,1,2 Marcelo Riberto,3 Àngels Abril-Carreres,4 Maria Boldó-Alcaine,4 Elisabet Rusca-Castellet,4 Roser Garreta-Figuera,4 Linamara Rizzo Battistella51São Paulo Adventist University Center, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Institute of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Hospital of Clinics, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 3School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 4University Hospital Mútua Terrassa Department of Rehabilitation, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5School of Medicine, Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinics Hospital of University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Exercise programs have proved to be helpful for frail older adults. This study aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise program with a focus on postural control exercises in frail older adults.Method: Twenty-six older adults (76.7 ± 4.9 years deemed clinically stable, chosen from the Falls Unit, University Hospital Mútua Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain, participated in this single-group study. Volunteers' postural control was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG and the Guralnik test battery, and their static and dynamic posturography were evaluated using the Synapsys Posturography System®. These evaluations were performed before and after the intervention program, which included an educational session and two weekly 1-hour sessions over an 8-week period of stretching exercises, proprioception, balance, and motor coordination. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test or the Wilcoxon test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: The TUG and Guralnik tests did not show significant differences. Concerning static posturography, there was improvement in the base of support (P = 0.006, anteroposterior displacement with eyes open (P = 0.02 and closed (P = 0.03, and the total amplitude of the center of pressure with eyes closed (P = 0.02. Regarding dynamic posturography, a

  15. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  16. Efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise during dialysis for end stage kidney disease patients: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Matthew J; Fraser, Steve F; Bennett, Paul N; McMahon, Lawrence P; Brumby, Catherine; Warmington, Stuart A

    2017-09-11

    Exercise during haemodialysis improves strength and physical function. However, both patients and clinicians are time poor, and current exercise recommendations add an excessive time burden making exercise a rare addition to standard care. Hypothetically, blood flow restriction exercise performed during haemodialysis can provide greater value for time spent exercising, reducing this time burden while producing similar or greater outcomes. This study will explore the efficacy of blood flow restriction exercise for enhancing strength and physical function among haemodialysis patients. This is a randomised controlled trial design. A total of 75 participants will be recruited from haemodialysis clinics. Participants will be allocated to a blood flow restriction cycling group, traditional cycling group or usual care control group. Both exercising groups will complete 3 months of cycling exercise, performed intradialytically, three times per week. The blood flow restriction cycling group will complete two 10-min cycling bouts separated by a 20-min rest at a subjective effort of 15 on a 6 to 20 rating scale. This will be done with pressurised cuffs fitted proximally on the active limbs during exercise at 50% of a pre-determined limb occlusion pressure. The traditional cycling group will perform a continuous 20-min bout of exercise at a subjective effort of 12 on the same subjective effort scale. These workloads and volumes are equivalent and allow for comparison of a common blood flow restriction aerobic exercise prescription and a traditional aerobic exercise prescription. The primary outcome measures are lower limb strength, assessed by a three repetition maximum leg extension test, as well as objective measures of physical function: six-minute walk test, 30-s sit to stand, and timed up and go. Secondary outcome measures include thigh muscle cross sectional area, body composition, routine pathology, quality of life, and physical activity engagement. This study will

  17. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An exercise in safety

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    On 14 October, a large-scale evacuation exercise took place. Ten buildings (1-2-3-4-50-51-52-53-58-304), with a total capacity of almost 1900 people, were successfully evacuated.   The exercise, which for the first time involved all of the central buildings on the Meyrin site, was organised by the PH Department in collaboration with the HSE Unit, the GS Department and the safety officers of all the various departments involved. On the day, around 400 people were evacuated in just a few minutes.  “It took us three months to prepare for the exercise,” explains Niels Dupont, safety officer for the PH Department, who organised the exercise. “Around 100 people: safety officers, firefighters, emergency guides, observers, representatives from the control centre, etc. attended four preparatory meetings and five training sessions. We also purchased equipment such as evacuation chairs, high-visibility vests and signs to mark the evacuation route.” The dec...

  19. Effects of different modes of exercise on appetite and appetite-regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Mineta, Mayuko; Asaka, Meiko; Miyashita, Masashi; Numao, Shigeharu; Gando, Yuko; Ando, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean ± SD, age 24.4 ± 1.7 yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) participated in three 160 min trials: (1) rope skipping exercise (295 ± 40 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (2) bicycle ergometer exercise (288 ± 36 kcal, 3 sets × 10 min with 5-min interval, then rested for 120 min); (3) control (rested for 160 min). Ratings of perceived hunger and acylated ghrelin were suppressed and total peptide YY (PYY) were increased during and immediately after exercise in both exercise trials, but glucagon liked peptide-1 was not changed. Furthermore, suppressed hunger during rope skipping exercise was greater than that during bicycle ergometer exercise, but there were no differences in acylated ghrelin and total PYY. These results indicate that weight-bearing exercise has a greater exercise-induced appetite suppressive effect compared with non-weight-bearing exercise, and both forms of exercise lowered acylated ghrelin and increased total PYY, but the changes did not differ significantly between exercise modes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise interventions for smoking cessation.

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    Ussher, Michael H; Taylor, Adrian H; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-08-29

    Taking regular exercise may help people give up smoking by moderating nicotine withdrawal and cravings, and by helping to manage weight gain. To determine whether exercise-based interventions alone, or combined with a smoking cessation programme, are more effective than a smoking cessation intervention alone. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in April 2014, and searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus in May 2014. We included randomized trials which compared an exercise programme alone, or an exercise programme as an adjunct to a cessation programme, with a cessation programme (which we considered the control in this review). Studies were required to recruit smokers or recent quitters and have a follow-up of six months or more. Studies that did not meet the full inclusion criteria because they only assessed the acute effects of exercise on smoking behaviour, or because the outcome was smoking reduction, are summarised but not formally included. We extracted data on study characteristics and smoking outcomes. Because of differences between studies in the characteristics of the interventions used we summarized the results narratively, making no attempt at meta-analysis. We assessed risk of selection and attrition bias using standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified 20 trials with a total of 5,870 participants. The largest study was an internet trial with 2,318 participants, and eight trials had fewer than 30 people in each treatment arm. Studies varied in the timing and intensity of the smoking cessation and exercise programmes offered. Only one included study was judged to be at low risk of bias across all domains assessed. Four studies showed significantly higher abstinence rates in a physically active group versus a control group at end of treatment. One of these studies also showed a significant benefit for exercise versus control on abstinence at the three-month follow

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN THE CONTROL OF THE CORPORAL WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matos de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographical rising was analyzing the effectiveness of exercises in the control of the corporal weight. This revision study approached studies published among the years from 1991 to 2005, through systematic searches using electronic database: Medline, Science Direct and bibliographical collection of Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. The weigh loss process depends on several factors as the number of fatty cells, hereditariness, normality of hormonal system and mainly to the energy expense. The analyzed studies demonstrated that the physical exercise is an mechanism efficiente that contributes in the reduction of corporal weight, allied the other health positive habits. However the intensity, duration and even the ideal modality of physical exercise is controversial in the half specialized, having a certain predominance of studies that they appear for exercises drop aerobics the moderate intensity due to minimizes risks the health. The studies addressed for the anaerobic exercises they demonstrated to be more efficient in the control of corporal weight, because besides contributing for loss of corporal fat it favors the maintenance and/our increase of thin corporal mass. Experimental studies are recommended with wider delineamento than it favors to investigate the relationship of different types of physical exercise in the control of corporal weight.

  2. Inspiring and Challenging Laboratory Exercise in Multivariable Control Theory – The Four-rotor Helicopter

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    Dag A. H. Samuelsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering students in a module on multivariable control theory are given a laboratory exercise for developing their skills in practical implementation of control systems. This is done in an effort to create a more complete module that gives the students experiences in the practical sides of implementing control systems, while still being theoretically challenging and inspiring. Presenting students with this kind of real-life challenges like sub-optimal models, limited processing time and large degree of uncertainty, is a challenging task, partly due to the need of adapting the level of complexity to the student or group of students doing the exercise in order to keep them engaged throughout the exercise, and in part due to the university's need to reduce expenses related to the administration, supervision, and execution of laboratory exercises. The possibility of adapting the complexity of the exercise to each student's skill level is important, both through the design of the exercise and through the students choosing between different models. The eager student might be tempted by the better performing, but more complex models, while the struggling student can find satisfaction in stabilising the aircraft using the less complex models. The laboratory setup presented uses low-cost components, giving low investment and maintenance costs.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Exercise to Health Education for Stimulant Use Disorder: Results From the CTN-0037 STimulant Reduction Intervention Using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Greer, Tracy L; Rethorst, Chad D; Carmody, Thomas; Grannemann, Bruce D; Walker, Robrina; Warden, Diane; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Stoutenberg, Mark; Oden, Neal; Silverstein, Meredith; Hodgkins, Candace; Love, Lee; Seamans, Cindy; Stotts, Angela; Causey, Trey; Szucs-Reed, Regina P; Rinaldi, Paul; Myrick, Hugh; Straus, Michele; Liu, David; Lindblad, Robert; Church, Timothy; Blair, Steven N; Nunes, Edward V

    To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders. The STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 residential addiction treatment programs across the United States from July 2010 to February 2013. Of 497 adults referred to the study, 302 met all eligibility criteria, including DSM-IV criteria for stimulant abuse and/or dependence, and were randomized to either a dosed exercise intervention (Exercise) or a health education intervention (Health Education) control, both augmenting treatment as usual and conducted thrice weekly for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of percent stimulant abstinent days during study weeks 4 to 12 was estimated using a novel algorithm adjustment incorporating self-reported Timeline Followback (TLFB) stimulant use and urine drug screen (UDS) data. Mean percent of abstinent days based on TLFB was 90.8% (SD = 16.4%) for Exercise and 91.6% (SD = 14.7%) for Health Education participants. Percent of abstinent days using the eliminate contradiction (ELCON) algorithm was 75.6% (SD = 27.4%) for Exercise and 77.3% (SD = 25.1%) for Health Education. The primary intent-to-treat analysis, using a mixed model controlling for site and the ELCON algorithm, produced no treatment effect (P = .60). In post hoc analyses controlling for treatment adherence and baseline stimulant use, Exercise participants had a 4.8% higher abstinence rate (78.7%) compared to Health Education participants (73.9%) (P = .03, number needed to treat = 7.2). The primary analysis indicated no significant difference between exercise and health education. Adjustment for intervention adherence showed modestly but significantly higher percent of abstinent days in the exercise group, suggesting that exercise may improve outcomes for stimulant users who have better adherence to an exercise dose. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141608. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

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    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  5. Self-determined to exercise? Leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise motivation, and exercise dependence in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Savage, Jennifer S; DiNallo, Jennifer M

    2013-02-01

    Scant research has examined the determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth. Study purposes were to examine sex differences across leisure-time exercise behavior, motivation, and primary exercise dependence symptoms in youth and the extent to which exercise behavior and motivation predicted exercise dependence within the Self-Determination Theory framework. Adolescents (N = 805; mean age = 15 years; 46% girls) completed measures of exercise behavior, motivation, and exercise dependence in health/PE classes. One-way ANOVA revealed boys scored higher than girls on leisure-time exercise behavior, exercise dependence symptoms, and most of the exercise motivation subscales. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a) sex, exercise behavior, motivation, and their interaction terms explained 39% of the variance in primary exercise dependence; b) Integrated Regulation and Introjected Regulation were important determinants of exercise dependence; and c) sex moderated the contributions of External Regulation for predicting exercise dependence such that boys in the high and low external regulation groups had higher symptoms than girls in the high and low external regulation groups. These preliminary findings support the controlled dimensions of Integrated Regulation (boys, girls), Introjected Regulation (boys, girls), and External Regulation (boys only) are important determinants of primary exercise dependence symptoms.

  6. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal; Bhardwaj, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Ankur; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2013-11-07

    Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle's self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers' rating of the children's obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and parental self-esteem improved in the yoga group (p exercise are useful additions to the school routine, with physical exercise improving social self-esteem. The study was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI/2012/11/003112).

  8. Kinematic evaluation of patients with total and reverse shoulder arthroplasty during rehabilitation exercises with different loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Joelly Mahnic; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Janssen, Thomas W; van der Scheer, Jan W; Alta, Tjarco D; Willems, W Jaap; Veeger, DirkJan H E J

    2012-10-01

    Following shoulder arthroplasty, any well-planned rehabilitation program should include muscle strengthening. However, it is not always clear how different external loads influence shoulder kinematics in patients with shoulder prostheses. The objective of this study was to describe shoulder kinematics and determine the contribution of the scapulothoracic joint to total shoulder motion of patients with total and reverse shoulder arthroplasties and of healthy individuals during rehabilitation exercises (anteflexion and elevation in the scapular plane) using different loading conditions (without external load, 1 kg and elastic resistance). Shoulder motions were measured using an electromagnetic tracking device. A force transducer was used to record force signals during loaded conditions using elastic resistance. Statistical comparisons were made using a three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc testing. The scapula contributed more to movement of the arm in subjects with prostheses compared to healthy subjects. The same applies for loaded conditions (1 kg and elastic resistance) relative to unloaded tasks. For scapular internal rotation, upward rotation and posterior tilt no significant differences among groups were found during both exercises. Glenohumeral elevation angles during anteflexion were significantly higher in the total shoulder arthroplasty group compared to the reverse shoulder arthroplasty group. Differences in contribution of the scapula to total shoulder motion between patients with different types of arthroplasties were not significant. However, compared to healthy subjects, they were. Furthermore, scapular kinematics of patients with shoulder arthroplasty was influenced by implementation of external loads, but not by the type of load. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a wearable measurement and control unit for personal customizing machine-supported exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Tamura, Naoki; Kiryu, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of personal customizing machine-supported exercise that have biosignal-based controls. In this paper, we propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the personal customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. We then applied a prototype of the wearable unit to an Internet-based cycle ergometer system. The wearable unit was examined using twelve young people to check its feasibility. The results verified that the unit could successfully adapt to the control of the workload and was effective for continuously supporting gradual changes in physical activities.

  10. The Effect of Chinese Traditional Exercise-Baduanjin on Physical and Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyi Li

    Full Text Available The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world, therefore, it is important to improve their health during college period. Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese exercise which combines movements with breath and mind, may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, the effect of Baduanjin exercise on college students has not been established. In this study, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise on physical and mental health of college students by a rigorous randomized, parallel-controlled design.A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and randomly allocated at an equal ratio into control or Baduanjin training. Participants in control group were informed to maintain their original activity habit, and those in Baduanjin exercise group received a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of 1 hour per day and 5 days per week on the basis of their original activity habit. The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lower limb proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of 12-week intervention, and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes.Compared with controls, significant improvements in Baduanjin exercise group at the end of 12-week intervention period were found on lower limb proprioception function (the rate of average trace error on right lower limb (%: control 23.50±5.50, Baduanjin 21.92±6.54, P=0.004; the rate of average trace error on left lower limb (%: control 22.32±6.62, Baduanjin 20.63±4.62, P=0.046, cardiorespiratory endurance (step test index: control 47.66±5.94, Baduanjin 50.07±9.30, P=0

  11. A preliminary randomized controlled trial of a behavioral exercise intervention for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Marcus, Bess H; Desaulniers, Julie; Fokas, Kathryn; Brown, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Previous exercise intervention studies for smoking cessation have been challenged by a number of methodological limitations that confound the potential efficacy of aerobic exercise for smoking cessation. The preliminary efficacy of a behavioral exercise intervention that incorporated features designed to address prior limitations was tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Sixty-one smokers (65.6% female, mean age = 47.3 years, smoked a mean of 19.7 cigarettes/day) were randomized to receive either a 12-week exercise intervention or a 12-week health education contact control. Participants in both conditions received an 8-week telephone-delivered, standard smoking cessation protocol (with the transdermal nicotine patch). Follow-ups were conducted at the end of treatment (EOT), 6- and 12-month timepoints. There were no differences between conditions with respect to the number of weekly exercise or health education sessions attended (9.3±2.8 vs. 9.3±3.0, respectively). While not statistically significant, participants in the exercise condition demonstrated higher verified abstinence rates (EOT: 40% vs. 22.6%, odds ratio [OR] = 2.28; 6- and 12-month follow-ups: 26.7% vs. 12.9%, OR = 2.46). Irrespective of treatment condition, higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous exercise were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms during the intervention. The results of this small RCT point toward the benefit of a behavioral exercise intervention designed to address previous methodological limitations for smoking cessation. Given the potential public health impact of the demonstrated efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, the continued development and optimization of exercise interventions for smokers through larger RCTs merits pursuit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  13. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  14. Implementing Low-Cost, Community-Based Exercise Programs for Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: What Are the Benefits for Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Mendes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Participants (n = 124; 63.25 ± 7.20 years old engaged in either a 9-month supervised exercise program (n = 39; consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance, and flexibility exercise; three sessions per week; 70 min per session or a control group (n = 85 who maintained their usual care. Glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease were assessed before and after the 9-month intervention. Results: A significant time * group interaction effect (p < 0.001 was identified in the values of the glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease. Conclusions: A long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies was effective in inducing significant benefits on glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Identification Number: ISRCTN09240628.

  15. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  16. Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; Roelfsema, E; Westermann, C M; Dansen, O; Jacobs, M; Lee, J-Y; Spronck, E A; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2018-03-07

    Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided

  17. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

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    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  18. Heart rate informed artificial pancreas system enhances glycemic control during exercise in adolescents with T1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Cherñavvsky, Daniel R; Topchyan, Katarina; Kovatchev, Boris P; Francis, Gary L; Breton, Marc D

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and performance of using a heart rate (HR) monitor to inform an artificial pancreas (AP) system during exercise among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In a randomized, cross-over trial, adolescents with T1D age 13 - 18 years were enrolled to receive on separate days either the unmodified UVa AP (stdAP) or an AP system connected to a portable HR monitor (AP-HR) that triggered an exercise algorithm for blood glucose (BG) control. During admissions participants underwent a structured exercise regimen. Hypoglycemic events and CGM tracings were compared between the two admissions, during exercise and for the full 24-hour period. Eighteen participants completed the trial. While number of hypoglycemic events during exercise and rest was not different between visits (0.39 AP-HR vs 0.50 stdAP), time below 70 mg dL -1 was lower on AP-HR compared to stdAP, 0.5±2.1% vs 7.4±12.5% (P = 0.028). Time with BG within 70-180 mg dL -1 was higher for the AP-HR admission vs stdAP during the exercise portion and overall (96% vs 87%, and 77% vs 74%), but these did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.075 and P = 0.366). Heart rate signals can safely and efficaciously be integrated in a wireless AP system to inform of physical activity. While exercise contributes to hypoglycemia among adolescents, even when using an AP system, informing the system of exercise via a HR monitor improved time <70 mg dL -1 . Nonetheless, it did not significantly reduce the total number of hypoglycemic events, which were low in both groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. EXERCISE in pediatric autologous stem cell transplant patients: a randomized controlled trial protocol

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    Chamorro-Viña Carolina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects. The recovery of the immune system is a special concern and plays a key role in the success of this treatment. In healthy populations it is known that exercise plays an important role in immune system regulation, but little is known about the role of exercise in the hematological and immunological recovery of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The primary objective of this randomized-controlled trial (RCT is to study the effect of an exercise program (in- and outpatient on immune cell recovery in patients undergoing an autologous stem cell transplantation. The secondary objective is to determine if an exercise intervention diminishes the usual deterioration in quality of life, physical fitness, and the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle. Methods This RCT has received approval from The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board (CHREB of the University of Calgary (Ethics ID # E-24476. Twenty-four participants treated for a malignancy with autologous stem cell transplant (5 to 18 years in the Alberta Children’s Hospital will be randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. The exercise group will participate in a two-phase exercise intervention (in- and outpatient from hospitalization until 10 weeks after discharge. The exercise program includes strength, flexibility and aerobic exercise. During the inpatient phase this program will be performed 5 times/week and will be supervised. The outpatient phase will combine a supervised session with two home-based exercise sessions with the use of the Wii device. The control group will follow the standard protocol without any specific exercise program. A range of outcomes, including quantitative and functional recovery of immune system

  20. Feasibility of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition in older adults with Type 2 diabetes - a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, M L; Daly, R M; Sharman, J E; Bruce, D; Davis, T M E; Greenaway, T; Nolan, M; Beare, R; Schultz, M G; Phan, T; Blizzard, L C; Srikanth, V K

    2017-10-16

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of dementia. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of exercise on cognition and brain structure in people with T2D. A 6-month pilot parallel RCT of a progressive aerobic- and resistance-training program versus a gentle movement control group in people with T2D aged 50-75 years (n = 50) at the University of Tasmania, Australia. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. Brain volume (total, white matter, hippocampus), cortical thickness and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotrophy and mean diffusivity) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and cognition using a battery of neuropsychological tests. Study design was assessed by any changes (during the pilot or recommended) to the protocol, recruitment by numbers screened and time to enrol 50 participants; randomisation by similarity of characteristics in groups at baseline, adherence by exercise class attendance; safety by number and description of adverse events and retention by numbers withdrawn. The mean age of participants was 66.2 (SD 4.9) years and 48% were women. There were no changes to the design during the study. A total of 114 people were screened for eligibility, with 50 participants with T2D enrolled over 8 months. Forty-seven participants (94%) completed the study (23 of 24 controls; 24 of 26 in the intervention group). Baseline characteristics were reasonably balanced between groups. Exercise class attendance was 79% for the intervention and 75% for the control group. There were 6 serious adverse events assessed as not or unlikely to be due to the intervention. Effect sizes for each outcome variable are provided. This study supports the feasibility of a large scale RCT to test the benefits of multi-modal exercise to prevent cognitive decline in people with T2D. Design changes to the future trial are provided. ANZCTR 12614000222640 ; Registered 3/3/2014; First

  1. Control of lipid oxidation during exercise: role of energy state and mitochondrial factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, K; Harris, R C

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable progress during recent years our understanding of how lipid oxidation (LOx) is controlled during exercise remains incomplete. This review focuses on the role of mitochondria and energy state in the control of LOx. LOx increases in parallel with increased energy demand up...... to an exercise intensity of about 50-60% of VO(2max) after which the contribution of lipid decreases. The switch from lipid to carbohydrate (CHO) is of energetic advantage due to the increased ATP/O(2) yield. In the low-intensity domain (energy state will stimulate both LOx...... during high-intensity exercise. Another potential mechanism, suggested in this review, is that Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), an initial step in LCFA catabolism, functions as a regulator of LOx. ACS activity is suggested to be under control of CoASH and energy state. Furthermore, evidence exists...

  2. Exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint and its influence on postural control and lower limb kinematics in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise-induced muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee joint on postural control and kinematic changes in stroke patients. Forty participants (20 stroke patients, 20 age-matched healthy participants were recruited. To induce fatigue, maximum voluntary isometric contractions were performed in the unaffected knee joint in a Leg Extension Rehab exercise machine using the pneumatic resistance. We measured static and dynamic balance and lower-limb kinematics during gait. Changes in postural control parameters anteroposterior sway speed and total center of pressure distance differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. In addition, changes in gait kinematic parameters knee and ankle angles of initial contact differed significantly between stroke (paretic and non-paretic and control groups. Muscle fatigue in the unaffected knee and ankle impaired postural control and debilitates kinematic movement of ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs, and may place the fatigued stroke patients at greater risk for falls.

  3. Exercise and manual auricular acupuncture: a pilot assessor-blind randomised controlled trial. (The acupuncture and personalised exercise programme (APEP Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley D

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence supports the use of exercise for chronic low back pain (CLBP; however, adherence is often poor due to ongoing pain. Auricular acupuncture is a form of pain relief involving the stimulation of points on the outer ear corresponding with specific body parts. It may be a useful adjunct to exercise in managing CLBP; however, there is only limited evidence to support its use with this patient group. Methods/Design This study was designed to test the feasibility of an assessor-blind randomised controlled trial which assess the effects on clinical outcomes and exercise adherence of adding manual auricular acupuncture to a personalised and supervised exercise programme (PEP for CLBP. No sample size calculation has been carried out as this study aims to identify CLBP referral rates within the catchment area of the study site. The researchers aim to recruit four cohorts of n = 20 participants to facilitate a power analysis for a future randomised controlled trial. A computer generated random allocation sequence will be prepared centrally and used to allocate participants by cohort to one of the following interventions: 1 six weeks of PEP plus manual auricular acupuncture; 2 six weeks of PEP alone. Both groups will also complete a further six weeks of self-paced exercise with telephone follow-up support. In addition to a baseline and exit questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, the following outcomes will be collected at baseline, and after 7, 13 and 25 weeks: pain frequency and bothersomeness, back-specific function, objective assessment and recall of physical activity, use of analgesia, perceived self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs, and beliefs about the consequences of back pain. Since this is a feasibility study, significance tests will not be presented, and treatment effects will be represented by point estimates and confidence intervals. For each outcome variable, analysis of covariance will be performed on

  4. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

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    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  5. Efficacy of supervised exercise combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in women with fibromyalgia: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, B; Paker, N; Bugdayci, D; Tekdos, D; Kesiktas, N

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the results of a supervised exercise with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in an exercise controlled study in women with fibromyalgia. Sixty-six women with fibromyalgia who admitted to the outpatient clinic of our hospital were randomized into two treatment groups. The patients in both groups participated in a supervised combined exercise program for 12 weeks. The women in first group had additional TENS in the first 3 weeks of the study. All subjects were analyzed at the baseline, at the end of the 3rd and 12th weeks. Outcome measures were tender point count (TPC), myalgic pain score (MPS), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. Sixty women with fibromyalgia completed the study. The patients in both groups showed improvement in terms of TPC, MPS, FIQ, physical and mental summary scores and total scores of SF-36 at the end of the 3rd and 12th weeks. The improvement in MPS at the third week was higher in the first group (p = 0.01). But there was no difference in terms of the improvement in MPS between the groups at the end of the 12th week control (p = 0.87). There was no significant difference between the improvement in the other outcome parameters of the two groups. As a result, supervised exercise program was successful to improve the myalgic pain, functional status and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. Exercises combined with TENS might be useful due to quick myalgic pain relief in the treatment of fibromyalgia in everyday practice.

  6. Effects of two physiotherapy booster sessions on outcomes with home exercise in people with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-11-01

    Enhancing exercise adherence over the longer term is an important goal in self-management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Following an initial period of more intensive exercise supervision, this study investigated whether 2 additional physiotherapy visits improved outcomes with continued home exercise over a subsequent 24-week period. A total of 78 people with medial knee OA (mean ± SD age 62.1 ± 6.9 years, mean ± SD body mass index 29.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) , and radiographic disease severity 19% mild, 49% moderate, and 32% severe) who completed a 12-week physiotherapist-supervised exercise trial were randomly allocated to 2 30-minute physiotherapy booster sessions (delivered by 8 physiotherapists in private clinics) or no booster sessions for the subsequent 24 weeks. All participants were asked to continue home exercises 4 times weekly. Primary outcomes were change in pain, using a 100-mm visual analog scale, and self-reported physical function, measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants and physiotherapists were unblinded to group allocation, although participants were blinded to the study hypothesis. A total of 74 participants (95%) completed the trial. There was no significant difference between groups for change in pain (mean difference [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] 0.7 mm [-9.4, 8.0]; P = 0.88) or physical function (-0.3 units [95% CI -4.0, 3.5]; P = 0.88). The mean ± SD percentage of home exercise sessions completed was 56% ± 34% in the booster group and 51% ± 37% in the control group (P > 0.05). Two booster sessions with a physiotherapist did not influence pain or physical function outcomes, or measures of home exercise adherence. These findings suggest other more effective strategies are needed to maximize longer-term adherence with the aim to achieve greater improvements in clinical outcomes from exercise in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital Process Control Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Deborah E.; Schork, F. Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Presents six problems from an alternative approach to homework traditionally given to follow-up lectures. Stresses the advantage of longer term exercises which allow for creativity and independence on the part of the student. Problems include: "System Model,""Open-Loop Simulation,""PID Control,""Dahlin…

  8. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  9. Effect of Rebound Exercises and Circuit Training on Complications Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Bashir; Maharaj, Sonill Sooknunan

    2018-05-07

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic lifestyle disease, and its complications are on the rise. Exercise has been documented as being effective in the management of musculoskeletal pain, depression, and reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the types of exercise that reduce musculoskeletal pain and depression and improve quality of life as well as respiratory function among individuals with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of rebound and circuit training on musculoskeletal pain, blood glucose level, cholesterol level, quality of life, depression, and respiratory parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 70 participants are expected to be recruited in this single blind randomized controlled trial. Computer-generated random numbers will be used to randomize the participants into 3 groups, namely, the rebound exercise group, the circuit exercise group, and the control group. Measurements will be taken at baseline and at the end of the 8 weeks of the study. Participants' musculoskeletal pain will be assessed using the visual analog scale, quality of life will be assessed using the SF 12 Health Survey Questionnaire, depression using the Beck Depression Inventory, respiratory parameters using the spirometer, and biochemical parameters such as glucose level and cholesterol level using the glucometer. Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of multivariate analysis of variance between the groups and paired t test within the group. Alpha will be set at .05. The results of this study will identify the effectiveness of rebound exercise and circuit training, compared with the control, in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and on quality of life, musculoskeletal pain, depression, glycemic control, cholesterol level, as well as improvement in respiratory function. Though different additional strategies

  10. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2015-12-02

    Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for randomized, controlled trials published during the period of 2003-2015, which enrolled frail older adults in an exercise intervention program. Studies where frailty had been defined were included in the review. A narrative synthesis approach was performed to examine the results. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale) was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 507 articles, nine papers met the inclusion criteria. Of these, six included multi-component exercise interventions (aerobic and resistance training not coexisting in the intervention), one included physical comprehensive training, and two included exercises based on strength training. All nine of these trials included a control group receiving no treatment, maintaining their habitual lifestyle or using a home-based low level exercise program. Five investigated the effects of exercise on falls, and among them, three found a positive impact of exercise interventions on this parameter. Six trials reported the effects of exercise training on several aspects of mobility, and among them, four showed enhancements in several measurements of this outcome. Three trials focused on the effects of exercise intervention on balance performance, and one demonstrated enhanced balance. Four trials investigated functional ability, and two showed positive results after the intervention. Seven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on muscle strength, and five of them reported increases; three trials

  11. Exercise for depression in older adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials adjusting for publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B. Schuch

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidepressant effects of exercise in older adults, using randomized controlled trial (RCT data. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of exercise in older adults, addressing limitations of previous works. RCTs of exercise interventions in older people with depression (≥ 60 years comparing exercise vs. control were eligible. A random-effects meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD (95% confidence interval [95%CI], meta-regressions, and trim, fill, and fail-safe number analyses were conducted. Results: Eight RCTs were included, representing 138 participants in exercise arms and 129 controls. Exercise had a large and significant effect on depression (SMD = -0.90 [95%CI -0.29 to -1.51], with a fail-safe number of 71 studies. Significant effects were found for 1 mixed aerobic and anaerobic interventions, 2 at moderate intensity, 3 that were group-based, 4 that utilized mixed supervised and unsupervised formats, and 5 in people without other clinical comorbidities. Conclusion: Adjusting for publication bias increased the beneficial effects of exercise in three subgroup analysis, suggesting that previous meta-analyses have underestimated the benefits of exercise due to publication bias. We advocate that exercise be considered as a routine component of the management of depression in older adults.

  12. Control of the exercise hyperpnoea in humans: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S A

    2000-09-01

    Models of the exercise hyperpnoea have classically incorporated elements of proportional feedback (carotid and medullary chemosensory) and feedforward (central and/or peripheral neurogenic) control. However, the precise details of the control process remain unresolved, reflecting in part both technical and interpretational limitations inherent in isolating putative control mechanisms in the intact human, and also the challenges to linear control theory presented by multiple-input integration, especially with regard to the ventilatory and gas-exchange complexities encountered at work rates which engender a metabolic acidosis. While some combination of neurogenic, chemoreflex and circulatory-coupled processes are likely to contribute to the control, the system appears to evidence considerable redundancy. This, coupled with the lack of appreciable error signals in the mean levels of arterial blood gas tensions and pH over a wide range of work rates, has motivated the formulation of innovative control models that reflect not only spatial interactions but also temporal interactions (i.e. memory). The challenge is to discriminate between robust competing control models that: (a) integrate such processes within plausible physiological equivalents; and (b) account for both the dynamic and steady-state system response over a range of exercise intensities. Such models are not yet available.

  13. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( ppain ( p=0.002) and pain at it least ( p=0.033), flexibility (0.032) and balance (0.043). An 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  14. Exercise training reduces the frequency of menopausal hot flushes by improving thermoregulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Cable, N Timothy; Aziz, Nabil; Dobson, Rebecca; Sprung, Victoria S; Low, David A; Jones, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal hot flushes occur due to a reduction in estrogen production causing thermoregulatory and vascular dysfunction. Exercise training enhances thermoregulatory control of sweating, skin and brain blood flow. We aimed to determine if improving thermoregulatory control and vascular function with exercise training alleviated hot flushes. Twenty-one symptomatic women completed a 7-day hot flush questionnaire and underwent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Sweat rate and skin blood flow temperature thresholds and sensitivities, and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) were measured during passive heating. Women performed 16 weeks of supervised exercise training or control, and measurements were repeated. There was a greater improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (4.45 mL/kg/min [95% CI: 1.87, 8.16]; P = 0.04) and reduced hot flush frequency (48 hot flushes/wk [39, 56]; P core temperature (0.14°C [0.01, 0.27]; P = 0.03) and increased basal MCAv (2.8 cm/s [1.0, 5.2]; P = 0.04) compared with control. Sweat rate and skin blood flow thresholds occurred approximately 0.19°C and 0.17°C earlier, alongside improved sweating sensitivity with exercise. MCAv decreased during heating (P training that improves cardiorespiratory fitness reduces self-reported hot flushes. Improvements are likely mediated through greater thermoregulatory control in response to increases in core temperature and enhanced vascular function in the cutaneous and cerebral circulations.

  15. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  16. Effects of prolonged exercise versus multiple short exercise sessions on risk for metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, JinWook; Kim, KwangJun; Hong, Jeeyoung; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-08-22

    Many people, although they may recognise the positive effects of exercise, do not exercise regularly owing to lack of time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged single-session exercise and multiple short sessions of exercise on the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. Thirty-six participants were divided into the single-session group, multiple-session group, and control group. The single-session group engaged in one session of treadmill exercise for 30 min a day; the multiple-session group had three sessions of 10 min a day. Both groups exercised 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group did not perform any exercise. The single-session group showed decreases in weight (0.97 kg [95% C.I. = 0.09-1.83], p exercise is superior to multiple short sessions for improving the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. However, multiple short sessions can be recommended as an alternative to prolonged exercise when the goal is to decrease blood glucose or waist circumference.

  17. Circuit training enhances function in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Shen, Wun-Jer; Lin, Zin-Rong; Chang, Shr-Hsin; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2017-10-19

    The number of patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been rising every year due to the aging population and the obesity epidemic. Post-operative rehabilitation is important for the outcome of TKA. A series of 34 patients who underwent primary unilateral TKA was retrospectively collected and divided into either exercise group (n = 16) and control group (n = 18). The exercise group underwent a 24-week course of circuit training beginning 3 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The effect of circuit training on TKA patients in terms of motion analysis, muscle strength testing, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score (KOOS) questionnaire and patient-reported outcome measurement Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at the pre-operation, pre-exercise, mid-exercise, and post-exercise. Motion analysis revealed the stride length, step velocity, and excursion of active knee range of motion significantly improved in the exercise group when compared to those in the control group. KOOS questionnaire showed a greater improvement in pain, ADL, and total scores in the exercise group. The SF-36 questionnaire revealed a significant improvement in general health, bodily pain, social function, and physical components score in the exercise group. The post-operative circuit training intervention can facilitate recovery of knee function and decrease the degree of pain in the TKA and might be considered a useful adjunct rehabilitative modality. The ultimate influence of circuit training on TKA needs further a prospective randomized clinical trial study and long-term investigation. NCT02928562.

  18. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  19. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Hoffman, Debi Rufi

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether a single session of exercise of appropriate intensity and duration for aerobic conditioning has a different acute effect on mood for nonexercisers than regular exercisers. Repeated-measures design. Research laboratory. Adult nonexercisers, moderate exercisers, and ultramarathon runners (8 men, 8 women in each group). Treadmill exercise at self-selected speeds to induce a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 (somewhat hard) for 20 minutes, preceded and followed by 5 minutes at an RPE of 9 (very light). Profile of Mood States before and 5 minutes after exercise. Vigor increased by a mean +/- standard deviation of 8+/-7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5-12) among the ultramarathon runners and 5+/-4 points (95% CI, 2-9) among the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Fatigue decreased by 5+/-6 points (95% CI, 2-8) for the ultramarathon runners and 4+/-4 points (95% CI, 1-7) for the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Postexercise total mood disturbance decreased by a mean of 21+/-16 points (95% CI, 12-29) among the ultramarathon runners, 16+/-10 points (95% CI, 7-24) among the moderate exercisers, and 9+/-13 points (95% CI, 1-18) among the nonexercisers. A single session of moderate aerobic exercise improves vigor and decreases fatigue among regular exercisers but causes no change in these scores for nonexercisers. Although total mood disturbance improves postexercise in exercisers and nonexercisers, regular exercisers have approximately twice the effect as nonexercisers. This limited postexercise mood improvement among nonexercisers may be an important deterrent for persistence with an exercise program.

  20. Social support and social norms: do both contribute to predicting leisure-time exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Ruehlman, Linda; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer; Fairholme, Chris; Schaub, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of social support and social norms to exercise behavior. A sample of 363 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed social support and social negativity from friends, descriptive and injunctive social norms related to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Esteem social support was the strongest predictor of total and strenuous leisure-time exercise (P leisure-time exercise. Social support and social norms contribute independently to our understanding of variation in the frequency of strenuous leisure-time exercise.

  1. Effect of controlled exercise on middle gluteal muscle fibre composition in Thoroughbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, D; Yamano, S; Kasashima, Y; Sugiura, T; Nasu, T; Tokuriki, M; Miyata, H

    2003-11-01

    Most racehorses are trained regularly from about age 18 months; therefore, little information is available on the effect of training in Thoroughbred foals. Well-controlled exercise could improve muscle potential ability for endurance running. Thoroughbred foals at age 2 months were separated into control and training (treadmill exercise) groups and samples obtained from the middle gluteal muscle at 2 and 12 months post partum. Muscle fibre compositions were determined by histochemical and electrophoretical techniques and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was analysed in each fibre type. All fibre types were hypertrophied with growth and type I and IIA fibres were significantly larger in the training than the control group at age 12 months. A significant increase of SDH activity was found in type IIX muscle fibres in the training group. Training in young Thoroughbred horses can facilitate muscle fibre hypertrophy and increase the oxidative capacity of type IIX fibres, which could potentially enhance stamina at high speeds. To apply this result to practical training, further studies are needed to determine more effective and safe intensities of controlled exercise.

  2. The effect of resistance exercise on the thermic effect of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, Charlene M; Young, John C

    2003-09-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate associated with the cost of absorption and processing of food for storage. Previous studies have shown that TEF is enhanced by aerobic endurance exercise of sufficient duration and intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a similar effect occurs with a single bout of resistance exercise (weightlifting). VO2 was measured in 9 healthy volunteers (3 males and 6 females) for 2 hours after ingestion of a 2760 kJ (660 kcal) carbohydrate meal with and without prior completion of a resistance training regimen (2 sets of 10 repetitions of 10 different exercises). The meal caused an immediate and persistent thermic effect in both the control and the exercise trial. Mean oxygen consumption over baseline increased 20% in the control trial and 34% in the exercise trial. TEF calculated from VO2 and RER (total area under the response curve above baseline) was 73% greater in the exercise trial compared with the control trial (159 +/- 18 vs. 92 +/- 14 KJ/2 hrs, p carbohydrate meal is enhanced following a single bout of resistance exercise.

  3. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  4. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  5. The effect of enhanced trunk control on balance and falls through bilateral upper extremity exercises among chronic stroke patients in a standing position

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Ji Won; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of bilateral upper extremity exercises on trunk control, balance, and risk of falls in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 study subjects were selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups containing 15 subjects each, who received bilateral upper extremity activities and conventional rehabilitation treatment, respectively. [Results] There were statistically significant differences between groups in all sub-items ...

  6. Exercising for weight and shape reasons vs. health control reasons : the impact on eating disturbance and psychological functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Gomes, António Rui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise motivated by health and weight/shape reasons. In total, 301 participants (53.5% males) completed questionnaires assessing eating behaviors, affect, self-esteem and attitudes toward exercise. Almost 48% of the participants reported that their exercise is motivated by weight/shape reasons. These individuals were more likely to report eating problems and more positive affect after exercising. For both groups, gender...

  7. Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, E.; Jans, M.P.; Dronkers, J.J.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Appelman-De Vries, S.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Objective: To investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a home-based intensive exercise

  8. Six-month exercise training program to treat post-thrombotic syndrome: a randomized controlled two-centre trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Susan R.; Shrier, Ian; Shapiro, Stan; Houweling, Adrielle H.; Hirsch, Andrew M.; Reid, Robert D.; Kearon, Clive; Rabhi, Khalil; Rodger, Marc A.; Kovacs, Michael J.; Anderson, David R.; Wells, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exercise training may have the potential to improve post-thrombotic syndrome, a frequent, chronic complication of deep venous thrombosis. We conducted a randomized controlled two-centre pilot trial to assess the feasibility of a multicentre-based evaluation of a six-month exercise training program to treat post-thrombotic syndrome and to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of such a program. Methods Patients were randomized to receive exercise training (a six-month trainer-supervised program) or control treatment (an education session with monthly phone follow-ups). Levels of eligibility, consent, adherence and retention were used as indicators of study feasibility. Primary outcomes were change from baseline to six months in venous disease-specific quality of life (as measured using the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study Quality of Life [VEINES-QOL] questionnaire) and severity of post-thrombotic syndrome (as measured by scores on the Villalta scale) in the exercise training group versus the control group, assessed by t tests. Secondary outcomes were change in generic quality of life (as measured using the Short-Form Health Survey-36 [SF-36] questionnaire), category of severity of post-thrombotic syndrome, leg strength, leg flexibility and time on treadmill. Results Of 95 patients with post-thrombotic syndrome, 69 were eligible, 43 consented and were randomized, and 39 completed the study. Exercise training was associated with improvement in VEINES-QOL scores (exercise training mean change 6.0, standard deviation [SD] 5.1 v. control mean change 1.4, SD 7.2; difference 4.6, 95% CI 0.54 to 8.7; p = 0.027) and improvement in scores on the Villalta scale (exercise training mean change −3.6, SD 3.7 v. control mean change −1.6, SD 4.3; difference −2.0, 95% CI −4.6 to 0.6; p = 0.14). Most secondary outcomes also showed greater improvement in the exercise training group. Interpretation Exercise training may improve post

  9. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  10. Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on

  11. Research to encourage exercise for fibromyalgia (REEF): use of motivational interviewing, outcomes from a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Dennis C; Kaleth, Anthony S; Bigatti, Silvia; Mazzuca, Steven A; Jensen, Mark P; Hilligoss, Janna; Slaven, James; Saha, Chandan

    2013-04-01

    Regular exercise is associated with important benefits in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Unfortunately, long-term maintenance of exercise after a structured program is rare. The present study tested the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to promote exercise and improve symptoms in patients with FM. A total of 216 patients with FM were randomized to 6 MI sessions (n=107) or an equal number of FM self-management lessons (education control/EC, n=109). Co-primary endpoints were an increase of 30 minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity and improvement in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ)-Physical Impairment score, assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included clinically meaningful improvements in FIQ score, pain severity ratings, and a 6-minute walk test. There were no significant treatment group differences in either co-primary endpoint at 6-month follow-up. However, more MI participants than controls exhibited meaningful improvements in FIQ score at 6-month follow-up (62.9% vs. 49.5%, P=0.06). Compared with EC participants, MI participants also displayed a larger increment in their 6-minute walk test (43.9 vs. 24.8 m, P=0.03). In addition, MI was superior to EC in increasing the number of hours of physical activity immediately postintervention and in reducing pain severity both immediately after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Despite a lack of benefits on long-term outcome, MI seems to have short-term benefits with respect to self-report physical activity and clinical outcomes. This is the first study in FM that explicitly addresses exercise maintenance as a primary aim.

  12. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (pexercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  14. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preoperative hypoalgesia after cold pressor test and aerobic exercise is associated with pain relief six months after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Emmeluth, Claus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain after total knee replacement (TKR) is not uncommon. Preoperative impaired conditioning pain modulation (CPM) has been used to predict chronic postoperative pain. Interestingly, exercises reduce pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This pilot study...... investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee...... at the affected leg improved post-TKR compared with pre-TKR (PCPM and bicycling EIH assessed by the increase in cPTT correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores post-TKR (PCPM and EIH responses after TKR were significantly correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores...

  16. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  17. The effects of sex, metabolic syndrome and exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sharp, Teresa A; Stotz, Sarah A; Bessesen, Daniel H; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Horton, Tracy J

    2013-02-01

    Exercise has been suggested to have cardioprotective benefits due to a lowering of postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). We hypothesized that a morning exercise bout would significantly lower PPTG measured over a full day, in response to moderate fat meals (35% energy) in men more so than women, and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) relative to normal weight (NW) individuals. Participants completed two randomized study days; one control and one exercise day (60 min of morning exercise, 60% VO(2peak)). Meals were consumed at breakfast, lunch and dinner with the energy expended during exercise replaced on the active day. The areas (AUC) and incremental areas (IAUC) under the curve were calculated for total triglycerides, total cholesterol and other metabolites. Exercise did not significantly change the PPTG AUC & IAUC overall, or within, or between, each sex or group (NW and MetS). Exercise induced a 30% decrease in total cholesterol IAUC (p=0.003) in NW subjects. Overall, women had a lower IAUC for PPTG compared to men (p=0.037), with the greatest difference between MetS women and MetS men, due to a sustained drop in TG after lunch in the women. This suggests that PP, rather than fasting, lipid analyses may be particularly important when evaluating sex differences in metabolic risk. With energy replacement, moderate morning exercise did not result in a significant decrease in PPTG excursions. Exercise did elicit a significant decrease in PP cholesterol levels in NW subjects, suggesting a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of therapeutic exercise and hydrotherapy on pain severity and knee range of motion in patients with hemophilia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Vahid; Rahnama, Nader; Khayambashi, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Pain and limited range of motion (ROM) are the crucial subsequent results of joint hemorrhages in individuals with bleeding disorders and hemophilia. Exercise interventions are particularly recommended in treatment of such patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the influences of conventional exercise therapy and hydrotherapy on the knee joint complications in patients with hemophilia. A total of 40 patients engaging hemophilia A were randomized into one of three groups: Therapeutic exercise (N = 13), hydrotherapy (N = 14) or control (N = 13). While the first two groups followed their specific programs for 4 weeks, routine life-style was maintained by subjects in the control group in this period. To evaluate the pain level and knee ROM the visual analog scale and standard goniometer were utilized, respectively. The outcome was measured at baseline and after completing the prescribed protocols. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe statistical tests (P hydrotherapy in comparison to exercise therapy, the difference in ROM improvement was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Using hydrotherapy in addition to usual rehabilitation training can result in beneficial effect in terms of pain and knee joint ROM. However, it appears that hydrotherapy is more effective in reducing pain.

  19. Effects of preferred-exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription on outcomes for people with non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial [ACTRN12608000524392

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keating Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP has become a significant problem due to high healthcare utilization, rising costs of care and perceived limitations of effectiveness of many current treatments. Systematic reviews have repeatedly concluded that, on average across participants, exercise for NSCLBP appears effective in decreasing pain and improving function. Not all people with NSCLBP benefit from exercise programs and it would assist care-providers and care-seekers if factors that impact on program effectiveness and success were identified. Methods and design The study will be a randomised controlled trial comparing an exercise rehabilitation program informed by a participant preferences questionnaire compared to a program without this guideline for patients with chronic low back pain. A sample of 150 patients will be recruited in Melbourne, Australia through community-based healthcare clinics that provide supervised exercise rehabilitation programs for people with non-specific chronic low back pain. Clinicians will be randomly assigned to exercise preferences questionnaire or no questionnaire and participants will be allocated in a concealed manner. A qualitative focus group study of exercise instructor feedback about the exercise preferences instrument will be embedded in the research design. Two qualitative focus group studies will also be conducted for participants in the intervention and the control groups to obtain feedback about participants' experiences of the two types of exercise programs. The primary outcomes will be functional ability, pain, fear avoidance, exercise adherence. Discussion This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of individualised exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription for NSCLP and, using feedback following the trial, refine the exercise preferences questionnaire.

  20. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  1. Comparison of group-based outpatient physiotherapy with usual care after total knee replacement: a feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Neil; Dixon, Samantha; Wylde, Vikki; Marques, Elsa; Beswick, Andrew D; Lenguerrand, Erik; Blom, Ashley W; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial comparing group-based outpatient physiotherapy with usual care in patients following total knee replacement. A feasibility study for a randomized controlled trial. One secondary-care hospital orthopaedic centre, Bristol, UK. A total of 46 participants undergoing primary total knee replacement. The intervention group were offered six group-based exercise sessions after surgery. The usual care group received standard postoperative care. Participants were not blinded to group allocation. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment, reasons for non-participation, attendance, and completion rates of study questionnaires that included the Lower Extremity Functional Scale and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Recruitment rate was 37%. Five patients withdrew or were no longer eligible to participate. Intervention attendance was high (73%) and 84% of group participants reported they were 'very satisfied' with the exercises. Return of study questionnaires at six months was lower in the usual care (75%) than in the intervention group (100%). Mean (standard deviation) Lower Extremity Functional Scale scores at six months were 45.0 (20.8) in the usual care and 57.8 (15.2) in the intervention groups. Recruitment and retention of participants in this feasibility study was good. Group-based physiotherapy was acceptable to participants. Questionnaire return rates were lower in the usual care group, but might be enhanced by telephone follow-up. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale had high responsiveness and completion rates. Using this outcome measure, 256 participants would be required in a full-scale randomized controlled trial.

  2. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  3. Effectiveness of aerobic gymnastic exercise on stress, fatigue, and sleep quality during postpartum: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chiu-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-01-01

    Gymnastics is a preferable safe exercise for postnatal women performing regularly. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine whether the aerobic gymnastic exercise improves stress, fatigue, sleep quality and depression in postpartum women. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial held from December 2014 until September 2015. Postnatal clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan. 140 eligible postnatal women were systematically assigned, with a random start to experimental (n=70) or a control (n=70) group. Engage in aerobic gymnastic exercise at least three times (15min per section) a week for three months using compact disc in the home. Perceived Stress Scale, Postpartum Fatigue Scale, Postpartum Sleep Quality Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, the aerobic gymnastic exercise group showed significant decrease in fatigue after practicing exercise 4 weeks and the positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. Paired t-tests revealed that aerobic gymnastic exercise participants had improved significantly in perceived stress and fatigue after 4 weeks gymnastic exercise; these positive effects extended to the 12-week posttests. In addition, the changes in physical symptoms-related sleep inefficiency after 12 weeks gymnastic exercise were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. The findings can be used to encourage postnatal women to perform moderate-intensity gymnastic exercise in their daily life to reduce their stress, fatigue and improve sleep quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.W.; Manders, R.J.F.; Canfora, E.E.; van Mechelen, W.; Hartgens, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on subsequent 24-h glycemic control in 60 type 2 diabetes patients. Moreover, we examined whether individual responses to exercise were related to subjects' baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index,

  5. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Etienne J; Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2012-06-14

    Fatiguing exercises used across studies to induce alterations in postural control are diverse and may explain the different findings reported. This study aimed to compare the effects of two types of fatiguing plantarflexion exercises on postural control on a firm and a compliant surface. Ten healthy young men (29 ± 4 years) were asked to stand as steadily as possible for 30 s, blindfolded with feet together, on a firm and a compliant surface before and immediately after an isometric and an isokinetic fatiguing exercise. Maximal force reduction due to fatigue was found significant but similar between exercises. No significant difference was found between the fatiguing exercises on all Center of Pressure (CoP) parameters. Both fatiguing exercises induced increases in CoP excursion area, CoP variability and CoP velocity in both planes (antero-posterior, mediolateral) on the compliant surface. On the firm surface, both fatiguing exercises only induced increases in CoP variability and CoP velocity in the fatigued plane (antero-posterior). Isometric and isokinetic fatiguing exercises, when producing a similar level of force reduction, induce similar decreases in postural control. The effects of fatigue on postural control in healthy young men are more pronounced when standing on a compliant surface, i.e. when proprioceptive information at the ankle is altered.

  6. The effect of motor control exercise versus placebo in patients with chronic low back pain [ACTRN012605000262606

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Robert D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While one in ten Australians suffer from chronic low back pain this condition remains extremely difficult to treat. Many contemporary treatments are of unknown value. One potentially useful therapy is the use of motor control exercise. This therapy has a biologically plausible effect, is readily available in primary care and it is of modest cost. However, to date, the efficacy of motor control exercise has not been established. Methods This paper describes the protocol for a clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercise versus placebo in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain. One hundred and fifty-four participants will be randomly allocated to receive an 8-week program of motor control exercise or placebo (detuned short wave and detuned ultrasound. Measures of outcomes will be obtained at follow-up appointments at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain, global perceived effect and patient-generated measure of disability at 2 months and recurrence at 12 months. Discussion This trial will be the first placebo-controlled trial of motor control exercise. The results will inform best practice for treating chronic low back pain and prevent its occurrence.

  7. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  8. The effect of a 12-week combinational exercise program on CD4 count and mental health among HIV infected women: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dianatinasab

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: There are conflicting results regarding the effects of exercise on immune function of HIV positive patients. Exercise can also be beneficial to psychological functioning of the patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a 12-week aerobic and resistance exercise training program on mental health and CD4 counts among female HIV+ patients. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted between September and December 2013. Forty participants (women age range 20–40 were carefully selected from 240 HIV-positive women referred to Voluntary Counseling and Treatment Center (VCT and randomly assigned to either exercise (80 min of aerobic and strength training while receiving the VCT's routine services group (n = 20 or control (received the VCT's routine services only group (n = 20. To assess their mental health status, all participants completed GHQ28 questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to measure CD4 and T-cell counts at baseline and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Results: From a sample of 40 women with HIV infection, the data of 30 participants [experimental group (14 and control group (16] were analyzed (participation rate 75%. The results indicated that after the intervention program, a significant difference in CD4 cell counts was found between the two groups (P = 0.01. With regard to mental health, after performing intervention, significant improvement in all subscales including anxiety disorder, social function, depression and mental health's total score was observed in the exercise compared to the control groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Exercise training can be included in health care services in order to improve the mental health status of women with HIV infection. No effect on CD4 count was detected. Keywords: Exercises training, Mental health, CD4 count, HIV infected women

  9. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I M; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-12-01

    To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this comorbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence.

  10. Effect of Exercise Training on Cardiac Biomarkers in At-Risk Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Susan Sullivan; Brockemer, Derrick Paul; Ng, Andy C; Smolewski, Michael A; Smolgovskiy, Vladimir M; Lepley, Adam S

    2017-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers for healthy individuals; however, a comprehensive review regarding the effect of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers in at-risk populations is lacking. A literature search was performed to identify studies meeting the following criteria: randomized controlled study, participants with pathology/activity limitations, biomarker outcome (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, insulin, triglycerides, or glucose), and exercise intervention. Means and standard deviations from each biomarker were used to calculate standardized Cohen's d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals. In total, 37 articles were included. The majority (44/57; 77%) of data points demonstrated moderate to strong effects for the reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein, and elevation in high-density lipoprotein following exercise. The majority of data points demonstrated strong effects for reductions in blood glucose (24/30; 80%) and insulin (23/24; 96%) levels following exercise intervention. Evidence is heterogeneous regarding the influence of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers in at-risk patients, which does not allow a definitive conclusion. Favorable effects include reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin, and elevation in high-density lipoprotein following exercise intervention. The strongest evidence indicates that exercise is favorable for the reduction in glucose and cholesterol levels among obese patients, and reduction of insulin regardless of population.

  11. Exercising freedom and control in the supermarket from an overweight perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette

    2005-01-01

    choices. We cannot consume anything if we want to be or become someone! Thus consumption of goods may be described as an arena, where freedom of choice is enacted alongside self-control over what and how to consume. This paper provides examples of how self-control and freedom is exercised in the context...

  12. Aerobic exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Ji Sun; Woo, Seung Seok

    2014-08-14

    To evaluate the benefit of aerobic exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) for psychiatric inpatients in a closed ward. Sixty consecutive adult inpatients of the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit (Eumsung-gun, South Korea), without CTT-related diseases or drug therapies, were recruited for study from March to June of 2012. Upon enrollment, the patients were randomly assigned to partake in a 12-wk instructor-led group aerobic exercise program (exercise group; n = 30) or to maintain their ordinary daily activities (control group; n = 30). The exercise program was structured as 10 min warm-up (stretching), 40 min exercise, and 10 min cool-down (stretching) for three days each week. The exercise sessions consisted of walking only in week one and aerobics from weeks two to 12, with increasing intensity (50% heart rate reserve (HRR) for weeks one to four, 60% HRR for weeks five to eight, and 70% HRR for weeks nine to 12). CTT was measured before (baseline) and after (week 12) the exercise program, in duplicate (on days four and seven), using abdominal radiography and the multiple radio-opaque marker technique. Changes in the exercising patients' CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed. The study dropout rate was 30.0%, with 23 patients in the exercise group and 19 patients in the control group completing the study. At week 12, the exercise group showed decreases in body weight (mean ± SE) baseline: 69.4 ± 2.8 vs study-end: 67.6 ± 2.7; P exercise group showed significant improvements in leg muscle strength (baseline: 41.7 ± 4.3 vs study-end: 64.1 ± 5.0; P exercise group showed an exercise-induced reduction in total CTT (baseline: 54.2 ± 8.0 vs 30.3 ± 6.1), which was significantly different from that experienced by the control group over the 12-wk period (48.6 ± 9.3 vs 48.3 ± 12.3; P = 0.027); however, the exercise-induced decreases in CTT involving the three colonic segments examined (right, left and recto

  13. The Effects of Double Oscillation Exercise Combined with Elastic Band Exercise on Scapular Stabilizing Muscle Strength and Thickness in Healthy Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Cho, Kyeongbong Lee, Minkyu Kim, Joohee Hahn, Wanhee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of double oscillation exercise combined with elastic band exercise on the strength and thickness ratio of the scapular stabilizing muscles in healthy young individuals. A total of 30 subjects (17 male, 13 female were randomly assigned to an elastic band exercise group (EBG (n = 15 or an elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group (EB-DOG (n = 15. A total of 28 subjects completed the experiment and evaluation. Patients in the EBG performed the elastic band exercise for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, horizontal abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation for 30 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Patients in the EB-DOG performed the elastic band exercise for 15 minutes and the double oscillation exercise in three planes of motion (frontal, sagittal, and transverse, using a Bodyblade® for 15 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Shoulder muscle strength was assessed using a manual muscle test device during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, while the thicknesses of the scapular stabilizing muscles were assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging both at rest and during MVIC. Both groups had significant effects on shoulder muscle strength, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups for change value of shoulder muscle strength (Bonferroni correction p < 0.005. Significant differences were observed in the group × time interactions for horizontal abduction, external rotation, and protraction. There was a statistically significant improvement in thickness ratio of LT and SA in the EB-DOG and no significant difference was founded in EBG (Bonferroni correction p < 0.006. In comparison between the two groups, EB-DOG showed a significant change in the thickness ratio of LT compared to EBG. In addition, significant differences were observed for the group × time interactions for the thickness ratio of the LT (F

  14. Supervised physical exercise during pregnancy improves health perception. Randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Peláez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the influence of a moderate exercise program during pregnancy on the maternal health perception. Methods. A randomised controlled trial was performed. 101 primiparous women were allocated into the control group (CG, n=51 and the exercise group (EG, n=50, lost to follow-up 13, 11.4%. Women on the EC were asked to participate in a supervised exercise program during from 10-14 to 36 weeks of gestation (70-75 sessions, 55-60 min/session, three times per week. Women in the CG received usual care. All women were asked to fill in validated questionnaires about health perception and urinary incontinence before and after the intervention. Results. At the end of the intervention there were statistically significant differences between groups on health perception [very good: EG 35, 70% vs. CG 5, 9.8%; good: EG 15, 30% vs. CG 16, 31%; average EG 0, 0.0% vs. CG 26, 51%; poor EG 0, 0.0% vs. CG 3, 5.9%; very poor: EG 0, 0.0% vs. CG 1, 2% (p<.001]. What is more, women in the EG showed less urinary incontinence [ICIQ-SF Score EG 0.30 (SD1.3 vs. CG 3.1 (SD4.1, p<.001]. Conclusions. A supervised physical exercise program during pregnancy which includes pelvic floor muscle training, improves health perception and it is effective on primary prevention of urinary incontinence.

  15. The effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in the management of chronic non-specific neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in chronic non-specific neck pain. For this randomised controlled trial total 68 patients (34 each group) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from Alain Poly Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi between May, 2012 and August, 2012. Simple randomisation method was used to assign participants into isometric exercise group and general exercise groups. The isometric exercise group performed exercises for neck muscle groups with a rubber band and general exercises group performed active range of movement exercises for all neck movements. Patients in both groups received 3 supervised treatment sessions per week for 12 weeks. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and goniometer were used to assess pain, disability and neck range of movements at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both interventions showed statistically significant improvements in pain, function and range of movement p = 0.001f or isometric exercise group, p = 0.04 for general exercises group and p = 0.001 for range of movement. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire score was better in isometric exercises group as compared to general exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain however; isometric exercises are clinically more effective than general exercises.

  16. A laboratory-based evaluation of exercise plus contingency management for reducing cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    Both contingency management (CM) and exercise have shown promise as smoking cessation treatments, but their combined effects have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated whether CM (in which motivational incentives are provided for abstinence) plus exercise reduced smoking more than either component alone. In a within-subjects design, 20 smokers were exposed to exercise plus CM, exercise plus CM-control (non-contingent incentives), inactivity plus CM, and inactivity plus CM-control. CM increased latencies to smoke and decreased total puffs (Mdns = 39.6 min and .8 puffs, respectively) relative to CM-control (Mdns = 2.5 min and 12.8 puffs). Exercise decreased craving relative to baseline for craving based on both the pleasurable consequences of smoking (D=-10.7 on a 100-point visual analog scale) and anticipated relief from withdrawal (D=-5.9), whereas inactivity increased both components of craving (Ds=7.6 and 3.5). Exercise had no effect on smoking or a measure of temporal discounting. Although exercise decreased craving, it did not affect smoking behavior. Exercise plus CM was not more effective than CM alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  18. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  19. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  20. Influence of diet, exercise and serum vitamin D on sarcopenia in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Blackburn, George L.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women, and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Methods 439 overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to: diet modification (N=118); exercise (N=117), diet+exercise (N=117), or control (N=87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 mins/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass were quantified by dual Xray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI=appendicular lean mass (kg)/m2) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMIlean mass, and a borderline significant decrease in appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to controls. In contrast, aerobic exercise significantly preserved appendicular lean mass and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to diet alone, and did not result in significant loss of total- or appendicular lean mass compared to controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age were significant moderators of the intervention effects. Conclusions Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of appendicular lean mass during weight loss, and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women. PMID:23190588

  1. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Philippa S; Morrison, Ryan; Penpraze, Viki; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; Reilly, John J

    2012-03-19

    Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our

  2. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Philippa S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry; body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical

  3. [Does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or therapeutic ultrasound increase the effectiveness of exercise for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigör, Sibel; Karapolat, Hale; Ibisoğlu, Uğur; Durmaz, Berrin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) or therapeutic ultrasound (US) increase the effectiveness of exercise on pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-five patients with primary knee OA diagnosis according to American College Rheumatology criteria were sequentially divided into 3 random groups. The patients in group 1 received TENS (with superficial heat and exercise), group 2 received US (with superficial heat and exercise), and group 3 acted as controls (superficial heat and exercise). Outcome measures were included as visual analog scale (VAS), a 20-meter walking test, Lequesne index, WOMAC scores, isokinetic muscle testing, and the Short Form 36 (SF 36). All treatment groups, physical modalities were carried out for a total fifteen sessions. All of the patients were subjected to six weeks of exercise program. All of the treatment groups had significant improvement on activity VAS, 20 meter walking test, Lequesne index, WOMAC scores, and most of the sub-scores of SF36 when compared with their initial status (p0.05). All of the treatment groups were effective on pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life in patients with knee OA. Statistically significant differences could not be found between the treatment groups. The exercise program, as it is cheaper, more easily performed and efficient, may be preferable for the treatment of knee OA. It is difficult to say, TENS or US could increase the effectiveness of isokinetic exercise for pain, function, muscle strength and quality of life of knee OA in this study.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of an exercise program during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostdam Nicolette

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing worldwide. GDM and the risks associated with GDM lead to increased health care costs and losses in productivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the FitFor2 exercise program during pregnancy is cost-effective from a societal perspective as compared to standard care. Methods A randomised controlled trial (RCT and simultaneous economic evaluation of the FitFor2 program were conducted. Pregnant women at risk for GDM were randomised to an exercise program to prevent high maternal blood glucose (n = 62 or to standard care (n = 59. The exercise program consisted of two sessions of aerobic and strengthening exercises per week. Clinical outcome measures were maternal fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity and infant birth weight. Quality of life was measured using the EuroQol 5-D and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs were calculated. Resource utilization and sick leave data were collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputations. Bootstrapping techniques estimated the uncertainty surrounding the cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results There were no statistically significant differences in any outcome measure. During pregnancy, total health care costs and costs of productivity losses were statistically non-significant (mean difference €1308; 95%CI €-229 - €3204. The cost-effectiveness analyses showed that the exercise program was not cost-effective in comparison to the control group for blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, infant birth weight or QALYs. Conclusion The twice-weekly exercise program for pregnant women at risk for GDM evaluated in the present study was not cost-effective compared to standard care. Based on these results, implementation of this exercise program for the prevention of

  5. Cost-effectiveness of an exercise program during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdam, Nicolette; Bosmans, Judith; Wouters, Maurice G A J; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M W; van Mechelen, Willem; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2012-07-04

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM and the risks associated with GDM lead to increased health care costs and losses in productivity. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the FitFor2 exercise program during pregnancy is cost-effective from a societal perspective as compared to standard care. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) and simultaneous economic evaluation of the FitFor2 program were conducted. Pregnant women at risk for GDM were randomised to an exercise program to prevent high maternal blood glucose (n = 62) or to standard care (n = 59). The exercise program consisted of two sessions of aerobic and strengthening exercises per week. Clinical outcome measures were maternal fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity and infant birth weight. Quality of life was measured using the EuroQol 5-D and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated. Resource utilization and sick leave data were collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputations. Bootstrapping techniques estimated the uncertainty surrounding the cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. There were no statistically significant differences in any outcome measure. During pregnancy, total health care costs and costs of productivity losses were statistically non-significant (mean difference €1308; 95%CI €-229 - €3204). The cost-effectiveness analyses showed that the exercise program was not cost-effective in comparison to the control group for blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, infant birth weight or QALYs. The twice-weekly exercise program for pregnant women at risk for GDM evaluated in the present study was not cost-effective compared to standard care. Based on these results, implementation of this exercise program for the prevention of GDM cannot be recommended. NTR1139.

  6. Insulin action in vivo: studies in control and exercise trained rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is primarily concerned with in vivo insulin action and how this is modified by exercise training. The aims are; to define differential insulin action within the major insulin sensitive tissues; to characterize the relationship between these individual responses and whole body insulin action; and to examine the effect of exercise training on whole body and differential tissue insulin action. A technique, based on the euglycaemic clamp, is described for examining in vivo insulin action on glucose utilization and storage in individual tissues in the conscious, unrestrained rat. Tissue glucose metabolic rate (Rg') was estimated using (/sup 3/H)-2-deoxyglucose and glucose disposal was examined by measuring glycogen content and /sup 14/C-glucose incorporation into tissue glycogen or lipids. Elevating plasma insulin to 150 mU/l resulted in significant increases of glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Oxidative skeletal muscle could account for up to 70% of total glucose disposal whereas adipose tissue and liver could account for less than 3%. The following conclusions have been drawn from these studies. The whole body insulin response curve for glucose utilization closely reflects muscle glucose metabolism; mild elevations in plasma insulin will markedly elevate the glucose utilization rate in oxidative but not glycolytic skeletal muscle fibers; the increased whole body insulin sensitivity which is observed following exercise training is due to increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that exercise training will undoubtedly result in improved glucose disposal in the prandial state. This emphasises the potential benefit of exercise in obesity and Type II diabetes.

  7. Influence of diet, exercise, and serum vitamin d on sarcopenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L; Alfano, Catherine M; Blackburn, George L; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Four hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to diet modification (N = 118), exercise (N = 117), diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 min·d, 5 d·wk, of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were quantified by dual x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI = ALM (kg) / height (m)) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMI exercise significantly preserved ALM and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of ALM and SMI compared with diet alone and did not result in significant loss of total mass or ALM compared with controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age was significant moderators of the intervention effects. Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of ALM during weight loss and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  8. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appukutty Mahenderan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.

  9. Dropout from exercise randomized controlled trials among people with depression: A meta-analysis and meta regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B; Richards, Justin; Soundy, Andrew; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Schuch, Felipe B

    2016-01-15

    Exercise has established efficacy in improving depressive symptoms. Dropouts from randomized controlled trials (RCT's) pose a threat to the validity of this evidence base, with dropout rates varying across studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and predictors of dropout rates among adults with depression participating in exercise RCT's. Three authors identified RCT's from a recent Cochrane review and conducted updated searches of major electronic databases from 01/2013 to 08/2015. We included RCT's of exercise interventions in people with depression (including major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms) that reported dropout rates. A random effects meta-analysis and meta regression were conducted. Overall, 40 RCT's were included reporting dropout rates across 52 exercise interventions including 1720 people with depression (49.1 years (range=19-76 years), 72% female (range=0-100)). The trim and fill adjusted prevalence of dropout across all studies was 18.1% (95%CI=15.0-21.8%) and 17.2% (95%CI=13.5-21.7, N=31) in MDD only. In MDD participants, higher baseline depressive symptoms (β=0.0409, 95%CI=0.0809-0.0009, P=0.04) predicted greater dropout, whilst supervised interventions delivered by physiotherapists (β=-1.2029, 95%CI=-2.0967 to -0.3091, p=0.008) and exercise physiologists (β=-1.3396, 95%CI=-2.4478 to -0.2313, p=0.01) predicted lower dropout. A comparative meta-analysis (N=29) established dropout was lower in exercise than control conditions (OR=0.642, 95%CI=0.43-0.95, p=0.02). Exercise is well tolerated by people with depression and drop out in RCT's is lower than control conditions. Thus, exercise is a feasible treatment, in particular when delivered by healthcare professionals with specific training in exercise prescription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers to exercise in younger and older non-exercising adult women: a cross sectional study in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-04-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants' number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women's total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained approximately 25% and approximately 30% of the variance of younger and older women's total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  11. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  12. Regional ventricular performance and exercise training in children and young adults after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duppen, Nienke; Geerdink, Lianne M; Kuipers, Irene M; Bossers, Sjoerd S M; Koopman, Laurens P; van Dijk, Arie P J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; De Korte, Chris L; Helbing, Willem A; Kapusta, Livia

    2015-04-01

    Public-health guidelines recommend patients with congenital heart disease to exercise. Studies have shown that patients with congenital heart disease can improve physical exercise capacity. The effect of training on regional ventricular performance has hardly been studied. We performed a pilot study to assess whether an exercise training program would result in adverse changes of regional ventricular performance in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled pilot study in patients with tetralogy of Fallot aged 10 to 25 years. A 12-week standardized aerobic dynamic exercise training program (3 one-hour sessions per week) was used. Pre- and post-training cardiopulmonary exercise tests, MRI, and echocardiography, including tissue-Doppler imaging, were performed. Patients were randomized to the exercise group (n=28) or control group (n=20). One patient in the exercise group dropped out. Change in tissue-Doppler imaging parameters was similar in the exercise group and control group (change in right ventricle free wall peak velocity E' exercise group, 0.8±2.6 cm/s; control group, 0.9±4.1; peak velocity A' exercise group, 0.4±2.4 m/s; control group 4.6±18.1 cm/s). This randomized controlled pilot study provides preliminary data suggesting that regional ventricular performance is well maintained during 3-month aerobic dynamic exercise training in children and young adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. This information might help patients adhere to current public-health guidelines. URL: http//:www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2731. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Exercise and manual physiotherapy arthritis research trial (EMPART): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    French, Helen P

    2009-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a major cause of functional disability and reduced quality of life. Management options aim to reduce pain and improve or maintain physical functioning. Current evidence indicates that therapeutic exercise has a beneficial but short-term effect on pain and disability, with poor long-term benefit. The optimal content, duration and type of exercise are yet to be ascertained. There has been little scientific investigation into the effectiveness of manual therapy in hip OA. Only one randomized controlled trial (RCT) found greater improvements in patient-perceived improvement and physical function with manual therapy, compared to exercise therapy.

  14. Exercise dependence score in patients with longstanding eating disorders and controls: the importance of affect regulation and physical activity intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Oyvind; Hoffart, Asle; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-01-01

    To examine associations among exercise dependence score, amount of physical activity and eating disorder (ED) symptoms in patients with longstanding ED and non-clinical controls. Adult female inpatients (n = 59) and 53 age-matched controls participated in this cross sectional study. Assessments included the eating disorders examination, eating disorders inventory, exercise dependence scale, reasons for exercise inventory, and MTI Actigraph accelerometer. Positive associations were found among vigorous, not moderate, physical activity, exercise dependence score and ED symptoms in patients. In the controls, ED symptoms were negatively associated with vigorous physical activity and not correlated with exercise dependence score. Exercise for negative affect regulation, not weight/appearance, and amount of vigorous physical activity were explanatory variables for exercise dependence score in both groups. The positive associations among exercise dependence score, vigorous physical activity and ED symptoms need proper attention in the treatment of longstanding ED. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Effect of physical exercise on blood lipids and adipose tissue composition in young healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Wieling, W.; Havekes, L.; Leuven, J. G.; Smit, E. M.; Dunning, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective, controlled study, the influence of strenuous physical exercise on plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, total triglycerides and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was studied during 7 months of training in 15 senior oarsmen and 21 controls matched for

  16. Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis: phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Finlayson, Marcia; McAuley, Edward; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a home-based exercise intervention targeting fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. A randomized controlled pilot trial. A home-based exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to either a home-based exercise intervention group (n = 13) or a waiting list control group (n = 14). The exercise group completed exercises targeting lower muscle strength and balance three times a week for 12 weeks. The control group continued normal activity. Fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment scores), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and walking testing prior to and immediately following the 12-week intervention. Each outcome measure was placed in an analysis of covariance with group as the between-subject factor and baseline values as the covariate. Effect sizes were calculated. Twelve participants from the control group and ten from the exercise group completed the study. There were no related adverse events. Fall risk was found to decrease in the exercise group following the intervention (1.1 SD 1.0 vs. 0.6 SD 0.6) while there was an increase in fall risk in the control group (1.9 SD 1.5 vs. 2.2 SD 1.9). Effect sizes for most outcomes were large (η(2) > 0.15). Home-based exercise was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for reducing physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. Our findings support the implementation of a larger trial to reduce fall risk in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  17. Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Silvana; Clementi, Cecilia; Guidi, Jenny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tossani, Eliana

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence (ExeDepI) in a mixed gender sample. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adult habitual physical exercisers. A total of 79 participants voluntarily completed a package of self-report questionnaires including the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ), the Eating Disorder Inventory II (EDI-2), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Attitude Toward Self scale (ATS), and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Significant differences were found on the EDQ exercise for weight control subscale with regard to gender, as well as on the EDI-2 total score and five of its subscales, with higher scores for females compared to males. Participants reporting primary exercise dependence (N=32) were more likely to present with disordered eating patterns than controls (N=47). They also showed higher levels of harm avoidance and persistence on the TCI, but lower self-directness and less mature character. Furthermore, ExeDepI group scored higher on the ATS dysmorphophobia subscale, as well as on the anxiety and hostility subscales of the SQ compared to the control group. These findings provide support to the idea that primary exercise dependence can be considered as a clinical syndrome associated with certain personality characteristics and psychological symptoms that might be accurately assessed in clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, K; Burrows, M

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease and as there is currently no cure, there is a large emphasis on its prevention, including the optimisation of peak bone mass. There is increasing evidence that regular weight-bearing exercise is an effective strategy for enhancing bone status during growth. This systematic review evaluates randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to date, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents. An online search of Medline and the Cochrane database enabled the identification of studies. Those that met the inclusion criteria were included in the review and graded according to risk for bias. Twenty-two trials were reviewed. Nine were conducted in prepubertal children (Tanner I), 8 in early pubertal (Tanner II-III) and 5 in pubertal (Tanner IV-V). Sample sizes ranged from n=10 to 65 per group. Exercise interventions included games, dance, resistance training and jumping exercises, ranging in duration from 3 to 48 months. Approximately half of the trials (n=10) included ground reaction force (GRF) data (2 to 9 times body weight). All trials in early pubertal children, 6 in pre pubertal and 2 in pubertal children, reported positive effects of exercise on bone (P<0.05). Mean increases in bone parameters over 6 months were 0.9-4.9% in prepubertal, 1.1-5.5% in early pubertal and 0.3-1.9% in pubertal exercisers compared to controls (P<0.05). Although weight-bearing exercise appears to enhance bone mineral accrual in children, particularly during early puberty; it remains unclear as to what constitutes the optimal exercise programme. Many studies to date have a high risk for bias and only a few have a low risk. Major limitations concerned selection procedures, compliance rates and control of variables. More well designed and controlled investigations are needed. Furthermore, the specific exercise intervention that will provide the optimal stimulus for peak bone mineral accretion is unclear. Future

  19. Core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback for chronic hemiparetic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunjung; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Hwang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback on balance and gait function in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Nineteen stroke subjects were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental (n = 10) and control groups (n = 9). Subjects in the experimental group performed core stabilization exercise with real-time feedback training for 30 minutes per day during a period of six weeks. Subjects in the control group performed core stabilization exercise during the same period. This study assessed the kinematic parameters using a portable walkway system, and timed up-and-go test. Gait velocity showed significantly greater improvement in the experimental group (7.3 ± 5.0 sec) than in the control group (-0.7 ± 10.6). Stride length showed significantly greater increase in the experimental group (13.2 ± 7.9 on the affected side and 12.6 ± 8.0 on the less affected side) than the control group (3.5 ± 8.7 on the affected side and 3.4 ± 8.5 on the less affected side). After training, change in results on the timed up and go test was significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Core stabilization exercise using real-time feedback produces greater improvement in gait performance in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients than core stabilization exercise only.

  20. Quality and Quantity of Rehabilitation Exercises Delivered By A 3-D Motion Controlled Camera: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatireddy, Ravi; Chokshi, Anang; Basnett, Jeanna; Casale, Michael; Goble, Daniel; Shubert, Tiffany

    2014-08-01

    Tele-rehabiliation technologies that track human motion could enable physical therapy in the home. To be effective, these systems need to collect critical metrics without PT supervision both in real time and in a store and forward capacity. The first step of this process is to determine if PTs (PTs) are able to accurately assess the quality and quantity of an exercise repetition captured by a tele-rehabilitation platform. The purpose of this pilot project was to determine the level of agreement of quality and quantity of an exercise delivered and assessed by the Virtual Exercise Rehabilitation Assistant (VERA), and seven PTs. Ten healthy subjects were instructed by a PT in how to perform four lower extremity exercises. Subjects then performed each exercises delivered by VERA which counted repetitions and quality. Seven PTs independently reviewed video of each subject's session and assessed repetitions quality. The percent difference in total repetitions and analysis of the distribution of rating repetition quality was assessed between the VERA and PTs. The VERA counted 426 repetitions across 10 subjects performing the four different exercises while the mean repetition count from the PT panel was 426.7 (SD = 0.8). The VERA underestimated the total repetitions performed by 0.16% (SD = 0.03%, 95% CI 0.12 - 0. 22). Chi square analysis across raters was χ 2 = 63.17 (df = 6, p<.001), suggesting significant variance in at least one rater. The VERA count of repetitions was accurate in comparison to a seven member panel of PTs. For exercise quality the VERA was able to rate 426 exercise repetitions across 10 patients and four different exercises in a manner consistent with five out of seven experienced PTs.

  1. Exercise and Cognitive Functioning in People With Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Controlled Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickmans, Kelly; Meeus, Mira; De Kooning, Margot; De Backer, Annabelle; Kooremans, Daniëlle; Hubloue, Ives; Schmitz, Tom; Van Loo, Michel; Nijs, Jo

    2016-02-01

    Controlled laboratory study. In addition to persistent pain, people with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) commonly deal with cognitive dysfunctions. In healthy individuals, aerobic exercise has a positive effect on cognitive performance, and preliminary evidence in other chronic pain conditions reveals promising results as well. However, there is evidence that people with chronic WAD may show a worsening of the symptom complex following physical exertion. To examine postexercise cognitive performance in people with chronic WAD. People with chronic WAD (n = 27) and healthy, inactive, sex- and age-matched controls (n = 27) performed a single bout of an incremental submaximal cycling exercise. Before and after the exercise, participants completed 2 performance-based cognitive tests assessing selective and sustained attention, cognitive inhibition, and simple and choice reaction time. At baseline, people with chronic WAD displayed significantly lower scores on sustained attention and simple reaction time (Pselective attention, cognitive inhibition, and choice reaction time (P>.05), compared with healthy controls. Postexercise, both groups showed significantly improved selective attention and choice reaction time (chronic WAD, P = .001; control, Pattention, cognitive inhibition, pain, and fatigue were observed (P>.05). In the short term, postexercise cognitive functioning, pain, and fatigue were not aggravated in people with chronic WAD. However, randomized controlled trials are required to study the longer-term and isolated effects of exercise on cognitive functioning.

  2. The Effect of Stabilization Exercises on Objective Outcome Measures in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review with Particular Emphasis On Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common and costly health problems. Changes in muscle activity and recruitment of lumbar deep muscles which are responsible for lumbar spine stability have been reported in patients with LBP. Different exercise programs are used in the treatment of such patients to improve spinal stability. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of stabilization exercises on objective outcome measures in patients with non-specific chronic LBP in previous randomized controlled trials. Materials & Methods: A literature search for the period of 2000-2012 was performed, using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google scholar, Science Direct, OVID and CINAHL databases. Low back pain, stabilization exercise, motor control exercise, segmental stabilization, transverse abdominis muscle, multifidus muscle, electromyography, ultrasound, ultrasonography, and randomized controlled trial were used as keywords. Muscle recruitment, postural balance control, muscle endurance, muscle size and lumbar range of motion were studied as objective outcome measures.  Results: In total, of 158 articles, 13 articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria of the study. There was a wide variation among studies in terms of methodology, main outcome measures, sample size, procedure, etc. The results demonstrated that stabilization exercise was more effective than other interventions on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural balance control, muscle endurance and range of motion, while it was not significantly different with other interventions on deep muscle size.  Conclusion: It seems that stabilization exercise has considerable effect on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural control, muscle endurance and range of motion and can be considered as an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with non-specific chronic LBP

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  4. The effects of inpatient exercise therapy on the length of hospital stay in stages I-III colon cancer patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki-Yong; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Min, Jihee; Jeong, Duck Hyoun; Chu, Sang Hui; Lee, Ji Won; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Jones, Lee W; Jeon, Justin Y; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a postsurgical, inpatient exercise program on postoperative recovery in operable colon cancer patients We conducted the randomized controlled trial with two arms: postoperative exercise vs. usual care. Patients with stages I-III colon cancer who underwent colectomy between January and December 2011 from the Colorectal Cancer Clinic, were recruited for the study. Subjects in the intervention group participated in the postoperative inpatient exercise program consisted of twice daily exercise, including stretching, core, balance, and low-intensity resistance exercises. The usual care group was not prescribed a structured exercise program. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints were time to flatus, time to first liquid diet, anthropometric measurements, and physical function measurements. A total of 31 (86.1 %) patients completed the trial, with adherence to exercise interventions at 84.5 %. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.82 ± 1.07 days in the exercise group compared with 9.86 ± 2.66 days in usual care (mean difference, 2.03 days; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.47 to -0.60 days; p = 0.005) in per-protocol analysis. The mean time to flatus was 52.18 ± 21.55 h in the exercise group compared with 71.86 ± 29.2 h in the usual care group (mean difference, 19.69 h; 95 % CI, -38.33 to -1.04 h; p = 0.036). Low-to-moderate-intensity postsurgical exercise reduces length of hospital stay and improves bowel motility after colectomy procedure in patients with stages I-III colon cancer.

  5. Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, D M; Innocenti, A; Franzoni, F; Pruneti, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. There is evidence that aerobic exercise improves cognition in MCI patients. Overall research reported moderate effects for global cognition, logical memory, inhibitory control and divided attention. Due to methodological limitations of the investigated studies, findings should be interpreted with caution. Standardized training protocols, larger scale interventions and follow-ups may also provide better insight into the preventive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration in MCI and its conversion into dementia.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Improves Mood, Cognition, and Language Function in Parkinson's Disease: Results of a Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Bowers, Dawn; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (pimproved in the aerobic exercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (pexercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878-889).

  7. Effects of Biggest Loser exercise depictions on exercise-related attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; McLeod, Nicole C; Pankratow, Melanie; Walker, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether participants who watched an exercise-related segment of The Biggest Loser television program would have different explicit and implicit affective exercise-related attitudes than those of control participants. University students (N=138) watched a clip of The Biggest Loser or American Idol, then completed a Go/No-go Association Task, a thought-listing task, and questionnaires measuring explicit attitudes, activity level, and mood. Participants who watched The Biggest Loser had significantly lower explicit, but not implicit, attitudes towards exercise than did control participants. There is a need to examine the influence of popular media depictions of exercise.

  8. The effects of single bouts of aerobic exercise, exergaming, and videogame play on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin C; Pontifex, Matthew B; Scudder, Mark R; Brown, Michael L; Hillman, Charles H

    2011-08-01

    The effects of single bouts of aerobic exercise, exergaming, and action videogame play on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and task performance indices of cognitive control were investigated using a modified flanker task that manipulated demands of attentional inhibition. Participants completed four counterbalanced sessions of 20 min of activity intervention (i.e., seated rest, seated videogame play, and treadmill-based and exergame-based aerobic exercise at 60% HR(max)) followed by cognitive testing once heart rate (HR) returned to within 10% of pre-activity levels. Results indicated decreased RT interference following treadmill exercise relative to seated rest and videogame play. P3 amplitude was increased following treadmill exercise relative to rest, suggesting an increased allocation of attentional resources during stimulus engagement. The seated videogame and exergame conditions did not differ from any other condition. The findings indicate that single bouts of treadmill exercise may improve cognitive control through an increase in the allocation of attentional resources and greater interference control during cognitively demanding tasks. However, similar benefits may not be derived following short bouts of aerobic exergaming or seated videogame participation. Although exergames may increase physical activity participation, they may not exert the same benefits to brain and cognition as more traditional physical activity behaviors. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of Pilates exercise to decrease falls risk: a pilot randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Bohensky, Megan A; Brand, Caroline A; Cameron, Peter A; Morello, Renata T

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Pilates exercise in older people to decrease falls risk and inform a larger trial. Pilot Randomized controlled trial. Community physiotherapy clinic. A total of 53 community-dwelling people aged ⩾60 years (mean age, 69.3 years; age range, 61-84). A 60-minute Pilates class incorporating best practice guidelines for exercise to prevent falls, performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. All participants received a letter to their general practitioner with falls risk information, fall and fracture prevention education and home exercises. Indicators of feasibility included: acceptability (recruitment, retention, intervention adherence and participant experience survey); safety (adverse events); and potential effectiveness (fall, fall injury and injurious fall rates; standing balance; lower limb strength; and flexibility) measured at 12 and 24 weeks. Recruitment was achievable but control group drop-outs were high (23%). Of the 20 participants who completed the intervention, 19 (95%) attended ⩾75% of the classes and reported classes were enjoyable and would recommend them to others. The rate of fall injuries at 24 weeks was 42% lower and injurious fall rates 64% lower in the Pilates group, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.347 and P = 0.136). Standing balance, lower-limb strength and flexibility improved in the Pilates group relative to the control group (P fall injury rates. A definitive randomized controlled trial analysing the effect of Pilates in older people would be feasible and is warranted given the acceptability and potential positive effects of Pilates on fall injuries and fall risk factors. The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN1262000224820). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stephanie; Pinto Zipp, Genevieve; Parasher, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious issue for the American public. Because of conditions that result from inactivity, individuals incur close to $1 trillion USD in health-care costs, and approximately 250 000 premature deaths occur per year. Researchers have linked engaging in yoga to improved overall fitness, including improved muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance. Researchers have not yet investigated the impact of yoga on exercise adherence. The research team assessed the effects of 10 weeks of yoga classes held twice a week on exercise adherence in previously sedentary adults. The research team designed a randomized controlled pilot trial. The team collected data from the intervention (yoga) and control groups at baseline, midpoint, and posttest (posttest 1) and also collected data pertaining to exercise adherence for the yoga group at 5 weeks posttest (posttest 2). The pilot took place in a yoga studio in central New Jersey in the United States. The pretesting occurred at the yoga studio for all participants. Midpoint testing and posttesting occurred at the studio for the yoga group and by mail for the control group. Participants were 27 adults (mean age 51 y) who had been physically inactive for a period of at least 6 months prior to the study. Interventions The intervention group (yoga group) received hour-long hatha yoga classes that met twice a week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in classes during the research study; however, they were offered complimentary post research classes. Outcome Measures The study's primary outcome measure was exercise adherence as measured by the 7-day Physical Activity Recall. The secondary measures included (1) exercise self-efficacy as measured by the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, (2) general well-being as measured by the General Well-Being Schedule, (3) exercise-group cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ), (4) acute feeling response

  11. Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise – Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary; Møller, Tom; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured...... and supervised counseling and exercise program.Methods/design: This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise -- Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction...... chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle...

  12. Deep breathing exercises performed 2 months following cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Urell, Charlotte; Jonsson, Marcus; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Hedenström, Hans; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative breathing exercises are recommended to cardiac surgery patients. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue exercises after discharge vary, and the significance of treatment needs to be determined. Our aim was to assess the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises performed with a positive expiratory pressure device for 2 months following cardiac surgery. The study design was a prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized trial. Patients performing breathing exercises 2 months after cardiac surgery (n = 159) were compared with a control group (n = 154) performing no breathing exercises after discharge. The intervention consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cm H2O), 5 times a day, during the first 2 months after surgery. The outcomes were lung function measurements, oxygen saturation, thoracic excursion mobility, subjective perception of breathing and pain, patient-perceived quality of recovery (40-Item Quality of Recovery score), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), and self-reported respiratory tract infection/pneumonia and antibiotic treatment. Two months postoperatively, the patients had significantly reduced lung function, with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second to 93 ± 12% (P< .001) of preoperative values. Oxygenation had returned to preoperative values, and 5 of 8 aspects in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were improved compared with preoperative values (P< .01). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the measured outcomes. No significant differences in lung function, subjective perceptions, or quality of life were found between patients performing home-based deep breathing exercises and control patients 2 months after cardiac surgery.

  13. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20–27 years) and older (28–35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained ≈25% and ≈30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20–35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention. PMID:19440527

  14. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Lovell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years and older (28-35 years adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement. Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  15. Hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy after exercise: a pragmatic controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Travé-Mesa, Alvaro; Vera-Cabrera, Alberto; Cruz-Terrón, Dario; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida M; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-07-18

    Our aim was to evaluate the recovery effects of hydrotherapy after aerobic exercise in cardiovascular, performance and perceived fatigue. A pragmatic controlled repeated measures; single-blind trial was conducted. Thirty-four recreational sportspeople visited a Sport-Centre and were assigned to a Hydrotherapy group (experimental) or rest in a bed (control) after completing a spinning session. Main outcomes measures including blood pressure, heart rate, handgrip strength, vertical jump, self-perceived fatigue, and body temperature were assessed at baseline, immediately post-exercise and post-recovery. The hypothesis of interest was the session*time interaction. The analysis revealed significant session*time interactions for diastolic blood pressure (P=0.031), heart rate (P=0.041), self perceived fatigue (P=0.046), and body temperature (P=0.001); but not for vertical jump (P=0.437), handgrip (P=0.845) or systolic blood pressure (P=0.266). Post-hoc analysis revealed that hydrotherapy resulted in recovered heart rate and diastolic blood pressure similar to baseline values after the spinning session. Further, hydrotherapy resulted in decreased self-perceived fatigue after the spinning session. Our results support that hydrotherapy is an adequate strategy to facilitate cardiovascular recovers and perceived fatigue, but not strength, after spinning exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01765387.

  16. Dry needling and exercise for chronic whiplash - a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvlis Tina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic whiplash is a common and costly problem. Sensory hypersensitivity is a feature of chronic whiplash that is associated with poor responsiveness to physical treatments such as exercise. Modalities such as dry-needling have shown some capacity to modulate sensory hypersensitivity, suggesting that when combined with advice and exercise, such an approach may be more effective in the management of chronic whiplash. The primary aim of this project is to investigate the effectiveness of dry-needling, advice and exercise for chronic whiplash. Method/Design A double-blind randomised controlled trial will be conducted. 120 participants with chronic whiplash, grade II will be randomised to receive either 1 dry-needling, advice and exercise or 2 sham dry-needling, advice and exercise. All participants will receive an educational booklet on whiplash. Participants who are randomised to Group 1 will receive 6 treatments of combined dry-needling and exercise delivered in the first 3 weeks of the 6 week program, and 4 treatments of exercise only in the last 3 weeks of the program. Participants randomised to Group 2 will receive an identical protocol, except that a sham dry-needling technique will be used instead of dry-needling. The primary outcome measures are the Neck Disability Index (NDI and participants' perceived recovery. Outcomes will be measured at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after randomization by an assessor who is blind to the group allocation of the participants. In parallel, an economic analysis will be conducted. Discussion This trial will utilise high quality trial methodologies in accordance with CONSORT guidelines. The successful completion of this trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined treatment approach for the management of chronic whiplash. Trial registration ACTRN12609000470291

  17. Automatic activation of exercise and sedentary stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C

    2009-09-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded by a normal-weight exerciser prime showed significantly slower response times for sedentary words over sedentary control words and exercise words. An overweight sedentary prime resulted in significantly slower response times for sedentary words over exercise words and exercise control words. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of how active and sedentary lifestyles are portrayed in the media.

  18. Exercise prescription using the heart of claudication pain onset in patients with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grizzo Cucato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the acute metabolic and cardiovascular responses to walking exercise at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate of claudication pain onset and to investigate the effects of a 12-week walking training program at this intensity on walking capacity. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with intermittent claudication were randomly allocated to the walking training (n = 17 or control (CO, n = 12 group. The walking training group performed an acute exercise session comprising 15×2-min bouts of walking at the heart rate of claudication pain onset, with 2-min interpolated rest intervals. The claudication symptoms and cardiovascular and metabolic responses were evaluated. Walking training was then performed at the same intensity twice each week for 12 weeks, while the control group engaged in twice weekly stretching classes. The claudication onset distance and total walking distance were evaluated before and after the interventions. Brazilian Registry Clinical Trials: RBR-7M3D8W. RESULTS: During the acute exercise session, the heart rate was maintained within tight limits. The exercise intensity was above the anaerobic threshold and >80% of the heart rate peak and VO2peak. After the exercise training period, the walking exercise group (n = 13 showed increased claudication onset distance (309±153 vs. 413±201m and total walking distance (784±182 vs. 1,100±236m compared to the control group (n = 12 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Walking exercise prescribed at the heart rate of claudication pain onset enables patients with intermittent claudication to exercise with tolerable levels of pain and improves walking performance.

  19. The effect of education and supervised exercise vs. education alone on the time to total hip replacement in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis. A randomized clinical trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Carsten; Roos, Ewa M; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-14

    The age- and gender-specific incidence of total hip replacement surgery has increased over the last two decades in all age groups. Recent studies indicate that non-surgical interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability, even at later stages of the disease when joint replacement is considered. We hypothesize that the time to hip replacement can be postponed in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis following participation in a patient education and supervised exercise program when compared to patients receiving patient education alone. A prospective, blinded, parallel-group multi-center trial (2 sites), with balanced randomization [1:1]. Patients with hip osteoarthritis and an indication for hip replacement surgery, aged 40 years and above, will be consecutively recruited and randomized into two treatment groups. The active treatment group will receive 3 months of supervised exercise consisting of 12 sessions of individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training, and 12 sessions of intensive resistance training plus patient education (3 sessions). The control group will receive only patient education (3 sessions). The primary end-point for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention is 12 months after baseline. However, follow-ups will also be performed once a year for at least 5 years. The primary outcome measure is the time to hip replacement surgery measured on a Kaplain-Meier survival curve from time of inclusion. Secondary outcome measures are the five subscales of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, physical activity level (UCLA activity score), and patient's global perceived effect. Other measures include pain after exercise, joint-specific adverse events, exercise adherence, general health status (EQ-5D-5L), mechanical muscle strength and performance in physical tests. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be performed. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized clinical trial comparing a patient education plus

  20. Development of an anaesthetized-rat model of exercise hyperpnoea: an integrative model of respiratory control using an equilibrium diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Manabe, Kou; Ueda, Shinya; Nakahara, Hidehiro

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small-animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using a respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This experimental model will provide an opportunity to clarify the major determinant mechanisms of exercise hyperpnoea, and will be useful for understanding the mechanisms responsible for abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise in disease models. Exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states seem to arise from pathological changes of respiratory regulation. Although experimental studies in small animals are essential to investigate the pathophysiological basis of various disease models, the lack of an integrated framework for quantitatively characterizing respiratory regulation during exercise prevents us from resolving these problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. In 24 anaesthetized rats, we induced muscle contraction by stimulating bilateral distal sciatic nerves at low and high voltage to mimic exercise. We recorded breath-by-breath respiratory gas analysis data and cardiorespiratory responses while running two protocols to characterize the controller and plant of the respiratory chemoreflex. The controller was characterized by determining the linear relationship between end-tidal CO 2 pressure (P ETC O2) and minute ventilation (V̇E), and the plant by the hyperbolic relationship between V̇E and P ETC O2. During exercise, the controller curve shifted upward without change in controller gain, accompanying

  1. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  2. Land-based versus aquatic resistance therapeutic exercises for older women with sarcopenic obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Vasconcelos, Karina Simone; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; de Araújo, Marília Caixeta; Pinheiro, Ana Cisalpino; Maia, Marcela Machado; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-09-16

    Sarcopenic obesity is a health condition that combines excess adipose tissue and loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenic obesity predisposes to more functional disabilities than obesity or sarcopenia alone. Progressive resistance exercises are recommended for older people as a potential treatment for sarcopenia and also for obesity. However, there is a lack of evidence indicating which programmes are best applied to older people, and no studies have investigated their effects on sarcopenic obese people. The aims of this protocol study are to investigate and compare the efficacy of land-based and aquatic resistance exercise programmes on improving muscle performance, functional capacity and quality of life of older women with sarcopenic obesity. This is a protocol study for a parallel randomised controlled clinical trial. Eligible participants are older women (≥65 years) with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 and hand grip strength ≤21 kg force. A total sample of 36 participants will be randomly allocated to one of the intervention groups in blocks of three: land-based, aquatic or control. Each intervention group will undergo 2-week sessions of a 10-week therapeutic exercise programme for strength, power and endurance training of the lower-limb muscles. Participants in the control group will not participate in any strengthening activity for lower limbs and will receive telephone calls once a week. Baseline and final evaluation of outcomes will encompass muscle performance of the lower limbs assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer; functional tests of usual walking speed, maximal walking speed (shuttle walking test), stair speed and the Short Physical Performance Battery; and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Questionnaire - SF-36). Data collectors will be blinded to randomisation and will not be in touch with participants during the interventions. This study is the first randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate resistance

  3. Effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Guoqing Zhu,1 Xiao Zhang,1 Yulan Wang,1 Huizi Xiong,2 Yinghui Zhao,1 Fenyong Sun1 1Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Exercise is associated with favorable outcomes in cancer survivors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to comprehensively summarize the effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors.Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Elsevier, and Google scholar was conducted up to March 2015. References from relevant meta-analyses and reviews were also checked.Results: Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis, including 2,659 breast cancer survivors. Compared with the control group, quality of life was significantly improved in exercise intervention group, especially in mental health and general health subscales of short form 36 questionnaire, as well as emotion well-being and social well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Besides, exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the exercise group. Furthermore, exercise was also associated with positive outcomes in body mass index, lean mass, and muscle strength. In addition, the serum concentration of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was significantly reduced in exercise intervention group. However, based on the current data of this meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in sleep dysfunction or fatigue between groups.Conclusion: Our study suggested that exercise intervention was beneficial to breast cancer survivors. Therefore, exercise should be recommended to this patient group. Keywords: exercise, quality of life, depression, BMI, insulin

  4. Physical activity of elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Zbigniew; Praczko, Katarzyna; Kostka, Tomasz; Jegier, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most common method of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis. There is little data concerning the physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients in Poland and investigations to explore this area are useful. The aim of the study was to describe the post-operative physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients. A total of 146 adult people were examined, among which 28 men and 41 women had undergone total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis of the hip, while another 32 men and 41 women matched for age who had not undergone hip surgery for osteoarthritis served as controls. The physical activity of study participants was assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. All participants were also asked about the type and amount of physical activity they engaged in to maintain good health. Physical activity measured as the total amount of calories expended through physical activity per week was similar in the post-THA patients compared to the controls. The only differences were a smaller amount of calories expended during low-intensity physical activity by men after total hip arthroplasty compared to men who had not undergone surgery for osteoarthritis and a smaller amount of calories expended through high-intensity physical activity by women after total hip arthroplasty compared to female controls. The kinds of recreational physical activity most commonly practised by patients a mean of two years after total hip arthroplasty were marching, bicycling and general body conditioning exercises (usually the continuation of exercises recommended during post-operative rehabilitation). The percentage of post-THA patients undertaking physical activity for the prevention of non-communicable diseases was low. Physical activity should be more effectively encouraged in patients after total hip arthroplasty.

  5. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    "Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.

  8. Case-control study of high-speed exercise history of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that died related to a complete scapular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, S A; Entwistle, R C; Hitchens, P L; Gardner, I A; Stover, S M

    2013-05-01

    Identification of exercise history patterns that are related to catastrophic scapular fracture will facilitate prevention of racehorse fatalities. To determine if exercise patterns are associated with scapular fracture in Thoroughbred (TB) and Quarter Horse (QH) racehorses. High-speed exercise histories for 65 TB and 26 QH racehorses that had a complete scapular fracture (cases) and 2 matched control racehorses were retrospectively studied. Exercise variables were created from lifetime race and official timed workout reports. Associations between exercise variables and scapular fracture were investigated using conditional logistic regression. Thoroughbreds with a scapular fracture had a greater number of workouts, events (combined works and races), and mean event distances than QHs with a scapular fracture. Quarter Horses worked less frequently and accumulated distance at a lower rate than TBs. Breed differences were not found for career race number or length, time between races or lay-up variables for horses with ≥1 lay-up. For both breeds, cases had fewer events, lower recent accumulated distance and fewer active days in training than controls; however, a subset of TB cases with >10 events since lay-up had a longer active career than controls. For QHs that had a lay-up, total and mean lay-up times were greater for cases than controls. Multivariable models revealed that odds ratios (OR) of scapular fracture were greater for TBs that had not yet raced (OR = 23.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.03-177.38) and lower for QHs with more events (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.94). Racehorses that are in early high-speed training but behind that of their training cohort should be examined for signs of scapular stress remodelling. Quarter Horses that had a prolonged lay-up and TBs that have endured high-speed training for a longer duration than that of their training cohort also were at greater risk. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  9. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    Context: Glycemic control improves with physical activity, but the optimal exercise mode is unknown. Objective: To determine whether interval-based exercise improves postprandial glucose tolerance and free-living glycemia more than oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise....... Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n=10, no withdrawels). Interventions: Subjects performed three 1-hour interventions: 1) interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 minutes...... of slow and fast walking); 2) continuous-walking (CW); 3) Control (CON). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to match mean VO2 between exercise sessions (∼75% VO2peak). Main Outcome Measures: A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT; 450 kcal, 55% carbohydrate) with stable glucose isotopic tracers...

  10. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the co...

  11. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  12. Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Cybelle; Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda De; Novaes, Karyne Albino; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro; Lemos, Andrea

    Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits. Clinical trials that compared resistance exercise to aerobic exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not use insulin therapy were included. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE system and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, respectively. Meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Eight eligible articles were included in this study, with a total of 336 individuals, with a mean age of 48-58 years. The protocols of aerobic and resistance exercise varied in duration from eight to 22 weeks, 30-60min/day, three to five times/week. Overall the available evidence came from a very low quality of evidence and there was an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption (mean difference: -2.86; 95% CI: -3.90 to -1.81; random effect) for the resistance exercise and no difference was found in Glycated hemoglobin, Body mass index, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Resistance exercise appears to be more effective in promoting an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks and there is no difference in the control of glycemic and lipid levels between the two types of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomized Clinical Trial of Periarticular Drug Injection used in combination Patient-Controlled Analgesia versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia Alone in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Sabran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare use of a combination of periarticular drug injection with patient- controlled analgesia (PCA to PCA alone in post-total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Thirty patients who were admitted for unilateral total knee arthroplasty were selected randomly into an Injection group or a Standard group. The periarticular injection contained Ropivacaine, Ketorolac and Adrenaline, given intra-operatively. The mean amount of opioid used was 22.87 mmol/L in the Injection group as compared to 39.78 mmol/L in the Standard group (p = 0.026. The Injection group had lower pain score at rest and during exercise (p=0.021, p=0.041, respectively, as well as better return to function (p=0.026 and shorter hospital stay (6.1 days, Injection; 7.5 days, Standard, p=0.027. Overall, the group receiving periarticular drugs injection had less pain, less narcotic usage, earlier return to function, similar experience of adverse effects and shorter hospital stays.

  14. Effects of supervised exercise on lipid profiles and blood pressure control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashino, Yasuaki; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Fukumori, Norio; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2012-12-01

    Our study's purpose was to perform a systematic review to assess the effect of supervised exercise interventions on lipid profiles and blood pressure control. We searched electronic databases and selected studies that evaluated the effect of supervised exercise intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in adult people with type 2 diabetes. We used random effect models to derive weighted mean differences of exercise on lipid profiles and blood pressure control. Forty-two RCTs (2808 subjects) met inclusion criteria and are included in our meta-analysis. Structured exercise was associated with a change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of -2.42 mmHg (95% CI, -4.39 to -0.45 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of -2.23 mmHg (95% CI, -3.21 to -1.25 mmHg), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) of 0.04 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.02-0.07 mmol/L), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of -0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.30 to -0.01 mmol/L). Heterogeneity was partially explained by age, dietary co-intervention and the duration and intensity of the exercise. Supervised exercise is effective in improving blood pressure control, lowering LDL-C, and elevating HDL-C levels in people with diabetes. Physicians should recommend exercise for their adult patients with diabetes who can safely do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold R. Ebenbichler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG data.Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's, an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise.Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise.Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior.

  16. The PLE(2)NO self-management and exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconcin, Priscila; Espanha, Margarida; Yázigi, Flávia; Campos, Pedro

    2016-06-07

    International recommendations suggest exercise and self-management programs, including non-pharmacological treatments, for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) because they can benefit pain relief and improve function and exercise adherence. The implementation of a combined self-management and exercise program termed PLE(2)NO may be a good method for controlling KOA symptoms because it encourages the development of self-efficacy to manage the pathology. This study will assess the effects of a self-management and exercise program in comparison to an educational intervention (control program) on symptoms, physical fitness, health-related quality of life, self-management behaviors, self-efficacy, physical activity level and coping strategies. This PLE(2)NO study is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial of elderly (aged above 60 yrs old) patients with clinical and radiographic KOA. The patients will be allocated into either an educational group (control) or a self-management and exercise group (experimental). All participants will receive a supplement of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfates. This paper describes the protocol that will be used in the PLE(2)NO program. This program has several strengths. First, it involves a combination of self-management and exercise approaches, is available in close proximity to the patients and occurs over a short period of time. The latter two characteristics are crucial for maintaining participant adherence. Exercise components will be implemented using low-cost resources that permit their widespread application. Moreover, the program will provide guidance regarding the effectiveness of using a self-management and exercise program to control KOA symptoms and improve self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. NCT02562833 (09/23/2015).

  17. The effects of Pilates exercise on cardiopulmonary function in the chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of modified Pilates exercise on cardiopulmonary function in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants (age, 62.7 ± 7.3 years; height, 163.3 ± 8.5 cm; weight, 68.8 ± 10.3 kg) were recruited for this study, and randomly allocated to the modified Pilates exercise group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Graded submaximal treadmill exercise test was used to examine the status of patients' cardiopulmonary function, based on maximal oxygen intake, at the end of a patient's exercise tolerance limit. [Results] The resting heart rates, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen intake per kilogram were significantly different after 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise. In addition, these variables were also significantly different between the Pilates and control groups after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive influence on patients with chronic stroke, potentially by enhancing the cardiopulmonary function, which may have positive implications for increasing their functional ability.

  18. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsophon, Thaniya; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2017-09-06

    Exercise is one choice of additional treatment for smoking cessation by relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving. The possible mechanism of the effect of exercise on relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving is including affect, biological, and cognitive hypotheses. Evidence suggests that different types of exercise have different effects on these mechanisms. Therefore, type of exercise might have effect on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials to gain insight into which types of exercise are effective for smoking cessation. Publications were systemically searched up to November 2016 in several databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, PEDro, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library), using the following keywords: "physical activity", "exercise", "smoking", "tobacco" and "cigarette". The methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the type of exercise on smoking cessation. The quality of the evidence was assessed and rated according to the GRADE approach. 20 articles on 19 studies were judged to meet the selection criteria (seven low-risk of bias RCTs and 12 high-risk of bias RCTs). The findings revealed low quality evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for smoking cessation at the end of the treatment. The evidence found for no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and a combined aerobic and resisted exercise program on smoking cessation was of low to moderate quality. Furthermore, very low to low quality evidence was found for no effect of physical activity on smoking cessation. There was no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, physical activity and combined aerobic and resisted exercise on smoking cessation. There was a positive effect on smoking cessation at the end of treatment in the program where yoga plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used. However, which

  19. Controls exercised by the Army over radioactive consumer-type items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taras, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    There are considerations that must be taken into account in the selection of radioactive products for military use that are of less consequence in consumer use. Because of these considerations, the Army and the other military services exercise control over radioactive commodities for military use. This paper describes the requirements of the Army safety policy

  20. The effect of group-based exercise on cognitive performance and mood in seniors residing in intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A K; Liu-Ambrose, T; Tate, R; Lord, S R

    2009-08-01

    To determine the effect of a general group-based exercise programme on cognitive performance and mood among seniors without dementia living in retirement villages. Randomised controlled trial. Four intermediate care and four self-care retirement village sites in Sydney, Australia. 154 seniors (19 men, 135 women; age range 62 to 95 years), who were residents of intermediate care and self-care retirement facilities. Participants were randomised to one of three experimental groups: (1) a general group-based exercise (GE) programme composed of resistance training and balance training exercises; (2) a flexibility exercise and relaxation technique (FR) programme; or (3) no-exercise control (NEC). The intervention groups (GE and FR) participated in 1-hour exercise classes twice a week for a total period of 6 months. Using standard neuropsychological tests, we assessed cognitive performance at baseline and at 6-month re-test in three domains: (1) fluid intelligence; (2) visual, verbal and working memory; and (3) executive functioning. We also assessed mood using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The GE programme significantly improved cognitive performance of fluid intelligence compared with FR or NEC. There were also significant improvements in the positive PANAS scale within both the GE and FR groups and an indication that the two exercise programmes reduced depression in those with initially high GDS scores. Our GE programme significantly improved cognitive performance of fluid intelligence in seniors residing in retirement villages compared with our FR programme and the NEC group. Furthermore, both group-based exercise programmes were beneficial for certain aspects of mood within the 6-month intervention period.

  1. Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: role in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E

    2009-09-01

    It is now well established that brain plasticity is an inherent property not only of the developing but also of the adult brain. Numerous beneficial effects of exercise, including improved memory, cognitive function and neuroprotection, have been shown to involve an important neuroplastic component. However, whether major adaptive cardiovascular adjustments during exercise, needed to ensure proper blood perfusion of peripheral tissues, also require brain neuroplasticity, is presently unknown. This review will critically evaluate current knowledge on proposed mechanisms that are likely to underlie the continuous resetting of baroreflex control of heart rate during/after exercise and following exercise training. Accumulating evidence indicates that not only somatosensory afferents (conveyed by skeletal muscle receptors, baroreceptors and/or cardiopulmonary receptors) but also projections arising from central command neurons (in particular, peptidergic hypothalamic pre-autonomic neurons) converge into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the dorsal brainstem, to co-ordinate complex cardiovascular adaptations during dynamic exercise. This review focuses in particular on a reciprocally interconnected network between the NTS and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is proposed to act as a pivotal anatomical and functional substrate underlying integrative feedforward and feedback cardiovascular adjustments during exercise. Recent findings supporting neuroplastic adaptive changes within the NTS-PVN reciprocal network (e.g. remodelling of afferent inputs, structural and functional neuronal plasticity and changes in neurotransmitter content) will be discussed within the context of their role as important underlying cellular mechanisms supporting the tonic activation and improved efficacy of these central pathways in response to circulatory demand at rest and during exercise, both in sedentary and in trained individuals. We hope this review will stimulate

  2. Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Therapeutic exercises are frequently prescribed to patients with low back pain. Numerous exercise programs for patients with low back pain have been described. Many of these treatment programs are based on 1 of 2 popular rehabilitation strategies: a motor control exercise approach or a general exercise approach. Data Sources PubMed clinical queries from 1966 to March 2013 for keyword combinations including motor control exercise, core stability exercise, therapeutic exercise, general ...

  3. A 20-week program of resistance or concurrent exercise improves symptoms of schizophrenia: results of a blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Andrade e Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the effects of 20 weeks of resistance and concurrent training on psychotic and depressive symptoms, quality of life outcomes, and serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations in patients with schizophrenia.Methods:In this blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, 34 patients with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three groups: control (CTRL, n=13, resistance exercise (RESEX, n=12, or concurrent exercise (CONCEX, n=9. Symptoms, quality of life, strength, and other variables were assessed.Results:A significant time-by-group interaction was found for the RESEX and CONCEX groups on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score for disease symptoms (p = 0.007, positive symptoms (p = 0.003, and on the arm extension one-repetition maximum (1RM test (p = 0.016. In addition, significant improvements on negative symptoms (p = 0.027, on the role-physical domain of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (p = 0.019, and on the chest press 1RM test (p = 0.040 were observed in the RESEX group. No changes were observed for the other variables investigated.Conclusions:In this sample of patients with schizophrenia, 20 weeks of resistance or concurrent exercise program improved disease symptoms, strength, and quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01674543.

  4. Physical exercise for late life depression: effects on cognition and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neviani, Francesca; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Mussi, Chiara; Triolo, Federico; Toni, Giulio; Simoncini, Elisabetta; Tripi, Ferdinando; Menchetti, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Ceresini, Graziano; Cremonini, Alessandro; Bertolotti, Marco; Neri, Giovanni; Squatrito, Salvatore; Amore, Mario; Zanetidou, Stamatula; Neri, Mirco

    2017-07-01

    Late-life depression is often associated with cognitive impairments and disability, which may persist even after adequate antidepressant drug treatment. Physical exercise is increasingly recognized as an effective antidepressant agent, and may exert positive effects on these features too. However, few studies examined this issue, especially by comparing different types of exercises. We performed secondary analyses on data from the Safety and Efficacy of Exercise for Depression in Seniors study, a trial comparing the antidepressant effectiveness of sertraline (S), sertraline plus thrice-weekly non-progressive exercise (S+NPE), and sertraline plus thrice-weekly progressive aerobic exercise (S+PAE). Exercise was conducted in small groups and monitored by heart rate meters. Patients with late-life depression without severe cognitive impairment were recruited from primary care and assessed at baseline and 24 weeks, using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA, total and subdomain scores) and Brief Disability Questionnaire. Analyses were based on Generalized Linear Models. In total, 121 patients (mean age 75, 71% females) were randomized to the study interventions. Compared with the S group, patients in the S+PAE group displayed greater improvements of MOCA total scores (p=0.006, effect size=0.37), visuospatial/executive functions (p=0.001, effect size=0.13), and disability (p=0.02, effect size=-0.31). Participants in the S+NPE group did not display significant differences with the control group. Adding aerobic, progressive exercise to antidepressant drug treatment may offer significant advantages over standard treatment for cognitive abilities and disability. These findings suggest that even among older patients exercise may constitute a valid therapeutic measure to improve patients' outcomes.

  5. Effect of Caloric Restriction or Aerobic Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Consumption and Quality of Life in Obese Older Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman, Dalane W.; Brubaker, Peter; Morgan, Timothy; Haykowsky, Mark; Hundley, Gregory; Kraus, William E.; Eggebeen, Joel; Nicklas, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance More than 80% of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), the most common form of HF among older persons, are overweight/obese. Exercise intolerance is the primary symptom of chronic HFPEF and a major determinant of reduced quality-of-life (QOL). Objective To determine whether caloric restriction (Diet), or aerobic exercise training (Exercise), improves exercise capacity and QOL in obese older HFPEF patients. Design Randomized, attention-controlled, 2x2 factorial trial conducted from February 2009 November 2014. Setting Urban academic medical center. Participants 100 older (67±5 years) obese (BMI=39.3±5.6kg/m2) women (n=81) and men (n=19) with chronic, stable HFPEF enrolled from 577 patients initially screened (366 excluded by inclusion / exclusion criteria, 31 for other reasons, 80 declined participation). Twenty-six participants were randomized to Exercise alone, 24 to Diet alone, 25 to Diet+Exercise, and 25 to Control; 92 completed the trial. Interventions 20 weeks of Diet and/or Exercise; Attention Control consisted of telephone calls every 2 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures Exercise capacity measured as peak oxygen consumption (VO2, ml/kg/min; primary outcome) and QOL measured by the Minnesota Living with HF Questionnaire (MLHF) total score (co-primary outcome; score range: 0–105, higher scores indicate worse HF-related QOL). Results By main effects analysis, peak VO2 was increased significantly by both interventions: Exercise main effect 1.2 ml/kg/min (95%CI: 0.7,1.7; pDiet main effect 1.3 ml/kg/min (95%CI: 0.8,1.8; pExercise+Diet was additive (complementary) for peak VO2 (joint effect 2.5 ml/kg/min). The change in MLHF total score was non-significant with Exercise (main effect −1 unit; 95%CI: −8,5; p=0.70) and with Diet (main effect −6 units; 95%CI: −12,1; p=0.078). The change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with the change in percent lean body mass (r=0.32; p=0.003) and the change in thigh muscle

  6. Clinical and neurobiological effects of aerobic exercise in dental phobia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Brigitt L; Plag, Jens; Schumacher, Sarah; Gaudlitz, Katharina; Bischoff, Sophie; Bobbert, Thomas; Dimeo, Fernando; Petzold, Moritz B; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Dudás, Zsuzsa; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    Physical activity has shown to be effective in anxiety disorders. For specific phobia, no studies are available that systematically examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on phobic fear within a randomized-controlled design. Therefore, we investigated the acute effect of a standardized aerobic training on clinical symptoms of dental phobia as well as on stress-related neurobiological markers. Within a crossover design, 30 patients with dental phobia (mean age: 34.1 years; mean score of the Dental Anxiety Scale: 18.8) underwent two minor dental interventions separated by 7 days. Dental treatment was performed after 30 min of physical activity at either 20% VO 2 max (control) or 70% VO 2 max (intervention), respectively. To control for habituation, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions prior to the first intervention. Moreover, saliva samples were collected at five times in order to determine changes in salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) due to treatment. In comparison to baseline, aerobic exercise within 70% VO 2 max significantly reduced clinical anxiety and sC concentrations before, during, and after the dental treatment. In contrast, the control condition led to decreased sAA levels at different time points of measurement. Habituation occurred at the second study day, independent of the order. Our study provides evidence for an effect of moderate-intense exercise on clinical symptoms and sC in patients with dental phobia. Therefore, acute aerobic exercise might be a simple and low-cost intervention to reduce disorder-specific phobic fear. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of antenatal physical exercise on haemodynamics in pregnant women: a flexible randomisation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Rhiannon Emma; Emery, Simon J; Uzun, Orhan; D'Silva, Lindsay A; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-22

    Normal pregnancy is associated with marked changes in haemodynamic function, however the influence and potential benefits of antenatal physical exercise at different stages of pregnancy and postpartum remain unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the influence of regular physical exercise on haemodynamic variables at different stages of pregnancy and also in the postpartum period. Fifty healthy pregnant women were recruited and randomly assigned (2 × 2 × 2 design) to a land or water-based exercise group or a control group. Exercising groups attended weekly classes from the 20th week of pregnancy onwards. Haemodynamic assessments (heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end diastolic index) were performed using the Task Force haemodynamic monitor at 12-16, 26-28, 34-36 and 12 weeks following birth, during a protocol including postural manoeurvres (supine and standing) and light exercise. In response to an acute bout of exercise in the postpartum period, stroke volume and end diastolic index were greater in the exercise group than the non-exercising control group (p = 0.041 and p = 0.028 respectively). Total peripheral resistance and diastolic blood pressure were also lower (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively) in the exercise group. Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the exercise group during the second trimester (p = 0.030). Antenatal exercise does not appear to substantially alter maternal physiology with advancing gestation, speculating that the already vast changes in maternal physiology mask the influences of antenatal exercise, however it does appear to result in an improvement in a woman's haemodynamic function (enhanced ventricular ejection performance and reduced blood pressure) following the end of pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02503995. Registered 20 July 2015.

  8. Efficacy of exercise as an adjunct treatment for clinically depressed inpatients during the initial stages of antidepressant pharmacotherapy: An open randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien D; Neff, Elise M

    2016-02-01

    Physical exercise as adjunctive treatment for hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been of increasing interest in the past few years. While preliminary findings are promising, these prior studies have been plagued by inclusion of participants at different stages of medication use at study entry. The present study evaluates the effects of a short (10-days) add-on endurance-training intervention in hospitalized MDD patients on antidepressant medication for less than two weeks. Thirty-five participants were randomly assigned to one of three study groups: aerobic exercise (n=14), placebo (stretching) exercise (n=11), or no intervention (control; n=10). The study outcome was the change in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) total score from baseline to the end of the study period. The intent-to-treat analysis showed significant improvements in BDI-II scores for both the aerobic and the stretching groups. However, comparing pre- to post-study depression changes in these two groups, we found a large effect size in favor of aerobic exercise (Cohen's d=-1.06). No significant change in depressive symptoms was found in the control group. The nature of the intervention (i.e., exercise) meant blinding participants to treatments was not possible. Precise information on medication dosage was not available, and the short duration of interventions and lack of follow-up assessment were all limitations. Endurance-training can be a helpful adjunct treatment for hospitalized patients with severe affective disorders in the initial stages of pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  10. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  11. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  12. A Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention for breast cancer survivors: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Eun Sook; Jung, Kyung Hae; Noh, Dong-Young

    2014-12-01

    Regular exercise and dietary practices have been shown to affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival of breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate whether the WSEDI was a feasible and primarily effective method for promoting exercise and dietary behaviours for breast cancer patients. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial. Oncology outpatient treatment clinics at 3 university hospitals and 1 National Cancer Center in South Korea. Fifty-nine breast cancer patients who had received curative surgery and completed primary cancer treatment within 12 months prior to the study and who had been diagnosed with stage 0-III cancers within 2 years prior to the study were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which used a Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program incorporating transtheoretical model (TTM)-based strategies (n=29), or to the control group, which used a 50-page educational booklet on exercise and diet (n=28). The intervention efficacy was measured at the baseline and 12 weeks via a Web-based survey that addressed the promotion of exercise and consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V) per day, dietary quality, HRQOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, motivational readiness, and self-efficacy. The proportion of subjects who performed at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 min per week; ate 5 servings of F&V per day; and had overall improvements in dietary quality, physical functioning and appetite loss (HRQOL), fatigue, and motivational readiness was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-efficacy with respect to exercise and F&V consumption was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A Web-based program that targets changes in exercise and dietary behaviours might be effective for breast cancer survivors if the TTM theory has been used to inform the program strategy, although

  13. Design of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT study: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise interventions after chemotherapy on physical fitness and fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preliminary studies suggest that physical exercise interventions can improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients after completion of chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to rigorously test the effects of exercise programmes among cancer patients and to determine optimal training intensity accordingly. The present paper presents the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a high intensity exercise programme compared to a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme and a waiting list control group on physical fitness and fatigue as primary outcomes. Methods After baseline measurements, cancer patients who completed chemotherapy are randomly assigned to either a 12-week high intensity exercise programme or a low-to-moderate intensity exercise programme. Next, patients from both groups are randomly assigned to immediate training or a waiting list (i.e. waiting list control group. After 12 weeks, patients of the waiting list control group start with the exercise programme they have been allocated to. Both interventions consist of equal bouts of resistance and endurance interval exercises with the same frequency and duration, but differ in training intensity. Additionally, patients of both exercise programmes are counselled to improve compliance and achieve and maintain an active lifestyle, tailored to their individual preferences and capabilities. Measurements will be performed at baseline (t = 0, 12 weeks after randomization (t = 1, and 64 weeks after randomization (t = 2. The primary outcome measures are cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength assessed by means of objective performance indicators, and self-reported fatigue. Secondary outcome measures include health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity, daily functioning, body composition, mood and sleep disturbances, and return to work. In addition, compliance

  14. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  15. Endurance exercise-induced changes in BNP concentrations in cardiovascular patients versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengevaeren, Vincent L; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J; van Kimmenade, Roland R; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2017-01-15

    Healthy athletes demonstrated increased B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations following exercise, but it is unknown whether these responses are exaggerated in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) or disease (CVD). We compared exercise-induced increases in BNP between healthy controls (CON) and individuals with CVRF or CVD. Furthermore, we aimed to identify predictors for BNP responses. Serum BNP concentrations were measured in 191 participants (60±12yrs) of the Nijmegen Marches before (baseline) and immediately after 4 consecutive days of walking exercise (30-50km/day). CVRF (n=54) was defined as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity or smoking and CVD (n=55) was defined as a history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation or angina pectoris. Individuals walked 487±79min/day at 65±10% of their maximum heart rate. Baseline BNP concentrations were higher for CVD (median: 28.1pg/ml; interquartile range: 13-50, p0.05). Predictors for post-exercise BNP (R 2 =0.77) were baseline BNP, beta-blocker use and age. Prolonged moderate-intensity walking exercise increases BNP concentrations in CVD participants, but not in CVRF and CON. BNP increases were small, and did not accumulate across consecutive days of exercise. These findings suggest that prolonged walking exercise for multiple consecutive days is feasible with minimal effect on myocardial stretch, even for participants with CVD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial (the SELF study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Bateman, Marcus; Brown, Kim; Bury, Julie; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Multi-centre pragmatic unblinded parallel group randomised controlled trial. UK National Health Service. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention was a programme of self-managed exercise prescribed by a physiotherapist in relation to the most symptomatic shoulder movement. The control group received usual physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Shoulder Pain & Disability Index (SPADI) at three months. Secondary outcomes included the SPADI at six and twelve months. A total of 86 patients (self-managed loaded exercise n=42; usual physiotherapy n=44) were randomised. Twenty-six patients were excluded from the analysis because of lack of primary outcome data at the 3 months follow-up, leaving 60 (n=27; n=33) patients for intention to treat analysis. For the primary outcome, the mean SPADI score at three months was 32.4 (SD 20.2) for the self-managed group, and 30.7 (SD 19.7) for the usual physiotherapy treatment group; mean difference adjusted for baseline score: 3.2 (95% Confidence interval -6.0 to +12.4 P = 0.49).By six and twelve months there remained no significant difference between the groups. This study does not provide sufficient evidence of superiority of one intervention over the other in the short-, mid- or long-term and hence a self-management programme based around a single exercise appears comparable to usual physiotherapy treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  18. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  19. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  20. Randomised controlled trial of Alexander technique lessons, exercise, and massage (ATEAM) for chronic and recurrent back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Lewith, George; Webley, Fran; Evans, Maggie; Beattie, Angela; Middleton, Karen; Barnett, Jane; Ballard, Kathleen; Oxford, Frances; Smith, Peter; Yardley, Lucy; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie

    2008-08-19

    To determine the effectiveness of lessons in the Alexander technique, massage therapy, and advice from a doctor to take exercise (exercise prescription) along with nurse delivered behavioural counselling for patients with chronic or recurrent back pain. Factorial randomised trial. 64 general practices in England. 579 patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain; 144 were randomised to normal care, 147 to massage, 144 to six Alexander technique lessons, and 144 to 24 Alexander technique lessons; half of each of these groups were randomised to exercise prescription. Normal care (control), six sessions of massage, six or 24 lessons on the Alexander technique, and prescription for exercise from a doctor with nurse delivered behavioural counselling. Roland Morris disability score (number of activities impaired by pain) and number of days in pain. Exercise and lessons in the Alexander technique, but not massage, remained effective at one year (compared with control Roland disability score 8.1: massage -0.58, 95% confidence interval -1.94 to 0.77, six lessons -1.40, -2.77 to -0.03, 24 lessons -3.4, -4.76 to -2.03, and exercise -1.29, -2.25 to -0.34). Exercise after six lessons achieved 72% of the effect of 24 lessons alone (Roland disability score -2.98 and -4.14, respectively). Number of days with back pain in the past four weeks was lower after lessons (compared with control median 21 days: 24 lessons -18, six lessons -10, massage -7) and quality of life improved significantly. No significant harms were reported. One to one lessons in the Alexander technique from registered teachers have long term benefits for patients with chronic back pain. Six lessons followed by exercise prescription were nearly as effective as 24 lessons. National Research Register N0028108728.

  1. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  2. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  3. Efficacy of Feedback-Controlled Robotics-Assisted Treadmill Exercise to Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Early After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; de Bruin, Eling D; Schindelholz, Matthias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is greatly reduced after stroke. Although individuals with mild to moderate impairments benefit from conventional cardiovascular exercise interventions, there is a lack of effective approaches for persons with severely impaired physical function. This randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and feasibility of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (FC-RATE) for cardiovascular rehabilitation in persons with severe impairments early after stroke. Twenty individuals (age 61 ± 11 years; 52 ± 31 days poststroke) with severe motor limitations (Functional Ambulation Classification 0-2) were recruited for FC-RATE or conventional robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) (4 weeks, 3 × 30-minute sessions/wk). Outcome measures focused on peak cardiopulmonary performance parameters, training intensity, and feasibility, with examiners blinded to allocation. All 14 allocated participants (70% of recruited) completed the intervention (7/group, withdrawals unrelated to intervention), without serious adverse events occurring. Cardiovascular fitness increased significantly in both groups, with peak oxygen uptake increasing from 14.6 to 17.7 mL · kg · min (+17.8%) after 4 weeks (45.8%-55.7% of predicted maximal aerobic capacity; time effect P = 0.01; no group-time interaction). Training intensity (% heart rate reserve) was significantly higher for FC-RATE (40% ± 3%) than for conventional RATE (14% ± 2%) (P = 0.001). Substantive overall increases in the main cardiopulmonary performance parameters were observed, but there were no significant between-group differences when comparing FC-RATE and conventional RATE. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise significantly increased exercise intensity, but recommended intensity levels for cardiovascular training were not consistently achieved. Future research should focus on appropriate algorithms within advanced robotic systems to promote optimal cardiovascular

  4. Effect of an Exercise and Weight Control Curriculum: Views of Obesity among Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura A.; Fister, Carrie L.; Ramlo, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of effective weight management strategies is necessary to prepare exercise science students for future work with obesity. Exercise science faculty members developed a course related to exercise as a therapeutic tool and options available for weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to investigate student views of weight…

  5. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01)

  6. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  7. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  8. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  9. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  10. Early rehabilitation exercise program for inpatients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clarice Y; Blackstock, Felicity C; Clarence, Michael; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether an early rehabilitation program was safe and feasible for patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this phase 1 randomized controlled trial, patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the hospital were randomly allocated to a low-intensity exercise group, a moderate- to high-intensity exercise group, or a control group, who received routine physical therapy. In addition to routine physical therapy, patients in the exercise group had to participate in an exercise program. The program consisted of twice-daily aerobic and resistance exercise sessions. Primary outcomes were the number and classification of adverse events and program adherence. In 174 exercise sessions, there was 1 serious adverse event of arrhythmia in the low-intensity exercise group that resolved within 1 hour. There were 12 other minor adverse events involving 5 patients with no significant differences between groups. Patients completed an average of 80% of their scheduled sessions with no significant between-group differences. The exercise groups improved significantly in walking distance; however, no significant between-group differences were observed. There was preliminary evidence that it was safe and feasible to implement an exercise program for patients during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to accurately evaluate program effectiveness.

  11. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: 1) muscle strength and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry; 2) plasma glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C); and 3) HRQoL utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire. The exercise therapy led to improvements in muscle fatigue in knee extensors (-55%) and increased muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors (+15 to +30%), while HbA1C decreased (-18%). In addition, the exercising patients showed sizeable improvements in HRQoL: physical function (+53%), vitality (+21%) and mental health (+40%). Twelve-weeks of combined aerobic-resistance exercise was highly effective to improve muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and several aspects of HRQoL in T2DM patients. These data encourage the use of aerobic and resistance exercise in the good clinical care of T2DM.

  12. Isometric Exercise for the Cervical Extensors Can Help Restore Physiological Lordosis and Reduce Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpayci, Mahmut; İlter, Server

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether isometric neck extension exercise restores physiological cervical lordosis and reduces pain. Sixty-five patients with loss of cervical lordosis were randomly assigned to exercise (27 women, 7 men; mean age, 32.82 ± 8.83 yrs) and control (26 women, 5 men; mean age, 33.48 ± 9.67 yrs) groups. Both groups received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 10 days. The exercise group received additional therapy as a home exercise program, which consisted of isometric neck extension for 3 mos. Neck pain severity and cervical lordosis were measured at baseline and at 3 mos after baseline. Compared with baseline levels, cervical lordosis angle was significantly improved in the exercise group (P cervical lordosis angle returned to physiological conditions (85.2% vs. 22.5%; P pain intensity was significantly reduced in both groups compared with baseline levels (for all, P pain was about twice in the exercise group compared with the control group (P cervical lordosis and pain.

  13. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatello, Linda S; Franklin, Barry A; Fagard, Robert; Farquhar, William B; Kelley, George A; Ray, Chester A

    2004-03-01

    Hypertension (HTN), one of the most common medical disorders, is associated with an increased incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Lifestyle modifications are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HTN, with exercise being an integral component. Exercise programs that primarily involve endurance activities prevent the development of HTN and lower blood pressure (BP) in adults with normal BP and those with HTN. The BP lowering effects of exercise are most pronounced in people with HTN who engage in endurance exercise with BP decreasing approximately 5-7 mm HG after an isolated exercise session (acute) or following exercise training (chronic). Moreover, BP is reduced for up to 22 h after an endurance exercise bout (e.g.postexercise hypotension), with greatest decreases among those with highest baseline BP. The proposed mechanisms for the BP lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations. Decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are some of the postulated explanations for the antihypertensive effects of exercise. Emerging data suggest genetic links to the BP reductions associated with acute and chronic exercise. Nonetheless, definitive conclusions regarding the mechanisms for the BP reductions following endurance exercise cannot be made at this time. Individuals with controlled HTN and no CVD or renal complications may participated in an exercise program or competitive athletics, but should be evaluated, treated and monitored closely. Preliminary peak or symptom-limited exercise testing may be warranted, especially for men over 45 and women over 55 yr planning a vigorous exercise program (i.e. > or = 60% VO2R, oxygen uptake reserve). In the interim, while formal evaluation and management are taking place, it is reasonable for the majority of patients to begin moderate intensity

  14. Effects of structured exercise and pharmacotherapy vs. pharmacotherapy for adults with depressive symptoms: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lara S F; Fonseca, António Manuel; Vieira-Coelho, Maria Augusta; Mota, Maria Paula; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José

    2015-12-01

    Physical exercise has been consistently documented as a complementary therapy in the treatment of depressive disorders. However, despite a higher prevalence among women compared to men, the trials developed in women are scarce. In addition, the optimal dosage of exercise capable of producing benefits that reduce depressive symptoms remains unclear. This clinical trial is designed to measure the effect of a structured physical exercise program as a complement to antidepressant medication in the treatment of women with depression. From July 2013 to May 2014, we implemented a randomized controlled trial (HAPPY BRAIN study). A total of 26 women (aged 50.16 ± 12.08) diagnosed with clinical depression were randomized either to a supervised aerobic exercise group (45-50 min/week three times a week for four months) plus pharmacotherapy (intervention group), or only antidepressant medication (control group). The exercise group presented a decrease in BDI-II and DASS-21 total score scales. Relatively to DASS-21, it showed a significant decrease in anxiety and stress. The exercise group when compared to a control group showed improvement in relation to physical functioning parameters between baseline and post-intervention. Moreover, anthropometric parameters presented only significant differences between groups in fat mass percentage. Nonetheless, no differences were found between groups in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and self-esteem. Our results showed that supervised structured aerobic exercise training could be an effective adjuvant therapy for treating women with depression, reducing depressive symptomatology and improving physical fitness. A key factor of this improvement included strict control of exercise workload parameters and adjustment to each subject's capacity. In our study, due to the sample size there is an increase in the probability of type II errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise promotion: an integration of exercise self-identity, beliefs, intention, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; van den Putte, B.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the role of exercise self-identity within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Participants were 538 undergraduate students who completed measures of exercise self-identity, exercise behaviour, TPB items, and behavioural and control beliefs. Regression analysis showed

  16. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma glutamine during prolonged exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; Wagenmakers, A J

    1998-01-01

    . Eight well-trained subjects cycled at an alternating workload of 50 and 80% Wmax until exhaustion (59 to 140 min). During the exercise bout the subjects received either water (control) or a carbohydrate (CHO) drink (83 g CHO x l(-1), 2 ml x kg(-1) per kg body weight every 15 min). Plasma glutamine......%) decreased below the pre-exercise level. The plasma alanine and the total amino acid concentration was still suppressed after 7 h of recovery. In conclusion, carbohydrate supplementation had neither an effect during exercise nor during recovery on the concentration of plasma glutamine or other amino acids...

  17. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  18. The Effect of Different Intensities of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Function Deficit Following a Severe Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiafeng Shen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been proposed for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the proper intensity of exercise in the early phase following a severe TBI is largely unknown. To compare two different treadmill exercise intensities on the cognitive function following a severe TBI in its early phase, rats experienced a controlled cortical impact (CCI and were forced to treadmill exercise for 14 days. The results revealed that the rats in the low intensity exercise group had a shorter latency to locate a platform and a significantly better improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM compared to the control group (p 0.05. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and p-CREB protein levels in the contralateral hippocampus were increased significantly in the low intensity exercise group. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of low intensity of treadmill exercise is beneficial for improving cognitive function and increasing hippocampal BDNF expression after a severe TBI in its early phase.

  19. A Water Rehabilitation Program in Patients with Hip Osteoarthritis Before and After Total Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyp, Marek; Kaczor, Ryszard; Cabak, Anna; Tederko, Piotr; Włostowska, Ewa; Stanisławska, Iwona; Szypuła, Jan; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-07-25

    BACKGROUND Pain associated with coxarthrosis, typically occurring in middle-aged and elderly patients, very commonly causes considerable limitation of motor fitness and dependence on pharmacotherapy. This article provides an assessment of a rehabilitation program with tailored water exercises in patients with osteoarthritis before and after total hip replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 192 patients (the mean age 61.03±10.89) suffering from hip osteoarthritis (OA) were evaluated before and after total hip replacement (THR). The clinical study covered measurements of hip active ranges of motion (HAROM) and the forces generated by pelvis stabilizer muscles. Pain intensity was assessed according to analogue-visual scale of pain (VAS) and according to the Modified Laitinen Questionnaire. The patients were divided into 6 groups (4 treatment and 2 control). We compared 2 rehabilitation programs using kinesitherapy and low-frequency magnetic field. One of them also had specially designed exercises in the water. Statistical analysis was carried out at the significance level α=0.05. This was a cross-sectional study. RESULTS A positive effect of water exercises on a number of parameters was found in patients with OA both before and after total hip replacement surgery. We noted a significant reduction of pain (pwater exercises most significantly reduced pain in patients with OA before and after total hip replacement surgery. 2. Inclusion of water exercises in a rehabilitation program can reduce the use of medicines in patient with OA and after THR.

  20. Effects of short-term swimming exercise on bone mineral density, geometry, and microstructural properties in sham and ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foong Kiew Ooi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the effects of swimming exercise on bone health in ovariectomized animals with estrogen deficiency, which resembles the postmenopausal state and age-related bone loss in humans. This study investigated the effects of swimming exercise on tibia and femur bone mineral density (BMD, geometry, and microstructure in sham and ovariectomized rats. Forty 3-month-old female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated-sedentary control (Sham-control, sham operated with swimming exercise group (Sham-Swim, ovariectomy-sedentary control (OVx-control, and ovariectomy and swimming exercise (OVx-Swim groups. Swimming sessions were performed by the rats 90 minutes/day for 5 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of the study, tibial and femoral proximal volumetric total BMD, midshaft cortical volumetric BMD, cross-sectional area, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (MOI, and bone microstructural properties were measured for comparison. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The Sham-Swim group exhibited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA greater values in bone geometry parameters, that is, tibial midshaft cortical area and MOI compared to the Sham-control group. However, no significant differences were observed in these parameters between the Ovx-Swim and Ovx-control groups. There were no significant differences in femoral BMD between the Sham-Swim and Sham-control groups. Nevertheless, the Ovx-Swim group elicited significantly (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA higher femoral proximal total BMD and improved bone microstructure compared to the Ovx-Sham group. In conclusion, the positive effects of swimming on bone properties in the ovariectomized rats in the present study may suggest that swimming as a non- or low-weight-bearing exercise may be beneficial for enhancing bone health in the postmenopausal population.

  1. Importance of enjoyment when promoting physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, L A; Lindahl, B; Nyberg, L; Hellénius, M-L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of enjoyment of exercise in a health care-based intervention aimed at promoting physical exercise in primary health care patients. In a controlled study design, the intervention group was offered a wide range of group exercises over 3 months, followed by support in designing their own exercise program. The control group received usual care. Enjoyment of exercise and exercise level were measured. Associations between enjoyment and exercise level were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Changes in enjoyment between and within study groups were analyzed by the independent and paired t-test. Associations were found between enjoyment and exercise level (r=0.36, Pexercise level (r=0.34, Pexercise was 25% higher in the intervention group than in the control group (Phealth care patients, enjoyment of exercise was associated with exercise level. Enjoyment of exercise seems to be a mediator of exercise level. Furthermore, health care-based interventions seem to be able to affect enjoyment of exercise. Enjoyment of exercise may be important for the long-term effectiveness, of health care-based interventions.

  2. The efficacy of protein supplementation during recovery from muscle-damaging concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddens, Lee; Browne, Sarah; Stevenson, Emma J; Sanderson, Brad; van Someren, Ken; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of protein supplementation on recovery following muscle-damaging exercise, which was induced with a concurrent exercise design. Twenty-four well-trained male cyclists were randomised to 3 independent groups receiving 20 g protein hydrolysate, iso-caloric carbohydrate, or low-calorific placebo supplementation, per serve. Supplement serves were provided twice daily, from the onset of the muscle-damaging exercise, for a total of 4 days and in addition to a controlled diet (6 g·kg -1 ·day -1 carbohydrate, 1.2 g·kg -1 ·day -1 protein, remainder from fat). Following the concurrent exercise session at time-point 0 h, comprising a simulated high-intensity road cycling trial and 100 drop-jumps, recovery of outcome measures was assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h. The concurrent exercise protocol was deemed to have caused exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), owing to time effects (p 0.05) were observed for any of the outcome measures. The present results indicate that protein supplementation does not attenuate any of the indirect indices of EIMD imposed by concurrent exercise, when employing great rigour around the provision of a quality habitual diet and the provision of appropriate supplemental controls.

  3. Different types of exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Aerobic exercise or Pilates, a single-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Bilge; Küçük, Fadime; Poyraz, Esra Coşkuner; Tomruk, Melda Soysal; İdıman, Egemen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatigue impact scale. All evaluations were performed before and after exercise training. There are statistically meaningful differences between Nine hole testing, PASAT 3, physical performance and fatique impact scale before and after aerobic exercise. Also we found significant difference for physical performance in the Pilates group. There are no significant differences in measures of fatique impact scale and depression between aerobic exercise group and the healthy controls after exercise. We found significant differences between Pilates and control group's after measurements except depression. There were significant differences between the Pilates and aerobic group for cognitive tests in favor of the Pilates group. Aerobic exercise and clinical Pilates exercises revealed moderate changes in levels of cognitive, physical performance, balance, depression, fatigue in MS patients.

  4. Statistical Learning Is Not Affected by a Prior Bout of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, David J; Arciuli, Joanne; Anderson, David I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a prior bout of exercise on implicit cognition. Specifically, we examined whether a prior bout of moderate intensity exercise affected performance on a statistical learning task in healthy adults. A total of 42 participants were allocated to one of three conditions-a control group, a group that exercised for 15 min prior to the statistical learning task, and a group that exercised for 30 min prior to the statistical learning task. The participants in the exercise groups cycled at 60% of their respective V˙O2 max. Each group demonstrated significant statistical learning, with similar levels of learning among the three groups. Contrary to previous research that has shown that a prior bout of exercise can affect performance on explicit cognitive tasks, the results of the current study suggest that the physiological stress induced by moderate-intensity exercise does not affect implicit cognition as measured by statistical learning. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  6. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  7. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  8. Exercise effects on depressive symptoms and self-worth in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H; Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L

    2009-10-01

    To test the dose-response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7-11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 +/- 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. A dose-response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race x group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. This study shows dose-response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth.

  9. Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Worth in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H.; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the dose–response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Method Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7–11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 ± 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. Results A dose–response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race × group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. Conclusions This study shows dose–response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth. PMID:19223278

  10. Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact to Predict Exercise Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisler, Garrett C; Phillips, Alison L; Krizan, Zlatan

    2017-06-01

    Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference's influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference ("morningness-eveningness") predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals' typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference's relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one's diurnal preference. Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.

  11. Disseminating Self-Help: Positive Psychology Exercises in an Online Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Acacia C

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent growth of positive psychology has led to a proliferation in exercises to increase positive thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Preliminary evidence suggests that these exercises hold promise as an approach for reducing depressive symptoms. These exercises are typically researched in isolation as single exercises. The current study examined the acceptability of several multi-exercise packages using online dissemination. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of dissemination that could increase the acceptability and effectiveness of positive psychology exercises. To achieve this goal, we compared the use of positive psychology exercises when delivered in packages of 2, 4, or 6 exercises. Methods Self-help–seeking participants enrolled in this study by visiting an online research portal. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to receive 2, 4, or 6 positive psychology exercises (or assessments only) over a 6-week period. These exercises drew from the content of group positive psychotherapy. Participants visited an automated website that distributed exercise instructions, provided email reminders, and contained the baseline and follow-up assessments. Following each exercise, participants rated their enjoyment of the exercise, answered how often they had used each technique, and completed outcome measures. Results In total, 1364 individuals consented to participate. Attrition rates across the 2-, 4-, and 6-exercise conditions were similar at 55.5% (181/326), 55.8% (203/364), and 52.7% (168/319) respectively but were significantly greater than the attrition rate of 42.5% (151/355) for the control condition (χ2 3 = 16.40, P < .001). Participants in the 6-exercise condition were significant more likely than participants in the 4-exercise condition to use both the third (F 1,312 = 5.61, P = .02) and fourth (F 1,313 = 6.03, P = .02) exercises. For 5 of the 6 exercises, enjoyment was related to continued use of the

  12. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  13. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  14. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  15. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  17. Benefits of Exercise on the Executive Functions in People with Parkinson Disease: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Terra; Felippe, Lilian Assunção; Bucken Gobbi, Lilian Teresa; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    We have made a 3-arm trial (group vs. individual exercise vs. no treatment) to test the effects of a 6-month exercise program upon the executive functions in participants with Parkinson disease. Twenty-four subjects were randomly allocated in 3 groups and undertook individualized exercises (G1, n = 8), group exercises (G2, n = 8), or monitoring (G3, n = 8). Executive functions were evaluated by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the Raven colored matrices, both assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 months. The statistical analyses consisted of the application of repeated measurement tests, with a significant level of 5%. The findings showed similar behavior of groups in terms of the Wisconsin card sorting test (P = 0.792), reporting no benefit of the program on such instrument. Differently, Raven colored matrices evidenced a significant benefit provided by the intervention (P = 0.032). Compared with the control group, individuals from G1 had a substantial improvement on executive functions (P = 0.031) and from G2 had a trend of significance (P = 0.072). Findings of this study show that 6 months of exercise improved some aspects of executive functions when compared with control peers. Individual therapy seems to have a more prominent improvement than group therapy.

  18. Effects of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, Mia; Hörnsten, Carl; Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia. Methods Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini‐Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high‐intensity functional exercise program or a non‐exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15‐item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months. Results No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (–1.58, P = 0.001 and –1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (–1.25, P = 0.01 and –1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (–2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (–3.17, P = 0.003 and –3.34, P = 0.002). Conclusions A 4‐month high‐intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non‐exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26644304

  19. The effects of an integrated health education and exercise program in community-dwelling older adults with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeon-Hwan; Song, Misoon; Cho, Be-Long; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook; Kim, Seon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of HAHA (Healthy Aging and Happy Aging) program, which is an integrated health education and exercise program for community-dwelling older adults with hypertension. older adults with hypertension from one senior center were randomly allocated to experimental (n=18) or control group (n=22). Experimental group received health education, individual counseling and tailored exercise program for 12 weeks. the mean ages were 71 years (experimental group) and 69 (control group). After the intervention, systolic blood pressure of experimental group was significantly decreased than that of control group. Scores of exercise self-efficacy, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health in SF-36 were statistically higher than those of control group. the HAHA program was effective in control of systolic blood pressure and improving self-efficacy for exercise and health-related quality of life. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on body composition among colon cancer survivors: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Zemel, Babette S; Troxel, Andrea B; Rickels, Michael R; Damjanov, Nevena; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-11-21

    Physical activity is associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. Excess visceral adipose tissue is associated with a higher risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors. The pathways through which physical activity may alter disease outcomes are unknown, but may be mediated by changes in visceral adipose tissue. Thirty-nine stage I-III colon cancer survivors were randomised to one of three groups: usual-care control, 150 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low dose) and 300 min wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high dose) for 6 months. The prespecified key body composition outcome was visceral adipose tissue quantified using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion (P trend =0.008). Compared with the control group, the low- and high-dose exercise groups lost 9.5 cm 2 (95% CI: -22.4, 3.5) and 13.6 cm 2 (95% CI: -27.0, -0.1) in visceral adipose tissue, respectively. Each 60 min wk -1 increase in exercise predicted a 2.7 cm 2 (95% CI: -5.4, -0.1) reduction in visceral adipose tissue. Aerobic exercise reduces visceral adipose tissue in dose-response fashion among patients with stage I-III colon cancer. Visceral adipose tissue may be a mechanism through which exercise reduces the risk of disease recurrence among colon cancer survivors.

  1. The pathological status of exercise dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, D.; Cockerill, I.; Carroll, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—This study was concerned with the concept of exercise dependence. Levels of psychological morbidity, personality profiles, and exercise beliefs were compared among subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Method—Adult female exercisers were allocated on the basis of questionnaire screening to one of the following groups: primary exercise dependence (n = 43); secondary exercise dependence, where there was the coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder (n = 27); eating disorder (n =14); control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder (n = 110). Questionnaire assessment was undertaken of psychological morbidity, self esteem, weight and body shape dissatisfaction, personality, and exercise beliefs. Results—Aside from a higher incidence of reported menstrual abnormalities, the primary exercise dependence group was largely indistinguishable from the controls. In stark contrast, the secondary exercise dependence group reported higher levels of psychological morbidity, neuroticism, dispositional addictiveness, and impulsiveness, lower self esteem, greater concern with body shape and weight, as well as with the social, psychological, and aesthetic costs of not exercising than the controls, but differed little from the eating disorder group. Conclusions—In the absence of an eating disorder, women identified as being exercise dependent do not exhibit the sorts of personality characteristics and levels of psychological distress that warrant the construction of primary exercise dependence as a widespread pathology. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; personality; self esteem; neuroticism; psychological morbidity PMID:10786869

  2. Text Messaging for Exercise Promotion in Older Adults From an Upper-Middle-Income Country: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2016-01-07

    Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants' exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity-related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and the non-SMS texting arm (n=21). Study

  3. Intensive exercise program after spinal cord injury ("Full-On"): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Mary P; Dunlop, Sarah A; Davis, Glen M; Nunn, Andrew; Geraghty, Timothy; Hsueh, Ya-seng Arthur; Churilov, Leonid

    2013-09-11

    Rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) has traditionally involved teaching compensatory strategies for identified impairments and deficits in order to improve functional independence. There is some evidence that regular and intensive activity-based therapies, directed at activation of the paralyzed extremities, promotes neurological improvement. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of a 12-week intensive activity-based therapy program for the whole body with a program of upper body exercise. A multicenter, parallel group, assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. One hundred eighty-eight participants with spinal cord injury, who have completed their primary rehabilitation at least 6 months prior, will be recruited from five SCI units in Australia and New Zealand. Participants will be randomized to an experimental or control group. Experimental participants will receive a 12-week program of intensive exercise for the whole body, including locomotor training, trunk exercises and functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling. Control participants will receive a 12-week intensive upper body exercise program. The primary outcome is the American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) Motor Score. Secondary outcomes include measurements of sensation, function, pain, psychological measures, quality of life and cost effectiveness. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months and 12 months by blinded assessors. Recruitment commenced in January 2011. The results of this trial will determine the effectiveness of a 12-week program of intensive exercise for the whole body in improving neurological recovery after spinal cord injury. NCT01236976 (10 November 2010), ACTRN12610000498099 (17 June 2010).

  4. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  5. Efficacy of a biomechanically-based yoga exercise program in knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Alexander B; Chopp-Hurley, Jaclyn N; Brenneman, Elora C; Karampatos, Sarah; Wiebenga, Emily G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Noseworthy, Michael D; Maly, Monica R

    2018-01-01

    Certain exercises could overload the osteoarthritic knee. We developed an exercise program from yoga postures with a minimal knee adduction moment for knee osteoarthritis. The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of this biomechanically-based yoga exercise (YE), with traditional exercise (TE), and a no-exercise attention-equivalent control (NE) for improving pain, self-reported physical function and mobility performance in women with knee osteoarthritis. Single-blind, three-arm randomized controlled trial. Community in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. A convenience sample of 31 women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis was recruited through rheumatology, orthopaedic and physiotherapy clinics, newspapers and word-of-mouth. Participants were stratified by disease severity and randomly allocated to one of three 12-week, supervised interventions. YE included biomechanically-based yoga exercises; TE included traditional leg strengthening on machines; and NE included meditation with no exercise. Participants were asked to attend three 1-hour group classes/sessions each week. Primary outcomes were pain, self-reported physical function and mobility performance. Secondary outcomes were knee strength, depression, and health-related quality of life. All were assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline and immediately following the intervention. The YE group demonstrated greater improvements in KOOS pain (mean difference of 22.9 [95% CI, 6.9 to 38.8; p = 0.003]), intermittent pain (mean difference of -19.6 [95% CI, -34.8 to -4.4; p = 0.009]) and self-reported physical function (mean difference of 17.2 [95% CI, 5.2 to 29.2; p = 0.003]) compared to NE. Improvements in these outcomes were similar between YE and TE. However, TE demonstrated a greater improvement in knee flexor strength compared to YE (mean difference of 0.1 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.2]. Improvements from baseline to follow-up were present in quality of life score for YE and knee flexor strength for TE, while both also

  6. Learning to Like Exercising: Evaluative Conditioning Changes Automatic Evaluations of Exercising and Influences Subsequent Exercising Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    This multistudy report used an experimental approach to alter automatic evaluations of exercise (AEE). First, we investigated the plasticity of AEE (study 1). A computerized evaluative conditioning task was developed that altered the AEE of participants in two experimental groups (acquisition of positive/negative associations involving exercising) and a control group (η2 part. = .11). Second, we examined connections between changes in AEE and subsequent exercise behavior (chosen intensity on a bike ergometer; study 2) in individuals that were placed in groups according to their baseline AEE. Group differences in exercise behavior were detected (η2 part. = .29). The effect was driven by the performance of the group with preexisting negative AEE that acquired more positive associations. This illustrates the effect of altered AEE on subsequent exercise behavior and the potential of AEE as a target for exercise intervention.

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear loose-fitting clothing, and exercise in a temperature-controlled room. Do not exercise outside when it ... breathing. There are even prenatal yoga and Pilates classes designed for pregnant women. These classes often teach ...

  8. Impact of locus of control, religiosity and exercise on depression in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses the combined effects of locus of control, religiosity, and physical exercise constructs on the global health outcome in depressed patients at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika,Zaria. A cross-sectional study design was used; fifteen (15) participants were purposively selected from ...

  9. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  10. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  11. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  12. [Chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    The circadian rhythm controls many physiological functions, such as feeding, motor activity, endocrine secretion and autonomic nerve. Regular feeding pattern can entrain the peripheral circadian clock, whereas peripheral clock systems can control the absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion of nutrients, suggesting mutual interactions between circadian clocks and nutrition/food. The interactions were so-called by "chrono-nutrition", and bigger meals for breakfast were good for entrainment of peripheral clock and protection of obesity. Similar to chrono-nutrition the timing of exercise ("chrono-exercise") is important for both entrainment signals and energy expenditure. Evening exercise and/or feeding then exercise was good timing exercise for protection of obesity. Taken all, it is suggested that timing of feeding and exercise is now one of key factors for metabolic syndrome.

  13. Influences of Green Outdoors versus Indoors Environmental Settings on Psychological and Social Outcomes of Controlled Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mike; Gladwell, Valerie F.; Gallagher, Daniel J.; Barton, Jo L.

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed a methodological gap by comparing psychological and social outcomes of exercise in green outdoors versus built indoors settings, whilst rigorously controlling exercise mode and intensity. The hypotheses were that greater improvements or more desirable values for directed attention, mood, perceived exertion, social interaction time, intention for future exercise behaviour and enjoyment would be associated with outdoors compared to indoors exercise. Following a baseline session, paired participants completed two conditions of 15 min of cycling on an ergometer placed outside in a natural environment and inside in a laboratory setting in a randomized, counter-balanced order. At pre- and post-exercise, directed attention was measured with the digit span backwards task, and mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States. During the exercise session, visual and verbal interactions were recorded by means of experimenter observations. After each exercise session, participants provided self-reports of their enjoyment of the exercise, perceived exertion and intention for future exercise in the same environment. Social interaction time was significantly greater during outdoors exercise versus indoors; on average, participants engaged in three minutes more social interaction during exercise outdoors compared to indoors. Social interaction time significantly predicted intention for future exercise in the outdoors condition, but did not in the indoor condition. There was a significant time by condition interaction for directed attention. Scores worsened in the indoors condition, but improved in the outdoors condition. There was no statistically-significant time by condition interaction for mood and no significant difference between conditions for either perceived exertion or intention. Taken together, these findings show that exercise in a natural environment may promote directed attention and social interactions, which may positively influence future

  14. Progressive high-load strength training compared with general low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim G; Christensen, Robin; Sørensen, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    of this trial is to compare the efficacy of progressive high-load exercises with traditional low-load exercises in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Methods/Design: The current study is a randomised, participant- and assessor-blinded, controlled multicentre trial. A total of 260 patients with rotator...... cuff tendinopathy will be recruited from three outpatient shoulder departments in Denmark, and randomised to either 12 weeks of progressive high-load strength training or to general low-load exercises. Patients will receive six individually guided exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and perform...

  15. Cognitive function in Japanese women with posttraumatic stress disorder: Association with exercise habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita-Ohtaki, Ryoko; Hori, Hiroaki; Itoh, Mariko; Lin, Mingming; Niwa, Madoka; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ogawa, Sei; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Matsui, Mie; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Kamo, Toshiko; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2018-08-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with cognitive impairments, yet little is documented on the cognitive function of PTSD patients in Asian countries. It is shown that regular exercise can reduce PTSD symptoms, while no study has investigated the association between exercise and cognition in PTSD patients. This study aimed to examine cognitive functions of Japanese women with PTSD, and to explore the association between regular exercise and cognitive functions. Forty-two women with DSM-IV PTSD and 66 demographically matched healthy control women participated in this study. Most of the patients developed PTSD after experiencing interpersonal violence. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Regular exercise habit was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Compared to controls, PTSD patients performed significantly more poorly in all cognitive domains examined, including immediate memory, visuospatial construction, language, attention, delayed memory, as well as the total score of RBANS (all p cognitive functions, including notable impairments in verbal memory. Such memory deficits might be improved by regular exercise, although further studies are needed to investigate the causal relationship between exercise and cognition in PTSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Children, parents and pets exercising together (CPET): exploratory randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Levels of physical activity (PA) in UK children are much lower than recommended and novel approaches to its promotion are needed. The Children, Parents and Pets Exercising Together (CPET) study is the first exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) to develop and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based PA promotion in families. CPET aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a theory-driven, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9–11 year olds. Methods Twenty-eight families were allocated randomly to either receive a 10-week dog based PA intervention or to a control group. Families in the intervention group were motivated and supported to increase the frequency, intensity and duration of dog walking using a number of behaviour change techniques. Parents in the intervention group were asked to complete a short study exit questionnaire. In addition, focus groups with parents and children in the intervention group, and with key stakeholders were undertaken. The primary outcome measure was 10 week change in total volume of PA using the mean accelerometer count per minute (cpm). Intervention and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance. Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Results Twenty five families were retained at follow up (89%) and 97% of all outcome data were collected at baseline and follow up. Thirteen of 14 (93%) intervention group parents available at follow up completed the study exit questionnaire and noted that study outcome measures were acceptable. There was a mean difference in child total volume of PA of 27 cpm (95% CI -70, 123) and -3 cpm (95% CI -60, 54) for intervention and control group children, respectively. This was not statistically significant. Approximately 21% of dog walking time for parents and 39% of dog walking time for children was moderate-vigorous PA. Conclusions The acceptability of the CPET intervention and outcome measures was high. Using

  17. Children, parents and pets exercising together (CPET): exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan; Reilly, John J; Penpraze, Victoria; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; McNicol, Lindsay; Calvert, Michael; Yam, Philippa S

    2013-11-27

    Levels of physical activity (PA) in UK children are much lower than recommended and novel approaches to its promotion are needed. The Children, Parents and Pets Exercising Together (CPET) study is the first exploratory randomised controlled trial (RCT) to develop and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based PA promotion in families. CPET aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a theory-driven, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Twenty-eight families were allocated randomly to either receive a 10-week dog based PA intervention or to a control group. Families in the intervention group were motivated and supported to increase the frequency, intensity and duration of dog walking using a number of behaviour change techniques. Parents in the intervention group were asked to complete a short study exit questionnaire. In addition, focus groups with parents and children in the intervention group, and with key stakeholders were undertaken. The primary outcome measure was 10 week change in total volume of PA using the mean accelerometer count per minute (cpm). Intervention and control groups were compared using analysis of covariance. Analysis was performed on an intention to treat basis. Twenty five families were retained at follow up (89%) and 97% of all outcome data were collected at baseline and follow up. Thirteen of 14 (93%) intervention group parents available at follow up completed the study exit questionnaire and noted that study outcome measures were acceptable. There was a mean difference in child total volume of PA of 27 cpm (95% CI -70, 123) and -3 cpm (95% CI -60, 54) for intervention and control group children, respectively. This was not statistically significant. Approximately 21% of dog walking time for parents and 39% of dog walking time for children was moderate-vigorous PA. The acceptability of the CPET intervention and outcome measures was high. Using pet dogs as the agent of lifestyle change in

  18. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training at Home randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bates

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. Research questions: This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Design: Randomised, controlled trial. Participants and setting: A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. Outcome measures: The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated

  19. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training) at Home randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Amanda; Furber, Susan; Tiedemann, Anne; Ginn, Karen; van den Dolder, Paul; Howard, Kirsten; Bauman, Adrian; Chittenden, Catherine; Franco, Lisa; Kershaw, Michelle; Sherrington, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Randomised, controlled trial. A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated. Negative binomial regression models will be used to estimate the between-group difference in fall rates. Modified

  20. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  1. The acute effects of exercise on cortical excitation and psychosocial outcomes in men treated for prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSanta Mina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Regular exercise improves psychological wellbeing in men treated for prostate cancer. For this population and among cancer survivors in general, the effect of a single bout of exercise on self-report or objective measures of psychological wellbeing has not been examined. We examined the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on the cortical silent period (CSP and on self-reported mood in men that have received treatment for prostate cancer. Methods: Thirty-six prostate cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 60 minutes of low to moderate intensity exercise or to a control condition. Outcomes were assessed immediately before and after either the exercise or the control condition. Results: No significant differences in baseline CSP or mood were observed following the exercise session or control conditions. Participants with higher scores of trait anxiety had significantly shorter CSP at baseline, as well as those receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Age and baseline CSP had a low-moderate, but significant negative correlation. Changes in CSP following the exercise condition were strongly negatively correlated with changes in self-reported vigor. Conclusions: While we did not observe any acute effect of exercise on the CSP in this population, the associations between CSP and trait anxiety, age, and vigor are novel findings requiring further examination.Implications for Cancer Survivors: Exercise did not acutely affect our participants in measures of psychological wellbeing. Additional mechanisms to explain the chronic psychosocial benefits of exercise previously observed in men with prostate cancer require further exploration.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01715064 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01715064

  2. Designing adaptive integral sliding mode control for heart rate regulation during cycle-ergometer exercise using bio-feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung; Celler, Branko G

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers our developed control system which aims to regulate the exercising subjects' heart rate (HR) to a predefined profile. The controller would be an adaptive integral sliding mode controller. Here it is assumed that the controller commands are interpreted as biofeedback auditory commands. These commands can be heard and implemented by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. However, transmitting a feedback signal while the pedals are not in the appropriate position to efficiently exert force may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user from the feedback controller. To address this problem this paper will employ a different form of control system regarding as "actuator-based event-driven control system". This paper will claim that the developed event-driven controller makes it possible to effectively regulate HR to a predetermined HR profile.

  3. Effectiveness of a lifestyle exercise program for older people receiving a restorative home care service: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Lewin, Gill; Clemson, Lindy; Boldy, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Restorative home care services are short-term and aimed at maximizing a person's ability to live independently. They are multidimensional and often include an exercise program to improve strength, mobility, and balance. The aim of this study was to determine whether a lifestyle exercise program would be undertaken more often and result in greater functional gains than the current structured exercise program delivered as part of a restorative home care service for older adults. A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted in an organization with an established restorative home care service. Individuals who were to have an exercise program as part of their service were randomized to receive either a lifestyle and functional exercise program called LiFE (as this was a new program, the intervention) or the structured exercise program currently being used in the service (control). Exercise data collected by the individuals throughout and pre and post intervention testing was used to measure balance, strength, mobility, falls efficacy, vitality, function, and disability. There was no difference between the groups in the amounts of exercise undertaken during the 8-week intervention period. Outcome measurement indicated that the LiFE program was as effective, and on 40% of the measures, more effective, than the structured exercise program. Organizations delivering restorative home care services that include an exercise component should consider whether LiFE rather than the exercise program they are currently using could help their clients achieve better outcomes.

  4. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2015-11-05

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (shuttle-box). Two groups were used as controls: a non-handled sedentary group, receiving no manipulation, and a control group exposed to a stationary treadmill. Female rats displayed shorter escape responses and higher number of avoidance responses, reaching criterion for performance earlier than male rats. In both sexes, exercise shortened escape latencies, increased the total number of avoidances and diminished the number of trials needed to reach criterion for performance. Those effects were greater during acquisition in female rats, but remained over the shuttle-box sessions in treadmill trained male rats. In females, exercise did not change ACTH and corticosterone levels after shuttle-box acquisition. Collectively, treadmill exercise improved active coping strategies in a sex-dependent manner. In a broader context, moderate exercise could serve as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety and mood disorders.

  5. Rest versus exercise as treatment for patients with low back pain and Modic changes. a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Rikke K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience suggests that many patients with Modic changes have relatively severe and persistent low back pain (LBP, which typically appears to be resistant to treatment. Exercise therapy is the recommended treatment for chronic LBP, however, due to their underlying pathology, Modic changes might be a diagnostic subgroup that does not benefit from exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the current state-of-the art treatment approach (exercise and staying active with a new approach (load reduction and daily rest for people with Modic changes using a randomized controlled trial design. Methods Participants were patients from an outpatient clinic with persistent LBP and Modic changes. They were allocated using minimization to either rest therapy for 10 weeks with a recommendation to rest for two hours daily and the option of using a flexible lumbar belt or exercise therapy once a week for 10 weeks. Follow-up was at 10 weeks after recruitment and 52 weeks after intervention and the clinical outcome measures were pain, disability, general health and global assessment, supplemented by weekly information on low back problems