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Sample records for total calcium intake

  1. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Estimation of Total Usual Calcium and Vitamin D Intakes in the United States1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Regan L.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Goldman, Joseph A.; Gahche, Jaime J.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Sempos, Christopher T.; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged ≥1 y using NHANES 2003–2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005–2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estim...

  3. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  4. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  5. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-09-29

    To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Randomised controlled trials or cohort studies of dietary calcium, milk or dairy intake, or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) with fracture as an outcome and participants aged >50. There were only two eligible randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium (n=262), but 50 reports from 44 cohort studies of relations between dietary calcium (n=37), milk (n=14), or dairy intake (n=8) and fracture outcomes. For dietary calcium, most studies reported no association between calcium intake and fracture (14/22 for total, 17/21 for hip, 7/8 for vertebral, and 5/7 for forearm fracture). For milk (25/28) and dairy intake (11/13), most studies also reported no associations. In 26 randomised controlled trials, calcium supplements reduced the risk of total fracture (20 studies, n=58,573; relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96) and vertebral fracture (12 studies, n=48,967. 0.86, 0.74 to 1.00) but not hip (13 studies, n=56,648; 0.95, 0.76 to 1.18) or forearm fracture (eight studies, n=51,775; 0.96, 0.85 to 1.09). Funnel plot inspection and Egger's regression suggested bias toward calcium supplements in the published data. In randomised controlled trials at lowest risk of bias (four studies, n=44,505), there was no effect on risk of fracture at any site. Results were similar for trials of calcium monotherapy and co-administered calcium and vitamin D. Only one trial in frail elderly women in residential care with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D

  6. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  7. Global dietary calcium intake among adults: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Low calcium intake may adversely affect bone health in adults. Recognizing the presence of low calcium intake is necessary to develop national strategies to optimize intake. To highlight regions where calcium intake should be improved, we systematically searched for the most representative ...

  8. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  9. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

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    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  10. Hypoparathyroidism: what is the best calcium carbonate supplementation intake form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollino, Loraine; Biagioni, Maria Fernanda Giovanetti; Sabatini, Nathalia Regina; Tagliarini, José Vicente; Corrente, José Eduardo; Paiva, Sérgio Alberto Rupp de; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2017-11-15

    In hypoparathyroidism, calcium supplementation using calcium carbonate is necessary for the hypocalcemia control. The best calcium carbonate intake form is unknown, be it associated with feeding, juice or in fasting. The objective was to evaluate the calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels of hypoparathyroidism women after total thyroidectomy, following calcium carbonate intake in three different forms. A crossover study was carried out with patients presenting definitive hypoparathyroidism, assessed in different situations (fasting, with water, orange juice, breakfast with a one-week washout). Through the review of clinical data records of tertiary hospital patients from 1994 to 2010, 12 adult women (18 50 years old) were identified and diagnosed with definitive post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism. The laboratory results of calcium and phosphorus serum levels dosed before and every 30min were assessed, for 5h, after calcium carbonate intake (elementary calcium 500mg). The maximum peak average values for calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product were 8.63mg/dL (water), 8.77mg/dL (orange juice) and 8.95mg/dL (breakfast); 4.04mg/dL (water), 4.03mg/dL (orange juice) and 4.12mg/dL (breakfast); 34.3mg 2 /dL 2 (water), 35.8mg 2 /dL 2 (orange juice) and 34.5mg 2 /dL 2 (breakfast), respectively, and the area under the curve 2433mg/dLmin (water), 2577mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 2506mg/dLmin (breakfast), 1203mg/dLmin (water), 1052mg/dLmin (orange juice) and 1128mg/dLmin (breakfast), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three different tests (p>0.05). The calcium, phosphorus and Calcium×Phosphorus product serum levels evolved in a similar fashion in the three calcium carbonate intake forms. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

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    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  12. Dietary calcium intake and sunlight exposure among children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional rickets can be caused by either or both calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, and can frequently occur in Africa. In Ethiopia, limited evidence exists regarding the calcium intake of children and their sunlight exposure practices. The purpose of this study was to assess information regarding dietary calcium intake and ...

  13. Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmain, Mélanie; Doucet, Eric; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2003-06-01

    Recent data suggest that variations in calcium intake may influence lipid metabolism and body composition. The association between daily calcium intake and body composition and plasma lipoprotein-lipid concentrations was studied cross-sectionally in adults from phase 2 of the Québec Family Study. Adults aged 20-65 y (235 men, 235 women) were studied. Subjects who consumed vitamin or mineral supplements were excluded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of their daily calcium intake: groups A ( 1000 mg). Daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with plasma LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and total:HDL cholesterol in women and men after adjustment for variations in body fat mass and waist circumference (P body fat mass and waist circumference. In women, body weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, body mass index, waist circumference, and total abdominal adipose tissue area measured by computed tomography were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in group A than in groups B and C, even after adjustments for confounding variables. Comparable trends were observed in men, but not after adjustment for the same covariates. A low daily calcium intake is associated with greater adiposity, particularly in women. In both sexes, a high calcium intake is associated with a plasma lipoprotein-lipid profile predictive of a lower risk of coronary heart disease risk compared with a low calcium intake.

  14. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  15. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-01-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275±31mg Ca; 20.7±1.9μg Cr; 5.7±0.4mg Fe; 861±46mg K; 9.44±0.48μg Se; 1928±278mg Na; 4.25±0.24mg Zn; 1.53±0.43μg As and 1.31±0.16μg Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market Basket of this study represented

  16. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...

  17. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence......-rate ratio 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.68) even after an adjustment for tooth count in 1987 and 1988, age, education, and civil status (model 1), smoking, alcohol consumption, sucrose intake, and use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements (model 2), time since last dental visit and the presence...

  18. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-12-16

    High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and August 2013. Information on dietary calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and locations of the colorectal cancers were classified as proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 922 colorectal cancer cases and 2766 controls were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest calcium intake quartile, the highest quartile group showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women. (Odds ratio (OR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.24 for men; OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29 for women). Among the highest calcium intake groups, decrease in cancer risk was observed across all sub-sites of colorectum in both men and women. In conclusion, calcium consumption was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk in Korean population where national average calcium intake level is relatively lower than Western countries. A decreased risk of colorectal cancer by calcium intake was observed in all sub-sites in men and women.

  19. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoun, M M; Kizirian, A S; Tannous, R I; Nabulsi, M M; Choucair, M K; Deeb, M E; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G A

    2005-02-01

    Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined. To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy school children and adolescents from Lebanon. A total of 385 students aged 10-16 y were selected from four public and four private schools between Fall 1999 and Spring 2000. Information on calcium and vitamin D intake, through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that was validated against a 7-day daily record, and on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were obtained. Only 12% of the students met the adequate intake (AI) recommendation of 1300 mg of calcium/day, and only 16% met the AI recommendation of 200 IU of vitamin D/day. Boys had a significantly higher mean daily calcium intake than girls. Socioeconomic status as assessed by children's pocket money was a predictor of higher calcium and vitamin D intake. Eating breakfast and physical activity were other correlates of daily calcium and vitamin D intake. Only a minority of students in our study met the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of calcium and vitamin D intake. Our findings have important implications regarding the institution of dietary public health strategies to promote skeletal health in Mediterranean countries during a critical time for bone mass accrual.

  20. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

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    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  1. Assessment of dietary calcium intake of university students: a pilot study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navruz-Varlı, Semra; Köse, Süleyman; Tatar, Tuğba; Arslan, Sabriye; Köksal, Eda

    2018-03-30

    The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet. It was aimed to assess the daily calcium intake of university students by two different food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed specifically for evaluating calcium intake, and 24-h recall method. The study was conducted with a total of 183 female university students aged 18-31. In the study, a questionnaire including sociodemographic information, a calcium calculator, IOF FFQ, prepared in seven different languages, and RAM was applied. In addition, 1-day food consumption records were obtained using 24-HR method. The daily average calcium intakes of individuals according to two different food frequency questionnaires (RAM FFQ and IOF FFQ) and 24-h food consumption records are respectively 1594.2 ± 810.9, 897.9 ± 368.4, and 605.6 ± 278.3 mg. When the daily average calcium intake was compared with the other two methods, RAM was found to be statistically higher (p fast and short tools to ensure adequate calcium intake from young age. It is thought that FFQs are the most appropriate methods in assessing daily calcium intake for this study group because it is observed that the list of foods and the amount of portions in FFQs reduce the problem of remembering at 24-h method to a great extent.

  2. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Calcium intake and knowledge using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 7-day weighed records ... Selection of schools ... was made with each of the teachers, during which time .... and high blood pressure resulted in 42% stating that it.

  3. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: the Framingham Study.

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    Samelson, Elizabeth J; Booth, Sarah L; Fox, Caroline S; Tucker, Katherine L; Wang, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Cupples, L Adrienne; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-12-01

    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification, which is a measure of atherosclerosis that predicts risk of ischemic heart disease independent of other risk factors. This was an observational, prospective cohort study. Participants included 690 women and 588 men in the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 60 y; range: 36-83 y) who attended clinic visits and completed food-frequency questionnaires in 1998-2001 and underwent computed tomography scans 4 y later in 2002-2005. The mean age-adjusted coronary artery-calcification Agatston score decreased with increasing total calcium intake, and the trend was not significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, vitamin D-supplement use, energy intake, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use. Multivariable-adjusted mean Agatston scores were 2.36, 2.52, 2.16, and 2.39 (P-trend = 0.74) with an increasing quartile of total calcium intake in women and 4.32, 4.39, 4.19, and 4.37 (P-trend = 0.94) in men, respectively. Results were similar for dietary calcium and calcium supplement use. Our study does not support the hypothesis that high calcium intake increases coronary artery calcification, which is an important measure of atherosclerosis burden. The evidence is not sufficient to modify current recommendations for calcium intake to protect skeletal health with respect to vascular calcification risk.

  4. Is yogurt intake associated with periodontitis due to calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sung; Kim, Young-Youn; Oh, Jeong-Kyu; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the lower intakes of yogurt, milk, and calcium are associated with periodontitis in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. This study comprised 6,150 adults 19 or more years old who took both periodontal examination and nutrition survey. The frequency of yogurt and milk intake was examined with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of calcium intake was calculated with dietary intakes data gained from complete one-day 24-hour recall interviews. Periodontitis was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for the whole sample and subgroups with the strata of age, gender, or smoking, in a complex sampling design. Less intake of yogurt was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.70-0.97), but neither less intake of milk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.20) nor lower intake of calcium (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21) was significantly associated with periodontitis. In the subgroup analysis, no difference in the association of yogurt intake with periodontitis was found according to the strata of age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, periodonitis was significantly associated with the less intake of yogurt among the Korean adults, but the calcium contained in yogurt is not likely to cause it.

  5. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested 47 Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003], and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation

  6. Dietary calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sung Hye; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, A Ram; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chan Soo

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of dietary calcium intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and fracture is controversial. Most previous reports have evaluated populations with high calcium intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether high dietary calcium intake was associated with the risk of CVD, stroke, and fracture in a population with low calcium intake. Design: In a prospective cohort study beginning in 2001 in Ansung-Ansan, Korea, 2158 men and 2153 women aged >50 y were evaluated for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke, and fractures over a median 9-y follow-up. Results: During follow-up, 242 and 100 deaths, 149 and 150 CVD events, 58 and 82 stroke events, and 211 and 292 incident fractures occurred in men and women, respectively. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 mg/d (IQR: 169 mg/d) in men and 209 mg/d (IQR: 161 mg/d) in women. Both men and women with higher dietary calcium intake tended to have higher fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit, and vegetable intakes. In men, outcomes were not significantly associated with dietary calcium intake with or without adjustments, and CVD risk tended to increase with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.078 and P = 0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively). In women, CVD risk and dietary calcium intake showed a U-shaped association; the HRs (95% CIs) without adjustment relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (0.47, 1.07), 0.57 (0.36, 0.88), and 0.52 (0.33, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the values after adjustment were 0.70 (0.45, 1.07), 0.51 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.49 (0.29, 0.83) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: In Korean women, increased dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased CVD risk, but it did not influence the risk of stroke or fracture. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  9. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  10. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  11. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH) D c...

  12. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  13. Socioeconomic status and intake of energy and sodium are associated with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Mun, Chan Yoke; Tajik, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Calcium intake in developing countries is lower than that in developed countries. In Iran, inadequate calcium intake in the general population, especially among women, is a public health concern. This cross-sectional study examined the correlation between sociodemographic, obstetrical and lifestyle factors with calcium intake among pregnant women in Rafsanjan city, southeast Iran. A sample of 308 healthy pregnant women aged 18-35 years from seven urban health-care centers participated in the study. All women were measured for height and weight and interviewed for demographic and socioeconomic, obstetrical, lifestyle and dietary intake information while pre-pregnancy weight was obtained from prenatal record. Stepwise multiple regression was used to assess factors associated with calcium intake. The mean daily calcium intake of women was 968.51±363.05mg/day and only 46.4% of the pregnant women met the dietary reference intakes of 1000 mg for calcium. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to calcium intake (75.11%). Energy-adjusted calcium intake was positively associated with years of schooling (Psodium (P<0.01) intakes. This information would be useful in planning and developing appropriate strategies to improve calcium intake in pregnant women. Efforts to increase calcium intake in pregnant women should focus on promoting nutrient-dense food and making these foods available and accessible, particularly to socioeconomically deprived women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  15. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P -trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P -trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  16. High-Phosphorus, Low-Calcium Dietary Intakes and Bone Effects of Physical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerath, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... Diet inquiries showed changes in calcium and phosphorus intakes. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of physical activity on bone tissue in the context of high-phosphorus and low-calcium intakes. Sedentary (SED) and trained (TR...

  17. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  18. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  19. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  20. The total synthesis of calcium atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luiz C; Vieira, Adriano S; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-02-21

    A practical and convergent asymmetric route to calcium atorvastatin (1) is reported. The synthesis of calcium atorvastatin (1) was performed using the remote 1,5-anti asymmetric induction in the boron-mediated aldol reaction of β-alkoxy methylketone (4) with pyrrolic aldehyde (3) as a key step. Calcium atorvastatin was obtained from aldehyde (3) after 6 steps, with a 41% overall yield.

  1. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study)

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M. M.; van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 ...

  2. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriawati, A A; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-10-24

    Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Cross-sectional. Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (-2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  3. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Suriawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  4. Lifetime physical activity and calcium intake related to bone density in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Ballard, Joyce E

    2002-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant public health problem associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between lifetime physical activity and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC (bone mineral content) in 42 regularly menstruating Caucasian women (age 21.26+/-1.91 years, BMI 23.83+/-5.85). BMD and BMC at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (femoral neck, trochanter, total), and total body were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lifetime history of physical activity and calcium intake was obtained by a structured interview using valid and reliable instruments. Measures of both lifetime physical activity and calcium intake were highly correlated. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, lean mass was the most important and consistent factor for predicting BMD and BMC at all skeletal sites (attributable r2 = 28.8%-78.7%). Lifetime physical activity contributed to 3.0% of the variation in total body BMD, and life-time weight-bearing physical activity explained 15.1% of variance in lumbar spine BMC. Current calcium intake predicted 6% of the variance in BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter. We found lean mass to be a powerful predictor of BMD and BMC in young women. Because lean mass can be modified to some extent by physical activity, public health efforts must be directed at increasing physical activity throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, our results suggest that adequate calcium intake may help to enhance bone mass, thus decreasing the risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life.

  5. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    postprandially. Results: Dairy calcium significantly diminished the postprandial lipid response. The baseline adjusted area under the curve for chylomicron triacylglycerol was approximate to 17% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.02) and approximate to 19% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.007) than after the LC meal...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  6. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-04-01

    Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

  7. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  8. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-05-17

    Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41-50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose-response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend=0.01). The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend=0.07), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend=0.07), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend=0.08), respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  9. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  10. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  12. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Angela M. Rose; Julie A. Kennel; Christopher H. Holloman; Gail L. Kaye; Carolyn W. Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  13. REAL INTAKE AND PROVISION WITH VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN OSTEOPOROSIS: ASSESSMENT BY MEASURING INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim:  To assess the providing an organism with vitamins (А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium in osteoporosis patients by measuring their intake and plasma concentrations. Materials and methods: 108 pairs “osteoporosis patient – healthy volunteer” aged 64.29±9.73 years were formed using a “case-control” method. Real intake of vitamins and calcium was studied defining the frequency of food taking for a month using questionnaire method. Daily intake of vitamins А, В2, С, Е, β-carotene, and calcium was calculated based on the analysis of the frequency of food taking. Among the basic group, using randomized method, 60% of osteoporosis patients were selected who underwent definition of plasma levels of vitamins А, В2, С, and Е. The same study was performed in 60 control volunteers. Results: Correlation of the intake of vitamins A, C, and β-carotene with their plasma levels wasn’t noted. It may reveal an increased need in these nutrients in osteoporosis. According to the calcium intake, every osteoporosis patient can be attributed to a population category with deep insufficiency of calcium intake (less than 500 mg a day. Conclusion: The data obtained need further investigation and, first of all, in clinical and biochemical fields (enzymatic non-provision for calcium uptake, clinical manifestations of insufficient provision with nutrients. Solution of these problems would enable regulation of food intake concerning calcium uptake in osteoporosis.

  14. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

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    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  15. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  16. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  17. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

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    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  18. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

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    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  19. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium,

  20. Habitual Intakes, Food Sources and Excretions of Phosphorus and Calcium in Three German Study Collectives

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    Ulrike Trautvetter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day. The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.

  1. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Calcium intake and 28-year cardiovascular and coronary heart disease mortality in Dutch civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vijver, L P; van der Waal, M A; Weterings, K G; Dekker, J M; Schouten, E G; Kok, F J

    1992-02-01

    Data obtained from a general health examination in 1953-1954 of 2605 middle-aged Dutch civil servants were analysed to investigate the relation between dietary calcium and cardiovascular (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Calcium intake was assessed at baseline by a 1-week food frequency recall. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using the highest quintile of calcium intake as the reference. No statistically significant associations were observed for low calcium intake in 15 and 28 years of follow-up in both men and women. For men, multivariate adjusted OR for the lowest quintile of calcium intake were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-1.9) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.6-1.6) for 28-year CVD and CHD mortality, respectively. For women, corresponding OR were 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.0) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.5-2.5). Although an inverse association between calcium intake and CVD and CHD mortality, possibly mediated by blood pressure, might be hypothesized, no clear association was observed. Because dietary patterns in the 1950s were quite stable, and major calcium sources were addressed, misclassification of calcium intake may not be fully responsible for this finding.

  3. Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingxing; Li, Zongyao; Ji, Xinqiang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2017-06-30

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.99) and among case-control studies ( RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium ( RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

  4. Total dietary intake of mercury in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A

    2008-08-01

    Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities.

  5. Intake and hedonics of calcium and sodium during pregnancy and lactation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, M; Levin, T; Schulkin, J

    2002-03-01

    These experiments sought to distinguish whether increased calcium intake during pregnancy and lactation in the rat is due to arousal of a specific calcium appetite, with altered taste hedonics, as occurs with sodium depletion, to reduced taste sensitivity, or to the hyperdipsia of reproduction. We find that, during pregnancy and lactation, CaCl(2) intake is not increased more (in fact less) than intakes of control tastants, MgCl(2) and quinine HCl, and multiparous dams do not have a greater calcium intake than primaparous dams. Changes in taste reactivity to CaCl(2) and to NaCl do not correlate with changes in intake of these minerals during pregnancy or lactation, suggesting that alterations in hedonics or sensitivity do not explain the increased intake of these minerals. Taken together with the increased intake of all the tastants, it may be that the increased intakes of calcium and sodium during reproduction are not due to respective specific appetites or to a general mineral appetite but rather to the reproduction-increased ingestion that may meet all the dam's increased mineral and nutrient requirements. Differences in the degree of increased intakes of tastes may be due to specific alterations in their transduction during reproduction.

  6. Sensitivity of various bone parameters of laying hens to different daily calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T K; Coon, C N

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the sensitivity of various bone parameters of laying hens to different levels of calcium intake (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 g/day). All birds were individually fed 85 g of feed daily. Dry femur weight (DW) and absolute ash weight (AW) of the whole bone (WB), cortical bone (CB), or medullary bone (MB) were reliable indicators of bone status affected by changes in calcium intake. Expressing AW as a percentage of fat-free dry matter (AW/FFDM) or a percentage of dry weight (AW/DW) showed no effect due to different levels of calcium intake. The correlations between CB-AW/FFDM or CB-AW/DW with calcium intake were .05 and -.07, respectively. Bone ash concentration and bone ash per unit volume (AW/VOL, mg/mL) was very sensitive to different levels of calcium intake; the values increased linearly as calcium intake increased from 2 to 4.5 g/day (WB = 316 to 403; CB = 479 to 571; MB = 133 to 213). Bone-breaking force (BBF), bone-bending moment (BBM), bone stress, and BBF/100 g body weight were equally sensitive in indicating bone mineral reserves due to different levels of calcium intake. Regression equations showed that AW/VOL alone (true for WB, CB, and MB) was capable of predicting BBM well (all with R2 greater than .82). However, AW/FFDM did not have predictive power over BBM (CB-AW/FFDM:R2 less than .001). Using daily calcium intake as the predictor, regression lines for BBM, WB-AW, WB-AW/VOL, CB-AW/VOL, and MB-AW/VOL yielded significant slopes of 1.24 kg.cm, .01 g, 17.11 mg/mL, 16.34 mg/mL, and 16.42 mg/mL, respectively.

  7. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  8. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  9. The effect of habitat geology on calcium intake and calcium status of wild rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, R F; Balment, R J; Yalden, D W

    1991-12-01

    Calcium is essential for normal physiological function, reproduction and growth in mammals but its distribution in the natural environment is heterogeneous. Spatial variation in calcium soil content is especially marked in the Peak District, United Kingdom, where both calcium-rich limestone and calcium-poor gritstone rock types occur. Wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus (L) and bank voles Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber 1780) from limestone areas had significantly higher calcium concentrations in stomach contents and in faeces compared with their counterparts from gritstone areas. Calcium status was assessed from serum calcium concentration, femur weight, ash content of the body, calcium concentration in the femur and body ash. There was no significant difference in serum calcium concentration, femur calcium concentration and body ash calcium concentration between animals from the limestone and the gritstone. However, on the limestone, bank voles, but not wood mice, had significantly heavier femora and a greater proportion of ash in the body compared with their gritstone counterparts.

  10. Parathormone, Calcium And Phosphorus In Autotransplanted Parathyroid, Total Thyriodectomized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Salam, I. M. [ابراهيم عبد السلام; Murad, M.; Gamil, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    The success of parathyroid autotransplantation was indicated by the postoperative assay of serum parathormone in thirteen out of fourteen patients to whom total thyroidectomy was carried out because of thyroid cancer during the past three years. Four glands were autotransplanted in four patients and froam two to three glamds were trasplanted in the remaineng nime patients. All patients were followed up with daily calcium and phosphate determinations. Patients with low ca"1"1" level and with h...

  11. Estimation of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium for the diagnosis of hypocalcaemia of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Mehmood, T.; Qureshi, A.H.; Anwar, M.; Dilawar, M.; Hussain, I.; Khan, F.A.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, S.; Khan, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure levels of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium in patients with different malignant disorders for the diagnosis of hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Design: A case control comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Department of Oncology CMH, Rawalpindi from March 2003 to December 2003. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-seven patients of various malignant disorders, admitted in the Department of Oncology, CMH, Rawalpindi, and 39 age and gender-matched disease-free persons (as control) were included in the study. Blood ionized calcium (Ca/sup ++/), pH, sodium (Na/sup +/) and potassium (K/sup +/) were analysed by Ion selective electrode (ISE) on Easylyte> auto analyser. Other related parameters were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: Blood Ca/sup ++/ levels in patients suffering from malignant disorders were found significantly high (mean +- j 1.30+017 mmoV/L) as compared to control subjects (mean +- 1.23+0.03 mmoV/L) (p<0.001). The number of patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy detected by Ca/sup ++/ estimation was significantly higher (38%) as compared to total calcium (8.4%) and albumin corrected calcium ACC (10.6%) (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other parameters e.g. phosphate, urea, creatinine, pH, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ levels in study subjects and controls. Conclusion: Detection of hypercalcaemia can be markedly improved if ionized calcium estimation is used in patients with malignant disorders. (author)

  12. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  13. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  14. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  15. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions.

  16. Dietary calcium intake and risk of obesity in school girls aged 8-10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnoosh Samadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have demonstrated the role of calcium in reducing body mass index (BMI or fat mass. Though, BMI does not provide very valid information about changes in body fat mass, Fat Mass Index (FMI relates body fat mass to height and allows comparing body fat mass of individuals at different heights. This study investigated the possible association between dietary calcium intake (CI and other nutritional factors and weight status of girls aged 8-10 years. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 110 girls aged 8-10 with FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 as cases and 307 girls with FMI less than 7.2 kg/m 2 as controls were recruited through multistage cluster random sampling. FMI at or above 7.2 kg/m 2 was considered as the cutoff point for obesity. Body fat mass was assessed by a stand on bio impedance analyzer. In order to assess CI, participants were asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Mean and standard deviation of CI in the case group was significantly lower than the control group 649 ± 103 and 951 ± 152 mg/d, respectively ( P < 0.01. After Adjustment for total energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein in quartiles of physical activity, inverse association between CI and obesity was significant and in the highest quartile of physical activity the association was weaker. By further adjustment for the effect of fruits and vegetable intake inverse association between CI and obesity became weaker but yet was significant. Conclusion: The inverse relationship between CI and FMI remained significant even after controlling for confounding factors. FMI may be more accurate, compared to BMI, in showing the association between CI and obesity.

  17. Contributions to total phosphorus intake: all sources considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    High serum phosphorus is linked to poor health outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before or after the initiation of dialysis. Dietary intake of phosphorus, a major determinant of serum phosphorus, seems to be systematically underestimated using the available software tools and generalized nutrient content databases. Several sources of dietary phosphorus including the addition of phosphorus ingredients in food processing, and phosphorus content of vitamin and mineral supplements and commonly used over-the-counter or prescription medications are not fully accounted for by the nutrient content databases and software programs in current clinical use or used in large population studies. In this review, we explore the many unknown sources of phosphorus in the food supply to identify all possible contributors to total phosphorus intake of Americans that have escaped inclusion in past intake estimates. Our goal is to help delineate areas for future interventions that will enable tighter control of dietary phosphorus intake, a critical factor to maintaining health and quality of life in CKD and dialysis patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-03-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  19. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  20. Effects of total fat intake on bodyweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Visser, Marianne E; Nguyen, Kim A; Durao, Solange; Schoonees, Anel

    2018-02-15

    As part of efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity, we need to understand the relationship between total fat intake and body fatness in generally healthy children. To assess the effects of total fat intake on measures of weight and body fatness in children and young people not aiming to lose weight. For this update we revised the previous search strategy and ran it over all years in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (PubMed), and Embase (Ovid) (current to 23 May 2017). No language and publication status limits were applied. We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing and unpublished studies (5 June 2017). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in children aged 24 months to 18 years, with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease, randomised to a lower fat (30% or less of total energy (TE)) versus usual or moderate-fat diet (greater than 30%TE), without the intention to reduce weight, and assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We included prospective analytical cohort studies in these children if they related baseline total fat intake to weight or body fatness at least 12 months later. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion with other authors. We extracted data on participants, interventions or exposures, controls and outcomes, and trial or cohort quality characteristics, as well as data on potential effect modifiers, and assessed risk of bias for all included studies. We extracted outcome data using the following time point ranges, when available: RCTs: baseline to six months, six to 12 months, one to two years, two to five years and more than five years; cohort studies: baseline to one year, one to two years, two to five years, five to 10 years and more than 10 years. We planned to perform random-effects meta-analyses with relevant subgrouping, and sensitivity and funnel plot

  1. Timing of the calcium intake and effect of calcium deficiency on behaviour and egg laying in captive great tits, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveland, J; Berends, A E

    1997-01-01

    The calcium demand of egg-laying birds is much higher than in other vertebrates during reproduction. We showed elsewhere that a low level of calcium availability can greatly affect the eggshell quality and reproduction of free-living passerines. However, there are few data on calcium demand and calcium intake in relation to egg laying and behaviour and egg-laying performance under conditions of calcium shortage in nondomesticated birds. We examined these aspects in an experiment with captive great tits, Parus major, on a diet deficient in calcium, with or without snail shells as an additional calcium source. More than 90% of the calcium intake for egg production took place during the egg-laying period. Females ingested about 1.7 times as much calcium as they deposited in eggshells. Removing the snail shells after the first egg resulted in eggshell defects and interruptions of laying after 1-3 d. Females without snail shells doubled their searching effort and started to burrow in the soil and to eat sand, small stones, and their own eggs. Most calcium was consumed in the evening, probably to supplement the calcium available from the medullary bone with an additional calcium source in the gut during eggshell formation. The results demonstrated that eggshell formation requires accurate timing of the calcium intake and that obtaining sufficient calcium is time-consuming, even in calcium-rich environments. These factors pertaining to calcium intake greatly affect the ability of birds to collect sufficient calcium for eggshell formation in calcium-poor areas.

  2. Milk intake and total dairy consumption: associations with early menarche in NHANES 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Wiley

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche.This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20-49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9-12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5-12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake β = -0.32, P<0.10; "sometimes/variable milk intake" β = -0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never. Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk "sometimes/varied" or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively. Among the 9-12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06. Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively, while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05 than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03, but not after controlling for overweight.There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.

  3. Intakes of dairy products and calcium and obesity in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19-64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m². Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45-0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71-0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  4. Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtanen, Mikko J; Mars, Monica; Männistö, Satu; Pietinen, Pirjo; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo

    2008-03-10

    A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intake with risk of stroke in a cohort of 26 556 Finnish male smokers, aged 50 to 69 years, who were free from stroke at baseline. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a detailed and validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years (1985-2004), 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were identified in the national registries. After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, a high magnesium intake was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of cerebral infarction but not with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhages. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.97; P for trend = .004) for men in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with those in the lowest quintile. The inverse association between magnesium intake and cerebral infarction was stronger in men younger than 60 years (relative risk, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P for interaction = .02). Calcium, potassium, and sodium intake was not significantly associated with risk of any subtype of stroke (P for trend > .05). These findings in male smokers suggest that a high magnesium intake may play a role in the primary prevention of cerebral infarction.

  5. Energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D and fibre intakes from meals in residential care establishments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl A; Sherwin, Alice J; McPhee, Joan G; Wark, John D; Flicker, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Residents from high level (nursing homes) and low-level care facilities (hostel) being served the three common diet texture modifications (full diet, soft-minced diet and pureed diet) were assessed. Individual plate waste was estimated at three meals on one day. Fifty-six males and 156 females, mean age 82.9+/-9.5 (SD) years, of which 139 lived in nursing homes (NH) and 76 in hostels (H) were included. Mean total energy served from meals was 5.3 MJ/day, 5.1 to 5.6 MJ/day, 95% confidence intervals (CI), in NH which was less than in H, 5.9 MJ/day (CI 5.6 to 6.2 MJ/day) (P=0.007). Protein and calcium intakes were lower in NH, 44.5g (CI 41.5 to 47.5g), 359.0mg (CI 333.2 to 384.8mg), versus 50.5g (CI 46.6 to 54.3g), 480.5mg (CI 444.3 to 516.7mg) in H (P=0.017, Phostels, except for protein. Strategies to effectively monitor nutrient intakes and to identify those with eating impairment are required in order to ensure adequate nutrition of residents in nursing homes and hostels.

  6. Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-10-01

    Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or χ(2)-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ≥ 650 mg/day) and low calcium intake (LC, benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P eating dairy foods for snacks' (P eating dairy foods every day' (P eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P foods (P foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium-rich foods, increase self-efficacy, and modify eating behaviors contributing to calcium intake.

  7. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Kor...

  8. Ingestion of guar gum hydrolysate, a soluble fiber, increases calcium absorption in totally gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Suzuki, T; Kasai, T; Aoyama, Y; Ohta, A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrectomy induces osteopenia. We examined the effects of feeding a diet containing soluble dietary fiber, guar gum hydrolysate (GGH, 50 g/kg diet), on intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineralization in totally gastrectomized (Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy) rats by comparing them with those in two control groups (laparotomized and bypassed rats). In the bypassed rats, chyme bypassed the duodenum and upper jejunum without gastrectomy. In a second separate experiment, we compared calcium absorption and bone mineralization in the gastrectomized rats fed diets containing soluble and insoluble calcium salts and in bypassed rats fed insoluble calcium. In Experiment 1, apparent absorption of calcium supplied as a water-insoluble salt was more than 50% lower in gastrectomized rats than in the intact (laparotomized) or bypassed rats 3 wk after the start of feeding the test diets (P Calcium absorption was higher (P Experiment 2, absorption of soluble calcium in the gastrectomized rats did not differ from the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate by bypassed rats. The soluble calcium pool in the cecal contents was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1) than in intact or bypassed control rats, and was higher (P calcium absorption correlated most closely (r = 0.787, P calcium content was significantly lower in gastrectomized rats fed insoluble calcium than in bypassed rats fed the same diet, but was partially restored in the rats fed soluble calcium (Experiment 2). Bone calcium was not increased by feeding GGH in gastrectomized rats (Experiment 1). We conclude that the severely diminished calcium absorption following total gastrectomy is totally due to a decrease in calcium solubilization, and feeding GGH partially restores calcium absorption. The decrease in bone calcium that occurs as a result of gastrectomy is mainly due to diminished intestinal calcium absorption.

  9. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  10. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Macronutrient and Calcium Intake in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, R.; Bano, G.; Dar, F. J.; Khan, A. H.; Bilgirami, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a food frequency table (FFQ) for use in urban Pakistani population. Study Design: A validation study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to November 2008. Methodology: Healthy adult females, aged A 18 years who consented to be included in the study were inducted, while males, unhealthy females, aged below 18 years or who did not consent were excluded. The FFQ was administered once while 4, 24 hours recalls spread over a period of one year were administered as the reference method. Daily intakes for energy, protein, fat, and calcium intake were estimated for both the tools. Crude and energy adjusted correlations for nutrient intakes were computed for the FFQ and mean of 4, 24 hours recalls and serum N-telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTx). Results: The correlation coefficients for the FFQ with mean of 4, 24 hours recall ranged from 0.21 for protein to 0.36 for calcium, while the correlation for nutrient estimates from the FFQ with NTx ranged from -0.07 for calcium to 0.01 for energy. Conclusion: Highly significant correlations were found for nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ vs. those estimated from the mean of 4, 24 hours recalls but no correlations was found between nutrient estimates from the FFQ and serum NTx levels. FFQ was concluded to be a valid tool for assessing dietary intake of adult females in Pakistan. (author)

  11. Total diet study in Sao Paulo State: estimation of dietary intakes of toxic (arsenic and cadmium) and essential elements (calcium, chromium, iron, selenium, sodium, potassium and zinc); Estudo de dieta total no Estado de Sao Paulo: estimativa de ingestao dietetica de elementos toxicos (arsenio e cadmio) e essenciais (calcio, cromo, ferro, selenio, sodio, potassio e zinco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avegliano, Roseane Pagliaro

    2009-07-01

    Total Diet Study (TDS) is based on the evaluation of food samples representing a market basket, which shows dietary habits of a given population. The World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged countries to conduct their own TDS, which is already being done in several countries, but not yet in Brazil. This study involved essential steps to establish a TDS in Sao Paulo State: a) information about food consumption (a recent national household food budget survey 'POF 2002-2003' by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), including 5,440 foods); b) development of a Market Basket (sampling of 71 foods consumed more than 2g/day/person, grouped into 30 food groups: cereals; leguminous; leafy, fruity and tuberous vegetables; tropical fruits; other fruits; flours; pasta; breads; biscuits; prime and standard grade beef; pork meat; sausages; poultry; milk/cream; other dairy products; sugars; sweet dishes; salts, sauces; oils, fats, alcoholic beverages; non-alcoholic beverages; coffee; ready-made dishes; seawater and freshwater fishes); c) collection and kitchen preparation in restaurants of the Food service Department of the Coordination of Social Assistance of the University of Sao Paulo (preparing ready-to- consume foods, individually and mixing foods of the same food group); d) chemical analysis (food groups were homogenized, pulverized and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation and GF Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy). Element contents were determined in the 30 food groups. Average element range concentrations and daily dietary intakes were determined. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study (275{+-}31mg Ca; 20.7{+-}1.9{mu}g Cr; 5.7{+-}0.4mg Fe; 861{+-}46mg K; 9.44{+-}0.48{mu}g Se; 1928{+-}278mg Na; 4.25{+-}0.24mg Zn; 1.53{+-}0.43{mu}g As and 1.31{+-}0.16{mu}g Cd) were lower than or similar the results of other Brazilian studies and lower than results of TDS of other countries. This is probably due to the fact that the Market

  12. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Qu, Haiyan; Hughes, Sheryl O; He, Mengying; Wagner, Sara E; Foushee, Herman R; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2011-07-01

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perceived lactose intolerance as it relates to calcium intake and specific health problems that have been attributed to reduced intakes of calcium and dairy foods in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study in a national sample of 3452 adults. The relation between self-perceived lactose intolerance, calcium intakes, and physician-diagnosed health conditions was analyzed by using linear regression analyses. Of the total sample, 12.3% of respondents perceived themselves to be lactose intolerant. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance was 7.8% for non-Hispanic whites, 20.1% for non-Hispanic blacks, and 8.8% for Hispanics. Respondents with self-perceived lactose intolerance had significantly lower (P lactose intolerance. A significantly higher (P lactose intolerance than of respondents without self-perceived lactose intolerance reported having physician-diagnosed diabetes and hypertension. The odds of self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes or hypertension decreased by factors of 0.70 and 0.60, respectively, for a 1000-mg increase in calcium intake from dairy foods per day. Self-perceived lactose-intolerant respondents had a significantly lower calcium intake from dairy foods and reported having a significantly higher rate of physician-diagnosed diabetes and hypertension.

  13. [Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Kelly Aparecida da; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: "children" and "calcium" or "children" and "vitamin D" associated with the descriptors: "obesity", "adiposity" or "body fat" for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  15. [Total serum calcium and corrected calcium as severity predictors in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jiménez, A A; Castro-Jiménez, E; Lagunes-Córdoba, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate total serum calcium (TC) and albumin-corrected calcium (ACC) as prognostic severity factors in acute pancreatitis (AP). Ninety-six patients were included in the study. They were diagnosed with AP and admitted to the Hospital Regional de Veracruz within the time frame of January 2010 to December 2012. AP severity was determined through the updated Atlanta Classification (2013). TC and ACC values were measured in the first 24hours of admittance and the percentages of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated through ROC curves and contingency tables. In accordance with the updated Atlanta Classification, 70 patients presented with mild AP, 17 with moderately severe AP, and 9 with severe AP. Of the patient total, 61.5% were women, and 69.8% presented with biliary etiology. The maximum TC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 82%; PPV, 27%, and NPV, 96%. The maximum ACC cut-off point was 7.5mg/dL, with values of S, 67%; Sp, 90%; PPV, 40%; NPV, 96%. Both had values similar to those of the Ranson and APACHE II prognostic scales. TC and ACC, measured within the first 24hours, are useful severity predictors in acute pancreatitis, with sensitivity and predictive values comparable or superior to those of the conventional prognostic scales. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. No influence of supplemental dietary calcium intake on the bioavailability of spinach carotenoids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Joana; Guignard, Cédric; Gantenbein, Manon; Weber, Bernard; Burgard, Kim; Hoffmann, Lucien; Richling, Elke; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-06-01

    Dietary carotenoid intake, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. However, its bioavailability can vary, depending on the food matrix and host factors. Recently, it has been suggested that divalent minerals negatively impinge on carotenoid bioavailability by reducing bile-salt and non-esterified fatty-acid levels in the gut, which normally aid in emulsifying carotenoids. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether supplemental Ca would negatively influence carotenoid absorption in humans. A total of twenty-five healthy, non-obese men (age: 20-46 years, BMIcarotenoids/100 g fresh weight), supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg of Ca (as calcium carbonate), with each participant acting as his or her own control. Blood samples were collected at regular postprandial intervals for up to 10 h following test meal intake, and standardised lunches were served. TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions were separated and carotenoid concentrations determined. AUC for meals without supplemented Ca were 22·72 (sem 2·78) nmol×h/l (lutein), 0·19 (sem 3·90) nmol×h/l (β-carotene) and 2·80 (sem 1·75) nmol×h/l (β-cryptoxanthin). No significant influence of supplementation with either 500 or 1000 mg of supplemental Ca was found. In conclusion, Ca - the most abundant divalent mineral in the diet - given at high but physiological concentrations, does not appear to have repercussions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from a spinach-based meal.

  17. Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Calcium and Vitamin D Intake in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Lamparello, Brooke; Kruczek, Kimberly; Anderson, Ellen J.; Hubbard, Jane; Misra, Madhusmita

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing calcium and vitamin D intake becomes important in conditions associated with low bone density such as anorexia nervosa (AN). Food records (FR) that assess intake over a representative time period are used in research and sometimes clinical settings. However, compliance in adolescents can be suboptimal. Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent AN and healthy girls compared to a validated FR assessing intake over a four-day period, the hypothesis being that intake would be adequately predicted by the FFQ. Design Thirty-six girls with AN and 39 healthy girls 12–18 years old completed both the FR and the FFQ. An additional 31 subjects (20 AN, 11 controls) completed the FFQ, but not the FR, and one AN girl completed the FR, but not the FFQ. Results Subjects demonstrated greater compliance with the FFQ (99%) than the FR (71%). Daily calcium and vitamin D intake calculated using the FR and FFQ did not differ, although the FFQ tended to under-report vitamin D intake corrected for energy intake. Using quartile analysis, no gross misclassification was noted of calcium or vitamin D intake calculated using the FR or FFQ in AN. Strong correlations were observed of daily vitamin D intake derived from the FFQ versus the FR, particularly in AN (r=0.78, p<0.0001). Less robust correlations were observed for calcium intake (r=0.65, p<0.0001). Conclusion The FFQ used in this study can be effectively used to assess daily calcium and vitamin D intake in adolescent girls suffering from AN PMID:19248866

  18. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  19. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  20. Pre-pregnancy BMI and intake of energy and calcium are associated with the vitamin D intake of pregnant Malaysian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Yaw Yong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Adequate vitamin D intake during pregnancy is important for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives . The present study aims to determine the intake and sources of vitamin D, as well as factors associated with vitamin D intake among pregnant Malaysian women. Material and methods . This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Seremban Maternal and Child Health (MCH clinic, Negeri Sembilan. Women (n = 314 were measured for height and weight and interviewed for socio-demographics, obstetrics, dietary intake, source of vitamin D, intake of vitamin D supplements and physical activity. Results . One-third of pregnant women were overweight (21% or obese (13% with a mean pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI of 23.65 ± 5.29 kg/m². The mean vitamin D intake of pregnant women was 11.54 ± 0.45 μg/day (diet = 6.55 ± 4.43 μg/day; supplements = 4.99 ± 5.95 μg/day with approx. 74.5% of intake being above recommendation levels. Milk and milk products showed the greatest contribution to vitamin D intake (56.8%. While women with higher energy (adjusted OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01–0.87 and calcium (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11–0.67 intake were more likely to have adequate vitamin D intake, obese women were less likely to have adequate vitamin D intake (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.72–3.79. Conclusions . Adequate intake of vitamin D was significantly associated with higher energy and calcium intake, but obese women tend to have inadequate intake. Further studies need to confirm these finding and the contribution of vitamin D intake to vitamin D status in pregnant Malaysian women.

  1. Derivation of a formula for adjusting the total serum calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The total calcium concentration, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated for 302 patients that reported for serum calcium estimation at the clinical biochemistry laboratory of the Olabisi Onabanjo. University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Based on regression analysis, three formulae were.

  2. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design with both descriptive and analytic components. A total of 170 ... data were used to convert dietary intake into nutrient content. The mean (SD) ... urban centers or those wearing clothing that concealed most of the skin from sun exposure.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg...

  4. PROVISION OF VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: ESTIMATION OF INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Khodyrev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the actual intake of vitamins and calcium and their provision in rheumatoid arthritis (RA in the Middle Urals. Subjects and methods. The case-control method was used to form 150 pairs of RA patients aged 55.31±11.3 years. Their actual nutrition was studied from the frequency of food intake for a month, by applying a questionnaire. Based on the obtained food consumption data, the authors calculated the daily intake of vitamins A, B2, C, E, β-carotene, and calcium. The plasma levels of these factors were measured in 40% of the random patient sample and in 68 (45% control persons. A complete clinical examination included the evaluation of patients' general health and articular status, inflammatory activity assessment with DAS28, laboratory tests (general blood and urine analyses, estimation of the levels of transaminases, creatinine, electrolytes, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor, and instrumental examination, involving electrocardiography and joint X-ray. Results and discussion. The study demonstrated that actual nutrition was depleted of vitamins A, C, and B2 in the patients with RA as compared to the controls. Inadequate provision of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, and calcium was found in RA. The inconsistency between the consumption of vitamins C, B2, and β-carotene and their plasma levels could suggest increased demands for these nutrients in RA. The findings should undergo detailed studies; first of all, this concerns the comparison of intake of the nutrients and their provision with the most important clinical characteristics of RA, such as duration, progression, activity, X-ray stage, and the presence of rheumatoid factor. The knowledge of these matters could, in our opinion, improve the results of therapy and prognosis in RA.

  5. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data a...

  6. Calcium intake in winter pregnancy attenuates impact of vitamin D inadequacy on urine NTX, a marker of bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eileen C; Kilbane, Mark T; McKenna, Malachi J; Segurado, Ricardo; Geraghty, Aisling A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterised by increased bone turnover, but high bone turnover with resorption exceeding formation may lead to negative maternal bone remodelling. Recent studies are conflicting regarding the effect of calcium on skeletal health in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and dietary calcium on a marker of bone resorption. This was prospective study of 205 pregnant women [two cohorts; early pregnancy at 13 weeks (n = 96), and late pregnancy at 28 weeks (n = 109)]. Serum 25OHD and urine cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX) were measured at both time points. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium were recorded using 3-day food diaries at each trimester. Compared to summer pregnancies, winter pregnancies had significantly lower 25OHD and significantly higher uNTX. Higher calcium intakes were negatively correlated with uNTX in winter, but not summer. In late pregnancy, compared to those reporting calcium intakes ≥1000 mg/day, intakes of <1000 mg/day were associated with a greater increase in uNTX in winter pregnancies than in summer (41.8 vs. 0.9%). Increasing calcium intake in winter by 200 mg/day predicted a 13.3% reduction in late pregnancy uNTX. In late pregnancy, during winter months when 25OHD is inadequate, intakes of dietary calcium <1000 mg/day were associated with significantly increased bone resorption (uNTX). Additional dietary calcium is associated with reduced bone resorption in late pregnancy, with greater effect observed in winter. Further research regarding optimal dietary calcium and 25OHD in pregnancy is required, particularly for women gestating through winter.

  7. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  8. Associations between yogurt, dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake and obesity among U.S. children aged 8-18 years: NHANES, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Albertson, Ann M; Gugger, Carolyn K; Holschuh, Norton M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8-18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  9. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Albertson, Ann M.; Gugger, Carolyn K.; Holschuh, Norton M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008). Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children. PMID:25742042

  10. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  11. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  12. Intake of total and added sugars and nutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-14

    This analysis aimed to examine the association between intake of sugars (total or added) and nutrient intake with data from a recent Australian national nutrition survey, the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2007ANCNPAS). Data from participants (n 4140; 51 % male) who provided 2×plausible 24-h recalls were included in the analysis. The values on added sugars for foods were estimated using a previously published ten-step systematic methodology. Reported intakes of nutrients and foods defined in the 2007ANCNPAS were analysed by age- and sex-specific quintiles of %energy from added sugars (%EAS) or %energy from total sugars (%ETS) using ANCOVA. Linear trends across the quintiles were examined using multiple linear regression. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the OR of not meeting a specified nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand per unit in %EAS or %ETS. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI z-score and total energy intake. Small but significant negative associations were seen between %EAS and the intakes of most nutrient intakes (all Padded sugars were associated with lower intakes of most nutrient-rich, 'core' food groups and higher intakes of energy-dense, nutrient-poor 'extra' foods. In conclusion, assessing intakes of added sugars may be a better approach for addressing issues of diet quality compared with intakes of total sugars.

  13. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fisberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS, a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals.

  14. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  15. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  16. Comparison of Total Calcium Level during General and Spinal Anesthesia in Gynecologic Abdominal Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Haryalchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Calcium (Ca+2 plays an important role in many biophysiological mechanisms .The present study was carried out to assess alterations in total serum calcium level before and after operations in consider to the type of anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 74 women who candidate for gynecological abdominal operations during one year at Al-zahra maternity Hospital in Rasht, Iran. The patients underwent General Anesthesia (GA (N=37 or Spinal Anesthesia (SA (N=37 randomly. Blood samples (2 cc, were obtained an hour before the anesthesia and two hours after that. The blood samples had been sent to the laboratory for analyzing .Total serum calcium level, magnesium (Mg and albumin level were measured by photometric methods. Inferential statistic was analyzed with the Vilkson non-parametric and Pearson's correlation test. P-values less than 0.05 have been considered as significant different. Results: There was a significant trend to decrease in calcium levels after all gynecological abdominal operations, but there was a significant correlation between General anesthesia (GA and reduction of serum calcium level (p=0.026 . Therefore, General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal Anesthesia (SA. Conclusion: Serum Calcium levels tend to decrease after all gynecological abdominal surgeries, but General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal one. It needs to further specific studies, to illustrate association between different methods of anesthesia and Ca+2 changes.

  17. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The sub...

  19. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristin D. Brisbois

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  20. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  1. Building better bones in childhood: a randomized controlled study to test the efficacy of a dietary intervention program to increase calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D R; Stark, L J; Ittenbach, R F; Stallings, V A; Zemel, B S

    2017-06-01

    Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD. BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index. A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.

  2. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Given its potential effect on nutrient and energy density, the sugar content of the diet is a subject of controversy. The aim of this review was to examine the cross-sectional or prospective evidence for associations between the intake of total sugar or added sugar (high vs low intakes) and diet quality or nutrient intakes in the general population. The following databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1972 and 2012: CINAHL Plus, EBM Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The search identified studies that examined the association between intake of total sugar and/or added sugar and diet quality (n = 22) or nutrient intakes (n = 30). The following data were extracted: sample size and population, dietary assessment method, source of added sugar data, source of funding, comparator, association between total sugar or added sugar and diet quality, and the direction and magnitude of the association. Of 22 studies, all except 1 found a higher intake of added sugar to be associated with poorer diet quality, and the exceptional study did not adjust for total energy intake. Twenty-one of 30 studies found a negative association between added sugar and micronutrient intakes. The same association was not found for total sugar intake. Any negative association between dietary sugar and diet quality is better exposed by referring to added sugar rather than total sugar. There was substantial variation in features of study quality, including sample size, so the magnitude of the observed effect was generally small and may not be of clinical significance. Furthermore, the positive influence that core foods such as fruit and milk exert on total sugar values may bias the association between total sugar and diet quality. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Determination of dietary intake of total arsenic, inorganic arsenic and total mercury in the Chilean school meal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, J M; Bermúdez, M; Carrasco, J; Espinoza, O; Muñoz, M; Galotto, M J; Muñoz, O

    2010-10-01

    The dietary intake of total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total mercury (tHg) in lunch and breakfast servings provided by the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) was estimated, using the duplicate-portion variant of the total diet study. Lunch and breakfast samples were collected from 65 schools throughout the country in 2006. The population sample was a group of girls and boys between 6 and 18 years old. The tAs concentration was measured via hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The total mercury concentration was measured via cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. The estimated iAs intake was 12.5% (5.4 μg/day) of the Provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) as proposed by the FAO/WHO, and the tHg intake was 13.2% (1.9 μg/day) of the PTDI as proposed by the FAO/WHO. It was therefore concluded that tAs, iAs and tHg intake from food provided by the SMP do not pose risks to student health.

  4. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Iyengar, G.V.; Aras, N.K.

    2006-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  6. Development and psychometric properties of a Calcium Intake Questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory (CIQ-SCT) for Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mahin; Eslami, Ahmad Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is common among women which may be mostly due to the low intake of calcium. This article reports the development, cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of a Calcium Intake Questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory (CIQ-SCT)among Iranian women. Methods: In 2016, this cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 younger than 50 years old women in Isfahan, Iran. After literature review, a preliminary 35-item questionnaire was developed. Then, forward-backward translation and cultural adaptation of the tool was conducted. Content Validity Index confirmed by an expert panel and Face Validity was evaluated in a pilot study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA &CFA) were conducted on the calibration and validation sample, respectively. Reliability was also assessed using internal consistency test. Results: After determining content and face validity, 20 items with 5 factors (self-efficacy,outcome expectations, social support and self-regulation) were obtained. Cronbach alpha for the instrument was found to be 0.901. In EFA, we identified a 4-factor model with a total variance of 72.3%. The results related to CFA (CMIN/DF=1.850, CFI =0.946, TLI=0.938, RMSEA=0.069[90% CI: 0.057-0.081]) indicated that the model was fit to the social cognitive theory. Self regulation was detected as the best predictor for calcium intake. Conclusion: The CIQ-SCT showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity in explaining the calcium intake based on the constructs of social cognitive theory. Further psychometric testing is recommended in different population to approve the external validity of the instrument.

  7. Total, Dietary, and Supplemental Vitamin C Intake and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of vitamin C and kidney stones were conducted mostly in men and either reported disparate results for supplemental and dietary vitamin C or did not examine dietary vitamin C. Prospective cohort analysis. 156,735 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and II and 40,536 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin C intake, adjusted for age, body mass index, thiazide use, and dietary factors. Incident kidney stones. During a median follow-up of 11.3 to 11.7 years, 6,245 incident kidney stones were identified. After multivariable adjustment, total vitamin C intake (vitamin C intake for the 500- to 999-mg/d category was ∼700mg/d. Supplemental vitamin C intake (no use [reference], vitamin C intake was not associated with stones among men or women, although few participants had dietary intakes > 700mg/d. Nutrient intakes derived from food-frequency questionnaires, lack of data on stone composition for all cases. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher risk for incident kidney stones in men, but not in women. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  9. The relation between calcium intake and body composition in a Dutch population: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, N.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Saris, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary calcium intake is related to body mass index and the sum of four skinfolds among subjects in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (the Netherlands), the authors followed a cohort of men and women from age 13 years in 1977 to age 36 years in 2000.

  10. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co-product. Regardless of Ca source, inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.001) the ATTD of P. In conclusion, MCP has the greatest ATTD and STTD of Ca among the calcium supplements used in this experiment, followed by DCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  11. Education and exercise program improves osteoporosis knowledge and changes calcium and vitamin D dietary intake in community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Il; Kim, Ha-Young; Jang, Sunmee; Park, Yongsoon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2017-12-19

    Several educational intervention programs have been designed and developed to improve osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment. However, most of the prior studies focused on how educational intervention programs affected diagnosis and treatment of condition of osteoporosis. The purpose of this prospective and educational intervention study was to evaluate the changes in osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, fall self-efficacy, physical exercise and changes in dietary pattern of calcium and vitamin D intake after osteoporosis education. From November 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016, 271 eligible candidates (who were over 50 years old and from 23 different community centers) were recruited through an announcement made by the public office, by two health care providers. The intervention involved an individualized education program to allow for differences in antecedent educational levels regarding several aspects of osteoporosis, including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy, awareness of self-efficacy risk factors relating to an accidental fall and nutritional education (including the importance of sufficient calcium and vitamin D intake). The researchers revisited the community centers three months after the initial visit. Of the 271 potential participants, 199 (73.4%; 43 men and 156 women) completed the education program and the second questionnaire. After education intervention, parameters including osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis self-efficacy and fall self-efficacy were improved (P vitamin D intake below recommended cut-offs, inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were decreased (P vitamin D intake.

  12. Observations on total-body calcium in humans with bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Ranicar, A.S.O.; Joplin, G.F.; Evans, I.M.A.; Vlotides, J.; Paolillo, M.

    1979-01-01

    Total-body calcium was measured in-vivo by neutron activation in a number of patients suffering from metabolic abnormalities which affect the skeleton. In general, less than 2% of total calcium resides in tissue other than bone allowing calcium mass to be directly related to skeletal mass. The conditions studied were (i) Paget's disease, treated with synthetic human calcitonin, (ii) osteoporosis, treated variously with calcium and phosphate supplements and 1,25 hydroxycholecalciferol, and (iii) Cushing's disease treated by pituitary implant of 198 Au or 90 Y seeds. The neutron beam used in these studies was produced by bombarding a beryllium target with deuterons accelerated in a cyclotron. The mean neutron energy was 7.5 MeV and patients received a total dose of 1 rem in about 30 s, a bilateral irradiation being employed. Measurements were made at approximately yearly intervals, the maximum period of study being about four and a half years. The precision of the method was estimated to be +-3% (SE) and a correction was applied for changes in body weight. In most patients, total calcium remained stable. However, in the Paget's patients, there was an indication of a slow upward trend while the osteoporotics (both treated and untreated) showed on average no change. Most of the patients with Cushing's disease showed no recovery of skeletal mass. Absolute calibration indicated that mean total body calcium in the Paget's patients was close to a predicted normal while that for the osteoporotic and Cushing's patients was 20-25% below this. (author)

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D FOR THE LAST 14 YEARS IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado Yurrita, Luis; Grande Oyarzábal, Graciela; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Ciudad Cabañas, María José; San Mauro Martín, Ismael

    2015-11-01

    calcium and vitamin D are essential for the human being. Scientific evidence supports the correlation between both nutrients and their essential processes in the correct functioning of the human's organism, which is what justifies the increase of the recommended ingestion in Spain, since 2001 until nowadays. to analyse the evolution on calcium and vitamin D ingestion related to the evolution of the Dietary Reference Intake, as well as its repercussion, since 2001 until nowadays. a bibliographical search in major scientific data bases, PubMed, SciELO and EMBASE was conducted. a review focused on the scientific literature on vitamin D and calcium, the evolution of its intake, changes in nutritional recommendations and the importance and consequences of these aspects. actual ingestion of calcium and vitamin D, during this period of time, has decreased in Spain, reaching average consumption values below recommended. it may be necessary to increase the consumption of supplements and fortified foods, in some specific cases, in order to achieve the Dietary Reference Intake. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent determination of total serum calcium and magnesium by thermometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, R H; Carr, P W

    1976-07-01

    Total serum calcium and magnesium may be determined in one thermometric titration, with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the titrant. A 1-ml serum sample is diluted with 1 ml of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8) and titrated at a constant rate with a motorized syringe buret. Results by the thermometric method compared well with those by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  15. Relation between vitamin D and calcium and post operation hypocalcemia in total thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asefkabiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocalcemia is one of the most prevalent complications following total thyroidectomy. Over recent years, in addition to hormone parathyroid hormone (PTH, vitamin D has been also studied as a factor causing post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. This survey seeks to study the relationship between the serum level of vitamin D before surgery and during post-total thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods: A group of 57 patients volunteering for total thyroidectomy were studied on Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March 2013 to March 2015. In all these patients, pre-surgery calcium, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH as well as the level of calcium during the post-surgery first two days were measured. Based on objectives of this study, the relationship be-tween pre-surgery vitamin D level and post-surgery hypocalcemia was examined. Results: The average age of patients participating in the survey was 24.1±13.3. They included 19 women (33.3% and 38 men, total of 40 patients (70.2%. Their average post-surgery calcium level was 9.2±0.77 milligrams per deciliters (mg/dl and their average vitamin D content before the surgery was 42±12.1 nanomole per liter (nmol/l. The average calcium level before the surgery and the first post-surgery day were meaningfully different in terms of statistics (P0.001. Of 37 patients with pre-surgery vitamin D deficiency, 31 suffered post-surgery second-day hypocalcemia and of 20 patients with vitamin D insufficiency, 18 suffered second-day hypocalcemia. This difference was not statistically meaningful either (P>0.001. Conclusion: The current study showed that the serum level of vitamin D before total thyroidectomy does not have any role in the occurrence of post-surgery hypocalcemia which is almost common after this type of surgery.

  16. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josune Olza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. Mean ± SEM (range total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day, 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day, 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day, and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day, respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

  17. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  18. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…

  19. Intake and total apparent digestibility in lambs fed six maize varieties in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dantas dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, energy intake and nitrogen balance of silages of six maize varieties with early or super early cycles recommended to Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four male castrated lambs were lodged in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used, with means compared by Tukey test at 5%. There were no differences among varieties for any of the evaluated variables regarding intake and apparent digestibility. Concerning the intake of digestible energy, metabolizable energy and the ratio content of digestible and metabolizable energy, significant differences were observed between varieties and BRS Assum Preto showed highest values of metabolizable energy (2.650,8 kcal/day. All of the treatments presented positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among themselves. The varieties asessed can be an additional option to the semiarid regions in Brazil.

  20. Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%. (author)

  1. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    , smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...

  2. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  3. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-01-10

    Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19-64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority "adequate Intake" (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%.In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related

  5. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  6. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler

  7. Assessing the effect of dietary calcium intake and 25 OHD status on bone turnover in women in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aysha Habib; Naureen, Ghazala; Iqbal, Romaina; Dar, Farhan Javed

    2013-01-01

    Bone health assessed in three towns of Karachi, Pakistan in females showed poor calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age from low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. To assess bone health and association of dietary calcium and 25 hydroxy vitamin D with bone turnover in the community-dwelling females of Karachi. Bone health was assessed in three randomly selected towns of Karachi, Pakistan. One premenopausal female fulfilling the inclusion criteria from each household was included in the study. Dietary calcium was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and biochemical markers including calcium, phosphates, albumin, magnesium, creatinine, and SGPT, intact parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were measured to assess the bone health. Three hundred and five females were included from three towns. Overall, 90.5% of females had vitamin D deficiency with 42.6 and 23.3% having secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turn over respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and high bone turnover was significantly different among towns. Mean vitamin D levels were significantly low and iPTH levels significantly high in females with high bone turnover. Calcium intake was not significantly different among females with normal, high, and low bone turnover. Correlates of high bone turnover included females residing in Saddar Town, underweight females less than 30 years of age belonging to low socio-economic status, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Compromised bone health is seen in community-dwelling females of Karachi. There is a need to perform large-scale community-based studies in all age groups to understand the interplay of markers in our population to understand the impact of these variables

  8. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs.Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated.154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001.Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  9. [Total drinking water intake and sources of children and adolescent in one district of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaojun; Liu, Ailing; Pan, Hui; He, Shuang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-05-01

    To describe total drinking water intake among primary and middle school students in one district of Shenzhen and to provide scientific evidence for adequate intakes of drinking water for different people in China. A total of 816 students from three primary and middle schools of Shenzhen was selected using three-stage random sampling method. The information on amounts and types of daily drinking water was recorded by subjects for seven consecutive days using a 24 hours measurement. The amounts and types of daily drinking water among different ages and between boys and girls were analyzed. The average total drinking water of subjects was (1225+/-557) ml/d, and the consumption of total drinking water in boys ((1303+/-639) ml/d) was significantly higher than that in girls ((1134+/-478) ml/d, Pwater of secondary school students ((1389+/-541) ml/d) and high school student ((1318+/-641) ml/d) was no statistically difference, but was higher than primary school students ((1097+/-525) ml/d, Pwater and beverages of the subjects was (818+/-541) ml/d and (407+/-294) ml/d respectively. Major of fluid intake comes from drinking water in children and adolescenct of Shenzhen. The knowledge of drinking water of primary school students is need to comprehensive enough.

  10. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  12. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  13. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A total diet study to estimate dioxin-like compounds intake from Taiwan food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Furans (PCDFs), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the food consumption rate are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in food increases the population's risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan food (not including plant origin) in 2001 and 2002, In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. A total diet study (TDS) of DLCs intake from Taiwan food is, therefore, conducted for the first time. The DLCs concentrations in food of animal origin and the food consumption rate are collected. The average daily intake (ADI) and average weekly intake (AWI) of DLCs from food by Taiwan adults is determined.

  15. Total food duplicate study on nutrient intake of working women in Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, H; Zhang, Z W; Agetano, M G; Subida, R D; Inouguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    1998-03-01

    Intakes of various nutrients by working women in Manila, the Philippines, was surveyed by the total food duplicate method, with foci to elucidate relative weight of three meals and snack in addition to quantitative evaluation of nutrient intakes. In practice, 45 women (average age; 37.2 years) volunteered, who were all nonsmokers and nonhabitual drinkers, and mostly married. In parallel, hematology, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examinations were conducted. On average, the women took 1787 kcal energy, 57 g protein, and 54 g lipid daily. Comparison with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Filipinos showed that intakes of energy and major nutrients were adequate, whereas that of minerals (e.g., 15 mg Fe/day vs. 26 mg Fe/day as RDA) and vitamins (e.g., 0.65 mg vitamin B1/day vs. 1 mg/day as RDA) were generally insufficient. Prevalence of anemia was however rather low with an average hemoglobin concentration of 12.9 g/100 ml blood. Rice was the staple source of energy for daily life, and beef rather than fish and shellfish was the leading source of protein. Lunch was the richest meal of a day (with the largest intake of energy, protein and lipid), and snacks rather than dinner appeared to be next substantial.

  16. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  17. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  18. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was

  19. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis. Reference data for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the chemical composition of the human body during growth. Total body calcium (TBCa) has been reported for only one male child, aged 41/2 yr. TBCa values for 25 children and 27 young women using in vivo neutron activation analysis have been obtained. TBCa results were lower than those reported for the one male cadaver, as well as the estimates derived for the 'Reference Man' model. It was concluded that the reference values for TBCa may need to be adjusted to appropriately describe skeletal mineralization of contemporary children. (author)

  20. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  1. Improving children's dairy food and calcium intake: can intervention work? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Gardner, Claire

    2013-02-01

    Strategies are needed to address the shortfall in children's dairy food and Ca intakes. The present review identified interventions targeting an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intakes, and determined characteristics associated with successful intervention. A systematic literature search identified fourteen intervention studies, published in English, between 1990 and 2010. Studies were evaluated for study population, setting and mode of delivery, dietary targets and outcome measures, measures of intervention intensity, intervention description, the use of behaviour change techniques and intervention effectiveness. Interventions targeting an increase in dairy food or Ca intake. Children aged 5-12 years. Ten of the fourteen studies were considered to be effective. Studies focusing on encouraging intake of dairy foods or Ca alone were all effective, compared with 55 % of studies promoting dairy within the context of a healthy diet. Effective interventions tended to be higher in intensity, provide dairy foods and were delivered across a variety of settings to a range of primary targets. The number of behaviour change techniques used did not differentiate effective and ineffective interventions, but the use of taste exposure and prompting practice appeared to be important for effective intervention. Interventions that target an increase in children's dairy food or Ca intake could potentially increase children's dairy food intake by about one serving daily. Research conducted outside the USA is needed. The review has identified some promising strategies likely to be part of effective interventions for improving dairy and Ca intakes in countries where children's intake is insufficient.

  2. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  3. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  4. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  5. Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report

  6. Independent associations of dairy and calcium intakes with colorectal cancers in the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Mashchak, Andrew; Fraser, Gary E

    2017-10-01

    Results associating dairy and Ca intakes with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk have been mixed. Most previous analyses have suffered from confounding between dairy and Ca intakes. We examined independent associations between these variables, also dairy foods, and CRC incidence in a population with a large range of dairy intakes. Adventist Health Study-2 is a cohort study where subjects were enrolled 2002-2007. Proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR). Regression calibration was used to correct for dietary measurement error. The population lived in all states of the USA. There were 77712 analytic subjects, all of whom were Seventh-day Adventists. Much of their dietary Ca came from non-dairy sources. During a mean follow-up of 7·8 years, 380 incident colon cancer and 111 incident rectal cancer cases were observed. Comparing extreme quintiles of intake in measurement error-corrected analyses, dairy intake (HR=0·31; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·88), independent of total Ca, was inversely related with risk of rectal cancer but gave little indication of association with colon cancer. However, total Ca intake (independent of dairy) was associated with risk of colon cancer (HR=0·55; 95 % CI 0·28, 0·98) and there was little indication of association with rectal cancer. Traditional regression analyses and associations with macronutrients from dairy generally supported these results. Milk intake was also negatively associated with CRC (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·89). Dairy intake may decrease the risk of rectal cancer, and Ca may reduce risk of colon cancer and CRC.

  7. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  8. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... (55%) than males (45%; P smoking, alcohol and sucrose consumption, subjective...

  11. Dietary Calcium Intake May Contribute to the HOMA-IR Score in Korean Females with Vitamin D Deficiency (2008–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitamin D and calcium are important factors involved in the regulation of blood glucose and insulin secretion. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR score is a useful variable for evaluating insulin resistance, and therefore we cross-sectionally compared HOMA-IR scores according to serum vitamin D levels and dietary calcium intake. Methods : We selected data from healthy males (n=5,163 and females (n=7,506 analyzed over 5 years (2008–2012 via the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. We calculated HOMA-IR scores and compared them according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentration classification (30 ng/mL and dietary calcium quintile after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis. Comparisons were done after data weighting. Results : The mean dietary calcium intake in males and females was 558.1 mg/day and 445.9 mg/day, respectively. The mean serum 25(OHD concentration in males and females was 19.4 ng/mL and 16.8 ng/mL, respectively. After adjustment for relevant variables, HOMA-IR score was significantly correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake in females, whereas it was only correlated with serum 25(OHD concentration in males. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the top quintile of dietary calcium intake (mean, 866 mg/day within females with vitamin D deficiency (P=0.047. Conclusion : Adequate dietary calcium intake may be important for normal HOMA-IR in females with vitamin D deficiency.

  12. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  13. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%, ii Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%, iii Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%, iv Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%, v High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%, and vi High Ca+maifanite (0.64%. Feces were collected by the total collection (TC and indicator method (IM. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01 in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (p<0.01 in pigs fed the high Ca diet with maifanite supplementation compared with the high Ca diet with cornstarch treatment. Dietary inclusion of maifanite had no effect on blood parameters in growing pigs. Conclusion Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the ATTD of Ca and P and serum parameters in growing pigs. The IM resulted in lower digestibility values than the TC method.

  14. Dietary maifanite supplementation did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li Li; Ming, Dong Xu; Dong, Shu Ren; Yang, Zhong Yue; Wang, Wen Hui; Zhang, Shuai; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary maifanite supplementation and fecal collection method on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and blood parameters in growing pigs. Methods Thirty-six growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire; 27.0±2.6 kg) were allotted to six dietary treatments with 6 pigs per treatment according to body weight in a completely randomized design. The experimental treatments were: i) Low Ca+cornstarch (2.25%), ii) Low Ca+maifanite (2.25%), iii) Medium Ca+cornstarch (1.42%), iv) Medium Ca+maifanite (1.42%), v) High Ca+cornstarch (0.64%), and vi) High Ca+maifanite (0.64%). Feces were collected by the total collection (TC) and indicator method (IM). At the beginning and the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from each pig. Results For the TC method, there were no difference in Ca intake, fecal Ca output, Ca retention and the ATTD of Ca between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. However, urinary Ca excretion was lower (p = 0.01) in pigs fed low Ca diets without maifanite supplementation compared with other dietary treatments. Dietary maifanite supplementation had no effect on the P metabolism in growing pigs. For the IM method, there was no difference in Ca digestibility between cornstarch and maifanite diets at the same dietary Ca level. The ATTD of P was greater (pdigestibility values than the TC method. PMID:28728391

  15. Low Calcium Intake in Midpregnancy Is Associated with Hypertension Development within 10 Years after Pregnancy: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Grace M; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Sakshaug, Solveig; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Vikse, Bjørn E; Haugen, Margaretha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Low dietary calcium intake may be a risk factor for hypertension, but studies conflict. Objective: We evaluated the ability to predict hypertension within 10 y after delivery based on calcium intake during midpregnancy. Methods: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study of women delivering in 2004-2009 was linked to the Norwegian Prescription Database (2004-2013) to ascertain antihypertensive medication usage >90 d after delivery. Women with hypertension before pregnancy were excluded, leaving 60,027 mothers for analyses. Age and energy-adjusted cubic splines evaluated dose-response curves, and Cox proportional hazard analyses evaluated HR and 95% CIs by calcium quartiles adjusting for 7 covariates. Analyses were stratified by gestational hypertension and by sodium-to-potassium intake ratio (pregnancy, and a mean follow-up duration of 7.1 ± 1.6 y. Cubic spline graphs identified a threshold effect of low calcium intake only within the range of dietary inadequacy related to increased risk. The lowest calcium quartile (≤738 mg/d; median: 588 mg/d), relative to the highest quartile (≥1254 mg/d), had an HR for hypertension of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.70) among women who were normotensive during pregnancy, and an HR of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.35) among women who had gestational hypertension, after adjusting for covariates. Women with gestational hypertension, who were in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, and who had a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio had a risk of hypertension more than double that of their counterparts with a calcium intake in the highest quartile. Results were attenuated by adjusting for covariates (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.39). Conclusions: The results suggest that low dietary calcium intake may be a risk factor or risk marker for the development of hypertension, particularly for women with a history of gestational hypertension. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Calcium intake and osteoporosis: the influence of calcium intake from dairy products on hip bone mineral density and fracture incidence - a population-based study in women over 55 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Kołota, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and is most frequently observed in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present population-based cohort study was to assess the influence of Ca intake from dairy sources on hip bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence in a group of Polish women over 55 years of age. The main outcome measures included: bone mineral density, the number of previous fractures and the reported Ca intake from dairy sources, assessed by a diet questionnaire. The RAC-OST-POL Study was conducted in the District of Raciborz in the south of Poland. The study was carried out in a group of 625 women, randomly recruited from the general population of women aged >55 years. Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with femoral neck T-score ≤-2·5 than in the group with T-score >-2·5 (275 v. 383 mg/d; P = 0·0019). For total hip score, the difference was close to borderline significance (P = 0·0698). Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with previous fractures than in those without fracture history (336 v. 395 mg/d; P = 0·0254). The main dairy source of Ca in the analysed group included milk drinks, rennet cheese and milk. Higher dairy Ca intake is recommended, since a number of the women analysed were unable to satisfy their Ca requirement exclusively from their diet.

  17. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  18. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmani Ghobadi Marya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  19. Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides using the pseudo inverse matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Si Wan; Sol, Jeong; Lee, Jai Ki; Lee, Jong Il; Kim, Jang Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Calculation of total number of disintegrations after intake of radioactive nuclides is indispensable to calculate a dose coefficient which means committed effective dose per unit activity (Sv/Bq). In order to calculate the total number of disintegrations analytically, Birch all's algorithm has been commonly used. As described below, an inverse matrix should be calculated in the algorithm. As biokinetic models have been complicated, however, the inverse matrix does not exist sometime and the total number of disintegrations cannot be calculated. Thus, a numerical method has been applied to DCAL code used to calculate dose coefficients in ICRP publication and IMBA code. In this study, however, we applied the pseudo inverse matrix to solve the problem that the inverse matrix does not exist for. In order to validate our method, the method was applied to two examples and the results were compared to the tabulated data in ICRP publication. MATLAB 2012a was used to calculate the total number of disintegrations and exp m and p inv MATLAB built in functions were employed

  20. [The concentration of ionized and total calcium in the blood of female dogs with uterine inertia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A; Schwab, A

    1990-12-01

    Blood values of calcium, inorganic phosphate and magnesium were estimated in 26 bitches one day before parturition, on the day of parturition and daily for 6 days post partum. In 17 of these 26 animals the diagnosis was dystocia because of uterine inertia. A comparison of calcium levels between those bitches giving birth spontaneously and those requiring assistance gave no indication that blood calcium deficiency was the cause of uterine inertia.

  1. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  2. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russnes, Kjell M.; Möller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Carlsen, Monica; Blomhoff, Rune; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Grönberg, Henrik; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case–control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was used to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of diet and supplements. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer across quintiles of antioxidant intake from all foods, from fruit and vegetables only, and from dietary supplements using unconditional logistic regression. Coffee comprised 62 % of the dietary antioxidant intake, tea 4 %, berries 4 %, chocolate 2 %, and boiled potatoes 2 %. In total 19 % and 13 % of the population took multivitamins and supplemental Vitamin C respectively, on a regular basis. Antioxidant intake from all foods and from fruits and vegetables separately measured by the FRAP assay was not associated with prostate cancer risk. For antioxidant intake from supplements we found a positive association with total, advanced, localized, high grade and low grade prostate cancer in those above median supplemental TAC intake of users compared to non-users (Adjusted ORs for total prostate cancer: 1.37, 95 % CI 1.08–1.73, advanced: 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11–2.06, localized: 1.36. 95 % CI 1.06–1.76, high grade 1.60, 95 % CI 1.06–2.40, low grade 1.36, 95 % CI 1.03–1.81). A high intake of coffee (≥6 cups/day) was associated with a possible risk reduction of fatal and significantly with reduced risk for high grade prostate cancer, adjusted OR: 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.22–0.90), whereas a high intake of chocolate was positively associated with risk of total, advanced, localized and low grade disease (adjusted OR for total: 1.43, 95 % CI 1.12–1.82, advanced: 1

  3. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  4. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  5. Effects of total vitamin A, vitamin C, and fruit intake on risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Ham, Jung-O; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether the consumption of antioxidants prevents and alleviates metabolic syndrome (MetS) by reducing insulin resistance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of vitamin A (including β-carotene), vitamin C, fruits, or vegetables was negatively associated with MetS in Korean adults aged ≥ 20 y. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 27,656 adults ≥ 20 y of age who participated in the 2007-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Daily intake of vitamin A and vitamin C was assessed by 24-h recall, and the consumption of fruits and vegetables was determined using a food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) for MetS were calculated for log2-transformed vitamin A and C intake values and for the interaction of sex with vitamin A and C intake, after covariate adjustment. Interactions were seen between total vitamin A and C intake and sex for MetS. With a twofold increase in total vitamin A and C intake in women, the ORs (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 0.942 (0.901-0.985) and 0.933 (0.883-0.987), indicating decreases of 5.8% and 6.7% in MetS, respectively. There were no equivalent decreases in men. Women in the second and highest tertiles of fruit intake exhibited 17.5% and 21.8% lower incidences of MetS, respectively, compared with women in the lowest tertile. The intake of total vitamin A and C, as well as moderate and high fruit intake, may have alleviated MetS in women, but not in men, in a representative sample of the general South Korean population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of oral drenching with zinc oxide or synthetic zeolite A on total blood calcium in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R. J.; Hansen, T.; Jensen, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Danish Holstein dairy cows in late lactation and milked in the morning only were used as a model for dry pregnant cows to determine the effect of oral drenching with zeolite A and zinc oxide, respectively, on total serum calcium. Ten cows were assigned randomly to two groups of five cows each......, given either synthetic zeolite A (group A) or zinc oxide (group B). Blood samples were drawn daily at 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. during the whole experiment, and total serum calcium was determined. Daily fluctuations in blood calcium were recorded, with morning values being consistently lower than evening...... values. Oral drenching with a single dose of zinc oxide of 100 mg/kg of body weight as well as with zeolite in doses of 500 g of zeolite/cow twice a day for 2.5 d was reflected in serum calcium levels. In the group given zeolite A, there was a depression in evening values of total serum calcium although...

  7. Calcium, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a fasting and non-fasting week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Vardavas, Constantine; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-10-01

    To assess the Ca, nutrient and food intake of Greek Orthodox Christian monks during a vegetarian-type fasting week, compared with their normal diet. Dietary data collection (using 7 d weighed food records), anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, as well as serum glucose and lipid analyses, were performed during Palm Sunday week (fasting) and the week following Pentecost Sunday (non-fasting). Mean daily nutrient and food (g/d) intakes were calculated from the food records. The study took place in two monasteries in the Municipality of Heraklion, Crete. The study involved ten healthy monks aged 25-65 years, with BMI > 30 kg/m2, who had been performing fasts for the last 24.4 (SD 10.4) years and lived in monasteries in Crete during April-June 2005. Nutrient and food intake profiles were more favourable during the fasting week, when participants had lower intakes of total and saturated fat and trans-fatty acids, and higher intakes of dietary fibre, Fe, folate, legumes and fish/seafood. Ca intake was lower when participants fasted, whereas consumption of dairy products, meat and eggs increased significantly in the non-fasting week. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, whereas blood lipid levels were more favourable during the fasting week. The periodic vegetarianism recommended by the Greek Orthodox Church contributes to the favourable profiles of several biomarkers of health among this sample of monks. The fasting rituals described are an important component of the traditional diet of Crete and should be emphasised in nutrition education programmes promoting this Mediterranean eating pattern.

  8. Calcium balance in dialysis is best managed by adjusting dialysate calcium guided by kinetic modeling of the interrelationship between calcium intake, dose of vitamin D analogues and the dialysate calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Frank; Levin, Nathan W; Kotanko, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Calcium mass balance (Ca(MB)) is determined by the difference between Ca absorbed between dialyses (Ca(Abs)) and the Ca removed during dialysis (J(d)Ca(2+)). A mathematical model to quantify (1) Ca(Abs) as a function of Ca intake (Ca(INT)) and the doses of vitamin D analogues, and (2) J(d)Ca(2+) as a function of Ca(2+) dialysance, the mean plasma Ca(2+) ((M)C(pi)Ca(2+)) minus dialysate Ca(2+) (C(di)Ca(2+)), ultrafiltration rate (Q(f)) and treatment time is developed in this paper. The model revealed a basic design flaw in clinical studies of Ca-based as opposed to non-Ca-based binders in that C(di)Ca(2+) must be reduced with the Ca-based binders in order to avoid a positive Ca(MB) relative to the non-Ca-based binders. The model was also used to analyze Ca(MB) in 320 Renal Research Institute hemodialysis patients and showed that all patients irrespective of type of binder were in positive Ca(MB) between dialyses (mean +/- SD 160 +/- 67 mg/day) with current doses of vitamin D analogues prescribed. Calculation of the optimal C(di)Ca(2+) for the 320 Renal Research Institute patients revealed that in virtually all instances, the C(di)Ca(2+) required for neutral Ca(MB), where Ca removal during dialysis was equal to Ca accumulation between dialyses, was less than 2.50 mEq/l and averaged about 2.00 mEq/l. This sharply contradicts the recent KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease - Mineral and Bone Disorder, that suggests a C(di)Ca(2+) of 2.5-3.0 mEq/l. Review of the KDIGO work group discussions shows that this discrepancy stems from the unwarranted work group assumption that intradialytic Ca(MB) is zero. We strongly believe that this guideline for dialysate Ca(2+) is inappropriate and should be modified to more realistically reflect the needs of dialysis patients. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children th...

  10. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  11. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The trends in total energy, macronutrients and sodium intake among Japanese: findings from the 1995-2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Aki; Imai, Shino; Htun, Nay Chi; Okada, Emiko; Yoshita, Katsushi; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-06-04

    Monitoring nutritional status of the population is essential in the development and evaluation of national or local health policies. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate analysis on the trends in dietary intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as Na, in Japanese population using the data of series of cross-sectional national surveys - the National Nutrition Survey (NNS) and the National Health Nutrition Survey (NHNS) - during the period from 1995 to 2016. The NNS and NHNS participants aged 20-79 years were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was estimated using 1-d household-based dietary record. The trend in total energy intake, energy intake from macronutrients (fat and protein), Na intake and energy-adjusted Na intake were analysed using regression models adjusted to 2010 age distribution and anthropometry status. A total of 94 270 men and 107 890 women were included the analysis. Total energy intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. Similarly, energy intake from protein decreased, but energy intake (%) from fat increased in both sexes. Energy-adjusted Na intake showed a decreasing trend in both men and women. This study identified the decrease in total energy intake and energy intake from protein, whereas there were inverse trends in energy intake from fat among Japanese adults. Continued monitoring of trends in dietary intake will be needed, and there should be efforts to increase the accuracy of current survey procedures.

  13. Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Cayssials, Valerie; Jenab, Mazda

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and ...

  14. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  15. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes

  16. The J-shape association of ethanol intake with total homocysteine concentrations: the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitsavos Christos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest a non-monotonic effect of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk, while there is strong evidence concerning the involvement of homocysteine levels on thrombosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association between usual ethanol consumption and homocysteine levels, in cardiovascular disease free adults. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 women, without any evidence of cardiovascular disease, stratified by age – gender (census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, Greece. Among the variables ascertained we measured the daily ethanol consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Results Data analysis revealed a J-shape association between ethanol intake (none, 48 gr per day and total homocysteine levels (mean ± standard deviation among males (13 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 4 vs. 18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 3 μmol/L, respectively, p Conclusion We observed a J-shape relationship between homocysteine concentrations and the amount of ethanol usually consumed.

  17. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  18. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population--results of an Italian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Massimo; Lanzi, Sabina; D'Evoli, Laura; Aguzzi, Altero; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra

    2006-05-01

    The present study focused on vitamin A and carotenoids (alpha-and beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) daily intake from the Italian total diet. The input of some food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, meat and meat products, fish) most responsible for major and minor contributions to the daily intake of these molecules was evaluated. Furthermore the contribution to the dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein of the most consumed vegetables in the market basket of the Italian total diet (beets, brassica vegetables, carrots, chicory, courgette (zucchini), green beans, lettuce, peas, pepper, spinach, tomatoes) was also investigated. Vitamin A daily intake was 855 mg/person/day. The vegetables food group made the greatest contribution (37%), followed by the meat and meat products food group (23%). The Italian total diet provided 14.3 mg/person/day of carotenoids; lycopene was the highest (7.4 mg/day), followed by lutein + zeaxanthin (4 mg/day), beta-carotene (2.6 mg/day), alpha-carotene (0.15 mg/day), and beta-cryptoxanthin (0.17 mg/day). Carrots and tomatoes were the main sources of beta-carotene in the diet, otherwise the daily consumption of leafy vegetables (spinach, beets, lettuce) made the main contribution to lutein + zeaxanthin daily intake.

  19. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-04-20

    Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9-75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  1. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  2. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nissensohn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2 for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9 for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1, of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39 and EI (r = 0.23, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern.

  3. Better functional mobility in community-dwelling elderly is related to D-hormone serum levels and to daily calcium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Staehelin, H B; Schacht, E; Bischoff, H A

    2005-01-01

    The influence of calcitropic hormones on functional mobility has been studied in vitamin D (calcidiol) deficient elderly or elderly with a history of falls, however, data in community-dwelling independent vitamin D replete elderly are missing. We therefore assessed in an observational survey the association of calcidiol (25(OH)D3) and calcitriol (D-hormone / 1,25(OH)2D3) status as well as of daily calcium intake on functional mobility in older subjects We evaluated 192 women and 188 men, aged superior 70 years and living independently. Average Timed-up and go test (TUG-test) in seconds was taken as measure of functional mobility. Calcidiol and D-hormone serum concentrations and daily calcium intake were studied in multivariate controlled linear regression models with TUG-test performance as the dependent variable and/or as dichotomous variables (deficient vs. non-deficient, above vs. below the median, respectively). Subjects with low D-hormone serum concentrations took significantly more time to perform the TUG-test (low = 7.70s +/- 2.52 SD ; high = 6.70s +/- 1.29 SD; p = 0.004). In the linear multivariate controlled regression model increased D-hormone serum concentrations predicted better TUG-test performance (estimate -0.0007, p = 0.044). Participants with a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day were significantly faster to perform the TUG-test than participants with a daily calcium intake of better TUG-test performance in both models were: male gender, less comorbid conditions, younger age, lower BMI, iPTH serum levels and creatinine clearance. Calcidiol serum levels were not associated with TUG-test performance. Higher D-hormone status and a calcium intake of > or =512 mg/day in community-dwelling independent older persons are significant determinants of better functional mobility. Therefore, to ensure optimal functional mobility, the care of older persons should address correction of D-hormone deficiency and increasing daily calcium intake.

  4. Seasonality of food groups and total energy intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach-Mardas, M; Kleiser, C; Uzhova, I; Peñalvo, J L; La Torre, G; Palys, W; Lojko, D; Nimptsch, K; Suwalska, A; Linseisen, J; Saulle, R; Colamesta, V; Boeing, H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of season on food intake from selected food groups and on energy intake in adults. The search process was based on selecting publications listed in the following: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase and Agris. Food frequency questionnaires, 24-h dietary recalls and food records as methods for assessment of dietary intake were used to assess changes in the consumption of 11 food groups and of energy intake across seasons. A meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-six studies were included. Articles were divided into those reporting data on four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) or on two seasons (pre-and post-harvest). Four of the studies could be utilized for meta-analysis describing changes in food consumption across four season scheme: from winter to spring fruits decreased, whereas vegetables, eggs and alcoholic beverages increased; from spring to summer vegetable consumption further increased and cereals decreased; from summer to autumn fruits and cereals increased and vegetables, meat, eggs and alcoholic beverages decreased; from autumn to winter cereals decreased. A significant association was also found between energy intake and season, for 13 studies reporting energy intake across four seasons (favors winter) and for eight studies across pre- and post-harvest seasons (favors post-harvest). The winter or the post-harvest season is associated with increased energy intake. The intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, cereals and alcoholic beverages is following a seasonal consumption pattern and at least for these foods season is determinant of intake.

  5. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Arredondo, Myriam Lucia; Pinilla Betancourt, Magda Catalina; Borrero Yoshida, Martha Lucia; Castro Herrera, Vivian Maritza; García Vega, Ángela Sofía; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Juanita Carolina; Sequeda, Gonzalo; Diez, Ofelia; Lucci, Paolo; Salcedo-Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin...

  6. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These fi...

  7. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  8. Calcium intake and the associations with faecal fat and energy excretion, and lipid profile in a free-living population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-01-01

    registration (days 1–7), a 5-d faeces collection (days 3–7), a 2-d urine collection (days 5–7), and anthropometric measurements and a fasting blood sample (day 8) were collected. Analyses showed that dietary Ca intake (g/10 MJ per d) was positively associated with excretion of faecal fat (P = 0·004) and energy......·96, −0·28) mmol/l, P food products in a habitual diet was associated with reduced total CHOL and LDL-CHOL concentrations, which may lower...

  9. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Christensen, L. B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss >= 3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium...... to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk...... of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings....

  10. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Marya, Rehmani; Rastegar, Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  11. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Lotta; Lind, Torbjörn; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia; Sandström, Ann-Kristin; Hernell, Olle; Öhlund, Inger

    2017-06-30

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5-7-year-old children ( n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and -4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and -865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children.

  12. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie 120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  13. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  14. Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138% greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%. Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent.

  15. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04 using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7 for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4 for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5 (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6 for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5 for women. The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4; and with EI (r = 0.2, suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations.

  16. Adequacy of the dietary intake of total and added sugars in the Spanish diet to the recommendations: ANIBES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-10-15

    The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 17% Total TE: 7.3% for added, and 9.6% for the intrinsic sugar intake. Differences were observed for added sugar which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. A 58.2% of children fullfill WHO recommndations (sugar were milk and dairy products (23.2%), non-alcoholic beverages (18.6%), fruits (16.8%) and sugars and sweets (15.1%) and grains (12.0%). The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4.94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%). As for free sugars, sources were sugars and sweets (34.1%), non-alcoholic beverages (30.8%, mainly as sugar soft drinks, 25.5%) and grains (19.1%, principally as bakery and pastry, 15.2%). The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total and added sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations.

  17. Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2008-01-01

    Background Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts. PMID:18645244

  18. Nutrient Intake and Contribution of Home Enteral Nutrition to Meeting Nutritional Requirements after Oesophagectomy and Total Gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Melanie L; Halliday, Vanessa; Robinson, Pauline; Smith, Karen; Bowrey, David J

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study evaluated nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection and the influence of home jejunostomy feeding in the six months after surgery. Subjects/Methods Data on nutritional intake and physiologic measures were collected as part of a randomised trial with measurements taken before and up to six months after surgery. Results 41 participants (32 oesophagectomy, 9 total gastrectomy) received home jejunostomy feeding (n=18) or usual care without feeding (n=23). At hospital discharge, oral intakes were adequate for energy and protein in 9% and 6% respectively. By three and six months, these values had increased to 61% & 55%, 94% & 77% respectively. Six participants (26%) who received usual care required rescue feeding. Six weeks after hospital discharge, energy intakes were met in those who received jejunal feeding due to the contribution of enteral nutrition. Jejunal feeding did not affect oral intake, being similar in both groups (fed: 77% estimated need, usual care: 79%). At three months, inadequate micronutrient intakes were seen in over one third. Compared to baseline values, six weeks after surgery, weight loss exceeding 5% was seen in 5/18 (28%) who received feeding, 14/17 (82%) who received usual care and 5/6 (83%) of those who required rescue feeding, p=0.002. Weight loss averaged 4.1% (fed), 10.4% (usual care) and 9.2% (rescue fed), p=0.004. These trends persisted out to six months. Conclusions Supplementary jejunostomy feeding made an important contribution to meeting nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection. Importantly, oral nutritional intake was not compromised dispelling the assertion that jejunal feeding deincentivises patients from eating. PMID:28656968

  19. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  20. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season. An electronic database search was conducted on the SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE (January 1990-31 January 2015) databases using a combination of relevant keywords. Two independent reviewers identified potentially relevant studies. Where a consensus was not reached, a third reviewer was consulted. Original research articles that examined TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in 18-40-year-old endurance athletes and reported the seasonal training phases of data assessment were included in the review. Articles were excluded if body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements, TEE was assessed by questionnaires, or data could not be split between the sexes. Two reviewers assessed the quality of studies independently. Data on subject characteristics, TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition were extracted from the included studies. Subjects were categorized according to their sex and endurance discipline and each study allocated a weight within categories based on the number of subjects assessed. Extracted data were used to calculate weighted means and standard deviations for parameters of TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition. From 3589 citations, 321 articles were identified as potentially relevant, with 82 meeting all of the inclusion criteria. TEE of endurance athletes was

  1. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1 Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clarke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously. In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K.

  2. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  3. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  5. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2013-11-20

    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  6. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A.; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Objectives: Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-b...

  7. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  8. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E; Johnson, Zachary

    2013-03-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (2005, Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  11. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  12. Genistein, a phytoestrogen, improves total cholesterol, and Synergy, a prebiotic, improves calcium utilization, but there were no synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, LeeCole L; Lee, Wang-Hee; Martin, Berdine R; Story, Jon A; Arabshahi, Ali; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M

    2011-08-01

    Prebiotics and phytoestrogens have sparked great interest because evidence indicates that the consumption of these dietary constituents leads to lower cholesterol levels and inhibition of postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of both a prebiotic (Synergy) and a phytoestrogen (genistein) on bone and blood lipid levels in an animal model of postmenopausal women. A 4-week feeding study was conducted in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats to examine the effect of genistein, Synergy (a prebiotic), and genistein and Synergy combined on bone density and strength, calcium metabolism, and lipid biomarkers. There were six treatment groups: sham control, OVX control, OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections, and OVX rats receiving an AIN-93M diet supplement with 200 ppm genistein, with 5% Synergy or with 200 ppm genistein and 5% Synergy combined. The rats receiving genistein had significantly lower total serum cholesterol concentrations than OVX rats in the control group (17%), OVX rats receiving daily estradiol injections (14%), and OVX rats fed the 5% Synergy diet (19%). Consumption of Synergy improved calcium absorption efficiency (41%) compared with nonconsumption (OVX control). Sham control rats had a significantly higher femoral bone density, as determined by underwater weighing, than did the rats in all of the OVX groups. Genistein consumption restored total and trabecular bone mineral density at the distal femur similar to the levels of sham rats. Genistein supplementation imparts modest heart health benefits and improves bone geometry at the distal femur, and prebiotic consumption (Synergy) results in improved calcium utilization strength in ovariectomized rats, but the combination produced no synergistic effects.

  13. Molecular imaging of in vivo calcium ion expression in area postrema of total sleep deprived rats: Implications for cardiovascular regulation by TOF-SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Li-You; Ling, Yong-Chien; Chen, Bo-Jung; Wu, Un-In; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Excessive calcium influx in chemosensitive neurons of area postrema (AP) is detrimental for sympathetic activation and participates in the disruption of cardiovascular activities. Since total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a stressful condition known to harm the cardiovascular function, the present study is aimed to determine whether the in vivo calcium expression in AP would significantly alter following TSD by the use of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and calretinin (a specific calcium sensor protein in AP neurons) immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that in normal rats, the calcium intensity was estimated to be 0.5 × 10 5 at m/ z 40.08. However, following TSD, the intensity for calcium ions was greatly increased to 1.2 × 10 5. Molecular imaging revealed that after TSD, various strongly expressed calcium signals were distributed throughout AP with clear identified profiles instead of randomly scattered within this region in normal rats. Immunohistochemical staining corresponded well with ionic image in which a majority of calcium-enriched gathering co-localized with calretinin positive neurons. The functional significance of TSD-induced calcium augmentation was demonstrated by increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, clinical markers for cardiovascular dysfunction. Considering AP-mediated sympathetic activation is important for cardiovascular regulation, exaggerated calcium influx in AP would render this neurocircuitry more vulnerable to over-excitation, which might serve as the underlying mechanism for the development of TSD-relevant cardiovascular deficiency.

  14. Quantitation of the degree of osteoporosis by measure of total-body calcium employing neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A.; Wallach, S.; Aloia, J.; Ellis, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two techniques for measuring the amount of Ca in the total skeleton were employed: total-body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) and the determination of the mineral content of a bone of the appendicular skeleton (absorptiometric measurement of the radius, BMC). (U.S.)

  15. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  16. Estimating Inorganic Arsenic Exposure from U.S. Rice and Total Water Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Madhavi; Yeary, Edward; Trent, John; Creed, Patricia A; Kubachka, Kevin; Hanley, Traci; Shockey, Nohora; Heitkemper, Douglas; Caruso, Joseph; Xue, Jianping; Rice, Glenn; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2017-05-30

    Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered primary exposure pathways for inorganic arsenic (iAs). In drinking water, iAs is the primary form of arsenic (As), while dietary As speciation techniques are used to differentiate iAs from less toxic arsenicals in food matrices. Our goal was to estimate the distribution of iAs exposure rates from drinking water intakes and rice consumption in the U.S. population and ethnic- and age-based subpopulations. The distribution of iAs in drinking water was estimated by population, weighting the iAs concentrations for each drinking water utility in the Second Six-Year Review data set. To estimate the distribution of iAs concentrations in rice ingested by U.S. consumers, 54 grain-specific, production-weighted composites of rice obtained from U.S. mills were extracted and speciated using both a quantitative dilute nitric acid extraction and speciation (DNAS) and an in vitro gastrointestinal assay to provide an upper bound and bioaccessible estimates, respectively. Daily drinking water intake and rice consumption rate distributions were developed using data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) study. Using these data sets, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model estimated mean iAs exposures from drinking water and rice were 4.2 μg/day and 1.4 μg/day, respectively, for the entire U.S. population. The Tribal, Asian, and Pacific population exhibited the highest mean daily exposure of iAs from cooked rice (2.8 μg/day); the mean exposure rate for children between ages 1 and 2 years in this population is 0.104 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day. An average consumer drinking 1.5 L of water daily that contains between 2 and 3 ng iAs/mL is exposed to approximately the same amount of iAs as a mean Tribal, Asian, and Pacific consumer is exposed to from rice. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP418. Among nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents, drinking water and diet are considered

  17. Calcium levels and calcium: available phosphorus ratios in diets for white egg layers from 42 to 58 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Marques Pastore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional requirement of calcium and the best calcium:available phosphorus ratio for commercial layers at the post-laying peak. A total of 324 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were utilized in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, composed of three levels of calcium (39, 42 and 45 g/kg and three calcium:phosphorus ratios (12.12:1; 10.53:1; and 9.30:1, totaling nine treatments with six replications and six birds per experimental unit. There was no significant effect from the calcium levels × calcium:phosphorus ratio interaction for any of the variables studied. The calcium levels and the calcium:phosphorus ratios did not affect the variables performance or egg and bone quality. At the evaluation of the calcium:phosphorus balance, as the levels of calcium of the diet were raised, the intake of calcium and phosphorus and the contents of mineral matter and calcium in the excreta increased linearly, and the retention of calcium by birds decreased linearly. With the reduction of the calcium:phosphorus ratios of the diet, intake, retention and excretion of phosphorus by layers increased. Diets containing calcium at 39 g/kg and a calcium:phosphorus ratio of 12.12:1, corresponding to an increase in calcium of 3.51 g/bird/day and available phosphorus of 289 mg/bird/day, meet the requirements of calcium and available phosphorus of white egg layers in the period from 42 to 58 weeks of age.

  18. Urbanization of black South African women may increase risk of low bone mass due to low vitamin D status, low calcium intake, and high bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-10-01

    Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Intakes of Total and Free Sugars in Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, Gemma; Mukhtar, Aqif; Begley, Andrea; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2017-11-08

    Background : Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods : The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report. Ninety-five parents of Australian toddlers completed the questionnaire online before and after providing three 24-h recalls (24HR), collected on non-consecutive days using the multipass method. Total and free sugars were compared between the two SMILE-FFQ administrations and between each SMILE-FFQ and the 24HR using multiple statistical tests and standardised validity criteria. Correlation (Pearson), mean difference (Wilcoxon rank test) and Bland Altman analyses were conducted to compare absolute values, with cross-classification (Chi-Square and Weighted Kappa) used to compare agreement across tertiles. Results : All reproducibility tests showed good agreement except weighted kappa, which showed acceptable agreement. Relative validity tests revealed a mix of good and acceptable agreement, with total sugars performing better at the individual level than free sugars. Compared to the 24HR, the SMILE-FFQ tended to underestimate absolute values at lower levels and overestimate them at higher levels. Conclusions : The combined findings of the various tests indicate that the SMILE-FFQ performs comparably to the 24HR for assessing both total and free sugars among individuals, is most effective for ranking participants rather than determining absolute intakes, and is therefore suitable for use in observational studies of Australian toddlers.

  1. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site...... and histological type in the EPIC study. Coffee and tea consumption was assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found......) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive...

  3. Consumo e digestibilidades aparentes total e parciais do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis Intake, total and partial apparent digestibilities of Stylosanthes guianensis hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Ladeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se sete carneiros, sem raça definida, fistulados no rúmen e duodeno, para avaliar o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL e hemicelulose (HCEL do feno de Stylosanthes guianensis. Os animais receberam apenas feno de S. guianensis mais sal mineral como componentes da dieta. O fornecimento do feno foi ad libitum, sendo a quantidade calculada para permitir sobras de 20%. Utilizou-se óxido crômico como indicador para estimar a produção de fezes e o fluxo de digesta no duodeno. Os consumos de MS e MO do S. guianensis foram 67,71 e 64,70 g/kg0,75, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO, PB, FDN e FDA foram 49,2, 51,3, 61,2, 42,0 e 42,7%, respectivamente. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminais da MS, MO, FDN e FDA foram 75,8, 84,7, 89,6 e 90,6%, respectivamente, em função do total digerido. A digestibilidade ruminal da PB foi 21,3%. Concluiu-se que o feno de S. guianensis, colhido em estádio de maturidade avançada, pode ser indicado para ruminantes, pois seu consumo é capaz de atender às necessidades energéticas de mantença já que seus valores, apesar de sua digestibilidade não ser elevada, são ligeiramente maiores do que os de outras forrageiras tropicais.Seven rumen and duodenal cannulated lambs were used to evaluate the intake and the total and the partial apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL and hemicellulose (HCEL of the Stylosanthes guianensis hay. The diet was composed by the hay of S. guianensis plus mineral salt. The hay was offered ad libitum with the refusals estimated for being 20%. Chromium oxide was used as an external marker, to estimate fecal production and digesta

  4. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  5. Dietary intake estimations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) based on a total diet study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, K; Takatori, S; Nakazawa, H; Hayakawa, K; Izumi, S; Makino, T

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a total diet study performed for estimating the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of 36 PBDEs were measured in samples from 14 food groups (Groups I-XIV). PBDEs were detected only in Groups IV (oils and fats), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 1.8, 0.03, 0.48, and 0.01 ng g⁻¹, respectively. For an average person, the lower bound dietary intakes of penta- and deca-formulations were estimated to be 46 and 21 ng day⁻¹, respectively. A high proportion of the decabrominated congener (DeBDE-209) was observed in Group IV. To confirm the presence of DeBDE-209 in vegetable oils, an additional analysis was performed using 18 vegetable oil samples. Of these, seven contained ng g⁻¹ levels of DeBDE-209.

  6. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  7. Total energy intake may be more associated with glycemic control compared to each proportion of macronutrients in the korean diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Major macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans. A total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years) who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire. High total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002). Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted. Total energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  8. Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor macronutrients for energy intake vary among countries and cultures. Carbohydrates, including rice, are the major component of daily energy intake in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the association of daily energy intake or each proportion of macronutrients, especially carbohydrates, with glycemic control in diabetic Koreans.MethodsA total of 334 individuals with diabetes (175 men, age 57.4±0.8 years; 159 women, age 60.9±0.9 years who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. Glycemic control was categorized based on concentration of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; HbA1c ≤6.5%; 6.6% to 8.0%; ≥8.1%. Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24-recall item questionnaire.ResultsHigh total energy intake was associated with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≤6.5%, 1,824±75 kcal; 6.6% to 8.0%, 1,990±57 kcal; ≥8.1%, 2,144±73 kcal; P value for trend=0.002. Each proportion of protein, fat, or carbohydrate was not associated with glycemic control. Even after adjusting for several parameters, the association of daily energy intake with glycemic control still persisted.ConclusionTotal energy intake may be more closely related to glycemic control than each proportionof macronutrients in Korean diabetics.

  9. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  10. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    Weaned Nellore bulls ( = 36; 274 ± 34 kg) were used in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate intake, fecal excretion, and performance with different concentrations of minerals. Experimental diets were formulated with 2 concentrations of Ca and P (macromineral factor; diet supplying 100% of Ca and P according to BR-CORTE () [CaP+] or diet without limestone and dicalcium phosphate [CaP-]) and 2 concentrations of microminerals (micromineral factor; diet with supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn+] or diet without supplementation of microminerals [Zn, Mn, and Cu; CuMnZn-]). The factor CaP- was formulated without the addition of limestone and dicalcium phosphate, and the factor CuMnZn- was formulated without inorganic supplementation of microminerals (premix). The diets were isonitrogenous (13.3% CP). Intake was individually monitored every day. Indigestible NDF was used as an internal marker for digestibility estimates. The bulls were slaughtered (84 or 147 d on feed), and then carcass characteristics were measured and liver and rib samples were collected. Feed, feces, rib bones, and liver samples were analyzed for DM, ash, CP, ether extract (EE), Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu. There were no significant interactions ( ≥ 0.06) between macro- and micromineral supplementation for any variables in the study. Calcium, P, and micromineral concentrations did not affect ( ≥ 0.20) intake of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CP, TDN, and nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). Calcium and P intake were affected ( < 0.01) by macromineral factor. Animals fed without Ca and P supplementation consumed less of these minerals. Dry matter and nutrient fecal excretion (OM, NDF, EE, CP, and NFC) were similar ( ≥ 0.23) among all factors. Performance and carcass characteristics were similar ( ≥ 0.09) among diets. The content of ash in rib bones was not affected by diets ( ≥ 0.06). Plasma P and phosphatase alkaline concentrations were similar (

  11. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  12. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  13. Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudray, Charles; Rambeau, Mathieu; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Tressol, Jean Claude; Demigne, Christian; Gueux, Elyett; Mazur, Andrzej; Rayssiguier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Background previous studies have shown that non-digestible inulin-type fructan intake can increase intestinal mineral absorption in both humans and animals. However, this stimulatory effect on intestinal absorption may depend on experimental conditions such as duration of fermentable fiber intake, mineral diet levels and animals' physiological status, in particular their age. Objectives the aim of this study was to determine the effect of inulin intake on Ca and Mg absorption in rats at different age stages. Methods eighty male Wistar rats of four different ages (2, 5, 10 and 20 months) were randomized into either a control group or a group receiving 3.75% inulin in their diet for 4 days and then 7.5% inulin for three weeks. The animals were fed fresh food and water ad libitum for the duration of the experiment. Intestinal absorption of Ca and Mg was determined by fecal monitoring using stable isotopic tracers. Ca and Mg status was also assessed. Results absorption of Ca and Mg was significantly lower in the aged rats (10 and 20 mo) than in the young and adult rat groups. As expected, inulin intake increased Ca and Mg absorption in all four rat groups. However, inulin had a numerically greater effect on Ca absorption in aged rats than in younger rats whereas its effect on Mg absorption remained similar across all four rat age groups. Conclusion the extent of the stimulatory effect of inulin on absorption of Ca may differ according to animal ages. Further studies are required to explore this effect over longer inulin intake periods, and to confirm these results in humans. PMID:16253138

  14. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  15. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M. C.; Koyratty, B. N. S.; Wang, D.; Jacquier, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13‐year‐old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Results Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d−1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d−1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d−1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar‐sweetened beverages and milk‐based beverages among Mexican and US children. Conclusions These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country‐specific public health recommendations on sugars. PMID:28960843

  16. Intakes and sources of total and added sugars among 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, M C; Koyratty, B N S; Wang, D; Jacquier, E F; Lê, K-A

    2018-04-01

    Intakes of dietary sugars is a global concern, and many national and international organizations have set targets to limit consumption. However, it is unclear to what extent intakes of total and added sugars vary between geographies. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in intakes of total and added sugars in 4 to 13-year-old children in China, Mexico and the United States. The secondary aim was to identify main sources of total and added sugars in the diets of these children. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, and 2009-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Total and added sugar intakes were calculated using the US Food Patterns Equivalents Database. Mean intakes of total and added sugars were 26 and 9 g d -1 among Chinese children, 92 and 55 g d -1 among Mexican children, and 124 and 76 g d -1 among US children, respectively. The top food sources of total sugars were fruits among Chinese children, and sugar-sweetened beverages and milk-based beverages among Mexican and US children. These data highlight the heterogeneity of food patterns worldwide and the need for adapted country-specific public health recommendations on sugars. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  17. Young adolescents who respond to an inulin-type fructan substantially increase total absorbed calcium and daily calcium accretion to the skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium absorption and whole-body bone mineral content are greater in young adolescents who receive 8 g/d of Synergy, a mixture of inulin-type fructans (ITF), compared with those who received a maltodextrin control. Not all adolescents responded to this intervention, however. We evaluated 32 respond...

  18. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  19. At-Home and Away-from-Home Eating Patterns Influencing Preadolescents' Intake of Calcium-Rich Food as Perceived by Asian, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Olson, Beth; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A.; Boushey, Carol J.; Bruhn, Christine; Goldberg, Dena; Misner, Scottie; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore at-home and away-from-home eating patterns influencing Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white preadolescents' intake of calcium-rich food from a parental perspective. Design: Individual semistructured interviews. Setting: Home or community site. Participants: Convenience sample (n = 201) of self-reported Asian (n = 54),…

  20. Misreporting of energy intake in the elderly using doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Danit R; Yu, Binbing; Houston, Denise K; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Tylavsky, Frances A; Lee, Jung Sun; Harris, Tamara B

    2010-02-01

    One of the major problems in dietary assessment is inaccuracy in reporting diet. To examine the association between self-reported energy intake (EI) by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and energy expenditure (EE), measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), among older persons. EE was assessed in 298 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (70-79 years of age) over a 2-week period using DLW. Dietary intake was assessed using a Block FFQ. The ratio between reported EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated. Misreporting was defined as follows: participants with an EI/TEE ratio of reporters, while participants with an EI/TEE ratio >1.28 were categorized as high energy reporters. Participants with an EI/TEE ratio of 0.77-1.28 were categorized as "true" energy reporters. One-year percent weight change prior to EE visit was used as another validation indicator. Participants who were low energy reporters but lost >2% of their body weight were categorized as undereaters. Two hundred ninety-six participants provided both FFQ and DLW measurements. Forty-three percent of participants were low energy reporters; among them, almost 30% lost weight and, therefore, were categorized as undereaters. The undereaters consumed significantly fewer calories. No difference in the frequency of low energy reporting was detected between genders or racial groups. Underreporters had significantly higher body weight than "true" or high reporters. Undereaters tended to have higher body mass index than the underreporters. Undereating is prevalent in the elderly and may be falsely perceived as underreporting. It should be further addressed and characterized in future studies.

  1. Red meat and poultry intakes and risk of total and cause-specific mortality: results from cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Takata

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD, in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35 and 0.92 (0.82-1.03, respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P = 0.01. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.05-1.89 and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.87. There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red

  2. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  3. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the rising consumption of coffee worldwide, few prospective cohort studies assessed the association of coffee intake with mortality including total and major causes of death. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual coffee drinking and mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale, population-based cohort study in Japan. We studied 90,914 Japanese persons aged between 40 and 69 y without a history of cancer, cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease at the time of the baseline study. Subjects were followed up for an average of 18.7 y, during which 12,874 total deaths were reported. The association between coffee intake and risk of total and cause-specific mortality was assessed by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. We showed an inverse association between coffee intake and total mortality in both men and women. HRs (95% CIs) for total death in subjects who consumed coffee compared with those who never drank coffee were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) for 5 cups/d (P-trend Coffee was inversely associated with mortality from heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease. With this prospective study, we suggest that the habitual intake of coffee is associated with lower risk of total mortality and 3 leading causes of death in Japan. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    was investigated. The effect of phytase on the CAID and TTR of P in birds with access to a separate Ca source was of particular interest. Five dietary Ca concentrations (1.3, 4.3, 7.3, 10.3 and 13.3 g/kg) and two inclusion levels (0 or 1000 phytase units [FYT/kg] of feed) of a 6-phytase were evaluated in a 5 × 2...... factorial arrangement of treatments. All diets, based on wheat and soybean meal, were formulated to be equivalent in respect of total and non-phytate P contents (5.7 and 3.0 g/kg, respectively). A total of 480, one-day-old male broilers were allocated to 48 cages (8 birds/cage), and cages were randomly...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P g Ca/kg, whereas in the phytase...

  6. Development of a Brief Questionnaire to Assess Habitual Beverage Intake (BEVQ-15): Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Beverage Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all Pbeverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status. PMID

  7. The role of eating frequency on total energy intake and diet quality in a low-income, racially diverse sample of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Whitney; Jacques, Paul F; Dallal, Gerard E; Sacheck, Jennifer; Must, Aviva

    2015-02-01

    The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality. The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9-11 years) and adolescents (12-15 years). Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA. One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9-15 years. Overall, 82% of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5% and a 9·4% increase in total energy intake, respectively (Pquality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006). Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.

  8. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  9. Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bredsdorff, Lea; Alinia, Sevil

    2010-01-01

    , isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, naringenin, eriodictyol, daidzein, genistein, and phloretin, were measured using HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Results: The 24 h urinary excretion of total flavonoids and the estimated intake of fruits were significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.31, P......Background/Objectives: To validate 24 h dietary recall of fruit intake by measuring the total 24 h excretion of 10 different flavonoids in 24 h urine during an intervention with free fruit at workplaces. Subjects/Methods: Employees at workplaces offering a free-fruit program, consisting of daily...... free and easy access to fresh fruit, and controls employees at workplaces with no free-fruit program were enrolled in this validation study (n = 103). Dietary intake was assessed by using a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at baseline and approximately 5 months later. Ten flavonoids, quercetin...

  10. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  11. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdiet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  12. Evaluation of seasonality on total water intake, water loss and water balance in the general population in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, O; Bountziouka, V; Panagiotakos, D Β; Zampelas, A; Kapsokefalou, M

    2013-07-01

    Water balance is achieved when water intake from solid and fluid foods and drinking water meets water losses, mainly in sweat, urine and faeces. Seasonality, particularly in Mediterranean countries that have a hot summer, may affect water loss and consequently water balance. Water balance has not been estimated before on a population level and the effect of seasonality has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to compare water balance, intake and loss in summer and winter in a sample of the general population in Greece. The Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) was used to evaluate water balance, estimating water intake and loss in summer (n = 480) and in winter (n = 412) on a stratified sample of the general population in Athens, Greece. In winter, mean (SD) water balance was -63 (1478) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD)water intake was 2892 (987) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 2637 (1810-3922) mL/day(-1) . In summer, mean (SD) water balance was -58 (2150) mL/day(-1) , mean (SD) water intake was 3875 (1373) mL/day(-1) and mean (quartile range) water loss was 3635 (2365-5258) mL/day(-1) . Water balance did not differ between summer and winter (P = 0.96); however, the data distribution was different; in summer, approximately 8% more participants were falling in the low and high water balance categories. Differences in water intake from different sources were identified (P balance in summer and winter was not different. However, water intake and loss were approximately 40% higher in summer than in winter. More people were falling in the low and high water balance categories in summer when comparing the distribution on water balance in winter. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  14. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...... fruit and vegetable intakes (r(s) = 0.86, P flavonoids in morning urine also increased, but the association was weaker (r(s) = 0.59, P

  15. Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, A. E.; Skilton, M. R.; van Bakel, M. M. E.; Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Agnoli, C.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Buurma, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Rinaldi, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Jensen, M. K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Kaaks, R.; Noethlings, U.; Chloptsios, Y.; Zylis, D.; Mattiello, A.; Caini, S.; Ocke, M. C.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Skeie, G.; Parr, C. L.; Molina-Montes, E.; Manjer, J.; Johansson, I.; McTaggart, A.; Key, T. J.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35-74 years, were administered a

  16. Associations between FTO genotype and total energy and macronutrient intake in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone K.M.; Celis-Morales C.; Lara J.; Ashor A.W.; Lovegrove J.A.; Martinez J.A.; Saris W.H.; Gibney M.; Manios Y.; Traczyk I.; Drevon C.A.; Daniel H.; Gibney E.R.; Brennan L.; Bouwman J.; Grimaldi K.A.; Mathers J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype

  17. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.; Lin, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca2+ transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca2+ absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca2+ transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca2+ transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca2+ and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:23571713

  18. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  20. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  2. Total HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in healthy children - Associations with adiposity and dietary intakes of mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H; Murrin, C; O'Reilly, M; Viljoen, K; Segurado, R; O'Brien, J; Somerville, R; McGillicuddy, F; Kelleher, C C

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was determined at age 9 by incubating serum-derived HDL-supernatants with 3 H-cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and percentage efflux determined. Mothers provided dietary information by completing food frequency questionnaires in early pregnancy and then 5 years later on behalf of themselves and their children. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted to confirm independent associations with HDL efflux. There was a negative correlation between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and waist circumference at age 5 (r = -0.3, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and BMI at age 5 (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.19, p = 0.1). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI at age 5 remained significantly associated with reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). HDL-C was negatively correlated with energy-adjusted fat intake (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with energy-adjusted protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.04) and starch (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) intakes during pregnancy. HDL-C was not significantly correlated with children dietary intake at age 5. There were no significant correlations between maternal or children dietary intake and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity. This novel analysis shows that efflux capacity is negatively associated with adiposity in early childhood independent of HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the

  3. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  4. Dietary Polyphenol Intake, but Not the Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity, Is Inversely Related to Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Polish Women: Results of WOBASZ and WOBASZ II Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Witkowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the dietary polyphenol intake (DPI and the dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in postmenopausal women. Participants were 916 postmenopausal women diagnosed with CVD and 1683 postmenopausal women without history of CVD, who took part in the population-based studies carried out in Poland: WOBASZ (2003–2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014. Nutritional data were collected using a single 24-hour dietary recall. DPI and DTAC in the CVD women were significantly lower and accounted for 1766.39 mg/d and 10.84 mmol/d, respectively, versus 1920.57 mg/d and 11.85 mmol/d in the women without CVD, but these differences disappeared after the standardization for energy input. Also, in the multiple-adjustment model, higher DPI, but not DTAC, was associated with the reduced odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. Beverages, mainly coffee and tea, contributed in more than 40% to DPI and in more than a half to DTAC. In this study, higher dietary polyphenol intake, but not the dietary total antioxidant capacity, was inversely associated with CVD in postmenopausal women, which points to the health benefits of increased polyphenol intake from food sources for these women.

  5. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need, see the Recommended Calcium Intakes (in milligrams) chart below. Recommended Calcium Intakes Life-stage group mg/ ... Child Health and Human Development National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institute of Diabetes and ...

  6. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  7. Inadequate calcium intake is highly prevalent in Korean children and adolescents: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Geun; Kim, Shin Hye; Lee, Gyeong-Yoon; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Mi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of Ca intake and major food sources of Ca in Korean children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2010. We analysed the daily Ca intake, major food sources of Ca and the prevalence of inadequate Ca intake in the study population. Ca intake was categorized as inadequate when the participant's daily Ca intake was less than the Estimated Average Requirement. Subject The study population consisted of 7233 children and adolescents (3973 boys, 3260 girls; aged 1-18 years). Mean Ca intake was 510·2 mg/d in boys and 431·7 mg/d in girls. Overall, 75·0 % of adolescents (boys 71·6 %, girls 79·1 %) had inadequate Ca intake. The prevalence of inadequate Ca intake increased significantly from toddlers (45-55 %) to adolescents (78-86 %) in both genders. The highest ranked food sources for Ca were dairy products (35·0 %), followed by vegetables (17·3 %), grains (11·3 %) and seafood (9·9 %). Ca intake from dairy products decreased significantly from 57 % in toddlers to 30 % in adolescents, while Ca intakes from other foods increased with age. Inadequate Ca intake is highly prevalent and increased with age in Korean children and adolescents. It should be emphasized to encourage children and adolescents to eat more Ca-rich products to meet their Ca needs.

  8. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Carla I; Cogswell, Mary E; Perrine, Cria G; Gillespie, Cathleen

    2017-10-25

    Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011-2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls ( n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) ( p -values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  9. Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla I. Mercado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa <2300 mg/day in the United States (US is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142 from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010. Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal, age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old, and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal (p-values ≤ 0.001. With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15. Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level.

  10. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Jian; Huang, Yao; Yu, Hong-Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Tang, Bo-Wen; Wang, Pei-Gang; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between dietary total flavonoids intake and the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases from January 1966 through May 2016 and examined the references of retrieved articles to identify relevant prospective cohort studies. The random-effect model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and dose-response analysis was performed. Ten studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality for the highest versus lowest category of total flavonoids intake was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.92). Dose-response analysis showed that those consuming 200 mg/day of total flavonoids had the lowest risk of all-cause mortality. Furthermore, a marginally significant association was found between dietary total flavonoids consumption and risk of death from CVD (summary RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.03; P = 0.099) and coronary heart diseases (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54-1.02; P = 0.069), respectively. The meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the recommendation of consuming flavonoids-rich food to reduce risks of mortality from all causes as part of a healthy diet among general adults. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamins D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of 41Ca tracer kinetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 (41Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Objective: U...

  12. Calcium and vitamin D for bone health in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calcium intake requirement is challenging to determine, and the IOM recommendations are based largely on calcium balance studies. The IOM recommends a calcium intake of 1000-1200 mg per day for older adults to support the preservation of bone mass. Food sources of calcium are preferred because h...

  13. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  14. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  15. Total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass in Korean adults aged 30 years and older: an analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo Young; Bu, So Young

    2018-06-01

    Since gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass is a gradual event and occurs due to a combination of lifestyle factors, assessment of dietary factors related to skeletal muscle is complicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in total energy intake according to the level of skeletal muscle mass. A total of 8,165 subjects ≥ 30 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008-2011 were included in the analysis, and multivariate-adjusted regression analyses were performed to analyze the association of the quartiles of sarcopenia index (SI) with energy intake of the study population after adjusting for age and metabolic parameters. The increase in SI quartile was in proportion to the gradual decrease in systemic lipids and the anthropometric measurement of fat accumulation ( P energy and energy-producing nutrients than those in lower quartiles ( P energy intake gradually increased according to the increase in SI quartile, and the association between total energy intake and SI was more pronounced in men. However, the risk (odd ratio) of having a low SI was not affected by any single macronutrient intake. In this study, total energy intake was positively associated with SI and relative skeletal mass in both men and women. However, no significant association or a weak association was observed between any single macronutrient intake and skeletal muscle mass. The data indicated that acquiring more energy intake within the normal range of energy consumption may help to maintain skeletal muscle mass.

  16. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  17. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  18. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  19. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  20. Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium deficiency is a global public-health problem. Although the initial stage of calcium deficiency can lead to metabolic alterations or potential pathological changes, calcium deficiency is difficult to diagnose accurately. Moreover, the details of the molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency remain somewhat elusive. To accurately assess and provide appropriate nutritional intervention, we carried out a global analysis of metabolic alterations in response to calcium deficiency. Methods The metabolic alterations associated with calcium deficiency were first investigated in a rat model, using urinary metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. Correlations between dietary calcium intake and the biomarkers identified from the rat model were further analyzed to confirm the potential application of these biomarkers in humans. Results Urinary metabolic-profiling analysis could preliminarily distinguish between calcium-deficient and non-deficient rats after a 2-week low-calcium diet. We established an integrated metabonomics strategy for identifying reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency using a time-course analysis of discriminating metabolites in a low-calcium diet experiment, repeating the low-calcium diet experiment and performing a calcium-supplement experiment. In total, 27 biomarkers were identified, including glycine, oxoglutaric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, sebacic acid, pseudouridine, indoxyl sulfate, taurine, and phenylacetylglycine. The integrated urinary metabonomics analysis, which combined biomarkers with regular trends of change (types A, B, and C), could accurately assess calcium-deficient rats at different stages and clarify the dynamic pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency in detail. Significant correlations between calcium intake and two biomarkers, pseudouridine (Pearson

  1. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  2. Total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intake and gastric cancer risk : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Alez, Carlos A. Gonz; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Overvad, Kim; Nneland, Anne Tj; Roswall, Nina; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuehn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Huerta, Jose Maria; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallstrom, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Huybrechts, Inge; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)

    2015-01-01

    Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and

  3. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  4. An attempt of application of short lived 44K activity induced in the 44Ca(n,p)44K reaction using 14 MeV neutrons for total body calcium assessment in human subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haratym, Z.; Kempisty, T.; Mikolajewski, S.; Rurarz, E.

    1999-01-01

    The status of in vivo neutron activation analysis techniques for the measurement of total body calcium in human subject is reviewed. Relevant data on the nuclear characteristics of calcium isotopes during interaction with neutrons ranging from slow up to 14 MeV neutrons are presented. Physical aspects of the measurement of in vivo total body calcium (TBCa) using 44 K activity induced in the 44 Ca(n,p) 44 K(T 1/2 =22.3 min) reaction by 14 MeV neutrons are discussed. The measurement of delayed γ-ray emitted during decay of activities induced in enriched 44 Ca, nat Ca, phantom filled with water solution of natural calcium and skeletal arm are considered. Results of measurements on the phantom and skeletal arm indicate a possibility to measure the TBCa using the 44 K activity. (author)

  5. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  6. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  7. Dietary sources and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting vitamin D and calcium intakes in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián, Cristina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Ferrari, Marika; Gottrand, Frederic; Manios, Yannis; de la O, Alejandro; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Antonios; Sjöström, Michael; Kersting, Mathilde; Gunter, Marc J; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Huybrechts, Inge

    2017-06-01

    To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents. Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years (n 1804). Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=-0·43; 95 % CI -0·79, -0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother's (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father's education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother's education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake. Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.

  8. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...... is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion: The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods...

  9. Comparison of apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I and lipoprotein (total cholesterol/HDL ratio determinants. Focus on obesity, diet and alcohol intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Tognon

    Full Text Available The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.

  10. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  11. Adequacy of nutrient intake in women with restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurazzi, Chiara; Cioffi, Iolanda; De Caprio, Carmela; De Filippo, Emilia; Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess energy and nutrient intake in a group of women with restrictive AN (r-AN) compared with a control group. Thirteen r-AN patients and 13 healthy female controls completed 7-d food records. Intake of macro- and micronutrients was compared between the two groups as well as to the Dietary Reference Intake for the Italian Population (LARN) for specific ages. Additionally, the r-AN patients underwent indirect calorimetry for measuring resting energy expenditure (REE). Total energy intake was significantly lower in the r-AN group than in controls (906 ± 224 vs 1660 ± 139, respectively; P nutritional gaps in these patients. According to these preliminary observations, nutritional counseling, mainly focused on calcium and vitamin D intake, should be suggested for healthy women, as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  13. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  14. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  15. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (poral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  16. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosália Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo alimentar, a digestibilidade parcial e total e o balanço de nitrogênio, em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados três novilhos de corte cruzados, canulados no rúmen e no duodeno, distribuídos em dois delineamentos em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As dietas experimentais foram constituídas de 60% de silagem de milho, tendo como fonte de proteína o farelo de girassol e, como fonte de energia, o milho (MI. O milho foi substituído parcialmente pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho (FGM. Quatro indicadores internos (lignina e FDA, FDN e lignina indigestíveis foram submetidos a 144 horas de digestão in vitro, para estimativa da digestibilidade parcial e total das dietas. Houve maior ingestão dos componentes fibrosos na dieta CS, porém não foi observado efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca. A lignina subestimou significativamente a digestibilidade. A utilização da FDAi, FDNi e lignina-i para estimar a digestibilidade total é viável, no entanto, a FDAi e lignina-i não estimaram adequadamente as digestibilidades parciais. Houve efeito significativo na digestibilidade ruminal da FDA, com valores mais elevados para CS e semelhantes para FGM, em relação à dieta MI. A digestibilidade total da FDA foi maior na dieta CS, porém, as digestibilidades dos demais componentes não foram afetadas pelas diferentes fontes energéticas. Não houve diferença significativa para a digestibilidade da energia e nos valores obtidos de NDT, com média de 61,5%. A casca de soja e o farelo de gérmen de milho, em substituição parcial do milho, mostraram-se fontes alternativas satisfatórias para a inclusão na dieta de bovinos.Feed intake, partial and total digestibility and nitrogen balance were evaluated in confined steers. Three crossbreed steers, rumen and duodenum cannulated, were allotted to two 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (60% and concentrate

  17. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  18. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  19. Granuloma debridement and the use of an injectable calcium phosphate bone cement in the treatment of osteolysis in an uncemented total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranawat Vijai S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyethylene particulate debris-induced periprosthetic osteolysis is a known complication of knee arthroplasty surgery, and may result in the need for revision surgery. The management of these bony defects can be surgically challenging, and full revisions of well-fixed total knee components can lead to substantial bone loss. We present the case of a 71 year old man who developed knee pain and osteolysis around an uncemented total knee replacement. Due to significant medical comorbidies he was treated by percutaneous cyst granuloma debridement and grafting using an injectable calcium phosphate bone substitute. There were no wound complications, and the patient was allowed to fully weight-bear post-operatively. Histopathology and microbiology of the cyst material confirmed polyethylene granulomata without any evidence of infection. At 6 weeks post-operatively the patient's previous knee pain had resolved, he was able to comfortably fully weight-bear. Preoperative scores (Knee Society Score (KSS 41, WOMAC score 46.2, and Oxford Knee Score 39 had all improved at the 12-month post-operative review KSS 76, WOMAC 81.7 and Oxford Knee score 21. This is a safe and effective technique with minimal morbidity and may be an appropriate treatment modality when more extensive revision surgery is not possible. The case is discussed with reference to the literature.

  20. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  1. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; Watson, Patrice; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John; Winer, Karen K; Zemel, Babette

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of bone mineral content (BMC) accrual that may have long-term consequences for osteoporosis in adulthood. Adequate dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity are important for maximizing BMC accrual. However, the relative effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on BMC accrual throughout the continuum of pubertal development in childhood remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of self-reported dietary calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual across the five stages of pubertal development in a large, diverse cohort of US children and adolescents. The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood study was a mixed longitudinal study with 7393 observations on 1743 subjects. Annually, we measured BMC by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity and calcium intake by questionnaire, and pubertal development (Tanner stage) by examination for up to 7 years. Mixed-effects regression models were used to assess physical activity and calcium intake effects on BMC accrual at each Tanner stage. We found that self-reported weight-bearing physical activity contributed to significantly greater BMC accrual in both sexes and racial subgroups (black and nonblack). In nonblack males, the magnitude of the activity effect on total body BMC accrual varied among Tanner stages after adjustment for calcium intake; the greatest difference between high- and low-activity boys was in Tanner stage 3. Calcium intake had a significant effect on bone accrual only in nonblack girls. This effect was not significantly different among Tanner stages. Our findings do not support differential effects of physical activity or calcium intake on bone mass accrual according to maturational stage. The study demonstrated significant longitudinal effects of weight-bearing physical activity on bone mass accrual through all stages of pubertal development. © 2014 American

  2. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  3. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  4. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  5. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  6. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  7. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  8. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  9. Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

    2014-06-01

    Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS.

  10. Coffee and Tea Consumption and the Contribution of Their Added Ingredients to Total Energy and Nutrient Intakes in 10 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landais, Edwige; Moskal, Aurélie; Mullee, Amy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected...... (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day (~0.6 cups) in Greece to 781 g/day (~4.4 cups) in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day (~0.......1 cups) in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day (~4.3 cups) in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee...

  11. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  12. Food intake and dietary diversity of farming households in Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of fat was also low by 53% compared to the recommended intake for adults. The intake of iron, zinc, and calcium was 40, 53 and 64%, respectively, which was not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Low intake of nutrients was generally attributed to inadequate food intake due to low feeding frequency, poorly ...

  13. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  14. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  15. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  16. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  17. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  18. Vitamin D intake, month the mammogram was taken and mammographic density in Norwegian women aged 50-69.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Ellingjord-Dale

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD. We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway--a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year.3114 women aged 50-69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI, study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT, education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes.There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03.Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old.

  19. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  20. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  1. Differences in dietary intakes, food sources and determinants of total flavonoids between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila

    2013-01-01

    A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources...

  2. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  3. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  4. Calcium in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis: EMAS clinical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Rees, Margaret; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease. Prevention through lifestyle measures includes an adequate calcium intake. Despite the guidance provided by scientific societies and governmental bodies worldwide, many issues remain unresolved. To provide evidence regarding the impact of calcium intake on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and critically appraise current guidelines. Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies between 700 and 1200mg of elemental calcium, depending on the endorsing source. Although calcium can be derived either from the diet or supplements, the former source is preferred. Intake below the recommended amount may increase fragility fracture risk; however, there is no consistent evidence that calcium supplementation at, or above, recommended levels reduces risk. The addition of vitamin D may minimally reduce fractures, mainly among institutionalised people. Excessive intake of calcium, defined as higher than 2000mg/day, can be potentially harmful. Some studies demonstrated harm even at lower dosages. An increased risk for cardiovascular events, urolithiasis and even fractures has been found in association with excessive calcium intake, but this issue remains unresolved. In conclusion, an adequate intake of calcium is recommended for general bone health. Excessive calcium intake seems of no benefit, and could possibly be harmful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  6. A Simulation Study of the Potential Effects of Healthy Food and Beverage Substitutions on Diet Quality and Total Energy Intake in Lower Mississippi Delta Adults1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol L.; Bogle, Margaret L.; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1,689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with their replacements’ profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population. PMID:22031664

  7. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Soo Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world.

  8. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  9. Increasing dietary phosphorus intake from food additives: potential for negative impact on bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  10. Increasing Dietary Phosphorus Intake from Food Additives: Potential for Negative Impact on Bone Health123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Taketani, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    It is important to consider whether habitual high phosphorus intake adversely affects bone health, because phosphorus intake has been increasing, whereas calcium intake has been decreasing in dietary patterns. A higher total habitual dietary phosphorus intake has been associated with higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and lower serum calcium concentrations in healthy individuals. Higher serum PTH concentrations have been shown in those who consume foods with phosphorus additives. These findings suggest that long-term dietary phosphorus loads and long-term hyperphosphatemia may have important negative effects on bone health. In contrast, PTH concentrations did not increase as a result of high dietary phosphorus intake when phosphorus was provided with adequate amounts of calcium. Intake of foods with a ratio of calcium to phosphorus close to that found in dairy products led to positive effects on bone health. Several randomized controlled trials have shown positive relations between dairy intake and bone mineral density. In our loading test with a low-calcium, high-phosphorus lunch provided to healthy young men, serum PTH concentrations showed peaks at 1 and 6 h, and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increased significantly at 8 h after the meal. In contrast, the high-calcium, high-phosphorus meal suppressed the second PTH and FGF23 elevations until 8 h after the meal. This implies that adequate dietary calcium intake is needed to overcome the interfering effects of high phosphorus intake on PTH and FGF23 secretion. FGF23 acts on the parathyroid gland to decrease PTH mRNA and PTH secretion in rats with normal kidney function. However, increased serum FGF23 is an early alteration of mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease, causing secondary hyperthyroidism, and implying resistance of the parathyroid gland to the action of FGF23 in chronic kidney disease. These findings suggest that long-term high-phosphorus diets may impair bone health

  11. Multivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C; McBurney, Michael; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Multivitamin/mineral (MVMM) supplements are the most common dietary supplements consumed in the United States; however, intake data specific to how MVMM use contributes to micronutrient intakes among Americans are absent from the current scientific literature. This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from MVMM supplements and to compare those intakes to the dietary reference intakes for US residents aged ≥ 4 years according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 (n = 16,444). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 21 micronutrients. Our results showed that 51% of Americans consumed MVMM supplements containing ≥ 9 micronutrients. Large portions of the population had total usual intakes (food and MVMM supplement use) below the estimated average requirement for vitamins A (35%), C (31%), D (74%), and E (67%) as well as calcium (39%) and magnesium (46%). Only 0%, 8%, and 33% of the population had total usual intakes of potassium, choline, and vitamin K above the adequate intake when food and MVMM use was considered. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for all nutrients; excess intakes of zinc were the highest (3.5%) across the population of all of the nutrients assessed in NHANES. In large proportions of the population, micronutrient sufficiency is currently not being achieved through food solutions for several essential vitamins and minerals. Use of age- and gender-specific MVMM supplements may serve as a practical means to increase the micronutrient status in subpopulations of Americans while not increasing intakes above the UL.

  12. Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation and optimized calcium intakes on vitamin D status, muscle strength and bone health: a one-year pilot randomized controlled trial in adults with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Foidart-Desalle, Marguerite; Ledoux, Didier; Remy, Christophe; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Damas, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2015-03-01

    Burn patients are at risk of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia or sarcopenia. Vitamin D pleiotropic effects may influence bone and muscle health. The aim of this pilot study was to assess effects of a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation and an optimized calcium (Ca) regimen on vitamin D (VD) status, bone and muscle health during sequelar stage of burn injury. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adults with thermal burns dating from 2 to 5 years were randomized into two groups. For 12 months, they either received a quarterly IM injection of 200,000IU VD3 and daily oral Ca (Group D) or placebo (Group P). VD status and bone remodeling markers were assessed every 3 months. Knee muscle strength and bone mineral density were, respectively, assessed using isokinetic dynamometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry at initiation (M0) and completion (M12) of the protocol. Of all the patients, 66% presented with VD deficiency and 53% (with 3 men burn adults. When combined with optimized Ca intakes, it demonstrated positive effects on muscle health but not on bone health. A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and osteopenia in these patients, as well as their wide range of muscle performances, seem to be worrying when considering rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  14. Prevention of Fractures in Older People with Calcium and Vitamin D

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    Caryl A. Nowson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The greatest cause of fracture in older people is osteoporosis which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older people. A number of meta-analyses have been performed assessing the effectiveness of calcium supplementation alone, vitamin D supplementation alone and the combined therapy on bone loss and fracture reduction in older people. The results of these meta-analyses indicate that vitamin D supplementation alone is unlikely to reduce fracture risk, calcium supplementation alone has a modest effect in reducing total fracture risk, but compliance with calcium supplements is poor in the long term. The combination of calcium supplementation with vitamin D supplementation, particularly in those at risk of marginal and low vitamin D status reduces total fractures, including hip fractures. Therefore older people would be recommended to consume adequate dietary calcium (>1100 mg/day together with maintaining adequate vitamin D status (>60 nmol/L 25(OHD to reduce risk of fracture. It is a challenge to consume sufficient dietary calcium from dietary sources, but the increasing range of calcium fortified foods could assist in increasing the dietary calcium intake of older people. In addition to the usual dairy based food sources, vitamin D supplements are likely to be required for older people with reduced mobility and access to sunlight.

  15. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  16. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  17. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

  18. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Liu, Lin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Roebothan, Barbara; Zhao, Jin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Buehler, Sharon; Campbell, Peter T; McLaughlin, John R; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-03-26

    Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  19. Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhuoyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL and Ontario (ON, Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000 and NL (1999-2003. Controls (n = 2481 were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ, personal history questionnaire (PHQ, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile, whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile, carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile. Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.

  20. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  1. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M.; van Rijn, M. [=Margreet; Verkerk, P. H.; Bosch, A. M.; Mulder, M. F.; de Klerk, J. B. C.; de Koning, T. J.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; de Vries, M.; Sauer, P. J. J.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  2. Calcium, Magnesium and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC in Seminal Plasma of Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis Bulls and their Relationships with Semen Characteristics

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    Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen

  3. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  4. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    (genetic and metabolic and extrinsic factors (environmental factors such as diet, health, hygiene, housing and access to health services. Among the nutritional factors are vitamin and oligoelement deficiencies which may be associated with malnutrition or caused by insufficient absorption. Since calcium is one of the main mineral components of bone tissue, it is essential for adequate bone formation and, considering that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium metabolism, a diet with insufficient quantities of these nutrients can impact on the formation of the skeleton and on the process of growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents, low intake or low absorption of calcium and vitamin D may limit their statural growth, and it is necessary to supply sufficient quantities of both during the critical growth phases.

  5. High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2008-01-01

    In 232 healthy prepubertal boys, increased physical activity was associated with greater BMC at both axial and appendicular sites under high-protein intake. Physical activity is an important lifestyle determinant of bone mineral mass acquisition. Its impact during childhood can be modulated by nutrition, particularly by protein and calcium intakes. We analyzed the relationship between physical activity levels and protein compared with calcium intake on BMC. In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4 +/- 0.4 [SD] yr; standing height: 125.7 +/- 5.9 cm; body weight: 25.3 +/- 4.6 kg), physical activity and protein and calcium intakes were recorded. BMC was measured by DXA at the radial metaphysis, radial diaphysis, total radius, femoral neck, total hip, femoral diaphysis, and L(2)-L(4) vertebrae. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows: physical activity, from 0.26 (p = 0.0001) to 0.40 (p = 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p = 0.005) to 0.27 (p = 0.0001); calcium intake, from 0.09 (p = 0.181) to 0.17 (p = 0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p = 0.0007) to 0.340 (p BMC Z-score (+0.6, p = 0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean = 1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a significantly greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p = 0.371). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p = 0.055) and significant for femoral neck BMC (p = 0.012). In keeping with the results derived from multiple regression analysis, the increased physical activity on mean BMC Z-score was not influenced by difference in calcium intake above (mean = 945 mg/d) and below (mean = 555 mg/d) the median. In healthy prepubertal boys, the impact in increased physical activity

  6. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  7. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  8. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  9. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  10. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  11. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  12. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP...... in their children. METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week...... 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft...

  13. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-06-01

    Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children.

  14. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Absorbability of calcium from calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides in comparison with that from various calcium compounds in the rat ligated jejunum loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-o, Kenji; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Saeki, Shigeru; Nakabou, Yukihiro

    2003-08-01

    Calcium-bound phosphoryl oligosaccharides (POs-Ca) were prepared from potato starch. Their solubility and in situ absorbability as a calcium source were investigated by comparing with the soluble calcium compounds, calcium chloride and calcium lactate, or insoluble calcium compounds, calcium carbonate and dibasic calcium phosphate. The solubility of POs-Ca was as high as that of calcium chloride and about 3-fold higher than that of calcium lactate. An in situ experiment showed that the intestinal calcium absorption rate of POs-Ca was almost comparable with that of the soluble calcium compounds, and was significantly higher (pcalcium groups. Moreover, the total absorption rate of a 1:1 mixture of the calcium from POs-Ca and a whey mineral complex (WMC) was significantly higher (psoluble calcium source with relatively high absorption in the intestinal tract.

  16. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.

  18. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  19. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  20. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  1. Effects of adding chymosin to milk on calcium homeostasis: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; Jensen, L.T.; Mosekilde, Leif

    2015-01-01

    either chymosin or similar placebo was added. Compared with placebo, chymosin did not affect 24-h urinary calcium, calcium/creatinine ratio, plasma parathyroid hormone, calcitonin or ionized calcium levels. However, during the first 4 h after intake of milk with chymosin, urinary calcium-creatinine ratio...... was significantly increased (17%) compared with placebo. Stratification by daily calcium intake showed effect of chymosin in participant with a habitual intake above the median (>1,050 mg/day) in whom both urinary calcium and calcium/creatinine ratio were significantly increased compared with placebo. Effects did...

  2. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men.......01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium...

  3. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  4. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......-noncase study included 11,048 men and women from cohorts in the European Diet, Obesity and Genes study; 5552 were cases, defined as individuals with the greatest BW gain during follow-up, and 6548 were randomly selected, including 5496 noncases. We selected 4 genes [CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB...

  5. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  6. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaocun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT, 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy ( 3 servings/d diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain compared to diets low

  7. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths....... This has not been demonstrated for D given alone. The cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D (CaD) supplements is difficult to ascertain due to weaknesses in RCT designs and adjudication that cannot be remedied by subanalysis. Moreover, no major new RCTs are in process to provide better evidence...

  8. Nutritional intake of French soccer players at the clairefontaine training center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, J Ch; Le Gall, F; Grandjean, V; Verger, Ph

    2002-09-01

    Young, French male athletes undergoing intensive elite sports training at the National Training Centre in Clairefontaine served as the subjects (N = 180; age range: 13 to 16 years) in a 3-year dietary survey aimed at characterizing their nutritional intake in terms of energy, macronutrients, calcium, and iron. Each year, the subjects were grouped by level into 3 promotions so that 9 groups could be studied. Dietary intake data were collected each year for each subject in the 9 groups, using a 5-day food record. The results showed that their total energy intake (TEI) was insufficient for athletes (ranging from 2352 454 to 3395 396 kcal/d as opposed to the recommended range of between 3819 and 5185 kcal/d). Furthermore, their diet was unbalanced, with too great an emphasis upon fatty foods (29.1 2.8 to 34.1 3.1% TEI vs. the 20% recommended), to the detriment of carbohydrates (48.5 4.3 to 56.6 3.1% TEI vs. the 55 to 60% recommended). The calcium intake was too low in 5 of the 9 groups while, in contrast, the iron intake was satisfactory in all groups. Furthermore, during this 3-year period at the Clairefontaine Centre, the subjects significantly (p <.05) improved their calcium and iron intakes (1021 197 and 12 2 mg/d in 1996, 1299 155 and 16 2 mg/d in 1997, and 1252 184 and 17 2 mg/d in 1998). This rise in micronutrient intakes may have been due to a physiological adaptation to growth or to the positive effects of courses on nutrition given during their stay at the Centre.

  9. Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Elisabete; Costa, Andreia; Araújo, Joana; Severo, Milton; Lopes, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents. A cross-sectional evaluation was carried out in the 2003-2004 school year, including adolescents born in 1990 and enrolled in the schools of Porto, Portugal. Time spent watching TV was collected by self-administered questionnaires and dietary intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. Included in the analysis were 1436 adolescents. Spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was significantly associated with higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and with lower intake of magnesium, in both sexes. Additionally, in girls, spending more than 120 min per day watching TV was associated with lower intake of complex carbohydrates, fiber, total vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. In boys, higher intake of saturated fat and cholesterol was found among those spending more time watching TV. We found that television viewing is associated with higher consumption of foods containing more fats and sugars and a lower consumption of fruits and vegetables. Consequently, adolescents who watched more television had a higher intake of total fat and polyunsaturated fat and a lower intake of minerals and vitamins. This dietary behavior among adolescents may have long-term health implications, not only limited to obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of working Malay women in Kuala Lumpur as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, S; Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Ismail, N H; Ali, R M; Noor, I; Nakatsuka, H; Ikeda, M

    1996-10-01

    Nutrient intake was surveyed by the total food duplicate method in 49 adult ethnically Malay women (at the ages of 18 to 47 years and mostly at 30-39 years) working in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simultaneously, hematological examinations, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examination were conducted. Nutrient intakes were estimated in reference to the weight of each food item and the standard food composition tables. Lunch was the most substantial meal of the day with rice as a staple food. Compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values, daily intakes of energy (1,917 kcal as an arithmetic mean), protein (62.2 g), vitamin B1 (0.83 mg) and vitamin B2 (1.18 mg) were sufficient, but intakes of minerals [i.e., calcium (347.8 mg) and iron (12.5 mg)] and some vitamins [i.e., vitamin A (equivalent to 627 micrograms retinol) and niacin (7.84 mg)] were less than RDA. When evaluated on an individual basis, the prevalence of those who took less than 80% RDA was highest for iron (92%), followed by niacin (80%), calcium (57%) and vitamin A (57%). The presence of 7 hypohemoglobinemia cases may be related to the insufficient iron intake. Overweight cases (14 women) were also detected, the prevalence of which increased at advanced ages. Lipid intake was rather high (28% of total food on energy basis), for which the major source was plants with limited contribution from fish/shellfish.

  11. Consequences of a plant-based diet with low dairy consumption on intake of bone-relevant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G

    2009-05-01

    This study examines the extent to which a plant-based dietary intervention that discourages consumption of dairy products and meat influences bone-relevant nutrients. A randomized controlled study design was used to evaluate the Coronary Health Improvement Project. The Project is a heart disease prevention intervention administered in an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a 4-week period. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. After 6 weeks, participants in the intervention group compared with the control group experienced significant increases in magnesium and daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains but significant decreases in dairy servings per day and calcium and vitamin D from food. After 6 months, those in the intervention group showed significant increases in daily intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains and significant decreases in dairy servings per day, daily meat consumption, and protein, phosphorous, calcium, total calcium, and vitamin D from food. Serum calcium levels are the primary determinant of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release, and within 6 weeks, the intervention group's PTH levels were elevated from baseline and significantly different from the control group's PTH levels. At 6 months, urinary type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx) levels were significantly greater in the intervention group compared with the control group. The Coronary Health Improvement Project increases the intake of important food items but decreases calcium and vitamin D consumption. There is also some evidence of an increase in NTx biomarkers, consistent with increased bone resorption.

  12. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire.

  13. Preferential Ty1 retromobility in mother cells and nonquiescent stationary phase cells is associated with increased concentrations of total Gag or processed Gag and is inhibited by exposure to a high concentration of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Andrew C; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2018-03-21

    Retrotransposons are abundant mobile DNA elements in eukaryotic genomes that are more active with age in diverse species. Details of the regulation and consequences of retrotransposon activity during aging remain to be determined. Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more frequent in mother cells compared to daughter cells, and we found that Ty1 was more mobile in nonquiescent compared to quiescent subpopulations of stationary phase cells. This retromobility asymmetry was absent in mutant strains lacking BRP1 that have reduced expression of the essential Pma1p plasma membrane proton pump, lacking the mRNA decay gene LSM1 , and in cells exposed to a high concentration of calcium. Mother cells had higher levels of Ty1 Gag protein than daughters. The proportion of protease-processed Gag decreased as cells transitioned to stationary phase, processed Gag was the dominant form in nonquiescent cells, but was virtually absent from quiescent cells. Treatment with calcium reduced total Gag levels and the proportion of processed Gag, particularly in mother cells. We also found that Ty1 reduced the fitness of proliferating but not stationary phase cells. These findings may be relevant to understanding regulation and consequences of retrotransposons during aging in other organisms, due to conserved impacts and regulation of retrotransposons.

  14. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  15. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  16. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was foods.

  17. Intake of total dietary sugar and fibre is associated with insulin resistance among Danish 8-10- and 14-16-year-old girls but not boys. European Youth Heart Studies I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the dietary intake of total sugar, added sugar, non-added sugar and starch as well as dietary fibre and glycaemic index (GI) and their respective associations with insulin resistance. Design: Mixed linear models were used to study both cross-sectional and prospective...... associations between carbohydrate components and insulin resistance separately in girls and boys. Diet was assessed by a single 24 h recall interview and insulin resistance was calculated using the homoestasis model assessment (HOMA). Setting: The Danish part of the European Youth Heart Studies (EYHS) I and II....... Subjects: Girls and boys at 8–10 and 14–16 years from EYHS I (n 651) and 8–10-year olds from baseline followed up 6 years later in EYHS II (n 233). Results: Among girls, a difference in dietary total sugar of 43 g/MJ was associated with a 1 SD difference of HOMA and a difference in dietary fibre of 28g...

  18. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  19. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  20. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  1. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  2. Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, P; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Grioni, S; Boer, J M A; van Bakel, M M E; Ericson, U; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; Rodríguez, L; Ardanaz, E; Sacerdote, C; Giurdanella, M C; Niekerk, E M; Peeters, P H M; Manjer, J; van Guelpen, B; Deharveng, G; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Halkjaer, J; Jensen, A M; McTaggart, A; Crowe, F; Stratigakou, V; Oikonomou, E; Touvier, M; Niravong, M; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36,034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.

  3. Investigation of ratio 'strontium-calcium' in the plants and in the corresponding soil solution for 90Sr and for natural total strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prorok, V.V.; Makarenko, T.Yi.; Mel'nichenko, L.Yu.; Mason, K.F.V.; Ganushevich, A.P.; Ostashko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Ratios Sr/Ca for natural total strontium and 90 Sr/Ca in the plants and in the corresponding soil solutions for three experimental lands with 'fuel' type of pollution for several plants at natural conditions are determined. The lands with tree different types of soil are at the Exclusive Zone of the Chernobyl Power Station. The obtained experimental results shown that ratio Sr/Ca in plant is equal to this ratio in the corresponding soil solution for all investigated lands and plants. Ratio 90 Sr/Ca in plant exceeds this ratio at the corresponding soil solution

  4. The interplay of dietary nutrient level and varying calcium to phosphorus ratios on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 2. Ileal and total tract nutrient utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d broiler experiment was conducted to assess the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a bacterial 6-phytase from Citobacter braakii on nutrient and phytate P (PP) utilization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values (matrix) for phytase as negative control (NC) or positive control (PC), respectively, and with 2 Ca:total P (tP) levels (2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg of diet, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Excreta were collected on d 19 to 21 and ileal digesta on d 21. There was no 3-way interaction on digestibility of any nutrient. There was matrix × phytase (P phytase interaction (P phytase increased (P phytase supplementation in diets with 2:1 Ca:tP, whereas there was no effect of phytase supplementation on PP disappearance or Ca retention in diets with 2.5:1 Ca:tP. Total P and Ca retention were reduced (P phytase supplementation on P utilization is reduced when diets contain adequate P as exemplified in the PC diets and that the negative impact of wide Ca:tP is more pronounced in diets with phytase matrix allowance as exemplified in the NC diets. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  6. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  7. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  8. Food intake assessment and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dias Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the food intake of women with and without fibromyalgia and verify if the food intake of patients with fibromyalgia interferes with the pain and quality of life. Methods: Study participants were women with fibromyalgia (FM seen in Fibromyalgia Outpatient Clinic, Hospital das Clínicas/UFPR and a control group (CT with healthy women. Data collection was conducted from March to October 2012. For the assessment of food intake we used the Food Registration and analyzed items were: total calories, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (A, C, B12, D and E and minerals (folate, selenium, zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. The software used was Avanutri Online®. To evaluate the quality of life, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and pain threshold were used. Results: 43 patients with FM and 44 healthy women were evaluated. CT group showed a mean consumption of nutrients greater than FM group except for iron. However, only caloric intake, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in grams and percentage of lipids, vitamin A, E, B12, folate, selenium and calcium were statistically significant. In FM group there was a negative correlation between vitamin E and FIQ and a positive correlation between percentage of protein and pain threshold. Conclusion: Women with FM showed a lower qualitatively and quantitatively intake in comparison with CT group. Only vitamin E correlated with quality of life and percentage of protein in the diet with sensation of pain.

  9. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  10. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Marco, L.M.; Arroyo, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Rivas, R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffe test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar

  11. Whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Relation to bio-chemical indices of bone turnover and to total body calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Johansen, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Whole body retention (WBR) and urinary excretion (UE) of 99m Te-diphosphonate were determined in 161 healthy adults and the results were compared to accepted biochemical markers of bone turnover. WBR was corrected for total body bone mineral (TBBM) and UE from forearm bone mineral content (BMC). Both uncorrected and corrected retention measurements were highly significantly correlated to the biochemical markers (P<0.001), but the r values were low (0.22-0.64). All bone turnover variables demonstrated considerably higher levels of bone turnover in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (P<0.001), whereas the variables were unchanged with age in men. The correction of WBR for TBBM and UE for BMC increased the validity of the retention methods and the two calculations gave exactly the same results on a group basis, both demonstrating significantly higher bone turnover in women than in men in each age group (P<0.05-P<0.001). All the turnover variables were measured in a group of perimenopausal women (n=33). The data clearly demonstrated that bone turnover is menopause dependent, whereas age in itself is of minor significance. (orig.)

  12. The interplay of dietary nutrient specification and varying calcium to total phosphorus ratio on efficacy of a bacterial phytase: 1. Growth performance and tibia mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Fru-Nji, F

    2014-12-01

    A 14-d experiment was conducted to study the effects of 2 dietary variables on efficacy of a 6-phytase from Citrobacter braakii on broiler growth performance and tibia mineralization. Diets were formulated with or without nutrient matrix values for phytase as negative or positive control (NC or PC, respectively) and with 2 Ca:total P (tP; 2:1 or 2.5:1). The diets were supplemented with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg, thus producing a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Birds and feed were weighed on d 7 and 21, and tibia bones were collected from all the birds on d 21. The main effects of nutrient matrix, Ca:tP, and phytase supplementation were significant (P phytase and matrix × phytase interactions were significant (P phytase increased weight gain (P phytase increased (P Phytase supplementation of diets with 2:1 Ca:tP increased (P phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation (1,000 FYT/kg) was in NC diets with narrow Ca:tP, whereas the best response to higher level of phytase supplementation (2,000 FYT/kg) was achieved in diets in PC diets with wide Ca:tP. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Y; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2017-05-01

    One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five basal diets based on high-protein canola meal (CM-HP), high-temperature processed canola meal (CM-HT), low-temperature processed canola meal (CM-LT), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), or SBM were formulated. The basal diets contained no phytase. Fifteen additional diets were prepared by adding approximately 500, 1,500, or 2,500 phytase units/kg to each of the 5 basal diets. Feces were quantitatively collected for 5 d based on the marker-to-marker approach after a 7-d adaptation period. Results indicated that supplementation of microbial phytase increased (linear, phytase also increased (linear and quadratic, phytase was added, but no differences were observed in the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM, CM-HP, CM-HT, or CM-CV if the highest amount of phytase were added (interaction, phytase on the STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM. In conclusion, inclusion of graded levels of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM and the response to microbial phytase added to each ingredient can be predicted by regression equations.

  14. The impact of calcium assay change on a local adjusted calcium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Hill, Charlotte; Bailey, Lisa M; Davison, Andrew S; Milan, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Deriving and validating local adjusted calcium equations is important for ensuring appropriate calcium status classification. We investigated the impact on our local adjusted calcium equation of a change in calcium method by the manufacturer from cresolphthalein complexone to NM-BAPTA. Calcium and albumin results from general practice requests were extracted from the Laboratory Information Management system for a three-month period. Results for which there was evidence of disturbance in calcium homeostasis were excluded leaving 13,482 sets of results for analysis. The adjusted calcium equation was derived following least squares regression analysis of total calcium on albumin and normalized to the mean calcium concentration of the data-set. The revised equation (NM-BAPTA calcium method) was compared with the previous equation (cresolphthalein complexone calcium method). The switch in calcium assay resulted in a small change in the adjusted calcium equation but was not considered to be clinically significant. The calcium reference interval differed from that proposed by Pathology Harmony in the UK. Local adjusted calcium equations should be re-assessed following changes in the calcium method. A locally derived reference interval may differ from the consensus harmonized reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  16. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  17. Nutritional status of Iranian women with rheumatoid arthritis: an assessment of dietary intake and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Jalal; Mohtadinia, Javad; Kolahi, Soasan; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Delpisheh, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Long-standing chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are known to be associated with impairment of nutritional status to some degree. The present study aimed to assess nutritional status of women with rheumatoid arthritis and compare their ingestion of certain micronutrients with dietary reference intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 90 eligible women were recruited. After examination, all patients were evaluated on the basis of disease activity score, calculated using the number of tender and swollen joints, patient global assessment of pain and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). A three-day 24 h recall was completed and a 10 ml fasting blood sample was obtained to assess the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and CRP. Despite normal BMI, intake of energy and micronutrients including calcium, folic acid, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B6 were considerably lower compared with the dietary reference intakes. There was no significant relationship between intake of different nutrients or food groups and disease activity score and the biochemical markers including malondialdehyde, CRP and total antioxidant. Intake of energy and some micronutrients were significantly lower than the recommended values. However, no relationship was found between intake of different food groups or nutrients with disease activity or serum antioxidant capacity.

  18. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  19. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  20. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  1. Calcium and bone health in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, V A

    1997-01-01

    The recent national survey shows that dietary calcium intake is variable in children and adolescents, with about half consuming less than the intake recommended by the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. Osteoporosis is a major disease in adults, resulting in 1.5 million fractures and over $10 billion in medical expenditures annually. Osteoporosis is of growing interest in the research, public health, and health consumer-lay communities and to the many primary care and specialty physicians and other health care professionals who work directly with patients with osteoporosis. Treatment of osteoporosis to prevent fracture is improving with newly introduced medications and approaches, but it is not as effective as needed. Effective prevention strategies are critical to decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Peak bone mass, obtained during childhood and adolescent growth, is one of the major determinants for the risk of developing osteoporosis and fracture. Genetic potential, gender, ethnic origins, nutritional factors such as calcium and vitamin D intake, growth patterns, and physical activity influence the accretion of bone mineral during childhood and determine the peak bone mass. Randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trials conducted in healthy children who are consuming amounts of dietary calcium in accordance with the US recommendations show that bone mass can be increased by calcium supplementation. Retrospective studies in adults suggest that childhood calcium intake is associated with risk of later osteoporosis and fracture. In addition, common childhood clinical conditions, such as low calcium intake related to lactose intolerance or the use of glucocorticoid medications for chronic illness, are risk factors for the development of osteoporosis in childhood, not just in adulthood. An approach for physicians and other pediatric care providers for screening children

  2. Dietary intakes differ between renal transplant recipients living in patient hotels versus home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahra, Terhi; Jenssen, Trond; Løvik, Astrid

    2004-04-01

    To compare dietary intake and health-related quality of life approximately 6 to 10 weeks after renal transplantation in patients living at home and at a patient hotel, and how the patients were following a heart-healthy diet according to the current American Heart Association guidelines. Cross-sectional observational study. Outpatient clinic at Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Norway. Forty renal transplant patients, 20 patients (14 men and 6 women) in both groups. There were 4 diabetic patients in each group. Dietary intake was assessed by 4-day dietary records. Health-related quality of life was investigated by the SF-36 questionnaire. The main outcome variables were daily energy intake and intakes of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, and fruit and vegetables. The variables were tested by 2-sample t-tests, and significance was set at.05. There was no statistically significant difference in daily energy intake between the groups (P =.08), but there were significantly higher daily intakes of protein (P =.003), total fat (P =.03), monounsaturated fat (P =.02), cholesterol (P =.04), fiber (P =.02), calcium (P =.03), and fruit and vegetables (P =.03) in the group living at the patient hotel. The mean intake of saturated fat was 14.5% of total energy in the group living at home and 14.6% in the group living at the patient hotel. There were no significant differences in health-related quality of life between the groups. The results suggest that there are differences in dietary intake in renal transplant patients living at home compared with those at a patient hotel. It seems that neither of the groups follows current guidelines for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, and vitamin D status in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tue H; Madsen, Marie T B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Cohen, Arieh S; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2018-01-23

    A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores. When adjusting for seasonality and constitutional covariates (age, sex, and body fat percentage) vegans had higher concentrations of PINP (32 [95% CI: 7, 64]%, P = 0.01) and BAP (58 [95% CI: 27, 97]%, P Vegans had higher serum PTH concentration (38 [95% CI: 19, 60]%; P Vegans have higher levels of circulating bone turnover markers compared to omnivores, which may in the long-term lead to poorer bone health. Differences in dietary habits including intake of vitamin D and calcium may, at least partly, explain the observed differences.

  4. Impaired body calcium metabolism with low bone density and compensatory colonic calcium absorption in cecectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongwattanapisan, P.; Suntornsaratoon, P.; Wongdee, K.; Dorkkam, N.; Krishnamra, N.; Charoenphandhu, N.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study reported that cecal calcium absorption contributes less than 10% of total calcium absorbed by the intestine, although the cecum has the highest calcium transport rate compared with other intestinal segments. Thus, the physiological significance of the cecum pertaining to body

  5. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5. No início do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ± 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e período de lactação em torno de 110 dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez dias para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminuíram linearmente conforme aumentaram os níveis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclusão da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ± 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  6. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  7. Estimation of energy and nutritional intake of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Keeping to a balanced diet plays a key role in maximizing the body's efficiency so that sports training becomes more effective. Previous studies have shown that an athletes' diet is often not properly balanced, and can thus negatively affect sporting performance. To assess the energy and nutrient intake in young men practicing aerobic sport and compare them with those recommended. Subjects were 25 male athletes, aged 19-25 years, practicing aerobic sports who were students at two Warsaw Universities; The Military University of Technology and University of Physical Education. The average body mass was 80.6 +/- 9.6 kg and average height was 187.0 +/- 7.6 cm, (BMI thus being 23.01 +/- 1.70 kg/m2). Dietary assessment was based on three-day dietary recalls consisting of two weekdays and one day of the weekend. The energy and macro/ micro-nutrient intake were evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package and compared to recommendations and standards. Supplements were absent from the athletes' diets. The energy value of diets were too low in most instances; average %-age deficiency was 30.22 +/- 13.76%. Total protein intake, (mean 1.41 +/- 0.36 g per kg body weight) was inadequate in 40% of cases, whilst all showed appropriate intakes of animal protein. Most subjects' carbohydrate intake (84%) was deficient; median 3.28 g/kg body weight. Fibre intake, (median 17.17 g) was also insufficient in 76% cases. Total fat intake, (33.9% +/- 5.7 energy) was too high in 32% of cases. The %-age dietary energy obtained from saturated fatty acids was 12.18% +/- 2.53 and 5.72% +/- 1.43 from polyunsaturated fatty acids, where most subjects' diet (64%) was, as well, high in cholesterol. Furthermore, significant deficiencies were observed in the following: Vitamin A (44% of group below EAR), vitamin C (80% below EAR), vitamin D (92% below EAR), foliate (84% below EAR), calcium (52% below EAR) and magnesium (60% below EAR). Vitamin E intake was however higher than the AI level

  8. [Comparison of the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake among university sport and sedentary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo Mendonça, Roberto Carlos; Sospedra, Isabel; Sanchis, Ignacio; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2012-06-16

    The study of the somatotype and food intake among university students is important to carry out internal policies about the improvement of health and prevention of diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype, nutritional assessment and food intake of university sport and sedentary students. The sample were 1,299 university students (420 males and 879 females) from University of Valencia, during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, who were evaluated for several anthropometric parameters, the somatotype and the nutritional and food intakes with a 7 day dietary diary. The somatotype was Endo-Mesomorph, Meso-Endomorph, Balanced Endomorph and Meso-Endomorph for sport and sedentary males, and sports and sedentary females, respectively. All groups had a high and low percentage of total calories in comparison with proteins plus lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively, as established in the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Low vitamin intakes, including E (in the sport males), A, D and E, folate and biotine (in the sedentary males) and A, D, E, folate and biotine (in the sport and sedentary females) were observed. All groups had a high intake of sodium and a deficit of potassium, calcium, iodine and magnesium. On the other hand, cereal groups were the most important in the energy dairy intake. Disequilibrium in macronutrients and micronutrients reflects the importance of developing food policies among University people to improve this situation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Chapter 15. Measurement of the main calcium metabolism processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring the chief calcium metabolism processes in man is described and is based on the following techniques and theory: intraveinous injection of 45 Ca; determination of the specific radioactivity of serum calcium, total radioactivity of urine and stools, ingested and excreted calcium; mathematical analysis of the specific radioactivity decay curve for serum calcium. The following data were obtained in this way: intestinal absorption fraction of calcium in the chemical state in which it is found in foods; quantity of calcium excreted by the intestin, as distinct from the non-absorbed fraction; physiological turnover rates in the skeleton by osteolysis and osteoblastosis; mass of rapidly exchangeable calcium in the organism, i.e. the calcium pool; rates of exchange with serum calcium of calcium from the different pool components, mass of bone calcium subjected to recrystallisation. Some applications of the method in man and the verification of the theory in rats are reported [fr

  10. Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet. Consumption of a low-fat vegan diet was associated with greater decreases in fat, saturated fat, protein, and cholesterol intakes and greater increases in carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, and total vitamin A intakes than was a Step II diet. The low-fat vegan group also increased thiamin, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes more than the Step II group, and both groups increased folic acid, vitamin C, and potassium intakes. If considering only food sources of micronutrients, the low-fat vegan group decreased vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, selenium, phosphorous, and zinc intakes compared with baseline. However, with incidental supplements included, decreases were evident only in phosphorous and selenium intakes. No micronutrient decreases were found in the Step II group. Individuals on a low-fat vegan or Step II diet should take steps to meet the recommended intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Individuals on a low-fat vegan diet should also ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, phosphorous, and selenium.

  11. Daily intakes of alkaline earth metals in Japanese males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Ueno, Kaoru

    1994-01-01

    Diet samples were collected for two duplicate portion studies and one market basket study. 226 Ra in the diet samples was determined by alpha spectrometry and daily intake was estimated as 23 mBq (0.62 pCi) per person. Other alkaline earth metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry. Average mineral intakes of calcium, magnesium, strontium, and barium were 0.55 g, 0.21 g, 2.3 mg, and 0.39 mg, respectively. Element ratios magnesium:calcium 0.38, strontium:calcium 4.2 x 10 -3 barium:calcium 7.1 X 10 -4 , and Ra:calcium 1.1 x 10 -12 were found in the diet; these compared with element ratios in Japanese vertebrae of magnesium:calcium 0.011, strontium:calcium 3.1 x 10 -4 , barium:calcium 2.7 x 10 -5 , and radium:calcium 2.6 x 10 -14 . Observed ratios, defined as the element ratio in bone divided by the respective element intake ratio in Japanese males, were as follows: 226 Ra 0.02, magnesium 0.03, strontium 0.07, and barium 0.04

  12. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  13. Long-term calcium supplementation may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Li, Ying; Gong, Liya; Yuan, Feifei; Niu, Yucun; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Changhao

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have focused on the effects of calcium intake on serum lipid concentrations in postmenopausal women. However, many premenopausal women are taking calcium supplements in China. To our knowledge, no studies have assessed whether the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipids are similar between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of calcium supplementation on blood lipid concentrations in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia. A total of 190 premenopausal women (30-40 y old) and 182 postmenopausal women (50-60 y old) with dyslipidemia were given 800 mg Ca/d or a placebo for 2 y in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and serum lipid concentrations, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), dietary nutrient intakes, and physical activity levels were determined at baseline and after 2 y. There was a significant interaction between calcium supplementation and menopausal status on serum cholesterol concentrations (P women (P women with dyslipidemia increases serum total cholesterol concentrations and CIMT. In postmenopausal women with dyslipidemia, calcium supplements should be prescribed with caution. This trial was registered at http://www.chictr.org/cn/ as ChiCTR-TRC-12002806.

  14. Calcium isotope fractionation between soft and mineralized tissues as a monitor of calcium use in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; DePaolo, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium from bone and shell is isotopically lighter than calcium of soft tissue from the same organism and isotopically lighter than source (dietary) calcium. When measured as the 44Ca/40Ca isotopic ratio, the total range of variation observed is 5.5‰, and as much as 4‰ variation is found in a single organism. The observed intraorganismal calcium isotopic variations and the isotopic differences between tissues and diet indicate that isotopic fractionation occurs mainly as a result of mineralization. Soft tissue calcium becomes heavier or lighter than source calcium during periods when there is net gain or loss of mineral mass, respectively. These results suggest that variations of natural calcium isotope ratios in tissues may be useful for assessing the calcium and mineral balance of organisms without introducing isotopic tracers. PMID:10570137

  15. Calcium supplementation and cardiovascular risk: A rising concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Ndip Agbor, Valirie; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, the number of individuals taking calcium supplementation worldwide has been on the rise, especially with the emergence of new pharmaceutical companies specialized in the marketing of dietary supplements; with calcium supplementation being their main business axis. This is mostly because of the established role of calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, its role in the prevention of fractures. Recently, a rising body of evidence on the adverse effect of calcium supplementation on nonskeletal, especially cardiovascular, health has been a cause for concern. In fact, a significant number of studies have reported an association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events, even though high dietary calcium intake was shown to have a protective effect. The mechanism by which calcium supplementation could cause a cardiovascular event was still unclear until a recent study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Combining this recent finding with available data associating calcium supplementation with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality, we call on the need for an evidence-based approach to calcium supplementation, while stressing on the safety of dietary calcium intake over the former on cardiovascular health. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  17. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  18. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  19. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  20. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  1. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate ca