WorldWideScience

Sample records for top-ranked breakthrough foreseen

  1. Research Productivity in Top-Ranked Schools in Psychology and Social Work: Research Cultures Do Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…

  2. Academic elite in accounting: linkages among top-ranked graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Jeffrey H

    2002-06-01

    The 10 top-ranked graduate programs in accounting, based on a national survey of deans and top administrators, were linked to one another by hiring in the programs one another's graduates. Almost one-half (45.9%) of the faculty members in these 10 programs (N = 172) had graduated from one of these 10 programs. It is suggested that this linkage helps these programs to maintain and enhance their prestige.

  3. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scientific output quality of 40 globally top-ranked medical researchers in the field of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluskiewicz, W; Drozdzowska, B; Adamczyk, P; Noga, K

    2018-03-26

    The study presents the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors, publishing in the field of osteoporosis. Their h-index is compared with the Scientific Quality Index (SQI), a novel indicator. Using SQI, 92.5% of the authors changed their initial positions in the general ranking. SQI partially depends on bibliometric measures different from those influencing h-index and may be considered as an assessment tool, reflecting more objective, qualitative, rather than quantitative, features of individual scientific output. The study approaches the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors in the field of osteoporosis. The assessed authors were identified in the Scopus database, using the key word "osteoporosis" and the h-index data, collected during the last decade (2008-2017). The data, concerning the scientific output, expressed by the h-index, were compared with a novel indicator of scientific quality-called the Scientific Quality Index (SQI). SQI is calculated according to the following formula: Parameter No. 1 + Parameter No. 2, where: Parameter No. 1 (the percent of papers cited ≥ 10 times) the number of papers cited ≥ 10 times (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) is divided by the number of all the published papers (including the papers with no citation) × 100%, Parameter No. 2 (the mean number of citations per paper) the total number of citations (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) divided by the number of all published papers (including papers with no citation). The following research output values were obtained: the citation index, 2483.6 ± 1348.7; the total number of papers, 75.1 ± 23.2; the total number of cited papers, 69.3 ± 22.0; the number of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 45.4 ± 17.2; the percent of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 59.9 ± 10.0; and the mean citations per paper, 32.8 ± 15.0. The mean value of Hirsch index was 24.2 ± 6.2 and SQI

  5. CONSORT item adherence in top ranked anaesthesiology journals in 2011: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münter, Nils H; Stevanovic, Ana; Rossaint, Rolf; Stoppe, Christian; Sanders, Robert D; Coburn, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for measuring the efficacy of any medical intervention. The present study assesses the implementation of the CONSORT statement in the top 11 anaesthesiology journals in 2011. We designed this study in order to determine how well authors in the top 11 ranked anaesthesiology journals follow the CONSORT statement's criteria. A retrospective cross-sectional data analysis. The study was performed at the RWTH Aachen University Hospital. Journals included Pain, Anesthesiology, British Journal of Anaesthesia, Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, European Journal of Pain, Anesthesia and Analgesia, Anaesthesia, Minerva Anestesiologica, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology and the European Journal of Anaesthesiology. All articles in the online table of contents from the top 11 anaesthesiology journals according to the ISI Web of Knowledge were screened for RCTs published in 2011. The RCTs were assessed using the CONSORT checklist. We also analysed the correlation between the number of citations and the adherence to CONSORT items. We evaluated 319 RCTs and found that, more than ten years after the publication of the CONSORT statement, the RCTs satisfied a median of 60.0% of the CONSORT criteria. Only 72.1% of the articles presented clearly defined primary and secondary outcome parameters. The number of citations is only weakly associated with the fulfilment of the CONSORT statement (r = 0.023). Adherence to the CONSORT criteria remains low in top-ranked anaesthesiology journals. We found only a very weak correlation between the number of citations and fulfilment of the requirements of the CONSORT statement.

  6. Mapping Contemporary Terrorism Courses at Top-Ranked National Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Sascha Sheehan

    2012-01-01

    Most of the scholarly work on Terrorism Studies focuses on terrorism research (knowledge production). By contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to teaching about terrorism (knowledge dissemination) at universities. This paper addresses this gap by providing a systematic analysis of contemporary terrorism courses at 106 top-ranked U.S. based universities and colleges. The study uses 1) key word searches of course catalogues for the academic year 2010-2011 to identify terrorism cou...

  7. Scientific publications in ophthalmic journals from China and other top-ranking countries: a 12-year review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jiao; Zhou, Minwen; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-06-26

    Eye diseases with increasing mortality are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we study the publication characteristics in international ophthalmic journals of the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and China. Articles published in 53 ophthalmic journals from 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of articles published each year, analyzed the publication type, and evaluated the accumulated and average impact factors (IFs), and the distribution of articles in ophthalmic journals in relation to IFs. The characteristics of publication outputs from China and other top-ranking countries were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly during the past 12 years, with an increase of 51.0%. The growth in the annual number of articles from the US, the UK, Australia, and China showed a significantly positive trend. Publications from the US exceeded those from any other country and had the highest IFs, largest number of total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading ophthalmic journals. During the past 12 years, China contributed 3.5% of the total publications, and the number of Chinese articles showed a more than 6-fold increase (from 99 to 605, R2 =0.947, P<0.001). The numbers of IFs and citations of articles originating in China were mostly lower than for other top-ranking counties. Research on ophthalmic journals has maintained an upward growing trend from 2000 to 2011. Chinese ophthalmology research has developed rapidly, but the gap still exists between China and other top-ranking countries for the advanced level of research.

  8. Effects of weather anomalies on the intellectual performance: Chess mistakes of the world top-ranked players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, J.; Verőci, Zs.; Fülöp, A.; Hirsch, T.; Dúll, A.

    2009-04-01

    Weather disturbances like fronts, influence human biorhythm, our biological balance becomes manipulated, and adaptation mechanisms are impaired. Our working hypothesis is that even the best chess players of the world are not exceptions from this rule. As their movements on the chess board, as well as the best possible ones, if they missed to make, are already assessed by computers objectively, we can use this game as a model of intellectual performance. By the date of the Abstract edition, 580 wrong chess moves were selected with the threshold of over 1/3 peasant to be lost. I.e. this is the minimum difference between the assessment of the positions after the best possible and the really performed move. (Obviously, all moves both sides in ca. the same number of games were checked, i.e. over 35,000 moves were assessed.) For assessing the moves, the most popular database is MegaDatabase 2006 (ChessBase- Hamburg), Chess Informant Expert from Chess Informant Beograd and the program ChessBase 9.0 together with the engines Fritz 10, Rybka 2.3, Junior 10. First of all the World Chess Champions, Karpov, Kasparov, Kramnik and Anand were examined played in the traditional big chess tournaments, category 19th and more (average rating more the 2701 Elo-points). We further selected the games by the top-ranked players of the world between 2005 and 2008. This selection is explained by the likely fact that they make the less wrong moves for simply the lack of chess understanding, moreover, as full professionals, they allow the minimum of non-weather disturbing circumstances (e.g. imperfect sleeping before the game, etc.). Their moves were selected as (i) very wrong move with more than 3.0 differences, (i.e. unforced loss of a knight, or a bishop, (ii) very weak move with an assessment of 1.0-3.0, (i.e. unforced loss between one peasant and one bishop/knight) and (iii) weak move with less than 1.0 assessment of the passed chance, or unforced loss of less than one peasant. These new

  9. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  10. Identification of Top-ranked Proteins within a Directional Protein Interaction Network using the PageRank Algorithm: Applications in Humans and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing; Xing, Tim; Du, Donglei

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation of signal transduction genes or key nodes of the cellular protein network can cause severe diseases in humans but can sometimes genetically improve plants, likely because growth is determinate in animals but indeterminate in plants. This article reviews protein networks; human protein ranking; the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and insulin (phospho- inositide 3kinase [PI3K]/phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN]/protein kinase B [AKT]) signaling pathways; human diseases caused by somatic mutations to the PI3K/PTEN/ AKT pathway; use of the MAPK pathway in plant molecular breeding; and protein domain evolution. Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL), PTEN, MAPK1 and PIK3CA are among PIK3CA the top-ranked proteins in directional rankings. Eight proteins (ACVR1, CDC42, RAC1, RAF1, RHOA, TGFBR1, TRAF2, and TRAF6) are ranked in the top 50 key players in both signal emission and signal reception and in interaction with many other proteins. Top-ranked proteins likely have major impacts on the network function. Such proteins are targets for drug discovery, because their mutations are implicated in various cancers and overgrowth syndromes. Appropriately managing food intake may help reduce the growth of tumors or malformation of tissues. The role of the protein kinase C/ fatty acid synthase pathway in fat deposition in PTEN/PI3K patients should be investigated. Both the MAPK and insulin signaling pathways exist in plants, and MAPK pathway engineering can improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses such as salinity.

  11. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breakthroughs in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman

    This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...

  13. Opinion on serviceability of Bugey 3 reactor steam generators until their replacement foreseen in September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    This document briefly reports the damage characterization of tubular bundles in steam generators of the Bugey 3 reactor, discusses the actions which are foreseen to prevent a tube failure risk, and discusses the risk of leakage during operation. Recommendations are formulated about investigation on the corrosion, and about prediction computation to be performed

  14. Distributed Services with Foreseen and Unforeseen Tasks: The Mobile Re-allocation Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Larco Martinelli (Jose); R. Dekker (Rommert); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we deal with a common problem found in the operations of security and preventive/corrective maintenance services: that of routing a number of mobile resources to serve foreseen and unforeseen tasks during a shift. We define the (Mobile Re-Allocation Problem) MRAP as the

  15. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  16. [Major breakthroughs in the medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major breakt...... breakthroughs within other medical specialities are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3/2......The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major...

  17. Aostra claims major oilsands breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project

  18. Tests and foreseen developments of fibered-OSLD gamma heating measurements in low-power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, A.; Guillou, M. Le; Blaise, P.; Destouches, C.; Magne, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper are presented test measurements of a fibered-OSLD system performed during a dedicated experimental phase in EOLE zero-power reactor. The measurement setup consists of an OSLD crystal connected onto the extremity of an optical fiber and a laser stimulation system, manufactured by the CEA/LIST in Saclay. The OSL sensor is remotely stimulated via an optical fiber using a diode-pumped solid-state laser. The OSL light is collected and guided back along the same fiber to a photomultiplier tube. Results obtained using this system are compared to usual gamma heating measurement protocol using OSLD pellets. The presence of induced radio-luminescence in the OSLD during the irradiation was also observed and could be used to monitor the gamma flux. The feasibility of remote measurements is achieved, whereas further developments could be conducted to improve this technique since the readout procedure still requires to withdraw the OSLD off the gamma flux (hence from the core) on account of the dose rate (around a few Gy.h-1), and the readout time remains quite long for on-line applications. Several improvements are foreseen, and will be tested in the forthcoming years.

  19. Recurring Utterances - Targeting a Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stark

    2014-05-01

    The most interesting phenomenon is KB’s production of words from former sessions indicating that they are still ‘active’ and the production of completely novel incorrect words. The observable features indicate that immediate auditory processing is possible in the form of repeating target words. However, as soon as KB must retrieve information from the (semantic lexicon, even after being able to correctly ‘repeat’ the target word several times, he responds with a RU, perseveration, or paraphasia. Several of his productions can be characterized as aphasic confabulations which stem from a memory gap. Thus, although KB’s language impairment is severe, his responses across time indicate that step-by-step a breakthrough is being made.

  20. [Breakthrough cancer pain in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Viloria-Jiménez, María Aurora; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan; Álamo-González, Cecilio; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro

    Breakthrough pain is defined as an acute exacerbation of pain with rapid onset, short duration and moderate or high intensity, which occurs spontaneously or in connection with a predictable or unpredictable event despite there being stabilised and controlled baseline pain. However, there are doubts about the definition, terminology, epidemiology, and assessment of breakthrough pain, with no clear answers or consensus, especially in the elderly population. This non-systematic review summarises the most important aspects of breakthrough pain in the elderly, based on the limited publications there are in that population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Innovation Impact: Breakthrough Research Results (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    The Innovation Impact brochure captures key breakthrough results across NREL's primary areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency research: solar, wind, bioenergy, transportation, buildings, analysis, and manufacturing technologies.

  2. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  3. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  4. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  5. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  6. Exploring the Market for Breakthrough Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortt, J. Roland; Langley, David J.; Pals, Nico

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the gap between futures research (long term) and market research (short term) is closed in two ways. Firstly, by describing methods of market exploration that can be used earlier on in the process of development and diffusion of breakthrough technologies, so market research can be

  7. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; De Boer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Daniel; Werthimer, Dan

    2018-01-01

    The $100M, 10-year philanthropic "Breakthrough Listen" project is driving an unprecedented expansion of the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. Modern instruments allow ever larger regions of parameter space (luminosity function, duty cycle, beaming fraction, frequency coverage) to be explored, which is enabling us to place meaningful physical limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations. Data volumes are huge, and preclude long-term storage of the raw data products, so real-time and machine learning processing techniques must be employed to identify candidate signals as well as simultaneously classifying interfering sources. However, the Galaxy is now known to be a target-rich environment, teeming with habitable planets.Data from Breakthrough Listen can also be used by researchers in other areas of astronomy to study pulsars, fast radio bursts, and a range of other science targets. Breakthrough Listen is already underway in the optical and radio bands, and is also engaging with facilities across the world, including Square Kilometer Array precursors and pathfinders. I will give an overview of the technology, science goals, data products, and roadmap of Breakthrough Listen, as we attempt to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone?

  8. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  9. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project: Project Management Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2004-01-01

    To leap past the limitations of existing propulsion, the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) Project seeks further advancements in physics from which new propulsion methods can eventually be derived. Three visionary breakthroughs are sought: (1) propulsion that requires no propellant, (2) propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits, and (3) breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify credible research that will make measurable progress toward these goals in the near-term. The management techniques to address this challenge are presented, with a special emphasis on the process used to review, prioritize, and select research tasks. This selection process includes these key features: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than the implications of the assertions, which includes the practice where the reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility, and (c) total scores are obtained by multiplying the criteria scores rather than by adding. Lessons learned and revisions planned are discussed.

  10. In-beam test of the RPC architecture foreseen to be used for the CBM-TOF inner wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriş, M.; Bartoş, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rădulescu, L.; Simion, V.; Deppner, I.; Herrmann, N.; Simon, C.; Frühauf, J.; Kiš, M.; Loizeau, P.-A.

    2018-05-01

    The Time Of Flight (TOF) subsystem is one of the main detectors of the CBM experiment. The TOF wall in conjunction with Silicon Tracking System (STS) is foreseen to identify charged hadrons, i.e. pions, kaons and protons, with a full azimuthal coverage at 2.50 - 250 polar angles. A system time resolution of at least 80 ps, including all contributions, such as electronics jitter and the resolution of the time reference system, is required. Such a performance should be maintained up to a counting rate larger than 30 kHz/cm2 at the most inner region of TOF wall. Our R&D activity has been focused on the development of two-dimensional position sensitive Multi-gap Resistive Plate Counter (MRPC) prototypes for the forward region of the CBM-TOF subdetector, the most demanding zone in terms of granularity and counting rate. The in-beam tests using secondary particles produced in 30 GeV/u Pb ion collisions on a Pb target at SPS - CERN aimed to test the performance of these prototypes in conditions similar to the ones expected at SIS100 at FAIR. The performance of the prototypes is studied in conditions of exposure of the whole active area of the chamber to high multiplicity of reaction products. The results show that this type of MRPC fulfill the challenging requirements of the CBM-TOF wall. Therefore, such an architecture is recommended as basic solution for CBM-TOF inner zone.

  11. Breakthrough at NIF 'unlikely' in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Hopes of reaching a milestone in fusion research by the end of 2010 have dimmed following a US government report that plays down the chances of an early breakthrough and sharply criticizes management of the 4bn National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the report, officials from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) state that ignition - fusion's "break-even" point - is "unlikely" to occur at the laser-fusion lab this year and that "significant scientific and technical challenges" could delay or even prevent the facility from achieving ignition by 2012.

  12. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  13. 50 Breakthroughs by America's National Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    America's National Laboratory system has been changing and improving the lives of millions for more than 80 years. Born at a time of great societal need, this network of Department of Energy Laboratories has now grown into 17 facilities, working together as engines of prosperity and invention. As this list of 50 Breakthroughs attests, National Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination, and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe. Rooted in the need to be the best and bring the best, America's National Laboratories have put an American stamp on the past century of science. With equal ingenuity and tenacity, they are now engaged in winning the future.

  14. Breakthroughs in neuroactive steroid drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; La, Daniel; Coughlin, Quinn; Newman, Caitlin A; Griffin, Andrew M; Harrison, Boyd L; Salituro, Francesco G

    2018-01-15

    Endogenous and synthetic neuroactive steroids (NASs) or neurosteroids are effective modulators of multiple signaling pathways including receptors for the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) and glutamate, in particular N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). These receptors are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS), and there is growing evidence suggesting that dysregulation of neurosteroid production plays a role in numerous neurological disorders. The significant unmet medical need for treatment of CNS disorders has increased the interest for these types of compounds. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the clinical development of NAS drug candidates, in addition to preclinical breakthroughs in the identification of novel NASs, mainly for GABA A and NMDA receptor modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlled Nucleosynthesis Breakthroughs in Experiment and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, Stanislav; Merwe, Alwyn

    2007-01-01

    This book ushers in a new era of experimental and theoretical investigations into collective processes, structure formation, and self-organization of nuclear matter. It reports the results of experiments wherein for the first time the nuclei constituting our world (those displayed in Mendeleev's table as well as the super-heavy ones) have been artificially created. Pioneering breakthroughs are described, achieved at the "Proton-21" Laboratory, Kiev, Ukraine, in a variety of new physical and technological directions. A detailed description of the main experiments, their analyses, and the interpretation of copious experimental data are given, along with the methodology governing key measurements and the processing algorithms of the data that empirically confirm the occurrence of macroscopic self-organizing processes leading to the nuclear transformations of various materials. The basic concepts underlying the initiation of self-sustaining collective processes that result in the formation of nuclear structures a...

  16. Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass May 22, 2018 Roman Brunecky (left), Yannick Bomble soften biomass. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL If there's an easier, more efficient method, science will

  17. Breakthrough Listen - A New Search for Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Pete

    On July 20, 2015 Yuri Milner and Stephen Hawking announced a new set of scientific initiatives - a SETI search called Breakthrough Listen and a contest to devise potential messages in response to a detection entitled Breakthrough Message. These are the first of several privately-funded Breakthrough Initiatives, designed to answer the fundamental science questions surrounding the origin, extent and nature of life in the universe. The initiatives are managed by the Breakthrough Prize Foundation. With Breakthrough Listen, Radio SETI observations have begun at the Green Bank Radio Telescope (GBT) and optical SETI at the Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder (APF). Observations will soon commence at the CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope. Other SETI instruments and observations are under consideration. In addition, several other initiatives are under development including an expanded search for life in the universe.

  18. Inertial frames and breakthrough propulsion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2017-09-01

    The term ;Breakthrough Propulsion Physics; comes from the NASA project by that name which examined non-rocket space drives, gravity control, and faster-than-light travel. The focus here is on space drives and the related unsolved physics of inertial frames. A ;space drive; is a generic term encompassing any concept for using as-yet undiscovered physics to move a spacecraft instead of existing rockets, sails, or tethers. The collective state of the art spans mostly steps 1-3 of the scientific method: defining the problem, collecting data, and forming hypotheses. The key issues include (1) conservation of momentum, (2) absence of obvious reaction mass, and (3) the net-external thrusting requirement. Relevant open problems in physics include: (1) the sources and mechanisms of inertial frames, (2) coupling of gravitation to the other fundamental forces, and (3) the nature of the quantum vacuum. Rather than following the assumption that inertial frames are an immutable, intrinsic property of space, this paper revisits Mach's Principle, where it is posited that inertia is relative to the distant surrounding matter. This perspective allows conjectures that a space drive could impart reaction forces to that matter, via some as-yet undiscovered interaction with the inertial frame properties of space. Thought experiments are offered to begin a process to derive new hypotheses. It is unknown if this line of inquiry will be fruitful, but it is hoped that, by revisiting unsolved physics from a propulsion point of view, new insights will be gained.

  19. Raising occupational safety - an exceptionally important top rank task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    Comments on the Consulting Meeting on Safety at Work and Fire Prevention in the state association Energetika, held at the Bobov Dol coal mine on 27.7.1986. The main report, submitted by S. Mishev, manager of the state inspectorate, stated that in 1985 working conditions of 1,074 employees improved significantly and the number of accidents among workers was reduced by a coefficient of 1.92 points compared to 1984. Thirty-eight million levs were spent on improving occupational safety (reducing dust, noise and vibration levels). Measures aimed at preventing fires, in particular at the Maritsa-Iztok briquetting plant and in the Babino coal mine were improved significantly (fire-resistant support of mainroads, backfilling and isolation of goaf, application of anti-pyrogens, methane drainage, remote methane control, etc.). The number of annual inspections by safety inspectors has increased to 9,000. Coefficient of absenteeism due to bodily injury has been reduced by 40.57 points. Dust exposure of miners has also been reduced.

  20. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yuko; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-01-24

    Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  1. Money counts for a Times Higher Education top-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, G.; Ritzen, J.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between a university’s expenditure per student and its position in international university rankings. We take into account other factors that are expected to play a role, such as university mission, size, and productive inefficiency. We formalise these concepts

  2. Building breakthrough businesses within established organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Many companies assume that once they've launched a major innovation, growth will soon follow. It's not that simple. High-potential new businesses within established companies face stiff headwinds well after their inception. That's why a company's emphasis must shift: from ideas to execution and from leadership excellence to organizational excellence. The authors spent five years chronicling new businesses at the New York Times Company, Analog Devices, Corning, Hasbro, and other organizations. They found that a breakthrough new business (referred to as NewCo) rarely coexists gracefully with the established business in the company (called CoreCo). The unnatural combination creates three specific challenges--forgetting, borrowing, and learning--that NewCo must meet in order to survive and grow. NewCo must first forget some of what made CoreCo successful. NewCo and CoreCo have elemental differences, so NewCo must leave behind CoreCo's notions about what skills and competencies are most valuable. NewCo must also borrow some of CoreCo's assets--usually in one or two key areas that will give NewCo a crucial competitive advantage. Incremental cost reductions, for example, are never a sufficient justification for borrowing. Finally, NewCo must be prepared to learn some things from scratch. Because strategic experiments are highly uncertain endeavors, NewCo will face several critical unknowns. The more rapidly it can resolve those unknowns--that is, the faster it can learn--the sooner it will zero in on a winning business model or exit a hopeless situation. Managers can accelerate this learning by planning more simply and more often and by comparing predicted and actual trends.

  3. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  4. A Breakthrough for Strengthening Tusi Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangpin; Peng Furong

    2016-01-01

    Following the inscription of China’s Tusi ( native officials ) relics onto the list of world cultural heritage in 2015 , Tusi studies has already become a current topic. However, if we ignored the numerous and complicated historical events, the tremendous amount of historical materials and cases with different characteristics, it is difficult to realize a theoretical breakthrough and academic in-novation. Hence, if the academic world intends to find a new breakthrough in Tusi studies, enough attention should be given to the analysis of past e-vents, digging out historical materials, and case studies—only by which can Tusi studies be strengthened. 1 . Analysis of past events Scholarly research of the Tusi in the past has paid more attention to the system, culture ,and ap-plication of Tusi relics for inscription onto the list of world cultural heritage, but has ignored analysis of significant events. Due to the influence of the political right, economic benefit, and cultural in-filtration, there had always been competition be-tween the central government and the Tusi regime during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. When some conflicts could not be resolved through nego-tiation, large-scale events or battles were the re-sult. Judging from current studies on every small or large battle between the central government and a Tusi regime, we can see that scholars always focus their studies on the background, process, result, historical influence and related evaluations. Up to now, no scholars have written a monograph of these big events closely related to the Tusi, which is doubtlessly a pity when it comes to Tusi studies. We think that three issues should be noticed while analyzing big events related to the Tusi:1 ) taking the overall situation into consideration; 2 ) having theoretical sight; and 3 ) having a theoretical awareness. 2 . Uncovering historical materials The historical materials are especially impor-tant for the study of the Tusi system or Tusi issues

  5. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  6. Aldosterone breakthrough during aliskiren, valsartan, and combination (aliskiren + valsartan) therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Rekhtman, Yelena; Klemmer, Philip J; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone levels increase in 30%-40% of patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers over the long term. This "aldosterone breakthrough" may carry important clinical consequences given aldosterone's nonepithelial, pro-fibrotic actions. The renin inhibitor, aliskiren, by suppressing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) proximally, may limit breakthrough compared to conventional RAAS blockade. This open-label study (NCT01129557) randomized subjects to aliskiren 300 mg daily (A), valsartan 320 mg daily (V), or aliskiren 150 mg + valsartan 160 mg daily (A+V) for 9 months. Eligible subjects had proteinuria >300 mg/day, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and systolic blood pressure (BP) >130 or diastolic BP >80 mm Hg. Serum and 24-hour urine aldosterone (indexed to 24-hour urine Na) were checked before initiation of therapy and at 3, 6, and 9 months. Aldosterone breakthrough was defined as a sustained increase from baseline aldosterone by study end. The study was intended to enroll 120 subjects but was terminated early by the sponsor. We present here the results of 33 subjects who completed the protocol, of which 12 were randomized to A, 11 were randomized to V, and 10 were randomized to A+V. Mean baseline eGFR was 75.5 (±23.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2); baseline proteinuria was 3104 (±2943) mg/day; and baseline BP was 134.7 (±10.5)/84.8 (±8.4) mm Hg. Three (27%) subjects on V, three (25%) subjects on A, and three (30%) subjects on A+V had aldosterone breakthrough. Mean proteinuria reduction was 31% from baseline in all subjects: 30% in subjects with breakthrough vs. 32% in subjects without breakthrough. Mean BP reduction was 11.0/8.8 mm Hg in all subjects: 8.4/6.1 mm Hg in subjects with breakthrough vs. 12.0/9.8 mm Hg in subjects without breakthrough. Aliskiren, alone or in combination with valsartan, did not reduce the incidence of aldosterone breakthrough in subjects with hypertension

  7. High-pressure gas-breakthrough apparatus and a procedure for determining the gas-breakthrough pressure of compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, H.B.

    1997-08-01

    Gas may be produced in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Given that the vault will be sealed with clay-based materials, the fate of the gas is uncertain. Therefore, an instrument was previously built to measure the pressure required to pass gas through compacted clay materials (a gas-breakthrough apparatus). However, the 10 MPa pressure limit of the apparatus was insufficient to test compacted buffer material at the density proposed in the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. Therefore, a high-pressure (50 Wa) gas-breakthrough apparatus was designed, constructed and installed. This report describes the components of the apparatus and the materials and procedures that are used for the gas-breakthrough tests. (author)

  8. Foreknowledge of breakthroughs science and technology foresight, and the early identification of areas of breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, P.

    2010-01-01

    The progress of science and technology has been so rapid in the last few decades that it receives especial attention in forecasting and foresight exercises. But, because they are too greatly in thrall to the dominant paradigms and hence favour a linear perspective, the experts who deal with these questions pay more attention to the future of technologies than to scientific advances and revolutions. The bulk of their work consists, then, in anticipating, by various different methods (Delphi surveys, Road-maps, etc.), at what date a particular technology might be available (without, however, always correctly gauging the conditions for its social appropriation or the applications to which it might be put). In this article, Pierre Papon expounds a much more original and promising approach for attempting to anticipate the discoveries that are likely radically to transform the fields of scientific knowledge by investigating the phenomena that may potentially lead to fundamental revolutions. After reminding us of the premonitory thinking of a number of authors - in the fields, for example, of genetics and computer science -, he endeavors to describe some of the dominant paradigms, particularly in quantum physics and molecular biology. In this way, he shows the advances they have made possible, and also their limitations, and explores what new scientific leaps forward might occur, bringing radically new technological breakthroughs between now and 2050. Papon reminds us, at the same time that, 'as science is not something isolated within society'; it has a duty to contribute to meeting the great challenges that face us - of work, health, nutrition and sustainable development, particularly where energy and climate are concerned. He therefore examines the ways in which future scientific and technological advances might provide solutions and how important it might be to 'translate the questions society poses into scientific questions'. He thus argues implicitly for strategic

  9. Direct Breakthrough Curve Prediction From Statistics of Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K.; Haslauer, Claus P.; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to predict the shape of solute breakthrough curves in heterogeneous aquifers at early times and/or under high degrees of heterogeneity, both cases in which the classical macrodispersion theory may not be applicable. The methodology relies on the observation that breakthrough curves in heterogeneous media are generally well described by lognormal distributions, and mean breakthrough times can be predicted analytically. The log-variance of solute arrival is thus sufficient to completely specify the breakthrough curves, and this is calibrated as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and dimensionless distance from a source plane by means of Monte Carlo analysis and statistical regression. Using the ensemble of simulated groundwater flow and solute transport realizations employed to calibrate the predictive regression, reliability estimates for the prediction are also developed. Additional theoretical contributions include heuristics for the time until an effective macrodispersion coefficient becomes applicable, and also an expression for its magnitude that applies in highly heterogeneous systems. It is seen that the results here represent a way to derive continuous time random walk transition distributions from physical considerations rather than from empirical field calibration.

  10. Husserl's Illumination of the Breakthrough of Logical Investigations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    the example Husserl offers of the room where the lights go off in order to illuminate the breakthrough for ... correspondence theory of truth, and his main concern seems to be to ..... The advantage of Husserl's example is that it tries to situate the ...

  11. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  12. A European survey of oncology nurse breakthrough cancer pain practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Kongsgaard, Ulf E.; Wengstrom, Yvonne

    Purpose of the research: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a prevalent type of pain in which the nurse can play an important role in improving patients' pain symptoms and overall well-being. Nurses' experience with BTCP (number of patients, and estimates of severity and frequency), the treatment of

  13. Dissolved CO2 Increases Breakthrough Porosity in Natural Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Bruns, S; Stipp, S L S; Sørensen, H O

    2017-07-18

    When reactive fluids flow through a dissolving porous medium, conductive channels form, leading to fluid breakthrough. This phenomenon is caused by the reactive infiltration instability and is important in geologic carbon storage where the dissolution of CO 2 in flowing water increases fluid acidity. Using numerical simulations with high resolution digital models of North Sea chalk, we show that the breakthrough porosity is an important indicator of dissolution pattern. Dissolution patterns reflect the balance between the demand and supply of cumulative surface. The demand is determined by the reactive fluid composition while the supply relies on the flow field and the rock's microstructure. We tested three model scenarios and found that aqueous CO 2 dissolves porous media homogeneously, leading to large breakthrough porosity. In contrast, solutions without CO 2 develop elongated convective channels known as wormholes, with low breakthrough porosity. These different patterns are explained by the different apparent solubility of calcite in free drift systems. Our results indicate that CO 2 increases the reactive subvolume of porous media and reduces the amount of solid residual before reactive fluid can be fully channelized. Consequently, dissolved CO 2 may enhance contaminant mobilization near injection wellbores, undermine the mechanical sustainability of formation rocks and increase the likelihood of buoyance driven leakage through carbonate rich caprocks.

  14. Modeling dust growth in protoplanetary disks: The breakthrough case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowska, J.; Windmark, F.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks is one of the initial steps toward planet formation. Simple toy models are often not sufficient to cover the complexity of the coagulation process, and a number of numerical approaches are therefore used, among which integration of the Smoluchowski equation and various versions of the Monte Carlo algorithm are the most popular. Aims: Recent progress in understanding the processes involved in dust coagulation have caused a need for benchmarking and comparison of various physical aspects of the coagulation process. In this paper, we directly compare the Smoluchowski and Monte Carlo approaches to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods: We focus on the mechanism of planetesimal formation via sweep-up growth, which is a new and important aspect of the current planet formation theory. We use realistic test cases that implement a distribution in dust collision velocities. This allows a single collision between two grains to have a wide range of possible outcomes but also requires a very high numerical accuracy. Results: For most coagulation problems, we find a general agreement between the two approaches. However, for the sweep-up growth driven by the "lucky" breakthrough mechanism, the methods exhibit very different resolution dependencies. With too few mass bins, the Smoluchowski algorithm tends to overestimate the growth rate and the probability of breakthrough. The Monte Carlo method is less dependent on the number of particles in the growth timescale aspect but tends to underestimate the breakthrough chance due to its limited dynamic mass range. Conclusions: We find that the Smoluchowski approach, which is generally better for the breakthrough studies, is sensitive to low mass resolutions in the high-mass, low-number tail that is important in this scenario. To study the low number density features, a new modulation function has to be introduced to the interaction probabilities. As the minimum resolution

  15. A review on Anticipated Breakthrough Technologies of 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal P. S.; Shubhrajyotsna Aithal

    2016-01-01

    This review discuss strategic management of thirteen most anticipated possible technology breakthroughs of 21st century which are substantially affect the life style of living beings in the world like (1) Nanotechnology-based human life comfort, (2) High speed computation through optical computers, (3) Embedded Intelligence, (4) HIV Antivirus, (5) Pseudo Senses - Sensation of existence through virtual reality and through artificial environment, (6) Off Planet Production in micro-gravity, (7) ...

  16. Ten Main Technological Breakthroughs of CNPC in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breakthrough in systematic technology for exploration of Qikou oil-enriched depression in Bohai Bay Basin Qikou oil-enriched depression is one of the largest depressions of the Tertiary deposit in Bohai Bay Basin.The oil and gas exploration of this area faces a number of bottlenecks,such as a large proportion of negative structures,complicated distribution of sedimentary sand bodies and diversified types of oil and gas reservoirs.

  17. Breakthrough innovations : The impact of foreign acquisition of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Tojeiro Rivero, Damián; Moreno Serrano, Rosina; Badillo Enciso, Erika Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel, this paper explores the role of R+D offshoring on innovation performance from 2004 to 2013. Specifically, we focus our attention on the impact of different types of offshoring governance models on the profitability of developing breakthrough innovations. Using a novel methodology for panel data sets, we control for the heterogeneity of firms as well as for the sample selection and endogeneity. Our study provides evidence that firms developi...

  18. New AIDA-2020 call for breakthrough detector technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Physicists, engineers, and industry will be interested in a new proof-of-concept fund for breakthrough projects from the general field of detector development and testing.   Launched in the framework of the European project AIDA-2020, this open call will provide up to 200k€ of seed funding to support innovative and societal applications with a focus on industry-oriented applications. The deadline for applying is 20 October 2016. More information here.

  19. Methodology for Examining Potential Technology Breakthroughs for Mitigating CO2 and Application to Centralized Solar Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggressive reductions in US greenhouse gas emissions will require radical changes in how society generates and uses energy. Technological breakthroughs will be necessary if we are to make this transition cost effectively. With limited resources, understanding the breakthrough pot...

  20. The SolarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, G.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our national solar thermal research programs and our combined efforts conducted through IEA/SolarPACES have brought about many breakthroughs in the development of solar thermal technology. We have components and systems that are much more efficient, much more reliable, and can be built much more cost-efficiently than just a few years ago. As our technology development proceeds, we undoubtedly will continue to make significant progress, breakthroughs in fact, in all these areas - progress that will bring us even closer to economic parity with more conventional forms of energy. And while this progress is absolutely necessary, the question is whether it will be enough to allow solar thermal to break into the mainstream of global energy supply. Our new IEA/SolarPACES strategy, crafted and approved over the course of the past year, has recognized the changes we must face and given us license to begin to make those changes. We must begin addressing financial hurdles, work to create a more favorable regulatory and tax environment, support development of international partnerships, and expand the visibility and excitement of solar thermal technology to achieve the final breakthroughs we need to allow solar thermal energy to live up to its vast potential. (orig./AKF)

  1. Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.

  2. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have cracked the genetic code of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, prompting hope that the breakthrough will help future efforts to control one of the most devastating livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa spread by the insect. The tsetse genome was sequenced and annotated during a 10-year international collaborative effort that involved the Insect Pest Control Laboratory run jointly by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The achievement allows scientists to better study the fly's genes and their functions, knowledge that should open the door for researching ways to control the insect

  3. Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or Kd values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.

  4. Foreseen hydrological changes drive efforts to formulate water balance improvement measures as part of the management options of adaptation at Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Gabor; Kutics, Karoly

    2013-04-01

    Located in Western Hungary, Lake Balaton (LB) is one of the shallowest large lakes of the world. The catchment area including the lake is 5775 km2, only 10 times more than the lake surface area of 593 km2. This relatively small catchment area and the relatively dry climate results in high vulnerability of the lake water budget to any hydro-meteorological changes. Due to the combined effects of planned water quality protection measures (refer to adjoining article on LB water quality) water quality was not as serious a concern over the last 15 years. However, a new and potentially more damaging threat, decreasing water level started to emerge in 2000. The natural water budget was negative half of the time, i.e. 6 years in the last 12 years. It hadn't occurred in the previous 80 years, since 1921, the year from which detailed meteorological data on the area are available. This new phenomenon raised and continues to raise serious sustainability concerns in the Lake Balaton area requiring better understanding of climatic changes and their foreseen impacts on hydrological and ecological processes that would lead decision makers to formulate the appropriate vulnerability and adaptation policies. Based on the common methodologies of the EULAKES project, present state of the hydrological conditions was analyzed as well as qualitative vulnerability assessment carried out to the area. Using the climate scenarios developed by the project partner Austrian Institute of Technology, calculations on water budget changes was possible. It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century the lake will experience a drastic drop in the inflow and, accompanied by the increased evaporation, it is likely that years without outflow and serious drops in water-level would occur. The increased frequency of unfavorable water deficit will cause not only ecological, but also socio-economic conflicts in the multipurpose usage of the lake. Therefore, a qualitative vulnerability assessment was

  5. The next breakthrough in phonon-mediated superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    If history teaches us anything, it is that the next breakthrough in superconductivity will not be the result of surveying the history of past breakthroughs, as they have almost always been a matter of serendipity resulting from undirected exploration into new materials. Still, there is reason to reflect on recent advances, work toward higher T c of even an incremental nature, and recognize that it is important to explore avenues currently believed to be unpromising even as we attempt to be rational. In this paper we look at two remarkable new unusually high temperature superconductors (UHTS), MgB 2 with T c = 40 K and (in less detail) high pressure Li with T c = 20 K, with the aim of reducing their unexpected achievements to a simple and clear understanding. We also consider briefly other UHTS systems that provide still unresolved puzzles; these materials include mostly layered structures, and several with strongly bonded C-C or B-C substructures. What may be possible in phonon-coupled superconductivity is reconsidered in the light of the discussion

  6. (Mis)understanding Science: The Problem with Scientific Breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James P

    2016-09-01

    On Saturday morning, February 28, 1953, the mystery of heredity appeared secure. Humans hadn't the faintest idea of how genetic information was transmitted-how the uncanny resemblance between mother and daughter, grandfather and grandson was conveyed across generations. Yet, by that Saturday afternoon, two individuals, James Watson and Francis Crick, had glimpsed the solution to these mysteries. The story of Watson and Crick's great triumph has been told and retold and has rightly entered the pantheon of scientific legend. But Watson and Crick's breakthrough was just that: a rupture and dramatic discontinuity in human knowledge that solved a deep mystery, the likes of which occurs, perhaps, a couple of times each century. And that's the problem. The story is just so good and so irresistible that it has misled generations of scientists about what to expect regarding a life in science. And more damaging, the resulting breakthrough mentality misleads the public, the media, and society's decision-makers about how science really works, all to the detriment of scientific progress and our society's well-being. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  7. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  8. Is a Breakthrough on Climate Change Governance on the Horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    The recently released Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC has highlighted again with unprecedented scope and insight the urgency of addressing climate change. The international community has pledged to devise the next international agreement on climate change by 2015, while the EU and in particular...... the Scandinavian countries have forged ahead advancing a variety of policies to respond to climate change. Similarly, regions, municipalities, and private actors across the world are also contributing to climate governance. This paper asks whether the world is reaching a tipping point where a breakthrough...... on climate change governance is near?. The answer is approached by contrasting the governance model within which the IPCC operates and the conditions of policy and governance interaction toward the more scientific foundations laid out by IPCC, with the range of multilateral climate governance...

  9. How to revive breakthrough innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Bernard H; Chin, William W

    2011-06-29

    Over the past 20 years, pharmaceutical companies have implemented conservative management practices to improve the predictability of therapeutics discovery and success rates of drug candidates. This approach has often yielded compounds that are only marginally better than existing therapies, yet require larger, longer, and more complex trials. To fund them, companies have shifted resources away from drug discovery to late clinical development; this has hurt innovation and amplified the crisis brought by the expiration of patents on many best-selling drugs. Here, we argue that more breakthrough therapeutics will reach patients only if the industry ceases to pursue "safe" incremental innovation, re-engages in high-risk discovery research, and adopts collaborative innovation models that allow sharing of knowledge and costs among collaborators.

  10. 75 Breakthroughs by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories; Breakthroughs 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    Born at a time when the world faced a dire threat, the National Laboratory System protects America through science and technology. For more than 75 years, the Department of Energy’s national laboratories have solved important problems in science, energy and national security. Partnering with industry and academia, the laboratories also drive innovation to advance economic competitiveness and ensure our nation’s future prosperity. Over the years, America's National Laboratories have been changing and improving the lives of millions of people and this expertise continues to keep our nation at the forefront of science and technology in a rapidly changing world. This network of Department of Energy Laboratories has grown into 17 facilities across the country. As this list of breakthroughs attests, Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe.

  11. The New Three Rs: Research, Reading, and Results. Breakthrough to Literacy[TM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    Research in school districts throughout the United States shows that children who use "Breakthrough to Literacy" achieve significant and lasting improvement in their reading skills. At virtually every site studied where implementation criteria were met, children who participated in "Breakthrough" demonstrated marked increases…

  12. Alternative sample-introduction technique to avoid breakthrough in gradient-elution liquid chromatography of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reingruber, E.; Bedani, F.; Buchberger, W.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gradient-elution liquid chromatography (GELC) is a powerful tool for the characterization of synthetic polymers. However, gradient-elution chromatograms often suffer from breakthrough phenomena. Breakthrough can be averted by using a sample solvent as weak as the mobile phase. However, this approach

  13. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model From Breakthrough Curve Data Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Thomas; Fakhari, Abbas; Miller, Savannah; Singha, Kamini; Bolster, Diogo

    2017-12-01

    The spatial Markov model (SMM) is an upscaled Lagrangian model that effectively captures anomalous transport across a diverse range of hydrologic systems. The distinct feature of the SMM relative to other random walk models is that successive steps are correlated. To date, with some notable exceptions, the model has primarily been applied to data from high-resolution numerical simulations and correlation effects have been measured from simulated particle trajectories. In real systems such knowledge is practically unattainable and the best one might hope for is breakthrough curves (BTCs) at successive downstream locations. We introduce a novel methodology to quantify velocity correlation from BTC data alone. By discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and developing an inverse model, we estimate velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where detailed Lagrangian velocity statistics are unavailable. The proposed methodology is applied to two synthetic numerical problems, where we measure all details and thus test the veracity of the approach by comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Our results suggest that our estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and using the SMM with this estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Our methodology naturally allows for estimates of uncertainty by calculating lower and upper bounds of velocity correlation, enabling prediction of a range of BTCs. The measured BTCs fall within the range of predicted BTCs. This novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone is quite parsimonious, thereby widening the SMM's practical applicability.

  14. Beyond the traditional definition of breakthrough pain: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Antonio; Gentili, Marta; Iorno, Vittorio; Mammucari, Massimo; Tufaro, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Marzia; Sabato, Alessandro Fabrizio

    2013-03-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is traditionally defined as a transitory pain flare in opioid-treated patients with chronic background pain. This definition has, however, been challenged in recent years. This study aimed to analyze BTP prevalence in different pain conditions. This was a prospective, non-interventional, observational study conducted from June to September 2011 in two Italian pain treatment reference centres. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with oncological or non-oncological pain were eligible for this study; background pain was acute/ subacute (3 months). The characteristics of pain were evaluated by means of a structured interview by physicians, and patients were asked to complete a dedicated clinical study form. The following outcomes were assessed: chronic pain duration (in patients with chronic pain), BTP prevalence, and number and severity of daily BTP episodes. All outcomes were assessed in four populations of patients with: (a) chronic oncological pain; (b) chronic non-oncological pain; (c) non-chronic oncological pain; (d) non-chronic non-oncological pain. The correlation between BTP and gender was also investigated. Of 1,270 patients with chronic pain, 1,086 had non-oncological pain (85.5%). Most patients (68.6%) with non-oncological pain were female (P = 0.001). Pain duration was significantly longer in non-oncological pain versus oncological pain groups (P = 0.002). BTP prevalence was lower in non-oncological patients (P definition. BTP frequency and severity is similar in oncological and non-oncological pain.

  15. Soil homogeneity evaluation by radionuclide tracer breakthrough curve interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Increasing concern about the environmental impact of hazardous waste disposal has made site evaluation and site selection difficult and expensive. Pollutants, assumed to be absorbed by the soil immediately surrounding the burial trench, have been detected far from sites. Discrepancies between predicted migration distances based on indirect methods such as laboratory and computer modeling and those observed at the field site are often significant. The homogeneity of subsurface media, often assumed in laboratory and modeling studies, is seldom found in the field. The use of tracers to determine the flow characteristics of a potential disposal site involves time and expense, but offers a direct evaluation of solute transport and eliminates the assumptions inherent in indirect methods. Current modeling of solute transport in nonhomogeneous porous media is limited by the quantification of input parameters. Several general models can predict solute transport in saturated-unsaturated media from low-level disposal sites if the hydraulic characteristics and chemical reactions expected in each unique water-solute-media system can be defined. The objective of this research was to develop a method of evaluating potential shallow-land burial waste disposal sites by interpreting tracer breakthrough curve structure with respect to the hydrologic properties of the media at the potential disposal site. This methodology will be helpful in evaluating the potential performance of many types of shallow-land waste burial sites such as low-level radioactive waste disposal, surface disposal of flyash, chemical waste disposal, waste sedimentation ponds, and sanitary landfills

  16. From Islamicizing the Sciences to Strategizing for Muslims’ Scientific Breakthrough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFIU IBRAHIM ADEBAYO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At inception, science and religion were seen as poles apart and so science was vehemently kicked against by religious leaders. Islam later came to bridge the gap between religion and science only to be later hijacked by the Western world and so science was rewritten from a purely materialist point of view; hence, experts in modern science became over-confident and arrogant to have relegated religion to the lowest ebb and looked down upon any knowledge which could not be scientifically proved. However attempts are being made to reconcile religion and science by Muslim reformers. These attempts are not without their shortcomings, hence the need for Islamization of the sciences for them to conform to the Islamic principle of unity of knowledge. However, the present researcher feels that there should be a step forward from the contemporary approaches to Islamicizing the sciences in form of colouring the Western scientific discoveries Islam, to making their own scientific breakthroughs, the type which immortalized Muslim scientists of the Islam’s golden ages. Without this, Muslims will continue to be mere consumers of the Western products. The strategy for the Ummah to achieve this is suggested in this paper.

  17. Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitanda, Shoji; Fukada, Satoshi; Koto, Kenji; Mitsuishi, Nobuo

    1979-01-01

    In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned. Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium (Zr) and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves. The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step. It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Funding breakthrough therapies: A systematic review and recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, E; Toumi, M; Dussart, C; Borissov, B; Dabbous, O; Badora, K; Auquier, P

    2018-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies likely associated with high prices. Payers need guidance to create a balance between ensuring patient access to breakthrough therapies and maintaining the financial sustainability of the healthcare system. The aims of this study were to identify, define, classify and compare the approaches to funding high-cost medicines proposed in the literature, to analyze their appropriateness for ATMP funding and to suggest an optimal funding model for ATMPs. Forty-eight articles suggesting new funding models for innovative high-cost therapies were identified. The models were classified into 3 groups: financial agreement, health outcomes-based agreement and healthcoin. Financial agreement encompassed: discounts, rebates, price and volume caps, price-volume agreements, loans, cost-plus price, intellectual-based payment and fund-based payment. Health outcomes-based agreements were defined as agreements between manufacturers and payers based on drug performance, and were divided into performance-based payment and coverage with evidence development. Healthcoin described a new suggested tradeable currency used to assign monetary value to incremental outcomes. With a large number of ATMPs in development, it is time for stakeholders to start thinking about new pathways and funding strategies for these innovative high-cost therapies. An "ATMP-specific fund" may constitute a reasonable solution to ensure rapid patient access to innovation without threatening the sustainability of the health care system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How Students Combine Resources to Make Conceptual Breakthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. J.; Jones, Darrick C.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2018-04-01

    We use the framework of cognitive resources to investigate how students construct understanding of a complex physics topic, namely, a photovoltaic cell. By observing students as they learn about how a solar cell functions, we identified over 60 distinct resources that learners may activate while thinking about photovoltaic cells. We classify these resources into three main types: phenomenological primitives, conceptual resources, and epistemological resources. Furthermore, we found a pattern that suggests that when students make conceptual breakthroughs they may be more likely to activate combinations of resources of different types in concert, especially if a resource from each of the three categories is used. This pattern suggests that physics instructors should encourage students to activate multiple types of prior knowledge during the learning process. This can result from instructors deliberately and explicitly connecting new knowledge to students' prior experience both in and outside the formal physics classroom, as well as allowing students to reflect metacognitively on how the new knowledge fits into their existing understanding of the natural world.

  20. Recent breakthroughs on C-2U: Norman’s legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Andow, R.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); and others

    2016-03-25

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRC) face notable stability and confinement concerns, which can be ameliorated by introducing and maintaining a significant fast ion population in the system. This is the conjecture first introduced by Norman Rostoker multiple decades ago and adopted as the central design tenet in Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced beam driven FRC concept. In fact, studying the physics of such neutral beam (NB) driven FRCs over the past decade, considerable improvements were made in confinement and stability. Next to NB injection, the addition of axially streaming plasma guns, magnetic end plugs, as well as advanced surface conditioning lead to dramatic reductions in turbulence driven losses and greatly improved stability. In turn, fast ion confinement improved significantly and allowed for the build-up of a dominant fast particle population. This recently led to the breakthrough of sustaining an advanced beam driven FRC, thereby demonstrating successful maintenance of trapped magnetic flux, plasma dimensions and total pressure inventory for times much longer than all characteristic system time scales and only limited by hardware and electric supply constraints.

  1. Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2011-03-01

    Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.

  2. Parameterizing the Spatial Markov Model from Breakthrough Curve Data Alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, T.; Bolster, D.; Fakhari, A.; Miller, S.; Singha, K.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial Markov model (SMM) uses a correlated random walk and has been shown to effectively capture anomalous transport in porous media systems; in the SMM, particles' future trajectories are correlated to their current velocity. It is common practice to use a priori Lagrangian velocity statistics obtained from high resolution simulations to determine a distribution of transition probabilities (correlation) between velocity classes that govern predicted transport behavior; however, this approach is computationally cumbersome. Here, we introduce a methodology to quantify velocity correlation from Breakthrough (BTC) curve data alone; discretizing two measured BTCs into a set of arrival times and reverse engineering the rules of the SMM allows for prediction of velocity correlation, thereby enabling parameterization of the SMM in studies where Lagrangian velocity statistics are not available. The introduced methodology is applied to estimate velocity correlation from BTCs measured in high resolution simulations, thus allowing for a comparison of estimated parameters with known simulated values. Results show 1) estimated transition probabilities agree with simulated values and 2) using the SMM with estimated parameterization accurately predicts BTCs downstream. Additionally, we include uncertainty measurements by calculating lower and upper estimates of velocity correlation, which allow for prediction of a range of BTCs. The simulated BTCs fall in the range of predicted BTCs. This research proposes a novel method to parameterize the SMM from BTC data alone, thereby reducing the SMM's computational costs and widening its applicability.

  3. The 2001 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for today's business agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Business is shaped by ideas. But how do you separate enduring ideas from passing fancies? In this, the first edition of the annual HBR List, our editors spotlight five break-through ideas that are truly shaping the future of business. EVEN A GREAT BUSINESS MODEL IS NOT ENOUGH: The rise and fall of dot-coms left markets reeling and CEOs scratching their heads. The most important lesson of the debacle: squishy thinking about "business models" is no substitute for a distinctive strategy. CHANGE IS CHANGING: In recent years, pundits have urged executives to incite revolutions within their companies. But a growing group of experts now suggests that the best companies actually evolve through incremental change--change that builds on rather than subverts their heritage. EGO MAKES THE LEADER: By looking deeply into executives' psyches, we are beginning to unlock the enigma of leadership. While there will never be a single recipe for successful corporate stewardship, an understanding of the human ego can shed light on leadership's most fundamental components. ONLY CONNECT: In business organizations, what's really important about people is not their individual skills but the relationships they form with one another. By investing in "social capital," companies can often push their performance to a whole new level. THE BIOLOGY CENTURY DAWNS: In the twentieth century, product innovations tended to spring from physics. But in the new century, biology may be the central source of innovation. From genomics to biomimicry, the study of life promises to change what companies sell and even how they operate.

  4. Observational study to analyze patterns of treatment of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Delgado-Mingorance, Ignacio; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Jiménez-López, Antonio Javier; Cabezón-Álvarez, Ana; Soler-López, Begoña

    2018-06-12

    Although breakthrough dyspnea is very frequent in cancer patients, there are no precise recommendations for treating it. The main objective of this study was to analyze what treatments are used in clinical practice for the management of breakthrough dyspnea in cancer patients in Spain and the secondary objectives were to describe the characteristics of cancer patients with breakthrough dyspnea and the attributes of the disorder. Cancer patients over 18 years of age, with breakthrough dyspnea and a Karnofsky performance score of ≥30, who were treated at departments of oncology in institutes across Spain were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The characteristics of breakthrough dyspnea, history of treatment, anthropometric variables, Mahler dyspnea index, Borg scale, Edmonton Symptoms Assessment Scale, and patient satisfaction with current breakthrough dyspnea treatment were assessed. The mean age of the 149 included patients was 66 years (95% confidence interval: 64.3 to 67.9), and 53 were females (35.6%). The mean breakthrough dyspnea intensity was 5.85 (95% confidence interval 5.48 to 6.22, Borg scale). A total of 55.1% of the first-choice treatments consisted of opioids, followed by oxygen (17.3%). A total of 119 patients (79.9%) received monotherapy for breakthrough dyspnea. Patients presenting with basal dyspnea received oxygen in a greater proportion of cases (21.1% vs 7.4%; p = 0.07). Patients with predictable dyspnea received a greater proportion of opioids (70.9% vs 44.4%; p = 0.01). Opioids constitute first-line therapy for breakthrough dyspnea in routine clinical practice, though the scientific evidence supporting their use is scarce. Further information derived from controlled clinical trials is needed regarding the comparative efficacy of the different treatments in order to justify their use.

  5. Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes–2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Muñoz-Torrero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs in Medicinal Chemistry: New Targets and Mechanisms, New Drugs, New Hopes is a series of Editorials, which are published on a biannual basis by the Editorial Board of the Medicinal Chemistry section of the journal Molecules [...

  6. Use of pulsed-neutron capture logs to identify steam breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, P.J.; Gosney, T.C.; Long, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on identification of steam-breakthrough zones in a stacked sand/shale sequence with variable lateral continuity which is difficult. Such identification, however, would allow the modification of field operations to enhance recovery through improved vertical sweep and heat injection. Twenty pulsed-neutron capture (PNC) logs were run to identify the steam-breakthrough zone(s) in a seven-pattern area of Mobil's Middle expansion (MIDX) Steamflood Project in the South Belridge field. These PNC data were combined with data from recent replacement wells and a detailed geologic analysis. Evaluation of this combined information allowed identification of potential steam-breakthrough zone(s), and operations were modified to reduce and eliminate steam breakthrough

  7. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.

    2017-12-01

    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  8. The management of breakthrough cancer pain--educational needs a European nursing survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengström, Y; Rundström, C; Geerling, J; Pappa, T; Weisse, I; Williams, S C; Zavratnik, B; Rustøen, T

    2014-01-01

    Poorly managed cancer pain is well known to profoundly impact the patient's daily life and interfere with quality of life. Nurses who cared for patients with cancer from 12 European countries participated in a survey of breakthrough cancer pain practice. The purpose was to investigate how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain, use of standardised tools, confidence in supporting patients and awareness of medications. Responses from 1241 participants showed country variations. The majority of the sample was female, Germany had the highest proportion of male nurses (21.0%), followed by Greece (15.8%). A significantly larger proportion of nurses with longer experience and more education (78.8%) used a comprehensive definition of breakthrough cancer pain. Significant variations in training were found; 71% of Finnish nurses had received training compared with 6% of Greek nurses. Training and using a standardised assessment tool was associated with a significant increase in the nurses' perceived ability to distinguish between breakthrough and background pain. Nurses in countries with the highest proportion of training were most confident in supporting patients. In conclusion, there still exists problems with effective management of patients' breakthrough cancer pain, continuing inability to define the difference between background and breakthrough cancer pain leads to poor treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prediction of ion-exchange column breakthrough curves by constant-pattern wave approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2008-03-21

    The release of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters represents one of major threats to environment. Compared with chemical precipitation method, fixed-bed ion-exchange process can effectively remove heavy metals from wastewaters and generate no hazardous sludge. In order to design and operate fixed-bed ion-exchange processes successfully, it is very important to understand the column dynamics. In this study, the column experiments for Cu2+/H+, Zn2+/H+, and Cd2+/H+ systems using Amberlite IR-120 were performed to measure the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions. The experimental results showed that total cation concentration in the mobile-phase played a key role on the breakthrough curves; a higher feed concentration resulted in an earlier breakthrough. Furthermore, the column dynamics was also predicted by self-sharpening and constant-pattern wave models. The self-sharpening wave model assuming local ion-exchange equilibrium could provide a simple and quick estimation for the breakthrough volume, but the predicted breakthrough curves did not match the experimental data very well. On the contrary, the constant-pattern wave model using a constant driving force model for finite ion-exchange rate provided a better fit to the experimental data. The obtained liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient was correlated to the flow velocity and other operating parameters; the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions could thus be predicted by the constant-pattern wave model using the correlation.

  10. PREFACE: Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Iso, Yuusuke; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-06-01

    These are the proceedings of the international conference `Inverse Problems in Applied Sciences—towards breakthrough' which was held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan on 3-7 July 2006 (http://coe.math.sci.hokudai.ac.jp/sympo/inverse/). There were 88 presentations and more than 100 participants, and we are proud to say that the conference was very successful. Nowadays, many new activities on inverse problems are flourishing at many centers of research around the world, and the conference has successfully gathered a world-wide variety of researchers. We believe that this volume contains not only main papers, but also conveys the general status of current research into inverse problems. This conference was the third biennial international conference on inverse problems, the core of which is the Pan-Pacific Asian area. The purpose of this series of conferences is to establish and develop constant international collaboration, especially among the Pan-Pacific Asian countries, and to lead the organization of activities concerning inverse problems centered in East Asia. The first conference was held at City University of Hong Kong in January 2002 and the second was held at Fudan University in June 2004. Following the preceding two successes, the third conference was organized in order to extend the scope of activities and build useful bridges to the next conference in Seoul in 2008. Therefore this third biennial conference was intended not only to establish collaboration and links between researchers in Asia and leading researchers worldwide in inverse problems but also to nurture interdisciplinary collaboration in theoretical fields such as mathematics, applied fields and evolving aspects of inverse problems. For these purposes, we organized tutorial lectures, serial lectures and a panel discussion as well as conference research presentations. This volume contains three lecture notes from the tutorial and serial lectures, and 22 papers. Especially at this

  11. Computer model predicting breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Alexander, Siobhan E; Wald, Moshe; Cooper, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    Factors influencing the decision to surgically correct vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) include risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) or renal scarring, and decreased likelihood of spontaneous resolution. Improved identification of children at risk for recurrent fUTI may impact management decisions, and allow for more individualized VUR management. We have developed and investigated the accuracy of a multivariable computational model to predict probability of breakthrough fUTI in children with primary VUR. Children with primary VUR and detailed clinical and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) data were identified. Patient demographics, VCUG findings including grade, laterality, and bladder volume at onset of VUR, UTI history, presence of bladder-bowel dysfunction (BBD), and breakthrough fUTI were assessed. The VCUG dataset was randomized into a training set of 288 with a separate representational cross-validation set of 96. Various model types and architectures were investigated using neUROn++, a set of C++ programs. Two hundred fifty-five children (208 girls, 47 boys) diagnosed with primary VUR at a mean age of 3.1 years (±2.6) met all inclusion criteria. A total 384 VCUGs were analyzed. Median follow-up was 24 months (interquartile range 12-52 months). Sixty-eight children (26.7%) experienced 90 breakthrough fUTI events. Dilating VUR, reflux occurring at low bladder volumes, BBD, and history of multiple infections/fUTI were associated with breakthrough fUTI (Table). A 2-hidden node neural network model had the best fit with a receiver operating characteristic curve area of 0.755 for predicting breakthrough fUTI. The risk of recurrent febrile infections, renal parenchymal scarring, and likelihood of spontaneous resolution, as well as parental preference all influence management of primary VUR. The genesis of UTI is multifactorial, making precise prediction of an individual child's risk of breakthrough fUTI challenging. Demonstrated risk factors for

  12. Predicting the Risk of Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infections: Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Guy; Billimek, John; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Kelly, Maryellen S; Selby, Blake; Dorgalli, Crystal; Wehbi, Elias; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Khoury, Antoine E

    2015-11-01

    We constructed a risk prediction instrument stratifying patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux into groups according to their 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection. Demographic and clinical information was retrospectively collected in children diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux and followed for 2 years. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breakthrough urinary tract infection. The final regression model was used to compute an estimation of the 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection for each subject. Accuracy of the binary classifier for breakthrough urinary tract infection was evaluated using receiver operator curve analysis. Three distinct risk groups were identified. The model was then validated in a prospective cohort. A total of 252 bivariate analyses showed that high grade (IV or V) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.8-23.5, p urinary tract infection (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-24.7, p = 0.034) and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.097-7.11, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed bladder and bowel dysfunction was a significant risk factor more pronounced in low grade (I to III) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 2.8, p = 0.018). The estimation model was applied for prospective validation, which demonstrated predicted vs actual 2-year breakthrough urinary tract infection rates of 19% vs 21%. Stratifying the patients into 3 risk groups based on parameters in the risk model showed 2-year risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection was 8.6%, 26.0% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. This proposed risk stratification and probability model allows prediction of 2-year risk of patient breakthrough urinary tract infection to better inform parents of possible outcomes and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Energy investments as foreseen by the IEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study carried out by the international energy agency (IEA) completes the previous analysis made by the World Energy Outlook and published in September 2002. The IEA study make a projection over the coming 30 years of the investments required for the transformation of the energy resources into the necessary supplies to the growing up world population needs. In addition to the IEA team, 63 French and foreign experts contributed to this study. This work has been carried out under the direction of F. Birol, economic director of the IEA. The reference scenario is the one of the 2002 edition of the World Energy Outlook, according to which the world energy market would show a growth of about two thirds during the next three decades, which corresponds to a yearly growth of 1.7%. This article summarizes the content of this study. (J.S.)

  14. Modeling Breakthrough Curves of Citric Acid Adsorption onto Anionic Resins in an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabali Ghorbanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakthrough curves for citric acid adsorption from aqueous solution onto ion-exchange resin at 20, 35, and 55°C have been investigated. To predict breakthrough curves, three mathematical models have been analyzed based on the values of the least square method parameters, Durbin-Watson test, and mean relative percent error and, finally, appropriate models have been achieved. Models are in good agreement with experimental data based on the results. To examine models reliabilities and accuracy, models have been compared by various breakthrough curve data obtained by other investigators. The results show appropriate agreement and in some cases regression errors have been reduced to less than 1.0 percent.

  15. Liquid water breakthrough location distances on a gas diffusion layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Froning, Dieter; Reimer, Uwe; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-06-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method is adopted to simulate the three dimensional dynamic process of liquid water breaking through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. 22 micro-structures of Toray GDL are built based on a stochastic geometry model. It is found that more than one breakthrough locations are formed randomly on the GDL surface. Breakthrough location distance (BLD) are analyzed statistically in two ways. The distribution is evaluated statistically by the Lilliefors test. It is concluded that the BLD can be described by the normal distribution with certain statistic characteristics. Information of the shortest neighbor breakthrough location distance can be the input modeling setups on the cell-scale simulations in the field of fuel cell simulation.

  16. Getting What You Pay For? A Look at America's Top-Ranked Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Michael; Alacbay, Armand

    2014-01-01

    America's great public universities were founded with the highest expectations of academic excellence and service to their states. Overall, these institutions, often called the "flagship universities," do a poor job of ensuring that undergraduate students engage in an intellectually vibrant campus culture and leave with a solid…

  17. The Content of Educational Psychology: An Analysis of Top Ranked Journals from 2003 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Educational psychology as a field of study has encountered a lack of distinction by overlapping with other fields of study or disciplines. Consequently, educational psychology continues to have difficulty claiming jurisdiction over bodies of research knowledge and has been encroached upon by other more crystallized disciplines. The purpose of this…

  18. The Influence of Wealth, Transparency, and Democracy on the Number of Top Ranked Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of wealth, transparency and democracy on the number of universities per million people ranked among the top 300 and 500. The highly ranked universities in the world tend to be concentrated in a few countries. Design/Methodology/Approach: ANOVA was used to test the differences between the two groups…

  19. Typical and Top-Ranked Polish Private Higher Education: Intersectoral and Intrasectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the degree and shape of differences between private and public sectors (intersectoral) and within the private sector (intrasectoral) in Polish higher education. The intersectoral hypothesis is that Poland's two sectors are quite different and that these differences mostly follow those claimed and so far found in leading…

  20. Top ranking fashion blogs and their role in the current fashion industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sedeke (Kristina); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSocial media is a digital platform with a wide impact on personal as well as business communication. A communication model where the addresser sends messages to receivers has been taken over predominantly by a new dynamic model where all participants have the opportunity to actively

  1. Breakthrough properties of chloride ions in columns of lead phosphate hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi; Shindo, Manabu.

    1994-01-01

    Breakthrough properties of chloride ion (Cl - ) have been studied by using columns packed with a granular anion-exchanger of lead phosphate hydroxide (Pb 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , IXE-1000G). The column utilization of the ratio of breakthrough capacity to total capacity increased with decreasing particle size and increasing temperature. The collection of Cl - from a simulated waste solution was improved by the addition of cation-exchange to IXE-1000G; the adsorption capacity of the column of IXE-1000G/IXE-300G (Sb type cation-exchanger) was over 0.16 mmol Cl - /g, yielding a relatively high column utilization of 75%. (author)

  2. Coupling gravity, electromagnetism and space-time for space propulsion breakthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1994-01-01

    spaceflight would be revolutionized if it were possible to propel a spacecraft without rockets using the coupling between gravity, electromagnetism, and space-time (hence called 'space coupling propulsion'). New theories and observations about the properties of space are emerging which offer new approaches to consider this breakthrough possibility. To guide the search, evaluation, and application of these emerging possibilities, a variety of hypothetical space coupling propulsion mechanisms are presented to highlight the issues that would have to be satisfied to enable such breakthroughs. A brief introduction of the emerging opportunities is also presented.

  3. Creative Management as a Strategy for Breakthrough Innovation. Lessons from Basic Research Projects of Japanese Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. T.

    1997-01-01

    Japanese science/technology policies emphasize creative research management for strengthening breakthrough innovation. Key lessons include the following: cultivation of creative researchers, clear strategic directions, systematic teamwork and collaboration, focus on strategic industrial relevance, balance between autonomy and control, and the need…

  4. First case of breakthrough pneumonia due to Aspergillus nomius in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Morena; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; de Carolis, Elena; Leone, Giuseppe; Pagano, Livio

    2012-10-01

    We report the first known case of a breakthrough pulmonary infection caused by Aspergillus nomius in an acute myeloid leukemia patient receiving caspofungin therapy. The isolate was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and sequencing-based methods. The organism was found to be fully susceptible, in vitro, to echinocandin antifungal agents.

  5. Efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming-Lin Ho; Chih-Yuan Chung

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score >/=40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer (Author).

  6. Efficacy and safety of tramadol/acetaminophen in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Lin; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-Cheng; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Hsu, Nicholas C; Chang, Cheng-Shyong

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the analgesic efficacy and safety of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet, for the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. This study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan from January 2006 to February 2007. The single-center and open-label study enrolled 59 opioid-treated cancer patients with at least moderate breakthrough pain (visual analog scale [VAS] score ≥40mm on a 100-mm scale). The efficacy measures included VAS scores and adverse effect assessment 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen. Visual analog scale score at time of pain relief was reported. The mean VAS score when the breakthrough pain episode began (0 minute) was 77.8. Analysis showed significant better mean pain VAS scores at 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the administration of tramadol/acetaminophen (p≤0.001 versus 0 min for all 3 time points). The mean time to pain relief was 597.2 seconds and the mean VAS score at time of relief was 43.4. The effective rates, defined by more than 30% reduction of the VAS score, after 10 minutes of administration was 74.6%, 30 minutes 86.4%, and one hour 94.9% (p≤0.001 versus 0 minute for all 3 time points). Two cases of drowsiness were reported. Tramadol/acetaminophen might be efficacious and safe in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer.

  7. [Parahisian atrial tachycardia or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowski, Michał; Jaworska-Wilczyńska, Maria; Urbanek, Piotr; Bodalski, Robert; Derejko, Paweł; Gajek, Jacek; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2010-08-01

    We present a case of a 61 year-old woman with tachycardia originating close to the His bundle where radiofrequency (RF) ablation may bear potential risk of atrioventricular (AV) block. In this case report we discuss the possibility of a AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia with tendon of Todaro breakthrough. Patient was safely and effectively treated with RF catheter ablation.

  8. Effect of temperature on the breakthrough of a charcoal tube during vinyl chloride monomer sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, J; Park, Y J; Kim, C N; Lim, N G; Lee, S H; Song, J S; Won, J U; Talaska, G

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be encountered in some workplaces, air samples containing 4 ppm (10.24 mg/m3), 8 ppm (20.45 mg/m3), 16 ppm (40.98 mg/m3), and 32 ppm (81.80 mg/m3) of VCM were collected at temperatures of 4, 22, and 40 degrees C. Five liters of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 100 min using the activated charcoal tube recommended by NIOSH. A second tube was added to the sampling train to collect any VCM that might not have been absorbed in the first tube. To collect VCM air samples by the OSHA method, two carbon molecular sieve tubes were connected serially and 3 L of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 60 min. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and ultra 2 capillary column was used to analyze VCM. Significant breakthrough was found when sampling at higher temperatures with the NIOSH method. No breakthrough was found when samples were collected using the OSHA media at different temperatures and concentrations. Therefore, under hot ambient conditions (>22 degrees C), the possibility of breakthrough should be considered when sampling VCM by the NIOSH method.

  9. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-12-01

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A survey of Canadian cancer patients' perspectives on the characteristics and treatment of breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hawley, Philippa; Zhang, Liying; Slaven, Marissa; Gagnon, Pierre; Bisland, Stuart; Bennett, Margaret; Tardif, Francois; Chow, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs spontaneously or in response to a trigger despite stable and controlled background pain. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian patients' awareness of and experience with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). Four Canadian cancer centers participated in a non-interventional survey recruiting cancer patients who experienced breakthrough pain. These patients were asked about their pain, its impact on functioning, current management and interest in new treatments of BTPc. Ninety-four Canadian cancer patients participated in this study, with 96% stating that cancer pain impacted their daily living with over half unable to go to work or shopping. Fifty percent of patients said that an episode of BTPc lasted greater than 60 minutes, with the pain score being on average 7.8/10, impacting normal work (7.2/10) and general activity (7.1/10). Only 35% of patients were very satisfied with the speed of relief of their medications. Those who did not take their breakthrough pain medication for every episode stated that was because the pain was not always severe (37%), or they were afraid of becoming tolerant (23%) or addicted (12%). Patients stated that the most important features of a new treatment for BTPc were the ability to relieve pain completely (47%), and quickly (43%). Patients expressed willingness to try transmucosal products (80%) or nasal products (59%). Breakthrough cancer pain in Canadian cancer patients greatly impacts their daily lives. There is room for improvement in the management of BTPc, and the majority of patients would be willing to try new treatments.

  11. Choreographing Partnerships within an Organizational Structure of Accountability: Maryland State Department of Education's Shift from Compliance Monitor to Breakthrough Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickling, Laura Rutter; Doneker, Karen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon data from twenty-five interviews, this paper examines how the Maryland State Department of Education's Cross-functional Team navigates its changing role from compliance monitor to breakthrough partner in terms of discourse, time, and flexibility, as it carries out the work of the Breakthrough Center. It also examines how the role of…

  12. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L.; Chen, R.; Zhou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  13. Gas breakthrough and emission through unsaturated compacted clay in landfill final cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.W.W.; Chen, Z.K.; Coo, J.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Chen, R., E-mail: chenrui1005@hotmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Urban and Civil Engineering for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhou, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explore feasibility of unsaturated clay as a gas barrier in landfill cover. • Gas breakthrough pressure increases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • Gas emission rate decreases with clay thickness and degree of saturation. • A 0.6 m-thick clay layer may be sufficient to meet gas emission rate limit. - Abstract: Determination of gas transport parameters in compacted clay plays a vital role for evaluating the effectiveness of soil barriers. The gas breakthrough pressure has been widely studied for saturated swelling clay buffer commonly used in high-level radioactive waste disposal facility where the generated gas pressure is very high (in the order of MPa). However, compacted clay in landfill cover is usually unsaturated and the generated landfill gas pressure is normally low (typically less than 10 kPa). Furthermore, effects of clay thickness and degree of saturation on gas breakthrough and emission rate in the context of unsaturated landfill cover has not been quantitatively investigated in previous studies. The feasibility of using unsaturated compacted clay as gas barrier in landfill covers is thus worthwhile to be explored over a wide range of landfill gas pressures under various degrees of saturation and clay thicknesses. In this study, to evaluate the effectiveness of unsaturated compacted clay to minimize gas emission, one-dimensional soil column tests were carried out on unsaturated compacted clay to determine gas breakthrough pressures at ultimate limit state (high pressure range) and gas emission rates at serviceability limit state (low pressure range). Various degrees of saturation and thicknesses of unsaturated clay sample were considered. Moreover, numerical simulations were carried out using a coupled gas–water flow finite element program (CODE-BRIGHT) to better understand the experimental results by extending the clay thickness and varying the degree of saturation to a broader range that is typical at different

  14. Breakthrough bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, D M; Williams, J

    2001-02-01

    Unspoken, subtle parts of a bargaining process--also known as the shadow negotiation--can set the tone for a successful negotiation. Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions. Power moves are used when two negotiating parties hold unequal power--for instance, subordinates and bosses; new and existing employees; and people of different races, ages, or genders. These strategies, such as casting the status quo in an unfavorable light, can help parties realize that they must negotiate: they will be better off if they do and worse off if they don't. Process moves affect how negotiation issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues. Working outside of the actual bargaining process, one party can suggest ideas or marshal support that can shape the agenda and influence how others view the negotiation. Appreciative moves alter the tone or atmosphere so that a more collaborative exchange is possible. They shift the dynamics of the shadow negotiation away from the adversarial--helping parties to save face--and thus build trust and encourage dialogue. These strategic moves don't guarantee that all bargainers will walk away winners, but they help to get stalled negotiations moving--out of the dark of unspoken power plays and into the light of true dialogue.

  15. Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar

    2007-07-19

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.

  16. Electrical breakthrough effect for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Soskov, Alex; Scipioni, Larry; Bassom, Neil; Sijbrandij, Sybren; Smith, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between high-energy Ga + ions and condensed matter is studied for circuit edit applications. A new 'electrical breakthrough effect' due to charging of, and Ga + penetration/doping into, dielectrics is discovered. This new effect is proposed for end pointing in 90 and 45 nm node circuit edits where integrated circuit device dimensions are of a few hundred nanometers. This new end point approach is very sensitive, reliable, and precise. Most importantly, it is not sensitive to device dimensions. A series of circuit edits involving milling holes of high aspect ratio (5-30) and small cross-section area (0.01-0.25 μm 2 ) on real chips has been successfully performed using the electrical breakthrough effect as the end point method

  17. Breakthrough of toluene vapours in granular activated carbon filled packed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Kannan, G.K.; Upendra, S.; Subha, R.; Kumar, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the toluene removal efficiency and breakthrough time using commercially available coconut shell-based granular activated carbon in packed bed reactor. To study the effect of toluene removal and break point time of the granular activated carbon (GAC), the parameters studied were bed lengths (2, 3, and 4 cm), concentrations (5, 10, and 15 mg l -1 ) and flow rates (20, 40, and 60 ml/min). The maximum percentage removal of 90% was achieved and the maximum carbon capacity for 5 mg l -1 of toluene, 60 ml/min flow rate and 3 cm bed length shows 607.14 mg/g. The results of dynamic adsorption in a packed bed were consistent with those of equilibrium adsorption by gravimetric method. The breakthrough time and quantity shows that GAC with appropriate surface area can be utilized for air cleaning filters. The result shows that the physisorption plays main role in toluene removal.

  18. Breakthrough on technical and vocational education of Taiwan: Take Oriental Institute of Technology as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Horng-jinh; Wang, Whe-min

    2017-06-01

    Taiwan's economic strength has changed drastically in the past decade because of political and economic reasons; however, in order to cope with international environment, higher education must increase its breakthrough to meet the needs of enterprises. School curriculum also has to be timely changes and adjustments. This study will analyze school learning in several directions, use questionnaire to investigate students' learning stress, to find out where students' pressure lie. Also, outsourcing employers' satisfaction survey to find out what do enterprises wants to solve with the drop problem between school and enterprise. Taking Oriental Institute of Technology (OIT) as an example; over the past ten years, OIT has used overseas internships to help students overcome learning difficulties. Overseas practice courses include Penang Malaysia and Suzhou China had gained tremendous breakthrough.

  19. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  20. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Kijak, Gustavo H; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B

    2015-02-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens.

  1. The Effect of Velocity Correlation on the Spatial Evolution of Breakthrough Curves in Heterogeneous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudieh, A.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In heterogeneous media, the velocity distribution and the spatial correlation structure of velocity for solute particles determine the breakthrough curves and how they evolve as one moves away from the solute source. The ability to predict such evolution can help relating the spatio-statistical hydraulic properties of the media to the transport behavior and travel time distributions. While commonly used non-local transport models such as anomalous dispersion and classical continuous time random walk (CTRW) can reproduce breakthrough curve successfully by adjusting the model parameter values, they lack the ability to relate model parameters to the spatio-statistical properties of the media. This in turns limits the transferability of these models. In the research to be presented, we express concentration or flux of solutes as a distribution over their velocity. We then derive an integrodifferential equation that governs the evolution of the particle distribution over velocity at given times and locations for a particle ensemble, based on a presumed velocity correlation structure and an ergodic cross-sectional velocity distribution. This way, the spatial evolution of breakthrough curves away from the source is predicted based on cross-sectional velocity distribution and the connectivity, which is expressed by the velocity transition probability density. The transition probability is specified via a copula function that can help construct a joint distribution with a given correlation and given marginal velocities. Using this approach, we analyze the breakthrough curves depending on the velocity distribution and correlation properties. The model shows how the solute transport behavior evolves from ballistic transport at small spatial scales to Fickian dispersion at large length scales relative to the velocity correlation length.

  2. [Breakthrough pain treatment with sublingual fentanyl in patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Triadó, V; López Alarcón, M D; Villegas Estévez, F; Alba Moratillas, C; Massa Domínguez, B; Palomares Payá, F; Mínguez Martí, A; Debón Vicent, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of opioids in the management of pain in those patients with chronic cutaneous ulcers and breakthrough/incidental pain. An open-label, multicentre, prospective, uncontrolled study was conducted in the pain and ulcer units of 5 hospitals across the Comunidad Valenciana. Eligibility criteria were baseline pain 4 in the visual analogue scale or breakthrough procedural pain 4. Exclusion criteria were cognitive impairment, opioid intolerance, or patient refusal to provide informed consent. The protocol scheduled 5 controls: baseline (enrolment), 15 days, one month, 2 months, and 3 months. The main outcome measure of the study was the visual analogue scale score during rest, movement and procedures. Opioids were administered for release of the baseline pain, and sublingual fentanyl for breakthrough pain. A total of 32 patients (86.5%) completed the study. Baseline pain achieved a mean improvement of 3.6 visual analogue scale points (SD 2.3), movement pain improved by 3.9 points (SD 2.5) and procedural pain improved by 4.5 points (SD 2.8), and the mean pain intensity improvement was statistically significant from the first control and at all controls thereafter (PDolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Breakthrough analysis for water disinfection using silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in fixed-bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthombeni, Nomcebo H.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Lizzy; Onyango, Maurice S.; Momba, Maggie N.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance of silver nanoparticles coated resin in water disinfection is presented. ► Sigmoidal models are used to describe breakthrough curves. ► The performance of the media in water disinfection is affected by process variables. ► Test with environmental water shows the media is effective in water disinfection. - Abstract: This study demonstrates the use of silver nanoparticles coated resin beads in deactivating microbes in drinking water in a column filtration system. The coated resin beads are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the functional groups, morphology and the presence of silver nanoparticles on the surface of the resin. The performance of the coated resin is evaluated as a function of bed mass, initial bacterial concentration and flow rate using Escherichia coli as model microbial contaminant in water. The survival curves of E. coli are expressed as breakthrough curves (BTCs), which are modeled using sigmoidal regression equations to obtain relevant rate parameters. The number of bed volumes processed at breakthrough point and capacity of the bed are used as performance indicators. Results show that performance increases with a decrease in initial bacterial concentration, an increase in flow rate and an increase in bed mass.

  4. Peak and Tail Scaling of Breakthrough Curves in Hydrologic Tracer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, T.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Bolster, D.

    2014-12-01

    Power law tails, a marked signature of anomalous transport, have been observed in solute breakthrough curves time and time again in a variety of hydrologic settings, including in streams. However, due to the low concentrations at which they occur they are notoriously difficult to measure with confidence. This leads us to ask if there are other associated signatures of anomalous transport that can be sought. We develop a general stochastic transport framework and derive an asymptotic relation between the tail scaling of a breakthrough curve for a conservative tracer at a fixed downstream position and the scaling of the peak concentration of breakthrough curves as a function of downstream position, demonstrating that they provide equivalent information. We then quantify the relevant spatiotemporal scales for the emergence of this asymptotic regime, where the relationship holds, in the context of a very simple model that represents transport in an idealized river. We validate our results using random walk simulations. The potential experimental benefits and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  5. Breakthrough revisited: investigating the requirements for growth of dust beyond the bouncing barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard A.; Meru, Farzana; Lee, Man Hoi; Clarke, Cathie J.

    2018-03-01

    For grain growth to proceed effectively and lead to planet formation, a number of barriers to growth must be overcome. One such barrier, relevant for compact grains in the inner regions of the disc, is the `bouncing barrier' in which large grains (˜mm size) tend to bounce off each other rather than sticking. However, by maintaining a population of small grains, it has been suggested that cm-size particles may grow rapidly by sweeping up these small grains. We present the first numerically resolved investigation into the conditions under which grains may be lucky enough to grow beyond the bouncing barrier by a series of rare collisions leading to growth (so-called `breakthrough'). Our models support previous results, and show that in simple models breakthrough requires the mass ratio at which high-velocity collisions transition to growth instead of causing fragmentation to be low, ϕ ≲ 50. However, in models that take into account the dependence of the fragmentation threshold on mass ratio, we find that breakthrough occurs more readily, even if mass transfer is relatively inefficient. This suggests that bouncing may only slow down growth, rather than preventing growth beyond a threshold barrier. However, even when growth beyond the bouncing barrier is possible, radial drift will usually prevent growth to arbitrarily large sizes.

  6. ACTIVE MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE EDUCATION MARKET:BREAKTHROUGH POSITIONING STRATEGY IN PROMOTING UNIVERSITY’S INNOVATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus N.A; Pashkus V.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the possibility of using active marketing strategies for promoting the results of university’s innovations. Benefits, that can be obtained by university through its strategy of breakthrough positioning explored

  7. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...

  8. Making synthetic mudstone: Parametric resedimentation studies at high effective stress to determine controls on breakthrough pressure and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Cockrell, L.; Espinoza, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. As CO2 rises buoyantly within a reservoir it pools beneath a caprock and a pressure is exerted upon the pores of the caprock proportionally to the height of the pool. The breakthrough pressure is the point at which CO2 begins to flow freely across the caprock. Understanding the mineralogical and grain size controls on breakthrough pressure is important for screening the security of CO2 sequestration sites. However, breakthrough pressure and permeability measurements on caprocks are difficult to conduct in a systematic manner given the variability in and heterogeneity of naturally occurring mudstones and shales causing significant noise and scatter in the literature. Recent work has even revealed the ability for CO2 to pass through thin shale beds at relatively low pressures. To broaden the understanding of shale breakthrough and permeability, we developed an approach that allows for the creation of resedimented mudstones at high effective stresses. Resedimented samples also include calcium carbonate cement. Using this technique, we explore the controls on entry pressure, breakthrough pressure, and permeability of synthetic mudstones. Understanding the effect of mineralogy and grain size on the permeability and breakthrough pressure of mudstones at reservoir stresses will help in the selection and uncertainty quantification of secure CO2 storage sites.

  9. Procedure and accuracy in the Eurotunnel breakthrough. Vorgehensweise und Genauigkeit beim Durchschlag des Eurotunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korittke, N. (DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lagerstaette und Vermessung (ILV))

    1991-02-14

    After a construction time of about 2.5 years the first link was made in the Eurotunnel between France and England, viz. the service tunnel, on 1 December 1990. Thanks to the accurate Gyromat measurements of the Institute for Mineral Deposits and Surveying of the Deutsche Montan Technologie (DMT) a transverse deviation of only 361 mm, a longitudinal deviation of 69 mm and a vertical deviation of 58 mm were determined in the breakthrough of the 22.3 and 15.6 km long tunnel sections. (orig.).

  10. Epicardial Breakthrough Waves During Sinus Rhythm: Depiction of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-09-01

    Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease. EBW were referred to as sinus node breakthrough waves if they were the earliest right atrial activated site. A total of 218 EBW and 57 sinus node breakthrough waves were observed in 168 patients (44%). EBW mostly occurred at right atrium (N=105, 48%) and left atrioventricular groove (N=67, 31%), followed by Bachmann's bundle (N=27, 12%) and pulmonary vein area (N=19, 9%; P <0.001). EBW occurred most often in ischemic heart disease patients (N=114, 49%) compared with (ischemic and) valvular heart disease patients (N=26, 17%; P <0.001). EBW electrograms most often consisted of double and fractionated potentials (N=137, 63%). In case of single potentials, an R wave was observed in 88% (N=71) of EBW, as opposed to 21% of sinus node breakthrough waves (N=5; P <0.001). Fractionated EBW potentials were more often observed at the right atrium and Bachmann's bundle ( P <0.001). During SR, EBW are present in over a third of patients, particularly in thicker parts of the atrial wall. Features of SR EBW indicate that muscular connections between endo- and epicardium underlie EBW and that a slight degree of endo-epicardial asynchrony required for EBW to occur is already present in some areas during SR. Hence, an anatomic substrate is present, which may enhance the occurrence of EBW during atrial fibrillation, thereby

  11. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Edlefsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients. A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro. The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021. In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3 overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1 more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9 (p < 0.0001, suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine

  12. So That's How! 2007 Microsoft® Office System Timesavers, Breakthroughs, & Everyday Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Archilla, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Turn your productivity drains into productivity gains! With this practical (and fun) guide, you'll discover the best ways to tackle your daily work with the 2007 Microsoft Office system. The authors have taught thousands of people to get better results with less effort. Now these efficiency experts let you steal from their "tip jar" full of timesaving shortcuts and other brilliant ideas. You'll explore what's new in your favorite Microsoft Office programs-and transform the way you work. Get timesavers, breakthroughs, & everyday genius to: Take control of your inbox, calendar, and everyday in

  13. The Impact of Breakthrough Therapy Designation on Development Strategies and Timelines for Nononcology Drugs and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, A F; Murphy, W R

    2016-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA, 2012) introduced the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD), a new tool to expedite development of medicines to treat serious or life-threatening diseases. The majority of BTDs have gone to oncology drugs, and a recent publication by Shea et al. 1 reviewed the impact of BTD on oncology drug development. This article reviews the impact of BTD on development strategies and timelines for nononcology drugs. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Effect of Relative Humidity on Adsorption Breakthrough of CO2 on Activated Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microporous activated carbon fibers (ACFs were developed for CO2 capture based on potassium hydroxide (KOH activation and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA amination. The material properties of the modified ACFs were characterized using several techniques. The adsorption breakthrough curves of CO2 were measured and the effect of relative humidity in the carrier gas was determined. The KOH activation at high temperature generated additional pore networks and the intercalation of metallic K into the carbon matrix, leading to the production of mesopore and micropore volumes and providing access to the active sites in the micropores. However, this treatment also resulted in the loss of nitrogen functionalities. The TEPA amination has successfully introduced nitrogen functionalities onto the fiber surface, but its long-chain structure blocked parts of the micropores and, thus, made the available surface area and pore volume limited. Introduction of the power of time into the Wheeler equation was required to fit the data well. The relative humidity within the studied range had almost no effects on the breakthrough curves. It was expected that the concentration of CO2 was high enough so that the impact on CO2 adsorption capacity lessened due to increased relative humidity.

  15. Breakthrough indicator for aromatic VOCs using needle trap samplers for activated carbon adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Jiang, Jia-Rong; Huang, Yi-Ning; Huang, Shiun-Chian; Yu, Yan-Pin

    2012-08-01

    Internal circulation cabinets equipped with granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorbing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used to store bottles containing organic solvents in universities, colleges, and hospital laboratories throughout Taiwan. This work evaluates the VOC adsorption capacities of GAC using various adsorption times for gas stream mixtures of 100 ppm toluene and 100 ppm o-xylene. Additionally, needle trap sampling (NTS) technology was used to indicate the time for renewing the GAC to avoid VOC breakthrough from adsorbents. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed models can linearly express toluene and o-xylene adsorption capacities as the natural logarithm of adsorption time (ln(t)) and can accurately simulate the equilibrium adsorption capacities (Qe, g VOCs/g GAC) for gaseous toluene and o-xylene. The NTS, packed with 60-80 mesh divinylbenzene (DVB) particles, was compared in terms of extraction efficiency by simultaneously using the 75-microm Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane-solid-phase microextraction (Carboxen/PDMS-SPME) fiber for time-weighted average (TWA) sampling, and experimental results indicated that the packed DVB-NTS achieved higher toluene extraction rates. Additionally, the NTS installed in the outlet air stream for adsorbing toluene and o-xylene exhausted through GAC accurately indicated toluene and o-xylene breakthrough times of 4700-5000 min. The GAC-NTS operational instructions to indicate the replacing time of adsorbent in the internal circulation cabinets are also included in this paper.

  16. Hand Hygiene Improvement and Sustainability: Assessing a Breakthrough Collaborative in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Anthony; Amherdt, Isabelle; Lécureux, Estelle; Petignat, Christiane; Eggimann, Philippe; Schwab, Marcos; Pittet, Didier

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess hand hygiene improvement and sustainability associated with a Breakthrough Collaborative. DESIGN Multicenter analysis of hand hygiene compliance through direct observation by trained observers. SETTING A total of 5 publicly funded hospitals in 14 locations, with a total of 1,152 beds, in the County of Vaud, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Clinical staff. INTERVENTIONS In total, 59,272 opportunities for hand hygiene were monitored for the duration of the study, for an average of 5,921 per audit (range, 5,449-6,852). An 18-month Hand Hygiene Breakthrough Collaborative was conducted to implement the WHO multimodal promotional strategy including improved access to alcohol-based hand rub, education, performance measurement and feedback, reminders and communication, leadership engagement, and safety culture. RESULTS Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 61.9% to 88.3% (Pstrategy for content and measurement was associated with significant and substantial improvement in compliance across all professions, all hand hygiene indications, and all participating hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1420-1427.

  17. Proposal to realize a cost breakthrough in carbon-13 production by photochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marling, J.B.

    1979-10-01

    A cost breakthrough can now be made in photochemical production of the rare stable isotope carbon-13. This cost breakthrough is achieved by CO 2 laser infrared multiple-photon dissociation of any of several halocarbons (Freon derivatives) such as CF 3 Cl, CF 3 Br, or CF 2 Cl 2 . The single-step carbon-13 enrichment factor for this process is approximately 50, yielding 30% pure C-13 in one step, or up to 97% pure C-13 in two steps. A three-fold carbon-13 cost reduction to below $20/gram is expected to be achieved in a small laboratory-scale demonstration facility capable of producing 4 to 8 kg/year of carbon-13, using presently available pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers at an average power level of 50 watts. Personnel costs dominate the attainable C-13 production costs in a small photochemical enrichment facility. A price reduction to $2/gm carbon-13 is feasible at carbon-13 production levels of 100 to 1000 kg/year, dominated by the Freon raw material costs

  18. Breakthrough curve of H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasufuku, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1977-11-01

    Experimental work concerning H/sub 2/-Ti-sponge adsorption system has been undertaken at Kawasaki Heavy Industry Co. to obtain necessary data for the design of hydrogen removal tower (Ti-sponge trap) to be used as an purification component of a VHTR plant. In this study, the effects of equilibrium curve, H/sub 2/ inlet concentration, and the ratio of the solid-side capacity factor to the gas-side capacity factor on the breakthrough curve were investigated. The Freundlich's equation with the diffusion model of Carter et al. was numerically solved by the Crank-Nicholson method, and the results of calculations are presented. The flow diagram and the photographs of the facilities for He gas purification experiments are also presented.

  19. Central Hyperexcitability in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Conceptual Breakthrough with Multiple Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lidbeck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system have contributed much knowledge about the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Many common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes - including regional myofascial pain syndromes, whiplash pain syndromes, refractory work-related neck-shoulder pain, certain types of chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia and others - may essentially be explained by abnormalities in central pain modulation. The growing awareness of dysfunctional central pain modulation may be a conceptual breakthrough leading to a better understanding of common chronic pain disorders. A new paradigm will have multiple clinical implications, including re-evaluation of clinical practice routines and rehabilitation methods, and will focus on controversial issues of medicolegal concern. The concept of dysfunctional central pain processing will also necessitate a mechanism-based classification of pain for the selection of individual treatment and rehabilitation programs for subgroups of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to different pathophysiological mechanisms.

  20. Fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain in patients receiving transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, David S; Smith, Christina Cognata; Parikh, Neha; Rauck, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between effective fentanyl sublingual spray (FSS) doses for breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) and around-the-clock (ATC) transdermal fentanyl patch (TFP). Adults tolerating ATC opioids received open-label FSS for 26 days, followed by a 26-day double-blind phase for patients achieving an effective dose (100-1600 µg). Out of 50 patients on ATC TFP at baseline, 32 (64%) achieved an effective dose. FSS effective dose moderately correlated with mean TFP dose (r = 0.4; p = 0.03). Patient satisfaction increased during the study. Common adverse event included nausea (9%) and peripheral edema (9%). FSS can be safely titrated to an effective dose for BTCP in patients receiving ATC TFP as chronic cancer pain medication. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538850.

  1. Scientific breakthroughs necessary for the commercial success of renewable energy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown at an unprecedented rate, and in certain regions has attained significant penetration into the power infrastructure. This growth has been both a result of, and a precursor to, significant advances in the science and business of wind energy. But as a result of this growth and increasing penetration, further advances and breakthroughs will become increasingly important. These advances will be required in a number of different aspects of wind energy, including: resource assessment, operations and performance analysis, forecasting, and the impacts of increased wind energy development. Resource assessment has benefited from the development of tools specifically designed for this purpose. Despite this, the atmosphere is often portrayed in an extremely simplified manner by these tools. New methodologies should rely upon more sophisticated application of the physics of fluid flows. There will need to be an increasing reliance and acceptance of improved measurement techniques (remote sensing, volume rather than point measurements, etc), and more sophisticated and higher-resolution numerical methods for micrositing. The goals of resource assessment will have to include a better understanding of the variability and forecastability of potential sites. Operational and performance analysis are vital to quantifying how well all aspects of the business are being carried out. Operational wind farms generate large amounts of meteorological and mechanical data. Data mining and detailed analysis of this data has proven to be invaluable to shed light upon poorly understood aspects of the science and industry. Future analysis will need to be even more rigorous and creative. Worthy topics of study include the impact of turbine wakes upon downstream turbine performance, how to utilize operational data to improve resource assessment and forecasting, and what the impacts of large-scale wind energy development might be. Forecasting is an

  2. Ovarian stem cells and neo-oogenesis: A breakthrough in reproductive biology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mooyottu1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ovarian stem cells which can replenish the ovarian reserve in postnatal mammalian females is a revolutionary breakthrough in reproductive biology. This idea overturned the central dogma existed in female reproductive physiology. Contradicting the popular belief that oogenesis does not occur in post natal life, researchers proved the existence of putative stem cells in ovary, which can supply functional follicles in post natal ovaries. Even though the idea of neo-oogenesis in postnatal ovaries in normal conditions is controversial, the isolation and manipulation of ovarian stem cells have got tremendous application in medical, veterinary and animal production fields. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 89-91

  3. From Bottleneck to Breakthrough: Urbanization and the Future of Biodiversity Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eric W; Walston, Joseph; Robinson, John G

    2018-06-01

    For the first time in the Anthropocene, the global demographic and economic trends that have resulted in unprecedented destruction of the environment are now creating the necessary conditions for a possible renaissance of nature. Drawing reasonable inferences from current patterns, we can predict that 100 years from now, the Earth could be inhabited by between 6 and 8 billion people, with very few remaining in extreme poverty, most living in towns and cities, and nearly all participating in a technologically driven, interconnected market economy. Building on the scholarship of others in demography, economics, sociology, and conservation biology, here, we articulate a theory of social-environmental change that describes the simultaneous and interacting effects of urban lifestyles on fertility, poverty alleviation, and ideation. By recognizing the shifting dynamics of these macrodrivers, conservation practice has the potential to transform itself from a discipline managing declines ("bottleneck") to a transformative movement of recovery ("breakthrough").

  4. Marketization of Collective-owned Rural Land: A Breakthrough in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Zou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on analyzing the ongoing land policy reform that allows collective-owned rural land transactions in the open market in Shenzhen, China. Employing a case study method, we investigate this land policy evolution through description and contextual analysis. We argue that the existing dual-track land administration system, within which the state administers market transactions, has contributed to numerous social problems, such as urban land scarcity, inefficiency of land resource allocation, and exacerbated social injustice. Following the recent actions of the central government, a collective-owned rural land parcel in Shenzhen was officially transferred in November 2013, an action viewed as a landmark step in reforming the current dual-track land system. Though the generalization of Shenzhen’s experiment nationwide faces significant barriers, Shenzhen’s breakthrough in liberalization of the rural land market indicates that China is moving toward a potential new round of land policy revolution.

  5. Solar Spicules: Prospects for Breakthroughs in Understanding with Solar-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A.

    Spicules densely populate the lower solar atmosphere; any image or movie of the chromosphere shows a plethora of them or their "cousins," such as mottles or fibrils. Yet despite several decades of effort we still do not know the mechanism that generates them, or how important their contribution is to the material and energy balance of the overall solar atmosphere. Solar-B will provide exciting new chromospheric observations at high time- and spatial-resolution, along with associated quality magnetic field data, that promise to open doors to revolutionary breakthroughs in spicule research. In this presentation we will review the current observational and theoretical status of spicule studies, and discuss prospects for advances in spicule understanding during the Solar-B era.

  6. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs

  7. Plastic fracture instability analysis of wall breakthrough in a circumferentially cracked pipe subjected to bending loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-07-01

    A method of analyzing internal surface circumferential cracks in ductile reactor piping is presented. The method utilizes an alternate but equivalent definition of the J-integral based on nonlinear structural compliance. The analysis is valid for situations where the cross section containing the crack is fully yielded. Results are obtained for radial and circumferential crack growth for pipes subjected to bending. The stability of radial crack growth (wall breakthrough) is assessed using the J-integral-based tearing modulus approach. The analysis is shown to be in agreement with experimental results on the stability of surface crack growth in Type 304 stainless stee pipes. Example quantitative results for fracture instability assessments for nuclear piping are presented. 23 refs.

  8. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis mimicking breakthrough seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Abdool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 14-year-old boy with a past history of primary generalized seizures, who had been seizure-free for 2 years on sodium valproate and presented with generalized tonic clonic seizures suggestive of breakthrough seizures. Examination revealed hypertension, impetiginous lesions of the lower limbs, microscopic hematuria, elevated antistreptolysin O titre and low complement levels consistent with acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension was controlled with intravenous nitroglycerin followed by oral captopril and amlodipine. Brain MRI changes returned normal within 2 weeks. The nephritis went in to remission within 2 months and after 8 months the patient has been seizure free again. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome appeared to have neither short nor intermediate effect on seizure control in this patient. The relationship between posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and seizures is reviewed.

  9. Supply chain optimization: a practitioner's perspective on the next logistics breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, G L

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to profile a practitioner's perspective on supply chain optimization and highlight the critical elements of this potential new logistics breakthrough idea. The introduction will briefly describe the existing distribution network, and business environment. This will include operational statistics, manufacturing software, and hardware configurations. The first segment will cover the critical success factors or foundations elements that are prerequisites for success. The second segment will give you a glimpse of a "working game plan" for successful migration to supply chain optimization. The final segment will briefly profile "bottom-line" benefits to be derived from the use of supply chain optimization as a strategy, tactical tool, and competitive advantage.

  10. On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A; MEIGS, LUCY C

    2000-06-12

    The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

  11. Accuracy of a Diagnostic Algorithm to Diagnose Breakthrough Cancer Pain as Compared With Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Katherine; Davies, Andrew N; Cowie, Martin R

    2015-10-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP) is a heterogeneous condition, and there are no internationally agreed standardized criteria to diagnose it. There are published algorithms to assist with diagnosis, but these differ in content. There are no comparative data to support use. To compare the diagnostic ability of a simple algorithm against a comprehensive clinical assessment to diagnose BTCP and to assess if verbal rating descriptors can adequately discriminate controlled background pain. Patients with cancer pain completed a three-step algorithm with a researcher to determine if they had controlled background pain and BTCP. This was followed by a detailed pain consultation with a clinical specialist who was blinded to the algorithm results and determined an independent pain diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the condition of BTCP. Further analysis determined which verbal pain severity descriptors corresponded with the condition of controlled background pain. The algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.54 and a specificity of 0.76 in the identification of BTCP. The positive predictive value was 0.7, and the negative predictive value was 0.62. The sensitivity of a background pain severity rating of mild or less to accurately categorize controlled background pain was 0.69 compared with 0.97 for severity of moderate or less; however, this was balanced by a higher specificity rating for mild or less, 0.78 compared with 0.2. The diagnostic breakthrough pain algorithm had a good positive predictive value but limited sensitivity using a cutoff score of "mild" to define controlled background pain. When the cutoff level was changed to moderate, the sensitivity increased, but specificity reduced. A comprehensive clinical assessment remains the preferred method to diagnose BTCP. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accord on “Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh”: A Breakthrough Agreement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zillur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This discussion aims to review the emergence of the “Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh” signed on May 13, 2013, and evaluate if it is an international agreement “breakthrough”. The Accord is signed not only by the global clothing brands and national garment unions but also by international trade union organizations, which is a new development. This raises a question: could this agreement set a new international negotiating precedence in industrial relations between transnational corporations and international trade union organizations? In Bangladesh, globalization has played an important role for booming garment industries. Yet, lack of workers’ rights, weak safety situations, and poor working conditions have continuously been reported. Local and international solidarity movements and garment workers’ welfare associations have been emphasizing workers’ rights and better and safer working environments in workplaces since the beginning of the 1990s. However, their voices were not highly considered even there were some initiatives. Following the ‘Rana Plaza’ garment factory building collapse in April 2013, one of the world’s worst industrial accidents, with more than 1,100 dead workers, some strong measures have been taken—one of these, signing the ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’. This is a strong achievement of a long struggle to take collective action for improving the safety in garment factories in Bangladesh. Although the Accord is understood as a game changer or breakthrough in relation to national and international agreements, do we really know yet if it is a breakthrough or not when it comes to its implementation?

  13. Photogravimagnetic assists of light sails: a mixed blessing for Breakthrough Starshot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, Duncan H.; Heller, René; Hippke, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Upon entering a star system, light sails are subject to both gravitational forces and radiation pressure, and can use both in concert to modify their trajectory. Moreover, stars possess significant magnetic fields, and if the sail is in any way charged, it will feel the Lorentz force also. We investigate the dynamics of so-called `photogravimagnetic assists' of sailcraft around α Centauri A, a potential first destination en route to Proxima Centauri (the goal of the Breakthrough Starshot programme). We find that a 10-m2 sail with a charge-to-mass ratio of around 10 μC g-1 or higher will need to take account of magnetic field effects during orbital manoeuvres. The magnetic field can provide an extra source of deceleration and deflection, and allow capture on to closer orbits around a target star. However, flipping the sign of the sailcraft's charge can radically change resulting trajectories, resulting in complex loop-de-loops around magnetic field lines and essentially random ejection from the star system. Even on well-behaved trajectories, the field can generate off-axis deflections at α Centauri that, while minor, can result in very poor targeting of the final destination (Proxima) post-assist. Fortunately for Breakthrough Starshot, nanosails are less prone to charging en route than their heavier counterparts, but can still accrue relatively high charge at both the origin and destination, when travelling at low speeds. Photogravimagnetic assists are highly non-trivial, and require careful course correction to mitigate against unwanted changes in trajectory.

  14. Aldosterone breakthrough with benazepril in furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantis, A C; Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; DeFrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Werre, S R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot studies in our laboratory revealed that furosemide-induced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was not attenuated by the subsequent co-administration of benazepril. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of benazepril on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation. Our hypothesis was that benazepril suppression of ACE activity would not suppress furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation, indicated by urinary aldosterone concentration. Ten healthy hound dogs were used in this study. The effect of furosemide (2 mg/kg p.o., q12h; Group F; n = 5) and furosemide plus benazepril (1 mg/kg p.o., q24h; Group FB; n = 5) on circulating RAAS was determined by plasma ACE activity, 4-6 h posttreatment, and urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) on days -1, -2, 1, 3, and 7. There was a significant increase in the average UAldo:C (μg/g) after the administration of furosemide (Group F baseline [average of days -1 and -2] UAldo:C = 0.41, SD 0.15; day 1 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.56; day 3 UAldo:C = 0.85, SD 0.50; day 7 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.80, P Benazepril suppressed ACE activity (U/L) in Group FB (Group FB baseline ACE = 16.4, SD 4.2; day 1 ACE = 3.5, SD 1.4; day 3 ACE = 1.6, SD 1.3; day 7 ACE = 1.4, SD 1.4, P Benazepril decreased plasma ACE activity but did not prevent furosemide-induced RAAS activation, indicating aldosterone breakthrough (escape). This is particularly noteworthy in that breakthrough is observed at the time of initiation of RAAS suppression, as opposed to developing after months of therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past five years, shale gas exploration and development has grown in a leaping-forward way in China. Following USA and Canada, China is now the third country where industrial shale gas production is realized, with the cumulative production exceeding 60 × 108 m3 until the end of 2015. In this paper, the main achievements of shale gas exploration and development in China in recent years were reviewed and the future development prospect was analyzed. It is pointed out that shale gas exploration and development in China is, on the whole, still at its early stage. Especially, marine shale gas in the Sichuan Basin has dominated the recent exploration and development. For the realization of shale gas scale development in China, one key point lies in the breakthrough and industrial production of transitional facies and continental facies shale gas. Low–moderate yield of shale gas wells is the normal in China, so it is crucial to develop key exploration and development technologies. Especially, strictly controlling single well investment and significantly reducing cost are the important means to increase shale gas exploration and development benefits. And finally, suggestions were proposed in five aspects. First, continuously strengthen theoretical and technical researches, actively carry out appraisal on shale gas “sweet spots”, and gradually accumulate development basis. Second, stress on primary evaluation of exploration and development, highlight the effective implementation of shale gas resources, and control the rhythm of appraisal drilling and productivity construction. Third, highlight fine description and evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and increase the overall development level. Fourth, intensify the research on exploration and development technologies in order to stand out simple and practical technologies with low costs. And fifth, summarize the experiences in fast growth of shale gas exploration and development, highlight

  16. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  17. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sun, X

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available level fluctuations (WLF) on a monthly basis was proposed in the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for the purpose of groundwater recharge estimation. In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous RIB models...

  18. Geopolitics of Quantum Buddhism: Our Pre-Hydrocarbon Tao Future (No Breakthrough at the Rio+20 Summit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajrektarevic, Anis

    2013-01-01

    From Rio to Rio with Kyoto, Copenhagen and Durban in between, the conclusion remains the same: we fundamentally disagree on realities of this planet and the ways we can address them. A decisive breakthrough would necessitate both wider contexts and a larger participatory base so as to identify problems, formulate policies, and broaden and…

  19. Busted Butte Phase 2: Introduction and Analytical Modeling of Nonreactive Tracer and Lithium Breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turin, H.J.; Soll, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Busted Butte Unsaturated-Zone Transport Test Facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of Yucca Mountain, and was designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. Busted Butte Phase 2 consisted of a 10m x 10m x 7m test block. From July 1988 through October 2000, complex tracer mixtures were injected continuously at 77 discrete points located along eight parallel 10-m boreholes arranged in two horizontal planes. In August 1999, iodide was added to the tracer mixture to explore the effects of initial hydraulic transients. During the course of the experiment, porewater samples were collected at regular intervals using sorbing-paper collection pads, emplaced into fifteen horizontal and inclined 10-m collection boreholes, oriented perpendicular to the injection boreholes. Potential travel distances ranged from 20 cm to over 500 cm. Nonreactive tracer and weakly sorbing lithium breakthrough was observed at most of the collection points during the injection period. Following termination of injection, approximately 800 rock samples were collected using overcore and mineback techniques, and analyzed for tracer concentration. Rock analyses are discussed in a subsequent paper. To complement complex 3-dimensional finite-element modeling of the entire block, bromide, iodide, and lithium breakthrough onto the collection pads has been modeled with CXTFIT. This simple 1-dimensional analytical code uses a non-linear curve-fitting routine to estimate transport parameters including apparent velocity, dispersivity, and field retardation factors. Preliminary results show that: (1) Bromide and iodide behaved similarly, despite the fact that bromide was injected in a strongly transient flow field, while iodide injection began after flow had approached steady state conditions. (2) With the exception of the closest collection points, tracer velocities remained relatively constant, indicating that transport was

  20. Recent breakthroughs and themes in hydrology, from climate to the water-food-energy nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The last decades marked a significant change in geosciences. Increasing communication, observations, computing capabilities and opportunities to make dissemination stimulated a rapid increase of the number of publications and scientific forums. On the one hand this development is undoubtedly positive. In fact, it provides more and more opportunities to young and experienced scientists to elaborate innovative ideas and to establish cooperation. On the other hand, the proliferation of information, communication and publications makes the identification of key ideas and contributions definitely more challenging. Notwithstanding the above development, Water Resources Research (WRR) provides an ideal perspective to elaborate a picture of recent breakthroughs in hydrology. In fact, despite the increasing number of submissions and the progress of time, WRR kept a rigorous attitude to assess manuscripts by evaluating their relevance to emerging environmental and societal challenges.To get a long term perspective of breakthroughs in hydrology, it is interesting to compare the two anniversary special sections published so far in WRR, namely, the 50th anniversary special section "Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology", and "Trends and Directions in Hydrology", that was edited by Steven Burges in 1986 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the journal. The above comparison highlights that the traditional break-up of hydrology into sub-disciplines, each focusing on separate components of the water cycle, has given way to a more interconnected, interdisciplinary research on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and interactions between water, society, earth and biological systems.This talk will present a voyage through the WRR history to highlight recent advances and topical themes. An attempt to develop a vision for the future of WRR and hydrology will be presented. Water will become more and more the regulator of social dynamics, including economy, politics

  1. Predicting trace organic compound breakthrough in granular activated carbon using fluorescence and UV absorbance as surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Sgroi, Massimiliano; Park, Minkyu; Roccaro, Paolo; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the applicability of bulk organic parameters like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), and total fluorescence (TF) to act as surrogates in predicting trace organic compound (TOrC) removal by granular activated carbon in water reuse applications. Using rapid small-scale column testing, empirical linear correlations for thirteen TOrCs were determined with DOC, UV254, and TF in four wastewater effluents. Linear correlations (R(2) > 0.7) were obtained for eight TOrCs in each water quality in the UV254 model, while ten TOrCs had R(2) > 0.7 in the TF model. Conversely, DOC was shown to be a poor surrogate for TOrC breakthrough prediction. When the data from all four water qualities was combined, good linear correlations were still obtained with TF having higher R(2) than UV254 especially for TOrCs with log Dow>1. Excellent linear relationship (R(2) > 0.9) between log Dow and the removal of TOrC at 0% surrogate removal (y-intercept) were obtained for the five neutral TOrCs tested in this study. Positively charged TOrCs had enhanced removals due to electrostatic interactions with negatively charged GAC that caused them to deviate from removals that would be expected with their log Dow. Application of the empirical linear correlation models to full-scale samples provided good results for six of seven TOrCs (except meprobamate) tested when comparing predicted TOrC removal by UV254 and TF with actual removals for GAC in all the five samples tested. Surrogate predictions using UV254 and TF provide valuable tools for rapid or on-line monitoring of GAC performance and can result in cost savings by extended GAC run times as compared to using DOC breakthrough to trigger regeneration or replacement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FRB121102: First detection across 5 - 8 GHz and spectral properties from the Breakthrough Listen instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Vishal; Siemion, Andrew; MacMohan, David; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Isaacson, Howard; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Price, Daniel; Lebofsky, Matt; De Boer, David; Werthimer, Dan; Hickish, Jack; Brinkman, Casey; Chatterjee, Shami; Ransom, Scott M.; Law, Casey; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Cordes, Jim; Spitler, Laura; Lynch, Ryan; McLaughlin, Maura; Scholz, Paul; Marcote, Benito; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh

    2018-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are some of the most energetic and enigmatic events in the Universe. The origin of these sources is among the most challenging questions of modern-day astrophysics. Thus, it is imperative to understand the properties of these bursts across a range of radio frequencies. Among the known FRBs, FRB121102 is the only source known to show repeated bursts [Spitler et al., Nature, 531, 7593 202-205, 2016], which can allow a detailed investigation of various origin models. In August 2017, we initiated a campaign observing FRB 121102 using the Breakthrough Listen Digital Backend with the C-band receiver at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We recorded baseband voltage data across 5.4 GHz of bandwidth, completely covering the C-band receiver's nominal 4-8 GHz band [MacMahon et al. arXiv:1707.06024v2]. The recorded data were searched for dispersed pulses consistent with the known dispersion measure of FRB 121102 (557 pc cm-3) using high-speed GPU software tools. We detected 21 bursts above our detection threshold of 6 sigmas in the first 60-minutes, out of which 18 occurred in the first 30-minutes only. To our knowledge, this is the highest event rate seen for FRB121102 at any observing frequency. These observations are the highest frequency and widest bandwidth detection of bursts from FRB 121102 (or any other FRB) obtained to-date. We note that individual bursts show marked changes in spectral extent ranging from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We have used high frequency dynamic spectra of these bursts to estimate the characteristic scintillation bandwidth and correlation time-scale. We also found distinctive temporal structures, separated by a few milliseconds, in three of the strongest bursts, with each sub-structure exhibiting varied spectral features. We will discuss our findings and how these detections of FRB 121102 around 8 GHz opens up a new regime in scrutinizing various origin models. We will also highlight the unique

  3. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimoelja, A

    2000-01-01

    Traditional herbs have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of erectile dysfunction and have become known world-wide as an 'instant' treatment. The modern view of the management of erectile dysfunction subscribes to a single etiology, i.e. the mechanism of erection. A large number of pharmacological agents are orally consumed and vasoactive agents inserted intraurethrally or injected intrapenially to regain good erection. Modern phytochemicals have developed from traditional herbs. Phytochemicals focus their mechanism of healing action to the root cause, i.e. the inability to control the proper function of the whole body system. Hence phytochemicals manage erectile dysfunction in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Protodioscin is a phytochemical agent derived from Tribulus terrestris L plant, which has been clinically proven to improve sexual desire and enhance erection via the conversion of protodioscine to DHEA (De-Hydro-Epi-Androsterone). Preliminary observations suggest that Tribulus terrestris L grown on different soils does not consistently produce the active component Protodioscin. Further photochemical studies of many other herbal plants are needed to explain the inconsistent results found with other herbal plants, such as in diversities of Ginseng, Eurycoma longifolia, Pimpinella pruacen, Muara puama, Ginkgo biloba, Yohimbe etc.

  4. Do It Yourself (DIY) Earth Science Collaboratories Using Best Practices and Breakthrough Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of published earth science study data results and literature on the Web should be to provide a means to integrate discoverable science resources through an open collaborative-Web. At the core of any open science collaborative infrastructure is the ability to discover, manage and ultimately use relevant data accessible to the collaboration. Equally important are the relationships between people, applications, services, and publications, which capture critical contextual knowledge that enable their effective use. While contributions of either irreproducible or costly data can be a great asset the inability of users being able to use the data intelligently or make sense of it, makes these investments not usable. An ability to describe ad-hoc discoverable usage methodologies, provide feedback to data producers, and identify and cite data in a systematic way by leveraging existing Web-enabled off the shelf technology is needed. Fortunately many break-through advancements in data publication best practices and government, open source, and commercial investments support consumers who can provide feedback, share experiences, and contribute back to the earth science ecosystem.

  5. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative and the Future of the Search for Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Croft, Steve; Hellbourg, Greg; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David; Price, Danny; DeBoer, David; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Unprecedented recent results in the fields of exoplanets and astrobiology have dramatically increased the interest in the potential existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the galaxy. Additionally, the capabilities of modern Searches for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have increased tremendously. Much of this improvement is due to the ongoing development of wide bandwidth radio instruments and the Moore's Law increase in computing power over the previous decades. Together, these instrumentation improvements allow for narrow band signal searches of billions of frequency channels at once.The Breakthrough Listen Initiative (BL) was launched on July 20, 2015 at the Royal Society in London, UK with the goal to conduct the most comprehensive and sensitive search for advanced life in humanity's history. Here we detail important milestones achieved during the first year and a half of the program. We describe the key BL SETI surveys and briefly describe current facilities, including the Green Bank Telescope, the Automated Planet Finder and the Parkes Observatory. We also mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused on complementary sciences, these include pulse searches of pulsars and FRBs, as well as astrophysically powered radio emission from stars targeted by our program.We conclude with a brief view towards future SETI searches with upcoming next-generation radio facilities such as SKA and ngVLA.

  6. Stem cell-derived kidney cells and organoids: Recent breakthroughs and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jacqueline Kai Chin; Zink, Daniele

    The global rise in the numbers of kidney patients and the shortage in transplantable organs have led to an increasing interest in kidney-specific regenerative therapies, renal disease modelling and bioartificial kidneys. Sources for large quantities of high-quality renal cells and tissues would be required, also for applications in in vitro platforms for compound safety and efficacy screening. Stem cell-based approaches for the generation of renal-like cells and tissues would be most attractive, but such methods were not available until recently. This situation has drastically changed since 2013, and various protocols for the generation of renal-like cells and precursors from pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have been established. The most recent breakthroughs were related to the establishment of various protocols for the generation of PSC-derived kidney organoids. In combination with recent advances in genome editing, bioprinting and the establishment of predictive renal screening platforms this results in exciting new possibilities. This review will give a comprehensive overview over current PSC-based protocols for the generation of renal-like cells, precursors and organoids, and their current and potential applications in regenerative medicine, compound screening, disease modelling and bioartificial organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-10-06

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  8. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma

  9. Computational tools for Breakthrough Propulsion Physics: State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    To address problems in Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (BPP) one needs sheer computing capabilities. This is because General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory are so mathematically sophisticated that the amount of analytical calculations is prohibitive and one can hardly do all of them by hand. In this paper we make a comparative review of the main tensor calculus capabilities of the three most advanced and commercially available 'symbolic manipulator' codes: Macsyma, Maple V and Mathematica. We also point out that currently one faces such a variety of different conventions in tensor calculus that it is difficult or impossible to compare results obtained by different scholars in General Relativity and Quantum Field Theory. Mathematical physicists, experimental physicists and engineers have each their own way of customizing tensors, especially by using the different metric signatures, different metric determinant signs, different definitions of the basic Riemann and Ricci tensors, and by adopting different systems of physical units. This chaos greatly hampers progress toward the chief NASA BPP goal: the design of the NASA Warp Drive. It is thus concluded that NASA should put order by establishing international standards in symbolic tensor calculus and enforcing anyone working in BPP to adopt these NASA BPP Standards

  10. Tracking tracer breakthrough in the hyporheic zone using time‐lapse DC resistivity, Crabby Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Jonathan E.; Toran, Laura; Fang, Allison C.; Ryan, Robert J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the hyporheic zone is of critical importance for understanding stream ecology, contaminant transport, and groundwater‐surface water interaction. A salt water tracer test was used to probe the hyporheic zone of a recently re‐engineered portion of Crabby Creek, a stream located near Philadelphia, PA. The tracer solution was tracked through a 13.5 meter segment of the stream using both a network of 25 wells sampled every 5–15 minutes and time‐lapse electrical resistivity tomographs collected every 11 minutes for six hours, with additional tomographs collected every 100 minutes for an additional 16 hours. The comparison of tracer monitoring methods is of keen interest because tracer tests are one of the few techniques available for characterizing this dynamic zone, and logistically it is far easier to collect resistivity tomographs than to install and monitor a dense network of wells. Our results show that resistivity monitoring captured the essential shape of the breakthrough curve and may indicate portions of the stream where the tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone. Time‐lapse resistivity measurements, however, represent time averages over the period required to collect a tomographic data set, and spatial averages over a volume larger than captured by a well sample. Smoothing by the resistivity data inversion algorithm further blurs the resulting tomograph; consequently resistivity monitoring underestimates the degree of fine‐scale heterogeneity in the hyporheic zone.

  11. Point Climat no. 33 'International Climate Negotiations - COP 19: do not underestimate the MRV breakthrough'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Marion; Morel, Romain; Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: For those who expect 'binding' emission reductions targets in the future international climate agreement to be signed in Paris in 2015, the Warsaw Conference (November 11 to 23, 2013) yielded as much progress as it could. That means little beyond a timetable. However, for those who consider the UNFCCC as the depository of common tools on the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of emissions, actions and financing, Warsaw represents a major breakthrough. For the first time, developing countries - at least those wishing to access climate finance for forests - will abide by MRV procedures similar to those governing the greenhouse gas inventories of industrialized countries. Forestry may be seen as a first sectoral NAMA, and it would be difficult to ignore the Warsaw decisions for the future definition of MRV procedures of NAMAs. In spite of the establishment of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, low outputs on other issues show that achieving an agreement at COP 21 will require significant political progress during the next 15 months

  12. Engineering excellence in breakthrough biomedical technologies: bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jane S; Rodgers, V G J

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), was established in 2006 and is the youngest department in the Bourns College of Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary research engine that builds strength from highly recognized experts in biochemistry, biophysics, biology, and engineering, focusing on common critical themes. The range of faculty research interests is notable for its diversity, from the basic cell biology through cell function to the physiology of the whole organism, each directed at breakthroughs in biomedical devices for measurement and therapy. The department forges future leaders in bioengineering, mirroring the field in being energetic, interdisciplinary, and fast moving at the frontiers of biomedical discoveries. Our educational programs combine a solid foundation in bio logical sciences and engineering, diverse communication skills, and training in the most advanced quantitative bioengineering research. Bioengineering at UCR also includes the Bioengineering Interdepartmental Graduate (BIG) program. With its slogan Start-Grow-Be-BIG, it is already recognized for its many accomplishments, including being third in the nation in 2011 for bioengineering students receiving National Science Foundation graduate research fellowships as well as being one of the most ethnically inclusive programs in the nation.

  13. Familial concordance for age at natural menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Danielle H; Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    Existing estimates of the heritability of menopause age have a wide range. Furthermore, few studies have analyzed to what extent familial similarities might reflect shared environment, rather than shared genes. We therefore analyzed familial concordance for age at natural menopause and the effects of shared genetic and environmental factors on this concordance. Participants were 2,060 individuals comprising first-degree relatives, aged 31 to 90 years, and participating in the UK Breakthrough Generations Study. Menopause data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression and variance-components models. Women were at an increased risk of early menopause (≤45 y) if their mother (odds ratio, 6.2; P menopause. Likewise, women had an increased risk of late menopause (≥54 y) if their relative had had a late menopause (mother: odds ratio, 6.1; P menopause age attributed to environmental factors shared by sisters. We confirm that early menopause aggregates within families and show, for the first time, that there is also strong familial concordance for late menopause. Both genes and shared environment were the source of variation in menopause age. Past heritability estimates have not accounted for shared environment, and thus, the effect of genetic variants on menopause age may previously have been overestimated.

  14. Exploring the role of lipids in intercellular conduits: breakthroughs in the pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eDelage

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for more than a century that most of the plant cells are connected to their neighbors through membranous pores perforating the cell wall, namely plasmodesmata (PDs. The recent discovery of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs, thin membrane bridges established between distant mammalian cells, suggests that intercellular communication mediated through cytoplasmic continuity could be a conserved feature of eukaryotic organisms. Although TNTs differ from PDs in their formation and architecture, both are characterized by a continuity of the plasma membrane between two cells, delimiting a nanotubular channel supported by actin-based cytoskeleton. Due to this unusual membrane organization, lipids are likely to play critical roles in the formation and stability of intercellular conduits like TNTs and PDs, but also in regulating the transfer through these structures. While it is crucial for a better understanding of those fascinating communication highways, the study of TNT lipid composition and dynamics turned out to be extremely challenging. The present review aims to give an overview of the recent findings in this context. We will also discuss some of the promising imaging approaches, which might be the key for future breakthroughs in the field and could also benefit the research on PDs.

  15. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  16. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mathematical modeling and experimental breakthrough curves of carbon dioxide adsorption on metal organic framework CPM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouni, Rana; Kazemian, Hossein; Rohani, Sohrab

    2013-08-20

    It is essential to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas because it is considered one of the main causes of global warming. Several materials and different methods have been reported for CO2 capturing including adsorption onto zeolites and porous membranes, as well as absorption in amine solutions. All such methods require high energy input and high cost. A new class of porous materials called Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) exhibited excellent performance in extracting carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. In this study, the breakthrough curves for the adsorption of carbon dioxide on CPM-5 (crystalline porous materials) were obtained experimentally and theoretically using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column at different experimental conditions such as feed flow rate, adsorption temperature, and feed concentration. It was found that the CPM-5 has a dynamic CO2 adsorption capacity of 11.9 wt % (2.7 mmol/g) (corresponding to 8 mL/min, 298 K, and 25% v/v CO2). The tested CPM-5 showed an outstanding adsorption equilibrium capacity (e.g., 2.3 mmol/g (10.2 wt %) at 298 K) compared to other adsorbents, which can be considered as an attractive adsorbent for separation of CO2 from flue gas.

  18. Dearth by a Thousand Cuts? Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikara, Mina; Rudman, Laurie; Fiske, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Publication in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , a flagship indicator of scientific prestige, shows dramatic gender disparities. A bibliometric analysis included yoked-control authors matched for Ph.D. prestige and cohort. Though women publish less, at slower annual rates, they are more cited in handbooks and textbooks per JPSP -article-published. No gender differences emerged on variables reflecting differential qualifications. Many factors explain gender discrepancy in productivity. Among top publishers, per-year rate and first authorship especially differ by gender; rate uniquely predicts top-male productivity, whereas career-length uniquely predicts top-female productivity. Among men, across top-publishers and controls, productivity correlates uniquely with editorial negotiating and being married. For women, no personal variables predict productivity. A separate inquiry shows tiny gender differences in acceptance rates per JPSP article submitted; discrimination would be a small-but-plausible contributor, absent independent indicators of manuscript quality. Recent productivity rates mirror earlier gender disparities, suggesting gender gaps will continue.

  19. Research Productivity in Top-Ranked Schools in Psychology and Social Work: Does Having a Research Culture Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, John R.; Holosko, Michael J.; Thyer, Bruce A.; King, Steve, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The "h"-index for all social work and psychology tenured or tenure-track faculty in the top 25 social work programs and psychology departments as ranked by "U.S. News and World Report" in 2012 and 2013, respectively, were obtained, permitting comparison of the scholarly influence between members (N = 1,939) of the two fields.…

  20. Budget impact analysis of the fentanyl buccal tablet for treatment of breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Lisette Kaskens,2 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa31University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, Barcelona, 3Medical and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd, Madrid, SpainBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the fentanyl buccal tablet for the management of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP in Spain.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the period 2012–2015 for patients with BTcP from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. BTcP products included in this model were rapid-onset opioids containing fentanyl (buccal, sublingual, or nasal transmucosal. Prevalence data on cancer, BTcP, opioid use, and number of BTcP episodes were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resources associated with opioid use and opioid-induced side effects were obtained by consulting experts in oncology from different Spanish hospitals. Resources used included drugs, medical and emergency visits, other nonpharmacologic treatments, and treatment of opioid-induced side effects. Unit costs were obtained from the literature, and a 3% discount rate was applied to costs. Based on the unit costs for drugs and health care resources, the annual BTcP treatment costs per patient associated with each fentanyl product were determined to estimate the overall budget impact based on the total treatment population and the percentage of drug utilization associated with each product. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model.Results: Patients treated with oral opioids for BTcP were estimated at 23,291 in 2012, with an increase up to 23,413 in 2015. The average annual budget savings, with an increase of fentanyl buccal tablets, fentanyl sublingual tablets, and intranasal fentanyl spray, and a decrease in oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate, was estimated at €2.6 million, which represents a 0.5% decrease in

  1. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsono

    1989-07-01

    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  2. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  3. THE ARTHRITIS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (AMQUIP: A BREAKTHROUGH SERIES METHODOLOGY PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASTURA I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian government had funded the National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC program with funding of $14.6 million over three years. One of the pilots project was the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Quality Improvement Program (AMQuIP.The study aims to optimize general practitioners (GPs management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA of the hip and knee by identifying gaps between their current practice and best practice. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology with several Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA cycles was employed. Participants comprises of 12 GPs/practices from two Victorian Divisions of general Practice (one rural, one metropolitan with 10 patients per GP/practice. GPs/practices attended an orientation and three learning workshops and a videoconference. GPs/practices completed PDSA cycles between workshop and reported results at workshops. GPs/practices reported use of guidelines, change in patient management and change in practice management/systems. All recruited patients completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey and WOMAC OA Index Questionnaire twice. Follow up activities including focus groups and face-to-face interviews were held six months after the final workshop. All GPs/practices used the guidelines/key messages, introduced “new” management strategies to patients, and made positive changes to their practice management/systems. Patient reported positive changes and outcomes. By using a structured methodology and evidence-based guidelines/key messages; GPs can introduce new patient management strategies, and by identifying gaps in practice management systems, positive changes can be achieved.

  4. Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginn, Edward

    2012-09-30

    This is the final report for DE-FC26-07NT43091 Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture. A detailed summary is provided of the ionic liquid (IL) discovery process, synthesis and testing results, process / systems modeling, lab-scale operational testing, corrosion testing and commercialization possibilities. The work resulted in the discovery of a new class of ionic liquids (ILs) that efficiently react with CO{sub 2} in a 1:1 stoichiometry with no water present and no increase in viscosity. The enthalpy of reaction was tuned to optimize process economics. The IL was found to have excellent corrosion behavior with and without CO{sub 2} present. In lab-scale tests, the IL was able to effectively remove CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream, although mass transfer was slower than with aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) due to higher viscosities. The non-volatile nature of the solvent and its high thermal stability, however, make it an intriguing option. An independent systems analysis indicates that the economics of using the best IL discovered to date (NDIL0157), are at least comparable to and potentially slightly better than - the Fluor Econamine FG PlusTM process (DOE Case 12). Further work should be directed at improving mass transfer / lowering viscosity and developing commercial synthesis routes to make these ILs at scale in an inexpensive manner. Demonstration of the process at larger scales is also warranted, as is the exploration of other process configurations that leverage the anhydrous nature of the solvent and its extremely low volatility.

  5. The effect of vapor polarity and boiling point on breakthrough for binary mixtures on respirator carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C A; Breysse, P N

    1996-08-01

    This research evaluated the effect of the polarity of a second vapor on the adsorption of a polar and a nonpolar vapor using the Wheeler model. To examine the effect of polarity, it was also necessary to observe the effect of component boiling point. The 1% breakthrough time (1% tb), kinetic adsorption capacity (W(e)), and rate constant (kv) of the Wheeler model were determined for vapor challenges on carbon beds for both p-xylene and pyrrole (referred to as test vapors) individually, and in equimolar binary mixtures with the polar and nonpolar vapors toluene, p-fluorotoluene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene (referred to as probe vapors). Probe vapor polarity (0 to 2.5 Debye) did not systematically alter the 1% tb, W(e), or kv of the test vapors. The 1% tb and W(e) for test vapors in binary mixtures can be estimated reasonably well, using the Wheeler model, from single-vapor data (1% tb +/- 30%, W(e) +/- 20%). The test vapor 1% tb depended mainly on total vapor concentration in both single and binary systems. W(e) was proportional to test vapor fractional molar concentration (mole fraction) in mixtures. The kv for p-xylene was significantly different (p boiling point; however, these differences were apparently of limited importance in estimating 1% tb for the range of boiling points tested (111 to 180 degrees C). Although the polarity and boiling point of chemicals in the range tested are not practically important in predicting 1% tb with the Wheeler model, an effect due to probe boiling point is suggested, and tests with chemicals of more widely ranging boiling point are warranted. Since the 1% tb, and thus, respirator service life, depends mainly on total vapor concentration, these data underscore the importance of taking into account the presence of other vapors when estimating respirator service life for a vapor in a mixture.

  6. Relativistic generalization of the incentive trap of interstellar travel with application to Breakthrough Starshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René

    2017-09-01

    As new concepts of sending interstellar spacecraft to the nearest stars are now being investigated by various research teams, crucial questions about the timing of such a vast financial and labour investment arise. If humanity could build high-speed interstellar lightsails and reach α Centauri 20 yr after launch, would it be better to wait a few years, then take advantage of further technology improvements and arrive earlier despite waiting? The risk of being overtaken by a future, faster probe has been described earlier as the incentive trap. Based on 211 yr of historical data, we find that the speed growth of artificial vehicles, from steam-driven locomotives to Voyager 1, is much faster than previously believed, about 4.72 per cent annually or a doubling every 15 yr. We derive the mathematical framework to calculate the minimum of the wait time to launch t plus travel time τ(t) and extend it into the relativistic regime. We show that the t + τ(t) minimum disappears for nearby targets. There is no use of waiting once we can reach an object within about 20 yr of travel, irrespective of the actual speed. In terms of speed, the t + τ(t) minimum for a travel to α Centauri occurs at 19.6 per cent the speed of light (c), in agreement with the 20 per cent c proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative. If interstellar travel at 20 per cent c could be achieved within 45 yr from today and the kinetic energy be increased at a rate consistent with the historical record, then humans can reach the 10 most nearby stars within 100 yr from today.

  7. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane t......We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current......-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance...

  8. Stanford test called a net breakthrough - data sent at 3,500 times the speed of broadband

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Researchers at a Stanford University-affiliated research center have found a way to send data across the Internet more than 3,500 times faster than the typical broadband connection. The technical breakthrough set an Internet speed record too fast to be of use with present-day computers but could open the way for scientists to share and ship massive databases around the world, according to the researchers.

  9. Closed-flow column experiments—Insights into solute transport provided by a damped oscillating breakthrough behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.

  10. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  11. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: the first SETI results and other future science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Breakthrough Listen Team

    2018-01-01

    The Breakthrough Listen (BL) Initiative is the largest campaign in human history on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The work presented here is the first BL search for engineered signals. This comprises a sample of 692 nearby stars within 50 pc. We used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to conduct observations over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L-band). Our observing strategy allows us to reject most of the detected signals as terrestrial interference. During the analysis, eleven stars show events that passed our thresholding algorithm, but detailed analysis of their properties indicates they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio frequency interference. This small number of false positives and their understood properties give confidence on the techniques used for this search. We conclude that, at the time of our observations none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting at the observed frequencies with an EIRP of 10^13 W, readily achievable by our own civilization.We can place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. Our results suggest that fewer than ~0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey. This work provides the most stringent limit on the number of low power radio transmitters around nearby stars to date. We explored several metics to compare our results to previous SETI efforts. We developed a new figure-of-merit that can encompass a wider set of parameters and can be used on future SETI experiments for a meaningful comparison.We note that the current BL state-of-the-art digital backend installed at the Green Bank Observatory is the fastest ever used for a SETI experiment by a factor of a few. Here we will describe the potential use of the BL backend by other groups on complementary science, as well as a mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused in

  12. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  13. Aldosterone breakthrough in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; Eriksson, A; Hess, A M

    2017-06-01

    Aldosterone breakthrough (ABT) is the condition in which angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers fail to effectively suppress the activity of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The objective of this study was to determine if ABT occurs in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease receiving an ACEI, using the urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) as a measure of renin angiotensin aldosterone system activation. This study includes 39 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. A UAldo:C cut-off definition (derived from a normal population of healthy, adult, and client-owned dogs) was used to determine the prevalence of ABT in this population. Spearman analysis and univariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the relationship between UAldo:C and ABT (yes/no) and eight variables (age, serum K + concentration, serum creatinine concentration, ACEI therapy duration and ACEI dosage, furosemide therapy duration and furosemide dosage, and urine sample storage time). Finally, the UAldo:C in dogs receiving spironolactone, as part congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy, was compared to dogs with CHF that were not receiving spironolactone. The prevalence of ABT was 32% in dogs with CHF and 30% in dogs without CHF. There was no relationship between either the UAldo:C or the likelihood of ABT and the eight variables. Therapy with spironolactone lead to a significant elevation of the UAldo:C. Using the UAldo:C and a relatively stringent definition of ABT, it appears that incomplete RAAS blockade is common in dogs with MMVD receiving an ACEI. The prevalence of ABT in this canine population mirrors that reported in humans. While the mechanism of ABT is likely multifactorial and still poorly understood, the proven existence of ABT in dogs offers the potential to improve the prognosis for MMVD with the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker to current therapeutic regimens

  14. Reproducing tailing in breakthrough curves: Are statistical models equally representative and predictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Bianchi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Breakthrough curves (BTCs) observed during tracer tests in highly heterogeneous aquifers display strong tailing. Power laws are popular models for both the empirical fitting of these curves, and the prediction of transport using upscaling models based on best-fitted estimated parameters (e.g. the power law slope or exponent). The predictive capacity of power law based upscaling models can be however questioned due to the difficulties to link model parameters with the aquifers' physical properties. This work analyzes two aspects that can limit the use of power laws as effective predictive tools: (a) the implication of statistical subsampling, which often renders power laws undistinguishable from other heavily tailed distributions, such as the logarithmic (LOG); (b) the difficulties to reconcile fitting parameters obtained from models with different formulations, such as the presence of a late-time cutoff in the power law model. Two rigorous and systematic stochastic analyses, one based on benchmark distributions and the other on BTCs obtained from transport simulations, are considered. It is found that a power law model without cutoff (PL) results in best-fitted exponents (αPL) falling in the range of typical experimental values reported in the literature (1.5 tailing becomes heavier. Strong fluctuations occur when the number of samples is limited, due to the effects of subsampling. On the other hand, when the power law model embeds a cutoff (PLCO), the best-fitted exponent (αCO) is insensitive to the degree of tailing and to the effects of subsampling and tends to a constant αCO ≈ 1. In the PLCO model, the cutoff rate (λ) is the parameter that fully reproduces the persistence of the tailing and is shown to be inversely correlated to the LOG scale parameter (i.e. with the skewness of the distribution). The theoretical results are consistent with the fitting analysis of a tracer test performed during the MADE-5 experiment. It is shown that a simple

  15. Capacitive Sensors and Breakthrough Curves in Automated Irrigation for Water and Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy Hussein, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    when such sensors are used in farmers' fields. The second procedure was Breakthrough Curve (BTC) lab-method to follow the fate of chemical composition of water draining out of Ca-saturated soil columns and Exchangeable Sodium Percent, ESP, in soil materials under saturated-flow. The work was run on five packed soil-columns under hydraulic-gradient of about 6 in fine-grained soil materials (Nile clay-sediments) wetted with five NaCl aqueous solutions (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mEq/l). The results revealed the removal of 40 to 80% of sodium from irrigation water after 6 to 8 pore volumes flowed out in about 12 hours with the highest removal from the most dilute solution. Rapid increase of ESP was observed when the inlet solution had moderate to high TDS whereas the dilute solution (10 mEq/l) has resulted in no soil chemical degradation. The results were extrapolated to field situation and showed that Nile clayey soil would never get sodic (ESP>15) when wetted with high quality water regardless the water application duration whereas only 1-4 year of irrigation with moderate to poor-quality water (as takes place under perennial irrigation) would result in ESP increase to 15 and much higher values. A secondary but important outcome of BTC experiments was that marginal sediments could be used in multi-column cells (6 to 8 columns) to improve water-quality through removal of Na+ ions from water, whereas anions could be removed by positively-charged resins and the cells could be recycled in a proposed prototype scheme.

  16. Experimental investigation of the impact of compound-specific dispersion and electrostatic interactions on transient transport and solute breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of compound-specific diffusion/dispersion and electrochemical migration on transient solute transport in saturated porous media. We conducted laboratory bench-scale experiments, under advection-dominated regimes (seepage velocity: 0.5, 5, 25 m/d), in a quasi two-dimensional flow-through setup using pulse injection of multiple tracers (both uncharged and ionic species). Extensive sampling and measurement of solutes' concentrations (˜1500 samples; >3000 measurements) were performed at the outlet of the flow-through setup, at high spatial and temporal resolution. The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured breakthrough curves also at very high Péclet numbers. To quantitatively interpret the experimental results, we used four modeling approaches: classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE), continuous time random walk (CTRW), dual-domain mass transfer model (DDMT), and a multicomponent ionic dispersion model. The latter is based on the multicomponent formulation of coupled diffusive/dispersive fluxes and was used to describe and explain the electrostatic effects of charged species. Furthermore, we determined experimentally the temporal profiles of the flux-related dilution index. This metric of mixing, used in connection with the traditional solute breakthrough curves, proved to be useful to correctly distinguish between plume spreading and mixing, particularly for the cases in which the sole analysis of integrated concentration breakthrough curves may lead to erroneous interpretation of plume dilution.

  17. Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Breakthrough Candidemia in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in a Japanese Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Muneyoshi; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Nakamura, Shigeki; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Masahiro; Yuasa, Mitsuhiro; Kaji, Daisuke; Kageyama, Kosei; Nishida, Aya; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Go; Uchida, Naoyuki; Izutsu, Koji; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Few data on breakthrough candidemia (BC), defined as candidemia that develops on administration of antifungal agents (AFAs), in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients are available. The medical and microbiological records of recipients of an allo-HSCT obtained between December 2008 and December 2014 were reviewed. Of 768 allo-HSCT cases, 26 developed BC. Among the 26 causative strains, 22 strains were stored and identified by sequencing. The following species were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (9 strains), C. glabrata (4 strains), C. guilliermondii (3 strains), and other Candida species (6 strains). The AFAs being used when BC developed were micafungin (17 cases), liposomal amphotericin B (5 cases), itraconazole (2 cases), and voriconazole (2 cases). All 17 cases who developed BC during micafungin administration were administered 150 mg/day of micafungin. The susceptibilities of the causative Candida species to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred ranged from susceptible to resistant. Especially, 85% of the Candida species that caused BC during micafungin administration were susceptible to micafungin. Additionally, 75% of the strains were wild type for susceptibility to the administered AFAs when breakthrough occurred. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase (≥5 days) were independent risk factors for BC (P = 0.016 and P = 0.015, respectively). BC developed in allo-HSCT recipients even when they received a sufficient dose of AFA, including micafungin, to which the causative Candida species were susceptible and/or had wild-type susceptibility in vitro. Systemic steroid administration and a longer severe neutropenic phase were host-based factors associated with BC. PMID:28115352

  18. Dynamic adsorption of CO2/N2 on cation-exchanged chabazite SSZ-13: A breakthrough analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Jamey K.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Prodinger, Sebastian; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, Bernard P.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2018-04-17

    Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the CHA cavities enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture.

  19. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  20. Effect of CH4 on the CO2 breakthrough pressure and permeability of partially saturated low-permeability sandstone in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Qingchun

    2018-01-01

    The behavior of CO2 that coexists with CH4 and the effect of CH4 on the CO2 stream need to be deeply analyzed and studied, especially in the presence of water. Our previous studies investigated the breakthrough pressure and permeability of pure CO2 in five partially saturated low-permeability sandstone core samples from the Ordos Basin, and we concluded that rocks with a small pore size and low permeability show considerable sealing capacity even under unsaturated conditions. In this paper, we selected three of these samples for CO2-CH4 gas-mixture breakthrough experiments under various degrees of water saturation. The breakthrough experiments were performed by increasing the gas pressure step by step until breakthrough occurred. Then, the effluent gas mixture was collected for chromatographic partitioning analysis. The results indicate that CH4 significantly affects the breakthrough pressure and permeability of CO2. The presence of CH4 in the gas mixture increases the interfacial tension and, thus, the breakthrough pressure. Therefore, the injected gas mixture that contains the highest (lowest) mole fraction of CH4 results in the largest (smallest) breakthrough pressure. The permeability of the gas mixture is greater than that for pure CO2 because of CH4, and the effective permeability decreases with increased breakthrough pressure. Chromatographic partitioning of the effluent mixture gases indicates that CH4 breaks through ahead of CO2 as a result of its weaker solubility in water. Correlations are established between (1) the breakthrough pressure and water saturation, (2) the effective permeability and water saturation, (3) the breakthrough pressure and effective permeability, and (4) the mole fraction of CO2/CH4 in the effluent mixture gases and water saturation. These results deepen our understanding of the multi-phase flow behavior in the porous media under unsaturated conditions, which have implications for formulating emergency response plans for gas

  1. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: A Wideband Data Recorder System for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, David H. E.; Price, Danny C.; Lebofsky, Matthew; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Enriquez, J. Emilio; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Gregory; Isaacson, Howard; Werthimer, Dan; Abdurashidova, Zuhra; Bloss, Marty; Brandt, Joe; Creager, Ramon; Ford, John; Lynch, Ryan S.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; McCullough, Randy; Ray, Jason; Whitehead, Mark; Woody, Dave

    2018-04-01

    The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is undertaking a comprehensive search for radio and optical signatures from extraterrestrial civilizations. An integral component of the project is the design and implementation of wide-bandwidth data recorder and signal processing systems. The capabilities of these systems, particularly at radio frequencies, directly determine survey speed; further, given a fixed observing time and spectral coverage, they determine sensitivity as well. Here, we detail the Breakthrough Listen wide-bandwidth data recording system deployed at the 100 m aperture Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The system digitizes up to 6 GHz of bandwidth at 8 bits for both polarizations, storing the resultant 24 GB s‑1 of data to disk. This system is among the highest data rate baseband recording systems in use in radio astronomy. A future system expansion will double recording capacity, to achieve a total Nyquist bandwidth of 12 GHz in two polarizations. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, along with salient configuration and disk-write optimizations used to achieve high-throughput data capture on commodity compute servers and consumer-class hard disk drives.

  2. Integrated care for patients with a stroke in the Netherlands: results and experiences from a national Breakthrough Collaborative Improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.N. Minkman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article considers the question if measurable improvements are achieved in the quality of care in stroke services by using a Breakthrough collaborative quality improvement model. Context of case: Despite the availability of explicit criteria, evidence based guidelines, national protocols and examples of best practices; stroke care in the Netherlands did not improve substantially yet. For that reason a national collaborative started in 2002 to improve integrated stroke care in 23 self selected stroke services. Data sources: Characteristics of sites, teams, aims and changes were assessed by using a questionnaire and monthly self-reports of teams. Progress in achieving significant quality improvement has been assessed on a five point Likert scale (IHI score. Case description: The stroke services (n=23 formed multidisciplinary teams, which worked together in a collaborative based on the IHI Breakthrough Series Model. Teams received instruction in quality improvement, reviewed self reported performance data, identified bottlenecks and improvement goals, and implemented “potentially better practices” based on criteria from the Edisse study, evidence based guidelines, own ideas and expert opinion. Conclusion and discussion: Quality of care has been improved in most participating stroke services. Eighty-seven percent of the teams have improved their care significantly on at least one topic. About 34% of the teams have achieved significant improvement on all aims within the time frame of the project. The project has contributed to the further development and spread of integrated stroke care in the Netherlands.

  3. Granular activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants in drinking water and treated wastewater--Aligning breakthrough curves and capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Stützer, Christian; Jekel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) tests for the adsorption of organic micro-pollutants (OMP) were conducted with drinking water and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. In both waters, three influent OMP concentration levels were tested. As long as the influent OMP concentrations are below certain thresholds, the relative breakthrough behavior is not impacted in the respective water. Accordingly, the GAC capacity for OMP is directly proportional to the influent OMP concentration in the corresponding water. The differences between the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent can be attributed to the concentrations of the low molecular weight acid and neutral (LMW) organics of the waters. Presenting the relative OMP concentrations (c/c0) over the specific throughput of the LMW organics (mg LMW organics/g GAC), the OMP breakthrough curves in drinking water and WWTP effluent superimpose each other. This superimposition can be further increased if the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) of the LMW organics is considered. In contrast, using the specific throughput of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not suffice to obtain superimposed breakthrough curves. Thus, the LMW organics are the major water constituent impacting OMP adsorption onto GAC. The results demonstrate that knowing the influent OMP and LMW organics concentrations (and UV254) of different waters, the OMP breakthroughs and GAC capacities corresponding to any water can be applied to all other waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The novel composite mechanism of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix and its ion exchange breakthrough curves for cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hao [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Yuxiang, E-mail: superfigure@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory for Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wu, Lang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ma, Xue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The granular composites were fabricated by the sequential annealing mechanism. • The method controls the porous characteristics and stable structure of materials. • The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate. • It is a probable for SM-AMP20 to recycle Cs{sup +} using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Long-lived {sup 137}Cs (over 30 years), a byproduct of the spent fuel fission processes, comprises the majority of high-level and prolific heat-generating waste in downstream processing. This study reports a novel sequential annealing mechanism with cross-linked network of polyvinyl alcohol, fabricating the composite of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix (SM-AMP20, 20 wt% AMP) as an excellent granular ion exchanger for removal Cs{sup +}. When the matrix is remarkably sequential annealed, well-dispersed SM-AMP20 particles are formed by firmly anchoring themselves on controlling the porous characteristics and stable structure. The material crystallizes in the complex cubic space group Pn-3m with cell parameters of crystalline AMP formation. The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} by SM-AMP20 follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate of 88.23% (∼10 mg/L of Cs{sup +}) and breakthrough time as high as 26 h (flow rate Q ≈ 2.5 mL/min and bed height Z ≈ 11 cm) at neutral pH. We also report on sorbents that could efficiently remove Cs{sup +} ions from complex solutions containing different competitive cations (Na{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively) in large excess. Furthermore, this study shows that there is a probability for SM-AMP20 to recycle cesium using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution.

  5. Virologic breakthrough in a patient with chronic hepatitis B by combination treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumitaka Suzuki,1,2 Hitomi Sezaki,1 Norio Akuta,1 Yoshiyuki Suzuki,1 Yusuke Kawamura,1 Tetsuya Hosaka,1 Masahiro Kobayashi,1 Satoshi Saitoh,1 Yasuji Arase,1 Kenji Ikeda,1 Mariko Kobayashi,3 Sachiyo Watahiki,3 Rie Mineta,3 Yukiko Suzuki,3 Hiromitsu Kumada1 1Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan; 3Research Institute for Hepatology, Toranomon Branch Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV patients in the USA and Europe. No confirmed report of resistance selection during treatment with TDF in treatment-naïve and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-treated chronic hepatitis B patients has yet been reported. Here, we report for the first time a patient with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis who emerged with virologic breakthrough during combination therapy with TDF and entecavir (ETV, against ETV-resistant virus. A 51-year-old Japanese woman with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg, whose genotype was C, received ETV monotherapy continuously followed by TDF and ETV combination therapy, because her HBV DNA levels had been >3.5 log copies/mL. At the start of combination therapy, amino acid substitutions of the reverse transcriptase (rt gene, rtL180M, rtT184I/M, and rtM204V, were detected. After this, serum HBV DNA decreased to less than 2.1 log copies/mL and remained at this level until 31 months of combination therapy, when it again began to increase. Amino acid substitutions of rtL180M, rtS202G, and rtM204V emerged and were associated with an increase in serum HBV DNA at virologic breakthrough. Long-term therapy with TDF against the ETV-resistant virus has the potential to induce virologic breakthrough and resistance, and careful follow-up should be carried out. Keywords: hepatitis B virus, resistant

  6. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O

    2013-11-27

    From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981-2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the number and types of HIV/AIDS bills introduced

  7. Multi-centre European study of breakthrough cancer pain: pain characteristics and patient perceptions of current and potential management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Andersen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study involved 320 cancer patients from four Northern European countries. Patients with breakthrough pain were questioned about the characteristics of their pain, the current management of their pain, and the acceptability/utility of alternative routes of administration. The median number...... of episodes was 3/day. Forty-four percent patients reported incident-type pain, 39% spontaneous-type pain, and 17% a combination of these pains. The median duration was 60 min, and the median time to peak intensity was 15 min. Three percent patients reported "mild" pain, 37% "moderate" pain, and 60% "severe......" pain. Ninety percent patients stated that the pain interfered with their daily activities. All patients were using opioids as rescue medication (mainly oral morphine/oxycodone), whilst 28% patients were using non-opioids, and 50% patients were using non-pharmacological interventions. Only 55% patients...

  8. Breakthrough in current-in-plane tunneling measurement precision by application of multi-variable fitting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik W; Hansen, Ole; Shiv, Lior; Nielsen, Peter F; Petersen, Dirch H

    2017-09-01

    We present a breakthrough in micro-four-point probe (M4PP) metrology to substantially improve precision of transmission line (transfer length) type measurements by application of advanced electrode position correction. In particular, we demonstrate this methodology for the M4PP current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) technique. The CIPT method has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stacks suitable for magnetic random-access memories for more than a decade. On two MTJ stacks, the measurement precision of resistance-area product and tunneling magnetoresistance was improved by up to a factor of 3.5 and the measurement reproducibility by up to a factor of 17, thanks to our improved position correction technique.

  9. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  10. Significant breakthrough in proprietary deepwater natural gas exploration in the northern South China Sea and its inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Xie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Zhanjiang Branch of CNOOC Limited obtained high oil and gas flows (160 × 104 m3/d in Well LS 17-2-1 in northern South China Sea. The tested formation is the Neogene Upper Miocene Huangliu Fm. This is the first self-explored natural gas field in deep water area in China. Exploration in this area underwent three periods: (1 Reconnaissance exploration period (before 2002: Limited by techniques, the major exploration was in shallow water areas; (2 Foreign cooperative exploration period (2002–2012: As the discovered reserve scale was small, and there is no economic benefit, the partners successively gave up their exploration equities in the deep water area of western South China Sea; however, the high quality source rocks and reservoirs were confirmed in the deep water area of the South China Sea, revealing the mask of hydrocarbon exploration in this region; (3 Self-exploration period (since 2013: Relying on national science and technology major projects and its scientific research and production, Zhanjiang Company of CNOOC conducted several scientific researches on seismic data acquisition and processing, high-quality reservoir distribution, key factors for hydrocarbon accumulation in deep water areas, optimized and confirmed Lingshui 17-2 structure as the first drilling target, and obtained significant exploration breakthrough. Lingshui 17-2 structure is located in the Ledong-Lingshui section of the Central Canyon. Its major target layer is the Huangliu Fm. Its total thickness is over 150 m, with sandstone ratio of 75.4%, maximum single layer thickness of 52 m, porosity ranging 30.0%–33.7% (31.5% averagely, permeability ranging 293–2512 mD (633 mD averagely, belonging to reservoir with ultrahigh porosity and high-ultrahigh permeability. The exploration breakthrough in Lingshui 17-2 shows the giant potentiality of hydrocarbon exploration in this deep water area.

  11. Use of tigecycline for the management of Clostridium difficile colitis in oncology patients and case series of breakthrough infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, B J; Pasikhova, Y; Quilitz, R E; Thai, C M; Greene, J N

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. Cancer patients, in particular, are at a higher risk for CDI. Limited clinical data exist regarding the use of tigecycline for the treatment of CDI, especially in patients with oncologic and haematologic malignancies. To characterize the use of tigecycline for treatment of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. This was a retrospective, single-centre, single-arm, chart review evaluating the use of tigecycline for the management of CDI in oncology patients at an academic cancer centre. The median age of CDI diagnosis in this patient group (N=66) was 65 years (range: 16-84) and the majority of patients had solid tumour malignancies. Fifty-six percent of patients had severe CDI, 70.3% of which were classified as having severe complicated disease. The median time to initiation of tigecycline therapy was 2 days (mean: 3.83) and the median number of tigecycline doses was 13 (range: 1-50). Twelve non-CDI breakthrough infections were observed, and four patients developed CDI while receiving tigecycline for non-CDI indications. The rate of death was 18% and the recurrence rate was 15.2%. Tigecycline did not lead to overt benefits in outcomes of oncology patients with CDI when compared to historical data. In addition, several breakthrough CDIs were observed in patients who received the drug for a non-CDI indication. Further prospective research is needed to validate the use of tigecycline for management of CDI. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of techniques for rapid analysis of 90Sr breakthrough and 90Y activity from a 90Sr-90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, S.E.; Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in labelling monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic amounts of a pure beta emitting isotope. 90 Y offers many desirable features and may be conveniently and economically obtained from a 90 Sr- 90 Y generator. A potential hazard with this system is breakthrough of the parent 90 Sr which has a half life of 28 years and is an extremely toxic bone seeking isotope. Therefore it is essential that the daughter be completely separated from its parent. We have devised two simple techniques which allow us to monitor rapidly the amount of 90 Sr breakthrough and quantitate the 90 Y activity over a 5 log range. (author)

  13. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) : multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The breakthrough of rock ‘n’ roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the

  14. How nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain, and the impact of this pain on patients' daily lives - Results of a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustoen, Tone; Geerling, Jenske I.; Pappa, Theodora; Rundstrom, Carina; Weisse, Isolde; Williams, Sian C.; Zavratnik, Bostjan; Wengstrom, Yvonne

    Purpose: To increase our knowledge of how nurses assess breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP); and whether they find it difficult to distinguish BTCP from background pain; how they estimate the impact of BTCP on patients' daily lives, and the factors that nurses consider to induce BTCP. Variations in

  15. Evaluating Design Parameters for Breakthrough Curve Analysis and Kinetics of Fixed Bed Columns for Cu(II Cations Using Lignocellulosic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial concentration of Cu(II cations, and bed height related to the amount of activated carbon used for column packing. Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams–Bohart models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at different conditions. Linear regression analysis of experimental data demonstrated that Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models were appropriate to explain the breakthrough curve, while the Adams–Bohart model was only applicable to predict the initial part of the dynamic process. It was concluded that the column packed with fruit rind based activated carbon can be used to treat Cu(II-enriched wastewater.

  16. Rapid breakthrough of pesticides via biopres into tile drains and shallow groundwater: a combined experimental and model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.; Palm, J.; Schroeder, B.

    2009-04-01

    Preferential flow in macropores is a key process which strongly affects infiltration and may cause rapid transport of pesticides into depths of 80 to 150 cm. At these depths they experience a much slower degradation, may leach into shallow groundwater or enter a tile-drain and are transported in surface water bodies. Therefore, preferential transport is an environ¬mental problem because the topsoil is bypassed, which has been originally thought to act as a filter to protect the subsoil and shallow groundwater. To get a better insight in the process of pesticide transport in agricultural soils an irrigation experiment was performed on a 400 m² field site. The experimental plot is located in the Weiherbach valley, south-west Germany, which basic geology consists of Loess and Keuper layers, the soil at the test site is a gleyic Colluvisol. The distance of the irrigation site to the Weiherbach brook is aprox. 12 m, the field is drained with a tile-drain in about 1.2 m depth and the shows runoff over the entire year. Three hours before the irrigation started the farmer applied a pesticide solution consisting of Isoproturon and Flufenacet according to conventional agricultural practice. The irrigation took place in three time blocks (80 min, 60 min, 80 min) and had a total irrigation rate of 33.6 mm measured with ten precipitation samplers. During the first block a tracer solution of 1600 g Bromide and 2000 g Brilliant Blue was irrigated on the test site. The drainage outlet was instrumented with a pressure probe to measure the water level. About 50 water samples were taken on the day of the experiment from the drainage outlet by hand, and in an eight hour interval for six days with an automatic sample procedure. Discharge at the drainage outlet showed two peaks in response irrigation. The breakthrough of the tracer into the brook is much faster then the reaction of the discharge on the precipitation impulse. To gain insight in the vertical transport behaviour three

  17. Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for analgesia in adult cancer patients with breakthrough pain: A randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Gao, L-L; Dai, Y-L; Li, Y-X; Wang, Y; Bai, C-F; Mu, G-X; Chai, X-M; Han, W-J; Zhou, L-J; Zhang, Y-J; Tang, L; Liu, J; Yu, J-Q

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for the management of breakthrough cancer pain. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was undertaken in the Medical ward of Tumor Hospital of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. 240 cancer patients with breakthrough pain were recruited and randomly received a standard pain treatment (morphine sulphate immediate release) plus a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, or the standard pain treatment plus oxygen. The primary endpoint measure was the numerical rating scale (NRS) score measured at baseline, 5 and 15 min after the beginning of treatment, and at 5 min post treatment. In all, analysis of pain score (NRS) at 5 min after the beginning of treatment shown a significant decrease in nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture treated patients with 2.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.5 ± 1.2 in controls (p nitrous oxide/oxygen was 2.0 ± 1.1 compared with 5.6 ± 1.3 for oxygen (p nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough pain among patients with cancer. The management of breakthrough cancer pain is always a challenge due to its temporal characteristics of rapid onset, moderate to severe in intensity, short duration (median 30-60 min). Our study find that self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was effective in reducing moderate to severe breakthrough cancer pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  18. Newspaper coverage of human-pig chimera research: A qualitative study on select media coverage of scientific breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan-Brown, Abena; Favaretto, Maddalena; Borry, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    A recently published article in the journal Cell by scientists from the Salk Institute highlighted the successful integration of stem cells from humans in pig embryos. This marks the first step toward the goal of growing human organs in animals for transplantation. There has, to date, been no research performed on the presentation of this breakthrough in the media. We thus assessed early newspaper coverage of the chimera study, looking into the descriptions as well as the benefits and concerns raised by the study mentioned by newspaper sources. We looked at newspaper coverage of the human-pig chimera study in the two weeks after the publication of the article describing the breakthrough in Cell. This time period spanned from January 26 to February 9, 2017. We used the LexisNexis Academic database and identified articles using the search string "hybrid OR chimera AND pig OR human OR embryo." The relevant articles were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Two researchers openly coded the articles independently using themes that emerged from the raw texts. Our search yielded 31 unique articles, after extensive screening for relevance and duplicates. Through our analysis, we were able to identify several themes in a majority of the texts. Almost every article gave descriptive information about the chimera experiment with details about the study findings. All of the articles mentioned the benefits of the study, citing both immediate- and long-term goals, which included creating transplantable human organs, disease and drug development, and personalized medicine, among others. Some of the articles highlighted some ethical, social, and health concerns that the study and its future implications pose. Many of the articles also offered reassurances over the concerns brought up by the experiment. Our results appeared to align with similar research performed on the media representation of sensitive scientific news coverage. We also explored the inconsistency between

  19. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P W; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Björkman, S; Oh, M; Fritsch, S; Schroth, P; Spotts, G; Astermark, J; Ewenstein, B

    2009-03-01

    The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level break-through bleeding in patients with severe hemophilia A on prophylaxis. This study analysed data from 44 patients aged 1-6 and 99 patients aged 10-65 years with severe hemophilia A (FVIII safety and efficacy of a recombinant FVIII (Advate). Each patient had pharmacokinetic measurements and FVIII infusions recorded, and these were used to calculate time spent with a FVIII below 1, 2 and 5 IU dL(-1). The data demonstrate that increasing time with a FVIII below 1 IU dL(-1) is associated with increased total bleeds and hemarthroses. Lack of adherence to the intended frequency of FVIII infusion was the most important determinant of low FVIII and increased bleeding. In children aged 1-6 years, the rate of bleeding was also influenced by FVIII half-life and clearance. These data have important implications for the management of patients with severe hemophilia.

  20. Application of modelling and nanotechnology-based approaches: The emergence of breakthroughs in theranostics of central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2017-08-01

    The limited efficiency of the current treatment options against the central nervous system (CNS) disorders has created increasing demands towards the development of novel theranostic strategies. The enormous research efforts in nanotechnology have led to the production of highly-advanced nanodevices and biomaterials in a variety of geometries and configurations for targeted delivery of genes, drugs, or growth factors across the blood-brain barrier. Meanwhile, the richness or reliability of data, drug delivery methods, therapeutic effects or potential toxicity of nanoparticles, occurrence of the unexpected phenomena due to the polydisperse or polymorphic nature of nanomaterials, and personalized theranostics have remained as challenging issues. In this respect, computational modelling has emerged as a powerful tool for rational design of nanoparticles with optimized characteristics including the selectivity, improved bioactivity, and reduced toxicity that might lead to the effective delivery of therapeutic agents. High-performance simulation techniques by shedding more light on the dynamical behaviour of neural networks and pathomechanisms of CNS disorders may provide imminent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. In the present review, the importance of integration of nanotechnology-based approaches with computational techniques for targeted delivery of theranostics to the CNS has been highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Using a virtual breakthrough series collaborative to reduce postoperative respiratory failure in 16 Veterans Health Administration hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkoff, Lisa; Neily, Julia; Mills, Peter D; Borzecki, Ann; Shin, Marlena; Lynn, Marilyn M; Gunnar, William; Rosen, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Virtual Breakthrough Series (VBTS) process was used in an eight-month (June 2011-January 2012) quality improvement (QI) project to improve care related to reducing postoperative respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative drew on Patient Safety Indicator 11: Postoperative Respiratory Failure Rate to guide changes in care at the bedside. Sixteen Veterans Health Administration hospitals, each representing a regional Veterans Integrated Service Network, participated in the QI project. During the prework phase (initial two months), hospitals formed multidisciplinary teams, selected measures related to their goals, and collected baseline data. The six-month action phase included group conference calls in which the faculty presented clinical background on the topic, discussed evidence-based processes of care, and/or presented content regarding reducing postoperative respiratory failure. During a final, six-month continuous improvement and spread phase, teams were to continue implementing changes as part of their usual processes. The six most commonly reported interventions to reduce postoperative respiratory failure focused on improving incentive spirometer use, documenting implementation of targeted interventions, oral care, standardized orders, early ambulation, and provider education. A few teams reported reduced ICU readmissions for respiratory failure. The VBTS collaborative helped teams implement process changes to help reduce postoperative respiratory complications. Teams reported initial success at implementing site-specific improvements using real-time data. The VBTS model shows promise for knowledge sharing and efficient multifacility improvement efforts, although long-term sustainability and testing in these and other settings need to be examined.

  2. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: 1.1-1.9 GHz Observations of 692 Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Price, Danny C.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David H. E.; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-11-01

    We report on a search for engineered signals from a sample of 692 nearby stars using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, undertaken as part of the Breakthrough Listen Initiative search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Observations were made over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L band), with three sets of five-minute observations of the 692 primary targets, interspersed with five-minute observations of secondary targets. By comparing the “ON” and “OFF” observations, we are able to identify terrestrial interference and place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. During the analysis, 11 events passed our thresholding algorithm, but a detailed analysis of their properties indicates that they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio-frequency interference. We conclude that, at the time of our observations, none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz with an Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of ˜1013 W, which is readily achievable by our own civilization. Our results suggest that fewer than ˜0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey.

  3. Technical and economic analysis use of flare gas into alternative energy as a breakthrough in achieving zero routine flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Y.; Juliza, H.; Humala, N.

    2018-03-01

    The activity of exploring natural oil and gas will produce gas flare 0.584 MMSCFD. A gas flare is the combustion of gas remaining to avoid poisonous gas like H2S and CO which is very dangerous for human and environmental health. The combustion can bring about environmental pollution and losses because it still contains valuable energy. It needs the policy to encourage the use of flare gas with Zero Routine Flaring and green productivity to reduce waste and pollution. The objective of the research was to determine the use of gas flare so that it will have economic value and can achieve Zero Routine Flaring. It was started by analysing based on volume or rate and composition gas flare was used to determine technical feasibility, and the estimation of the gas reserves as the determination of the economy of a gas well. The results showed that the use of flare gas as fuel for power generation feasible to be implemented technically and economically with Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 19.32% and the Payback Period (PP) 5 year. Thus, it can increase gas flare value economically and can achieve a breakthrough in Zero Routine Flaring.

  4. Breakthrough of ultraviolet light from various brands of fluorescent lamps: Lethal effects on DNA repair-defective bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, P.E.; Biggley, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    In a comparative study of 17 pairs of 15 W fluorescent lamps intended for use in homes and purchased in local stores, we detect over 10-fold differences in UVB + UVC emissions between various lamps. This breakthrough of ultraviolet (UV) light is in part correlated with ability of lamps to kill DNA repair-defective recA - uvrB - Salmonella. Relative proficiency of lamps in eliciting photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions also plays a prominent role in the relative rates of bacterial inactivation by emissions from different lamps. Lamps made in Chile, such as Phillips brand lamps and one type of General Electric lamp, produce far less UVB + UVC and fail to kill recA - uvrB - bacteria. In contrast, all tested lamps manufactured in the USA, Hungary, and Japan exhibit readily observed deleterious biological effects. When an E. coli recA - uvrB - phr - (photolyase-negative) triple mutant is used for assay, lethal radiations are detected from all lamps, and single-hit exponential inactivation rates rather closely correlate to amount of directly measured UVB + UVC output of each pair of lamps. Although all lamps tested may meet international and Unite States standards for radiation safely, optimal practices in lamp manufacture are clearly capable of decreasing human exposure to indoor UV light. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Achieving a demographic breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H

    1994-09-01

    President Hosni Mubarak received the United Nations Population Award on June 14, 1994, because of his contribution to the promotion of the national population program in Egypt. Egypt has been tackling the population problem on three fronts: high rate of natural increase (2.3% in 1994), unbalanced population distribution along the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean coast that account for just 4% of the land, and insufficient educational and health levels. At present seven major programs are being implemented throughout the country to curb population increase involving information, education and communication; family planning; human resource development; improving maternal and child health, and educational level; increasing employment; the empowerment of women; and systematic land development. The total fertility rate dropped to 3.9 during 1990-1992 from 5.3 during 1979-1980. The crude birth rate dropped to 29.2/1000 population in 1992 from 38.7/1000 in 1986. The crude death rate also decreased to 7.4/1000 in 1992 from 9.2/1000 in 1986. The infant mortality rate decreased to 62 during 1988-1992 from 132 during 1975-1979. The contraceptive prevalence rate climbed from 24.25 in 1980 to 47.1% in 1992. The strong endorsement by the Grand Mufti that Islam supports family planning made many people change their traditional view that family planning was forbidden by the Koran. The political commitment from the President led to the provision of large budgets for the national population program. Technical and program assistance provided by donors including the United States Agency for International Development has greatly contributed to mass media campaigns and service delivery. 63.4% of acceptors received family planning services or contraceptives from the private sector. Egypt is willing to share its population and family planning experience with other developing countries that have similar economic and social conditions particularly if financial assistance by industrialized countries is attainable.

  6. Lentil: the Bangladesh breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erskine, W.; Manners, G.

    1996-01-01

    Bangladesh has made great strides in food production. Recently it has achieved a worthwhile improvement in productivity of lentil—one of its most important crops. And ICARDA had a part to play. Lentil is the most important pulse in Bangladesh. It is the most popular pulse in both urban and rural areas, and rice with lentil soup (known as dhal) is often eaten in the villages; most people try to include it in their daily diet. So it is not surprising that Bangladesh is the world’s fourth largest lentil producer, exceeded only by India, Turkey and Canada—all of which have a far greater land area. The sown area of lentil in Bangladesh is about 210,000 ha, giving a production of 160,000 tonnes at an average yield of 769 t/ha. Even so, this is not enough. In 1994, according to FAO, Bangladesh imported 75,000 tonnes of pulses with a value of around US $19.8 million. This was high; the figure fluctuates, but there is an obvious need to improve production. This can not be done by increasing the sown area. In an intensive cropping pattern, lentil faces tough competition from cereals and oilseeds and from other winter pulses. Indeed, lentil is grown as a sole crop in Bangladesh but also as a mix or intercropped with cereals, oilseeds and sugarcane. Intercropping and mix-cropping are age-old practices, particularly in the north and north-western parts of the country. In this situation, an increase in production can come only from better yield

  7. Limit, breakthrough and prosperity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that the flow toward serious crises is in progress with regard to energy and industrial problems. Technical and industrial preparation and countermeasure to the flow are proposed, and the existence of a certain new world attainable on the assumption that the countermeasure is successful is described. The relation between oil output and the increasing demand for energy is pointed out as a subject matter of the crisis. The contribution of oil energy to total energy, after the output turns to decreasing process, decreases by 177.87x10 6 tons (converted to coal at the rate 6848 kcal/kg) per year at maximum. Converted to the GNP of the world, this becomes (425 dollar/ton x 177.87 x 10 6 ton=75.6 x 10 9 dollar). This fluctuation width in a year must be compensated by the change of industrial structure and energy supplying means. The countermeasure and preparation are proposed from the viewpoints of the energy and the industrial structure in which nuclear power generation plays important role. The largest production on the earth limited by energy consumption and the temperature balance on the earth is investigated, and the perspective in the future is given. (Yamamoto, Y.)

  8. Beta Cell Breakthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms Research & News Recipes & Food Recipe Finder The Healthy Kitchen What Can I Eat? Main Dishes Salads & Sandwiches Breakfast Snacks Sides Dessert I'm Hungry! Body & Mind Well-Being Fitness Weight Loss Blood Glucose & Medications ...

  9. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  10. Brainstorming for breakthrough thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-12-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be used in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses brainstorming as a viable innovation technique and goal-based change intervention.

  11. Magnetic resonance lung function – a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment? A phantom study and clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lung diseases are a major issue in public health. A serial pulmonary assessment using imaging techniques free of ionizing radiation and which provides early information on local function impairment would therefore be a considerably important development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a powerful tool for the static and dynamic imaging of many organs. Its application in lung imaging however, has been limited due to the low water content of the lung and the artefacts evident at air-tissue interfaces. Many attempts have been made to visualize local ventilation using the inhalation of hyperpolarized gases or gadolinium aerosol responding to MRI. None of these methods are applicable for broad clinical use as they require specific equipment. Methods We have shown previously that low-field MRI can be used for static imaging of the lung. Here we show that mathematical processing of data derived from serial MRI scans during the respiratory cycle produces good quality images of local ventilation without any contrast agent. A phantom study and investigations in 85 patients were performed. Results The phantom study proved our theoretical considerations. In 99 patient investigations good correlation (r = 0.8; p ≤ 0.001 was seen for pulmonary function tests and MR ventilation measurements. Small ventilation defects were visualized. Conclusion With this method, ventilation defects can be diagnosed long before any imaging or pulmonary function test will indicate disease. This surprisingly simple approach could easily be incorporated in clinical routine and may be a breakthrough for lung imaging and functional assessment.

  12. Relationship between onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction with fentanyl pectin nasal spray for breakthrough pain in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis M; Revnic, Julia; Knight, Alastair D; Perelman, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Satisfaction with pain relief in patients with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc) has typically been assessed by overall efficacy without consideration of the rapidity of that response. To determine the relationship between speed of onset of pain relief and patient satisfaction for treated BTPc episodes overall and for individual treatments. Pooled data from two randomized, double-blinded crossover studies. Patients having 1-4 BTPc episodes per day on ≥60 mg/day oral morphine or equivalent. Episodes treated with fentanyl pectin nasal spray (FPNS; 100-800 μg), immediate-release morphine sulfate (IRMS), or placebo. Pain intensity was measured on an 11-point scale (5-60 minutes posttreatment); satisfaction was measured on a 4-point scale (30 and 60 minutes). The primary analysis assessed the overall relationship of time to onset of pain relief (pain intensity difference [PID]≥1) or time to clinically meaningfully reduction in pain (PID≥2) versus patient satisfaction and overall pain intensity (summed pain intensity difference at 30 [SPID30] and 60 minutes [SPID60]) assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). A secondary analysis assessed whether satisfaction was different between treatments using a within-patient comparison. Eight hundred thirty-one FPNS-treated, 368 IRMS-treated, and 200 placebo-treated episodes were analyzed. Overall, within the pool there was a statistically significant relationship between time to onset of pain relief (PID≥1 and PID≥2) and patient satisfaction (both speed of relief and overall) at 30 and 60 minutes (ppain intensity reduction. When treatment groups were compared using within-patient data, FPNS provided earlier onset of pain relief than IRMS or placebo (ppain relief resulted in greater patient satisfaction and overall relief of pain; between-treatment comparisons showed that FPNS provided earlier pain relief and greater satisfaction than IRMS or placebo.

  13. Development, validation and psychometric properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breakthrough pain in mixed chronic-pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolsky Dekel, Boaz Gedaliahu; Remondini, Francesca; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita Maria

    2016-02-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) shows variable prevalence in different clinical contexts of cancer and non-cancer patients. BTP diagnostic tools with demonstrated reliability, validation and prognostic capability are lacking. We report the development, psychometric and validation properties of a diagnostic/prognostic tool, the IQ-BTP, for BTP recognition, its likelihood and clinical features among chronic-pain (CP) patients. n=120 consecutive mixed cancer/non-cancer CP in/outpatients. Development, psychometric analyses and formal validation included: Face/Content validity (by 'experts' opinion and assessing the relationship between the IQ-BTP classes and criteria derived from BTP operational-case-definition); Construct validity, by Principle Component Analysis (PCA); and the strength of Spearman correlation between IQ-BTP classes and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) items; Reliability, by Cronbach's alpha statistics. Associations with clinical/demographic moderators were assessed applying χ(2) analysis. Potential-BTP was found in 36.7% of patients (38.4% of non-cancer and 32.4% of cancer patients). Among these the likelihood for BTP diagnosis was 'high' in 25%, 'intermediate' in 41% and, 'low' 34% of patients. Analyses showed significant differences between IQ-BTP classes and between the latter BPI pain-item scores. Correlation between IQ-BTP classes and BPI items was moderate. PCA and scree test identified 3 components accounting for 62.3% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.71. The IQ-BTP showed satisfactory psychometric and validation properties. With adequate feasibility it enabled the allocating of cancer/non-cancer CP patients in three prognostic classes. Results are sufficient to warrant a subsequent impact study of the IQ-BTP as prognostic model and screening tool for BTP in both CP populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A breakthrough biosorbent in removing heavy metals: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism analyses in a lab-scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolali, Atefeh [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, Huu Hao, E-mail: h.ngo@uts.edu.au [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, Wenshan [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Lu, Shaoyong [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong [Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Xinbo [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Chengjian University, Jinjing Road 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wang, Jie; Wu, Yun [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-01-15

    A breakthrough biosorbent namely multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) made from a combination of tea wastes, maple leaves and mandarin peels, was prepared to evaluate their biosorptive potential for removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from multi-metal aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM were conducted, before and after biosorption, to explore the intensity and position of the available functional groups and changes in adsorbent surface morphology. Carboxylic, hydroxyl and amine groups were found to be the principal functional groups for the sorption of metals. MMBB exhibited best performance at pH 5.5 with maximum sorption capacities of 31.73, 41.06, 76.25 and 26.63 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models represented the kinetic experimental data in different initial metal concentrations very well. Among two-parameter adsorption isotherm models, the Langmuir equation gave a better fit of the equilibrium data. For Cu(II) and Zn(II), the Khan isotherm describes better biosorption conditions while for Cd(II) and Pb(II), the Sips model was found to provide the best correlation of the biosorption equilibrium data. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated feasible, spontaneous and exothermic biosorption process. Overall, this novel MMBB can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A novel multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) was studied. • The biosorption of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} on MMBB was evaluated. • Hydroxyl, carbonyl and amine groups are involved in metal binding of MMBB. • Equilibrium data were presented and the best fitting models were identified. • The obtained results recommend this MMBB as potentially low-cost biosorbent.

  15. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, Part 2: breakthrough curves in the validation drift appendices 5-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    Flowrate curves for the 53 sampling areas in the validation drift with measureable flowrates are given. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. The total flowrate for these three sampling areas is given in a separate plot. The flowrates are given in ml/h. The time is given in hours since April 27 00:00, 1990. Disturbances in flowrates are observed after 8500 hours due to opening of boreholes C1 and W1. Results from flowrate measurements after 8500 hours are therefore excluded. The tracer breakthrough curves for 38 sampling areas in the validation drift are given as concentration values versus time. The sampling area 267 is treated as three separate sampling areas; 267:1, 267:2 and 267:3. This gives a total of 40 breakthrough curves for each tracer. (au)

  16. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  17. Analysing the breakthrough of rock 'n' roll (1930-1970) Multi-regime interaction and reconfiguration in the multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Geels, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The breakthrough of rock 'n' roll was part of broader transformations in the American music industry, involving changes in music instruments, music recording technology, audiences, radio programming and music styles. These transformations will be analysed as sociotechnical transition, using the multi-level perspective. One characteristic of the case is interactions between multiple regimes: radio and recording. Another characteristic is the presence of strong cultural components, with rock 'n...

  18. Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system.

  19. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-01-15

    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  20. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-01-15

    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  1. The effectiveness of the motion picture association of America's rating system in screening explicit violence and sex in top-ranked movies from 1950 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G; Jamieson, Patrick E; Romer, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Youth exposure to explicit film violence and sex is linked to adverse health outcomes and is a serious public health concern. The Motion Picture Association of America's (MPAA's) rating system's effectiveness in reducing youth exposure to harmful content has been questioned. To determine the MPAA's rating system's effectiveness in screening explicit violence and sex since the system's initiation (1968) and the introduction of the PG-13 category (1984). Also, to examine evidence of less restrictive ratings over time ("ratings creep"). Top-grossing movies from 1950 to 2006 (N = 855) were coded for explicitness of violent and sexual content. Trends in rating assignments and in the content of different rating categories since 1968 were assessed. The explicitness of violent and sexual content significantly increased following the rating system's initiation. The system did not differentiate violent content as well as sexual content, and ratings creep was only evident for violent films. Explicit violence in R-rated films increased, while films that would previously have been rated R were increasingly assigned to PG-13. This pattern was not evident for sex; only R-rated films exhibited higher levels of explicit sex compared to preratings period. While relatively effective for screening explicit sex, the rating system has allowed increasingly violent content into PG-13 films, thereby increasing youth access to more harmful content. Assignment of films in the current rating system should be more sensitive to the link between violent media exposure and youth violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From golden rice to drought-tolerant maize and new techniques to control plant disease - can we expect a breakthrough in crop production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Komives

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This Minireview paper summarizes the views of the authors on the history and current status of golden rice – the highly promising concept of introducing new genes into existing rice strains to make them capable to accumulate beta carotene (the biochemical precursor of vitamin A in the grain. Based on the questionable success of genetically modified organisms to achieve a significant increase in food and feed production we speculate on the possibility of a breakthrough in this area via the latest discoveries in molecular biological techniques.

  3. German 2020 Energy Transition Index. Favourable trend, but no breakthrough; Energiewende-Index Deutschland 2020. Positive Tendenzen, aber noch keine Trendwende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas; Frunzetti, Katharina [McKinsey and Company, Duesseldorf (Germany); Peters, Michael [McKinsey and Company, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Introduced in autumn 2012 and updated twice a year since, the German 2020 Energy Transition Index (EWI) shows its first signs ever of a favourable trend. At last the indicators have got moving, even though one can hardly speak of a breakthrough yet. In spite of the positive trend, especially in regard to electricity consumption and the rate of newly installed offshore wind power capacity, the envisaged goals are still a long way off. This holds particularly for major indicators such as CO{sub 2} emissions and price levels of household and industrial electricity.

  4. Random walk-percolation-based modeling of two-phase flow in porous media: Breakthrough time and net to gross ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjeh-Ghazvini, Mostafa; Masihi, Mohsen; Ghaedi, Mojtaba

    2014-07-01

    Fluid flow modeling in porous media has many applications in waste treatment, hydrology and petroleum engineering. In any geological model, flow behavior is controlled by multiple properties. These properties must be known in advance of common flow simulations. When uncertainties are present, deterministic modeling often produces poor results. Percolation and Random Walk (RW) methods have recently been used in flow modeling. Their stochastic basis is useful in dealing with uncertainty problems. They are also useful in finding the relationship between porous media descriptions and flow behavior. This paper employs a simple methodology based on random walk and percolation techniques. The method is applied to a well-defined model reservoir in which the breakthrough time distributions are estimated. The results of this method and the conventional simulation are then compared. The effect of the net to gross ratio on the breakthrough time distribution is studied in terms of Shannon entropy. Use of the entropy plot allows one to assign the appropriate net to gross ratio to any porous medium.

  5. Neuroscience is awaiting for a breakthrough: an essay bridging the concepts of Descartes, Einstein, Heisenberg, Hebb and Hayek with the explanatory formulations in this special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Erol; Karakaş, Sirel

    2006-05-01

    The paper presents gedankenmodels which, based on the theories and models in the present special issue, describe the conditions for a breakthrough in brain sciences and neuroscience. The new model is based on contemporary findings which show that the brain and its cognitive processes show super-synchronization. Accordingly, understanding the brain/body-mind complex is possible only when these three are considered as a wholistic entity and not as discrete structures or functions. Such a breakthrough and the related perspectives to the brain/body-mind complex will involve a transition from the mechanistic Cartesian system to a nebulous Cartesian system, one that is basically characterized by parallel computing and is further parallel to quantum mechanics. This integrated outlook on the brain/body-mind, or dynamic functionality, will make the treatment of also the meta-cognitive processes and the greater part of the iceberg, the unconscious, possible. All this will be possible only through the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach that will bring together the knowledge and the technology of the four P's which consist of physics, physiology, psychology and philosophy. The genetic approach to the functional dynamics of the brain/body-mind, where the oscillatory responses were found to be laws of brain activity, is presented in this volume as one of the most recent perspectives of neuroscience.

  6. The market of smart grids in France and Europe. A technological breakthrough... a risk of overturning the energy value chain with the arrival of newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at giving a picture of the development of smart grids in France and in Europe and at assessing their growth potential, at assessing the challenges of this technological breakthrough for consumers and at identifying business opportunities for the actors of the sector, at imagining tomorrow's offer in energy efficiency, at comparing the position and strategies of the different actors (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC, etc.), and at anticipating the evolutions of the competition structure with the presence of newcomers possessing huge financial means such as Apple, Google or Microsoft. The report outlines the opportunities of development for smart grids and remaining obstacles, presents the European regulatory context, describes the current status of development of smart grids, presents several pan-European projects, proposes a focus on initiatives in France, gives an overview of the competition, and discusses the perspectives for the market by 2020

  7. A study of vaccine-induced immune pressure on breakthrough infections in the Phambili phase 2b HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M.; Magaret, C.A.; Rademeyer, C.; Fiore-Gartland, A.; Edlefsen, P.T.; DeCamp, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ngandu, N.; Larsen, B.B.; Frahm, N.; Marais, J.; Thebus, R.; Geraghty, D.; Hural, J.; Corey, L.; Kublin, J.; Gray, G.; McElrath, M.J.; Mullins, J.I.; Gilbert, P.B.; Williamson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. Materials and methods A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients. Vaccine coverage was estimated by computing the percentage of 9-mers that were exact matches to the vaccine insert. Results There was significantly greater protein distances from the vaccine immunogen sequence in Gag (p = 0.045) and Nef (p = 0.021) in viruses infecting vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. Twenty-seven putative sites of vaccine-induced pressure were identified (p sieve effect in Step was driven by HLA A*02:01; an allele which was found in low frequency in Phambili participants compared to Step participants. Furthermore, the coverage of the vaccine against subtype C Phambili viruses was 31%, 46% and 14% for Gag, Pol and Nef, respectively, compared to subtype B Step virus coverage of 56%, 61% and 26%, respectively. Discussion This study presents evidence of sieve effects in Gag and Nef; however could not confirm effects on specific amino acid sites. We propose that this weaker signal of vaccine immune pressure detected in the Phambili study compared to the Step study may have been influenced by differences in host genetics (HLA allele frequency) and reduced impact of vaccine-induced immune responses due to mismatch between the viral subtype in the vaccine and infecting subtypes. PMID:27756485

  8. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  9. Virtual Breakthrough Series, Part 1: Preventing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection and Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkoff, Lisa; Neily, Julia; King, Beth J; Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Krein, Sarah; Young-Xu, Yinong; Boar, Shoshana; Mills, Peter D

    2016-11-01

    In 2014 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented a Virtual Breakthrough Series (VBTS) collaborative to help VHA facilities prevent hospital-acquired conditions: catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs). During the prework phase, participating facilities assembled a multidisciplinary team, assessed their current system for CAUTI or HAPU prevention, and examined baseline data to set improvement aims. The action phase consisted of educational conference calls, coaching, and monthly team reports. Learning was conducted via phone, web-based options, and e-mail. The CAUTI bundle focused on four key principles: (1) avoidance of indwelling urinary catheters, (2) proper insertion technique, (3) proper catheter maintenance, and (4) timely removal of the indwelling catheter. The HAPU bundle focused on assessment and inspection, pressure-relieving surfaces, turning and repositioning, incontinence management, and nutrition/hydration assessment and intervention. For the 18 participating units, the mean aggregated CAUTI rate decreased from 2.37 during the prework phase to 1.06 per 1,000 catheter-days during the action (implementation) phase (p model for implementing a virtual model for improvement. Copyright 2016 The Joint Commission.

  10. Breakthrough Curve Analysis for Column Dynamics Sorption of Mn(II Ions from Wastewater by Using Mangostana garcinia Peel-Based Granular-Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Chowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of granular-activated carbon (GAC derived from agrowaste of Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit peel was investigated in batch and fixed bed system as a replacement of current expensive methods for treating wastewater contaminated by manganese, Mn(II cations. Batch equilibrium data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models at different temperatures. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, feed flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min, and activated carbon bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption system were determined. The adsorption data were fitted with well-established column models, namely, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart. The results were best-fitted with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models rather than Adams-Bohart model for all conditions. The column had been regenerated and reused consecutively for five cycles. The results demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Mn(II ions from wastewater using batch as well as fixed bed sorption system.

  11. Sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in HVTN 505 identifies vaccine pressure targeting the CD4 binding site of Env-gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCamp, Allan C; Rolland, Morgane; Edlefsen, Paul T; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Hall, Breana; Magaret, Craig A; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J; Juraska, Michal; Carpp, Lindsay N; Karuna, Shelly T; Bose, Meera; LePore, Steven; Miller, Shana; O'Sullivan, Annemarie; Poltavee, Kultida; Bai, Hongjun; Dommaraju, Kalpana; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Chen, Lennie; Ahmed, Hasan; Goodman, Derrick; Tay, Matthew Z; Gottardo, Raphael; Koup, Richard A; Bailer, Robert; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Roederer, Mario; O'Connell, Robert J; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Adams, Elizabeth; D'Souza, Patricia; Kublin, James; Corey, Lawrence; Geraghty, Daniel E; Frahm, Nicole; Tomaras, Georgia D; McElrath, M Juliana; Frenkel, Lisa; Styrchak, Sheila; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Kim, Jerome H; Mullins, James I; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120). Furthermore, Env-gp120 sequences from vaccine recipients were significantly more distant from the subtype B vaccine insert than sequences from placebo recipients (P = 0.01, Q-value = 0.12). These vaccine effects were associated with signatures mapping to CD4 binding site and CD4-induced monoclonal antibody footprints. These results suggest either (i) no vaccine efficacy to block acquisition of any viral genotype but vaccine-accelerated Env evolution post-acquisition; or (ii) vaccine efficacy against HIV-1s with Env sequences closest to the vaccine insert combined with increased acquisition due to other factors, potentially including the vaccine vector.

  12. Economical and Energy Efficiency of Iron and Steel Industry Reindustrialisation in Russia Based on Implementation of Breakthrough Energy-Saving Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates were given of economical and energy efficiency of breakthrough energy-saving technologies, which increase competitive advantages and provide energy efficiency of production while reducing negative impact on the environment through reduction of emissions of harmful substances and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among these technologies, preference is given to the following: pulverized coal fuel, blast-furnace gas recycling, gasification of non-coking coal in bubble-type gas-generators, iron-ore concentrate briquetting with steam coal with further use of ore-coal briquettes in electric furnace steel making. Implementation of these technologies at iron and steel works will significantly reduce the energy intensity of production through reduction of expensive coking coal consumption by means of their substitution by less expensive non-coking (steam) coal, and natural gas substitution by own secondary energy resource, which is the reducing gas. As the result, plants will get an opportunity to become self-sufficient in energy-resources and free themselves entirely from expensive purchased energy resources (natural gas, electric power, and partially coking coals), and cross over to low-carbon development.

  13. Xenon thermal behavior in sintered titanium nitride, foreseen inert matrix for GFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, R.

    2010-11-01

    This work concerns the generation IV future nuclear reactors such as gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) for which refractory materials as titanium nitride (TiN) are needed to surround fuel and act as a fission product diffusion barrier. This study is about Xe thermal behavior in sintered titanium nitride. Microstructure effects on Xe behavior have been studied. In this purpose, several syntheses have been performed using different sintering temperatures and initial powder compositions. Xenon species have been introduced into samples by ionic implantation. Then, samples were annealed in temperature range from 1300 C to 1600 C, these temperatures being the accidental awaited temperature. A transport of xenon towards sample surface has been observed. Transport rate seems to be slow down when increasing sintering temperature. The composition of initial powder and the crystallographic orientation of each considered grain also influence xenon thermal behavior. Xenon release has been correlated with material oxidation during annealing. Xenon bubbles were observed. Their size is proportional with xenon concentration and increases with annealing temperature. Several mechanisms which could explain Xe intragranular mobility in TiN are proposed. In addition with experiments, very low Xe solubility in TiN has been confirmed by ab initio calculations. So, bi-vacancies were found to be the most favoured Xe incorporation sites in this material. (author)

  14. Comparison between theoretical values foreseen and measured during the commissioning of second cycle of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelkorte, G.; Dias, A.M.; Sakai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the most important results of the comparison of the data measured during the start-up tests for the second cycle of Angra 1 with the calculated values for this cycle. This short comparison considered the following quantities: Critical boron concentration, Control rod worths, Isothermal temperature coefficient, Reaction rates of the incore detector system. The calculated results showed good agreement with the measured ones remaining within the acceptation criteria limits, confirming the fuel management calculations for the second cycle, namely that for the reload scheme obtained, the core is capable of operating at nominal power safety and without restrictions. (author) [pt

  15. Foreseen development of mining of lignite; Przewidywany rozwoj gornictwa wegla brunatnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Geo-engineering, Mining and Geology

    2004-07-01

    The future of activity in Poland's lignite sector will be determined by the demand for this fuel, which will in turn result from mining possibilities and economic competitiveness of the fuel in relation to other sources of electrical energy. The paper discusses all these factors and presents a framework programme for the development of Poland's lignite sector until 2040 (in detail) and further ahead to 2075, called the 'Agreement of manufacturers of lignite'. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Rapid learning: a breakthrough agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    A "rapid-learning health system" was proposed in a 2007 thematic issue of Health Affairs. The system was envisioned as one that uses evidence-based medicine to quickly determine the best possible treatments for patients. It does so by drawing on electronic health records and the power of big data to access large volumes of information from a variety of sources at high speed. The foundation for a rapid-learning health system was laid during 2007-13 by workshops, policy papers, large public investments in databases and research programs, and developing learning systems. Challenges now include implementing a new clinical research system with several hundred million patients, modernizing clinical trials and registries, devising and funding research on national priorities, and analyzing genetic and other factors that influence diseases and responses to treatment. Next steps also should aim to improve comparative effectiveness research; build on investments in health information technology to standardize handling of genetic information and support information exchange through apps and software modules; and develop new tools, data, and information for clinical decision support. Further advances will require commitment, leadership, and public-private and global collaboration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Tanzania's healthcare breakthrough | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-18

    Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...

  18. Metafusion: A breakthrough in metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adrian A.

    1994-01-01

    The Metafuse Process is a patented development in the field of thin film coatings utilizing cold fusion which results in a true inter-dispersion of dissimilar materials along a gradual transition gradient through a boundary of several hundred atomic layers. The process is performed at ambient temperatures and pressures requiring relatively little energy and creating little or no heat. The process permits a remarkable range of material combinations and joining of materials which are normally incompatible. Initial applications include titanium carbide into and onto the copper resistance welding electrodes and tungsten carbide onto the cutting edges of tool steel blades. The process is achieved through application of an RF signal of low power and is based on the theory of vacancy fusion.

  19. Sulfur impact on NO{sub x} storage, oxygen storage, and ammonia breakthrough during cyclic lean/rich operation of a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Partridge, William P.; Daw, C. Stuart [Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6472, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)

    2007-11-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop an improved understanding of how sulfur affects the spatiotemporal distribution of reactions and temperature inside a monolithic lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT). These spatiotemporal distributions are believed to be major factors in LNT function, and thus, we expect that a better understanding of these phenomena can benefit the design and operation of commercial LNTs. In our study, we experimentally evaluated a commercial LNT monolith installed in a bench-flow reactor with simulated engine exhaust. The reactor feed gas composition was cycled to simulate fast lean/rich LNT operation at 325 C, and spatiotemporal species and temperature profiles were monitored along the LNT axis at different sulfur loadings. Reactor outlet NO{sub x}, NO, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were also measured. Sulfur tended to accumulate in a plug-like fashion in the reactor and progressively inhibited NO{sub x} storage capacity along the axis. The NO{sub x} storage/reduction (NSR) reactions occurred over a relatively short portion of the reactor (NSR zone) under the conditions used in this study, and thus, net NO{sub x} conversion was only significantly reduced at high sulfur loading. Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) was poisoned by sulfur also in a progressive manner but to a lesser extent than the NO{sub x} storage capacity. Global selectivity for N{sub 2}O remained low at all sulfur loadings, but NH{sub 3} selectivity increased significantly with sulfur loading. We conjecture that NH{sub 3} breakthrough increased because of decreasing oxidation of NH{sub 3}, slipping from the NSR zone, by downstream stored oxygen. The NSR and oxygen storage/reduction (OSR) generated distinctive exotherms during the rich phase and at the rich/lean transition. Exotherm locations shifted downstream with sulfur accumulation in a manner that was consistent with the progressive poisoning of NSR and OSR sites. (author)

  20. Fentanyl Buccal Tablet: A New Breakthrough Pain Medication in Early Management of Severe Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, Lucia; Mura, Paolo; Schweiger, Vittorio; Vencato, Elisa; Quaglia, Francesca Maria; Delmonte, Letizia; Evangelista, Maurizio; Polati, Enrico; Olivieri, Oliviero; Finco, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a worldwide distributed hereditary red cell disorder. The principal clinical manifestations of SCD are the chronic hemolytic anemia and the acute vaso-occlusive crisis (VOCs), which are mainly characterized by ischemic/reperfusion tissue injury. Pain is the main symptom of VOCs, and its management is still a challenge for hematologists, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. We carried out a crossover study on adult SCD patients, who received two different types of multimodal analgesia during two separate severe VOCs with time interval between VOCs of at least 6 months. The first VOC episode was treated with ketorolac (0.86 mg/kg/day) and tramadol (7.2 mg/kg/day) (TK treatment). In the second VOC episode, fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT; 100 μg) was introduced in a single dose after three hours from the beginning of TK analgesia (TKF treatment). We focused on the first 24 hours of acute pain management. The primary efficacy measure was the time-weighted-sum of pain intensity differences (SPID24). The secondary efficacy measures included the pain intensity difference (PID), the total pain relief (TOTPAR), and the time-wighted sum of anxiety (SAID24). SPID24 was significantly higher in TKF than in TK treatment. All the secondary measures were significantly ameliorated in TKF compared to TK treatment, without major opioid side effects. Patients satisfaction was higher with TKF treatment than with TK one. We propose that VOCs might require breakthrough pain drug strategy as vaso-occlusive phenomena and enhanced vasoconstriction promoting acute ischemic pain component exacerbate the continuous pain of VOCs. FBT might be a powerful and feasible tool in early management of acute pain during VOCs in emergency departments. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Clinical effectiveness and safety of OROS® hydromorphone in break-through cancer pain treatment: a multicenter, prospective, open-label study in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Min Kyoung; Hyun, Myung Soo; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Keon Uk; Song, Hong Suk; Lee, Sun Ah; Lee, Won Sik; Bae, Sung Hwa; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Cho, Yoon Young

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of OROS® hydromorphone in reducing breakthrough pain (BTP) medication frequency in Korean patients with chronic cancer pain. Multicenter, prospective, open-label, phase IV study. Patients with chronic malignant pain using immediate-release oxycodone more than two times per day for BTP. Patients were stabilized on their ongoing drug for 3 days immediately before baseline measurements (day 0). Medication was changed to OROS® hydromorphone at a dose equianalgesic to oxycodone using a 2.5:1 controlled-release oxycodone to hydromorphone hydrochloride conversion ratio; the patients were observed for 7 days. Dose was titrated, if required, and the patients were observed for another 7 days. Effectiveness and safety parameters were measured at baseline, day 7, and day 14. BTP medication frequency on days 7 and 14, compared to baseline. Of the 141 patients screened, 114 received study drug and 98 completed the study. Compared to day 0, daily BTP medication frequency on day 14 decreased from 2.93 to 2.00 (p > 0.0001), daily BTP frequency decreased from 3.67 to 2.44 (p > 0.0001), and end-of-dose pain frequency decreased by 44 percent. Pain was controlled adequately during daytime and night-time. Pain intensity decreased by 11 percent as assessed using the Korean Brief Pain Inventory and by 17 percent as assessed using the numerical rating scale. About 61.2 percent patients and 60.2 percent physicians were satisfied with the treatment. Common adverse events, which occurred in 91.2 percent patients, were constipation, somnolence, and dizziness. Once-daily OROS® hydromorphone is efficient in the reduction of cancer pain-related BTP episodes, including end-of-dose pain.

  2. Roughness Versus Charge Contributions to Representative Discrete Heterogeneity Underlying Mechanistic Prediction of Colloid Attachment, Detachment and Breakthrough-Elution Behavior Under Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William; Farnsworth, Anna; Vanness, Kurt; Hilpert, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The key element of a mechanistic theory to predict colloid attachment in porous media under environmental conditions where colloid-collector repulsion exists (unfavorable conditions for attachment) is representation of the nano-scale surface heterogeneity (herein called discrete heterogeneity) that drives colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. The observed modes of colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions emerge from simulations that incorporate discrete heterogeneity. Quantitative prediction of attachment (and detachment) requires capturing the sizes, spatial frequencies, and other properties of roughness asperities and charge heterodomains in discrete heterogeneity representations of different surfaces. The fact that a given discrete heterogeneity representation will interact differently with different-sized colloids as well as different ionic strengths for a given sized colloid allows backing out representative discrete heterogeneity via comparison of simulations to experiments performed across a range of colloid size, solution IS, and fluid velocity. This has been achieved on unfavorable smooth surfaces yielding quantitative prediction of attachment, and qualitative prediction of detachment in response to ionic strength or flow perturbations. Extending this treatment to rough surfaces, and representing the contributions of nanoscale roughness as well as charge heterogeneity is a focus of this talk. Another focus of this talk is the upscaling the pore scale simulations to produce contrasting breakthrough-elution behaviors at the continuum (column) scale that are observed, for example, for different-sized colloids, or same-sized colloids under different ionic strength conditions. The outcome of mechanistic pore scale simulations incorporating discrete heterogeneity and subsequent upscaling is that temporal processes such as blocking and ripening will emerge organically from these simulations, since these processes fundamentally stem from the

  3. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  4. Breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP): a synthesis of taxonomy, pathogenesis, therapy, and good clinical practice in adult patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucco, Furio; Bonezzi, Cesare; Fornasari, Diego

    2014-07-01

    Pain presents in 80% of patients with advanced cancer, and 30% have periods of increased pain due to fluctuating intensity, known as breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). BTcP is high-intensity, short-duration pain occurring in several episodes per day and is non-responsive to treatment. The clinical approach to BTcP is variable. A review of the literature was performed to provide clinicians and practitioners with a rational synthesis of the ongoing scientific debate on BTcP and to provide a basis for optimal clinical approach to BTcP in adult Italian patients. Data show that circadian exacerbations of pain should be carefully monitored, differentiating, if possible, between fluctuations of background pain (BP), end-of-dose effect, and BTcP. BTcP should be monitored in all care contexts in clinical practice and each care facility must have all the medications and products approved for use in BTcP at their disposal. Data show that knowledge about medications for BTcP is lacking: medications for BTcP treatment are not interchangeable, although containing the same active substance; each physician must know the specific characteristics of each medication, its pharmacological properties, limitations in clinical practice, specifics relating to titration and repeatability of administration, and technical specifics relating to the accessibility and delivery. Importantly, before choosing a rapid-onset opioid (ROO), it is essential to deeply understand the status of patient and the characteristics of their family unit/caregivers, taking into account the patient's progressive loss of autonomy and/or cognitive-relational functionality. When BTcP therapy is initiated or changed, special attention must be paid to training the patient and family members/caregivers, providing clear instructions regarding the timing of drug administration. The patient must already be treated effectively with opioids before introducing ROOs for control of BTcP.

  5. Evaluation of sampling methods for measuring exposure to volatile inorganic acids in workplace air. Part 2: Sampling capacity and breakthrough tests for sodium carbonate-impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Martine; Oury, Véronique; Rousset, Davy

    2011-11-01

    In France, the MétroPol 009 method used to measure workplace exposure to inorganic acids, such as HF, HCl, and HNO3, consists of a closed-face cassette fitted with a prefilter to collect particles, and two sodium carbonate-impregnated filters to collect acid vapor. This method was compared with other European methods during the development of a three-part standard (ISO 21438) on the determination of inorganic acids in workplace air by ion chromatography. Results of this work, presented in a companion paper, led to a need to go deeper into the performance of the MétroPol 009 method regarding evaluation of the breakthrough of the acids, both alone and in mixtures, interference from particulate salts, the amount of sodium carbonate required to impregnate the sampling filter, the influence of sampler components, and so on. Results enabled improvements to be made to the sampling device with respect to the required amount of sodium carbonate to sample high HCl or HNO3 concentrations (500 μL of 5% Na2CO3 on each of two impregnated filters). In addition, a PVC-A filter used as a prefilter in a sampling device showed a propensity to retain HNO3 vapor so a PTFE filter was considered more suitable for use as a prefilter. Neither the material of the sampling cassette (polystyrene or polypropylene) nor the sampling flowrate (1 L/min or 2 L/min) influenced the performance of the sampling device, as a recovery of about 100% was achieved in all experiments for HNO3, HCl, and HF, as well as HNO3+HF and HNO3+HCl mixtures, over a wide range of concentrations. However, this work points to the possibility of interference between an acid and salts of other acids. For instance, interference can occur through interaction of HNO3 with chloride salts: the stronger the acid, the greater the interference. Methods based on impregnated filters are reliable for quantitative recovery of inorganic volatile acids in workplace atmosphere but are valuable only in the absence of interferents.

  6. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-04

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  7. Rigidity of the far-right? Motivated social cognition in a nationally representative sample of Hungarians on the eve of the far-right breakthrough in the 2010 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Szabó, Zsolt Péter; Kelemen, Laszlo

    2018-04-26

    We investigated the "rigidity of the right" hypothesis in the context of the far-right breakthrough in the 2010 Hungarian parliamentary elections. This hypothesis suggests that psychological characteristics having to do with need for security and certainty attract people to a broad-based right-wing ideology. A nationally representative sample (N = 1000) in terms of age, gender and place of residence was collected by means of the random walking method and face-to-face interviews. Voters of JOBBIK (n = 124), the radically nationalist conservative far-right party, scored lower on System Justifying Belief, Belief in a Just World (Global) and higher on Need for Cognition than other voters. Our results contradict the "rigidity of the right" hypothesis: JOBBIK voters scored, on many measures, opposite to what the hypothesis would predict. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Analysis of the two accelerator concepts foreseen for the neutral beam injector of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fubiani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical high-energy negative ion electrostatic accelerators such as the ones designed for fusion applications produce a significant amount of secondary particles. These particles may originate from coextracted electrons, which flow from the ion source, impacting the accelerator grids or as by-products of collisions between accelerated negative ions and the residual background gas, in the accelerator. Secondary emission particles may carry a non-negligible power and consequently must be precisely studied. The electrostatic-accelerator-Monte-Carlo-simulation code (EAMCC [G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 014202 (2008PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.014202] was developed in order to provide a three-dimensional characterization of power and current deposition on all parts of the accelerator. The code includes all the relevant physics associated with secondary emission processes and consequently may be used as a tool for design improvement. In this paper, the two accelerator designs considered for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, that is, the multiaperture-multigrid and the single gap single aperture (SINGAP designs, are discussed and their predicted performances compared. Simulations have been compared with measurements on prototype accelerators of the SINGAP type. Reasonable agreement between EAMCC calculations and measurements of backstreaming ions and transmitted electrons was found.

  9. The 2016-2017 central Italy coseismic surface ruptures and their meaning with respect to foreseen active fault systems segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, P. M.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.; Del Rio, L.; Cinti, F. R.; Pantosti, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016-2017 a series of moderate to large normal faulting earthquakes struck central Italy producing severe damage in many towns including Amatrice, Norcia and Visso and resulting in 299 casualties and >20,000 homeless. The complex seismic sequence depicts a multiple activation of the Mt. Vettore-Mt. Bove (VBFS) and the Laga Mts. fault systems, which were considered in literature as independent segments characterizing a recent seismic gap in the region comprised between two modern seismic sequences: the 1997-1998 Colfiorito and the 2009 L'Aquila. We mapped in detail the coseismic surface ruptures following three mainshocks (Mw 6.0 on 24th August, Mw 5.9 and Mw 6.5 on 26th and 30th October, 2016, respectively). Primary surface ruptures were observed and recorded for a total length of 5.2 km, ≅10 km and ≅25 km, respectively, along closely-spaced, parallel or subparallel, overlapping or step-like synthetic and antithetic fault splays of the activated fault systems, in some cases rupturing repeatedly the same location. Some coseismic ruptures were mapped also along the Norcia Fault System, paralleling the VBFS about 10 km westward. We recorded geometric and kinematic characteristics of the normal faulting ruptures with an unprecedented detail thanks to almost 11,000 oblique photographs taken from helicopter flights soon after the mainshocks, verified and integrated with field data (more than 7000 measurements). We analyze the along-strike coseismic slip and slip vectors distribution to be observed in the context of the geomorphic expression of the disrupted slopes and their depositional and erosive processes. Moreover, we constructed 1:10.000 scale geologic cross-sections based on updated maps, and we reconstructed the net offset distribution of the activated fault system to be compared with the morphologic throws and to test a cause-effect relationship between faulting and first-order landforms. We provide a reconstruction of the 2016 coseismic rupture pattern as representative of the VBFS behavior, a discussion on the fault system boundaries persistence, and on the significance of the repeated surface faulting at same location.

  10. Evolution of the feedback from experience on degradations of French nuclear power plants condensers and foreseen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayos, M.; Chanel, F.; Copin, E.; Carlier, L. [EDF/DIN/CEIDRE, Saint-Denis (France); Coquio, N.; Garbay, E. [EDF/DIN/CEIDRE, Avoine (France); Bastian, C. [EDF/DPN/UNIE, Saint-Denis (France)

    2011-07-01

    The materials constituting the condenser tubes of French nuclear power plants display a great diversity and are subject to different degradations, known from the operational feedback from experience. Copper alloys (mainly brass), which were bound to disappear in renovated condensers, are still significantly present, due to their unique bacteriostatic ability. Brass tubes lifetime is still governed in general by steady abrasion, as evaluated by eddy current nondestructive testing. However, an atypical NDE (non-destructive evaluation) behavior has led to spot a new damage: localized under-deposit pitting corrosion on the raw water side, caused by the particular quality of water chemistry and heavy scaling of the tube surface. This damage is likely to overcome steady abrasion for tube life prediction. Prevention includes a tighter look at NDE indications and improved descaling solutions (chemical or mechanical). Other specific damages have been reported from operation feedback: the main one was accidental stress corrosion cracking, which has occurred on some recently renovated brass condenser tube bundles. Thanks to a metallurgical and mechanical study, its cause was found in the manufacturing process. This experience has resulted in tightened specifications for brass tubes manufacturing. Stainless steel and titanium still appear more damage-resistant and represent a safe solution when no microorganism issue is present. The degradation feedback, confirmed by NDE inspections, is very low in French power plants. However, titanium hydriding still represents an issue when cathodic protection is present. Furthermore, some other damages have been reported on titanium, like isolated steam erosion. Vibration fatigue damage has been observed on stainless steel tubes, but it is more in relationship with the condenser design than with the material itself. (authors)

  11. Economical and geopolitical aspects bond to the foreseen development of the natural gas in an open market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    For the first time in 2000, the part of natural gas is equal to those of coal in the world energy accounting. The economy and the geo-policy of this developing energy is analyzed, showing an economy dominated by the transport costs, the specificity of the european sector and the opening market since 1980. The european market opening incertitudes and opportunities are detailed. In conclusion the Gaz De France role in the european energy pole and the new regulations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  12. [Inventive activity of the Departments of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine. Part II. National breakthrough in the study and diagnostics of human hemostasis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovska, N E

    2016-01-01

    The scientists of Protein Structure and Function, and Molecular Immunology Departments of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry (NAS of Ukraine) under the supervision of member of NASU and NAMSU, prof. S. V. Komisarenko and corresponding member of NASU prof. E. V. Lugovskoy have made the real breakthrough in the field of research of the mechanisms of fibrin polymerization and formation of fibrin framework of thrombi. The immunodiagnostic test-systems for the evaluation of the risk of thrombus formation were developed for the first time. Researches have obtained the monoclonal antibodies to fibrinogen, fibrin, D-dimer and their fragments. These monoclonal antibodies were used as molecular probes for the localization of newly detected fibrin polymerization sites. Obtained antibodies with high affinity interact with fibrinogen, D-dimer and soluble fibrin – main markers of the risk of thrombus formation. They were used for the development of the immunodiagnostic test-systems to quantify these markers in human blood plasma for the evaluation of the state of haemostasis system, detection of prethrombotic states, disseminated intravascular coagulation, detection of thrombosis and monitoring of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic therapy. The successful trial of developed test-systems was carried out in clinics of Ukraine, and the State registration was obtained for the implementation of them into the clinical practice. Presented works were awarded State prize of Ukraine in Science and technology.

  13. Quantum revolution. [Vol.] 1: the breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The story of the birth of quantum mechanics is narrated. The story is brought up to the early thirties covering evolution of quantum mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation followed by the crisis of infinities. The book is written in a simple chatty style. The objective is to stimulate the curiosity of the layman. (M.G.B.)

  14. Millennium breakthrough : North goes west / Ivar Leimus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leimus, Ivar, 1953-

    2009-01-01

    Kaubandusest Kasaari ja Volga-Bulgari riigi keskustes. Saksa idamisjonist ja Põhjala misjonist. Ebaõnnestunud misjonist Kiievi-Venes. Inglise misjonist Rootsis ja Taanis. Seosest misjonitegevuse ja mündiekspordi lähtealade vahel. Euroopa orientatsioonile üleminekust paar sajandit enne Eesti vägivaldset hõivamist

  15. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

  16. Wind power: breakthrough to global dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrighs, W.

    1996-01-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the start of wind-turbine manufacture. Soon it had become a booming industrial sector, thanks mainly to the spirit of some young entrepreneurs and political support in many countries. But the wind-power market has assumed global dimensions and major structural changes have to be faced. (author)

  17. Alzheimer Disease: Scientific Breakthroughs and Translational Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Richard J; Beach, Thomas G; Knopman, David S; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) was originally conceived as a rare disease that caused presenile dementia but has come to be understood as the most prevalent cause of dementia at any age worldwide. It has an extended preclinical phase characterized by sequential changes in imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers with subtle memory decline beginning more than a decade before the emergence of symptomatic memory loss heralding the beginning of the mild cognitive impairment stage. The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is a prevalent and potent risk factor for AD that has facilitated research into its preclinical phase. Cerebral Aβ levels build from preclinical through early dementia stages followed by hyperphosphorylated tau-related pathology, the latter driving cognitive deficits and dementia severity. Structural and molecular imaging can now recapitulate the neuropathology of AD antemortem. Autosomal dominant forms of early-onset familial AD gave rise to the amyloid hypothesis of AD, which, in turn, has led to therapeutic trials of immunotherapy designed to clear cerebral amyloid, but to date results have been disappointing. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple additional risk factors, but to date none have yielded an effective alternate therapeutic target. Current and future trials aimed at presymptomatic individuals either harboring cerebral amyloid or at genetically high risk offer the hope that earlier intervention might yet succeed where trials in patients with established dementia have failed. A major looming challenge will be that of expensive, incompletely effective disease-modifying therapy: who and when to treat, and how to pay for it. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Major breakthrough in personal dust protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2004-09-15

    With new studies highlighting one in every 20 miners developing 'black lung', USA labour, industry and government have joined forces to develop a solution. The rapid advance in Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) technology is a perfect example. The article reports a PDM, which is developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, working in the partnership with the United Mine Workers of America, the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and the National Mining Association.

  19. From "breakthrough" to "episodic" Cancer Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhre, Erik Torbjørn; Klepstad, Pål; Bennett, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    consensus on definitions, terminology, and subclassification of transient cancer pain exacerbations. Methods The most frequent authors on BTCP literature were identified using the same search strategy as in a systematic review and invited to participate in a two-round Delphi survey. Topics with a low degree...

  20. Mirabegron, a breakthrough in overactive bladder syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Maestro Nombela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overactive bladder syndrome is a condition with high prevalence, which has a negative impact on patients’ quality of life. A drug with a novel mechanism of action has been recently approved: mirabegron. The objective of this study is to review the scientific evidence available on mirabegron, with the aim to analyze its efficacy, safety and cost, and thus estimate its role within current pharmacotherapy. Methods: The effectiveness and safety of mirabegron were analyzed through an evaluation of scientific evidence. The cost of different pharmacological alternatives was calculated based on their Defined Daily Dose (DDD and their manufacturer’s sale price. Results: The use of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome is supported by three randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, at 12 weeks. All three share the same primary efficacy variables (number of incontinence episodes per 24 hours and number of micturitions per 24 hours. Long-term efficacy data are based on a 12-month study, where efficacy outcomes were measured as secondary variables. In all studies, mirabegron showed a significant but modest effect. Some of the most frequently detected adverse effects were: hypertension, increase of glucose in blood, headache, urinary tract infections, constipation and tachycardia. Special attention must be paid to cardiovascular events. Conclusions: The clinical efficacy of mirabegron is very modest and comparable to that achieved with the other drugs approved for this indication. Moreover, it is more expensive than other therapeutic options. Cardiac risks and urinary infections only allow to consider it as an alternative option to anticholinergic drugs, when these are contraindicated, show no clinical efficacy, or cause unacceptable adverse effects.

  1. BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR Areas to Watch

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A smashing start? Next summer, physicists will start up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European particle physics lab, CERN, outside Geneva, Switzerland. Researchers hope this highest-energy collider will reveal plenty of new particles and puzzles, but the immediate question is how fast will it come on?

  2. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing field of immunotherapy was one of the topics extensively discussed during the recently concluded ESMO Asia Congress 2016, held from December 16– 19th December at the Suntec Convention and Exhibition Centre in Singapore. Unlike drug-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy exploits the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and is increasingly touted as the future of cancer treatment. The concept of using the immune system as a disease-fighting tool was introduced by Dr. William Bradley Coley, the ‘Father of Cancer Immunotherapy’, in the 19th century based on his work that sought to stimulate a patient’s own immune system against bacterial infection. However, a persistent question remains since the advent of immunotherapy over a century ago – can the immune system accurately recognize malignant tumor and eliminate it effectively? The answer to this question remains hotly debated owing to the differing opinions and attitudes on the application of immunotherapy. Dr. Coley noticed that in a number of cases, patients with cancer went into spontaneous remission after developing erysipelas. In 1891, Dr. Coley injected streptococcal organisms (which cause erysipelas into a patient with inoperable cancer and observed remarkable tumor regression. Although he had treated almost 900 patients with bacterial preparations that eventually became known as “Coley’s toxins”, his treatment method was not widely accepted by the medical community possibly owing to the low cure rates and the severe fever caused by the bacteria. Some physicians also feared that the immune system might not have adapted well enough to recognize and eliminate malignant cells exclusively. As a consequence, most oncologists relied on another treatment that was rapidly gaining acceptance at that time, i.e. radiation. It was only after about a century later that the medical community observed a revived interest in immunotherapy. In 1976, a trial was conducted to test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than a mixed population. The clinical benefit of the fixed dose of pembrolizumab in the first and second line treatment of recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer is being evaluated head-to-head with standard of care chemotherapy in phase 3 trials around the world, including Asia Pacific.” Meanwhile, another research paper on immunotherapy presented at the ESMO Asia 2016 was by Dr. Herbert Loong, Clinical Assistant Professor at the Department of Clinical Oncology of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, who discussed about the cost-effectiveness of immunotherapy with pembrolizumab for advanced melanoma patients in Hong Kong. Dr. Loong said, “We have determined that whilst pembrolizumab is expensive, the increase in quality adjusted life years (QALYs compared with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, and even so with ipilimumab, qualifies it as a cost-effective approach.” Commenting on the results of the research by Dr. Loong and his colleagues, Dr. Mark Tang – a senior consultant dermatologist said, “Given the high costs of these new treatment options, cost effectiveness studies such as this one are timely and useful as further evidence for the use of pembrolizumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma. This is particularly important in an Asian context where, although rare, acral melanoma has unfortunately been known to present late advanced disease.” Taking all these exciting discoveries into account, a good number of studies have repeatedly shown that progress in cancer immunotherapy has accelerated and resulted in the development of several effective and promising therapies for multiple forms of cancer. At this critical juncture, oncological organizations such as ESMO provide an important knowledge transfer platform for the sharing of expertise and interaction between regional and international experts in the area of onco-immunology. Moving forward, immunotherapy and targeted medicine are expected to remain in the spotlight and will be an indispensable arsenal in the long fight against cancer.

  3. Breakthrough to Optimized Pulsed Plasma Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    ...) by using propellants other than the traditionally used Teflon. A theoretical and experimental effort was initiated at The Ohio State University to investigate the use of alternative propellants for PPT...

  4. Social Breakthrough to Global Collective Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo C. Michelini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper look at the fancy build-up of our planned constructions, conventionally assessing on-the-go progress. The survey covers the tricky cross-links of ‹collective orders› and acknowledged ‹rationality›, viz., reverence and dependence assigned to mind objects expressing culture and ethics. Our relationship with the external world is, then, shortly tacked, because we need some sort of certainty about the ‹real› consistency of what is perceived, to trust in planned improvements. Afterword, the analysis moves to ‹intelligence› enabled processes, with especial focus on political cohesion rules, necessary foundation of the organised effectiveness. Last, the conditional framework of the human progress continuance is sketched, mentioning the existing economy globalisation drawbacks, to enlighten the requirements imposed by the impending ecology globalisation. The topics repeat known facts, only, perhaps, assembled by unusual construal.

  5. The latest Light Robotics breakthroughs - Postdeadline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew

    Contemporary nanoscopy provides functionalities, not only for observing life science on the smallest scales but also for actively reaching into and manipulating at subcellular levels. This post-deadline contribution describes the latest generation of 3D-printed micro-tools for enabling light-acti......-activated robotics on sub-diffraction scales: Light Robotics....

  6. Design breakthrough in roof support systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The technical experts of the Mining Services sections of Monier Resources Australia have designed and developed a superior roof system for installation in underground mines. The Monier Big Bag Grout Chock is a patented system utilising pumped grout. The advantages of grout chocks over conventional timber chocks are many and varied.

  7. Breakthrough Energy Savings with Waterjet Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee W. Saperstein; R. Larry Grayson; David A. Summers; Jorge Garcia-Joo; Greg Sutton; Mike Woodward; T.P. McNulty

    2007-05-15

    Experiments performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla's Waterjet Laboratory have demonstrated clearly the ability of waterjets to disaggregate, in a single step, four different mineral ores, including ores containing iron, lead and copper products. The study focused mainly on galena-bearing dolomite, a lead ore, and compared the new technology with that of traditional mining and milling to liberate the valuable constituent for the more voluminous host rock. The technical term for the disintegration of the ore to achieve this liberation is comminution. The potential for energy savings if this process can be improved, is immense. Further, if this separation can be made at the mining face, then the potential energy savings include avoidance of transportation (haulage and hoisting) costs to move, process and store this waste at the surface. The waste can, instead, be disposed into the available cavities within the mine. The savings also include the elimination of the comminution, crushing and grinding, stages in the processing plant. Future prototype developments are intended to determine if high-pressure waterjet mining and processing can be optimized to become cheaper than traditional fragmentation by drilling and blasting and to optimize the separation process. The basic new mining process was illustrated in tests on two local rock types, a low-strength sandstone with hematite inclusions, and a medium to high-strength dolomite commonly used for construction materials. Illustrative testing of liberation of minerals, utilized a lead-bearing dolomite, and included a parametric study of the optimal conditions needed to create a size distribution considered best for separation. The target goal was to have 50 percent of the mined material finer than 100 mesh (149 microns). Of the 21 tests that were run, five clearly achieved the target. The samples were obtained as run-of-mine lumps of ore, which exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity within the samples. This, in turn, reduced the ability to apply detailed statistical tests to the product outcomes. Nonetheless, a regression analysis showed that operating pressures between 105 (10,000psi) and 140 (15,000psi) MegaPascals (MPa) at traverse speeds no greater than 10 cm/min (4 in/min), best generated the target result. Variation in other parameters, rotation speed, nozzle diameter, and nozzle separation angle, during the preliminary tests did not substantially change the product, and so were kept fixed during the ore mining tests. The experimental protocols were developed to include proper treatment of the lead-bearing materials, which may be considered hazardous. In anticipation of the creation of a mineral processing design for separation of the concentrates from the tailings (waste), assays were made of the metal content of each screen size for each of the 21 runs; with three screens and a pan for undersize, to give a total of 84 assays. This information will enable Dr. McNulty, project consultant, to create a flow sheet for the prototype mining machine. As a preliminary component to such a system, the experimental layout included a product-recovery system that delivered all of the fragmented product to the nest of screens which allowed study of the liberation at the different size levels. Where incomplete liberation is found, a secondary process was demonstrated for using pressurized cavitation to further comminute the material. This concept was successfully demonstrated, with a small cavitation chamber illustrating the much smaller space that such a tool requires, relative to conventional ball and rod mills. Additional testing is ongoing, external to this program, to find whether an one-step process using higher jet pressures and longer dwell times to achieve all the required comminution in mining, is more efficient than a two-step process in which normal jet pressures and feed rates do the initial mining, but full particle liberation is achieved only through secondary processing of the product in a cavitation chamber. Subsequent testing is also planned, to determine preferred methods for separating ore minerals from the waste. Tests with this system have included both the galena samples, and copper ores from Poland. The development of this tool lies within an expanding market for the use of high-pressure waterjet equipment across a broad spectrum of applications. As the industry develops new tools, it is anticipated that the research team will investigate the development of a prototype machine based on these tools, since this will simplify and speed up equipment development. It is hoped that once this is developed that can be taken into an active mine. Such a machine should be able to produce large enough samples to allow assessment of optimal operating conditions.

  8. Breakthrough in Understanding Radiation Growth of Zirconiu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Barashev, Alexander V [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Singh, Bachu [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark

    2014-01-01

    The efforts of many scientists for more than a half of a century have resulted in a substantial understanding of the response of Zr-based materials to irradiation. However, the models of radiation growth proposed to date have not played a decisive role in creating radiation-resistant materials and cannot predict strain rates at high irradiation doses. The main reason for this is the common assumption that, regardless of the incident particle mass and energy, the primary damage consists of single vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), both diffusing three-dimensionally. Thus, the models ignore the distinguishing features of the damage production in displacement cascades during fastparticle, e.g., neutron, irradiation; namely, the intra-cascade clustering of vacancies and SIAs and one-dimensional diffusion of SIA clusters. Over the last twenty years or so, the production bias model (PBM) has been developed, which accounts for these features and explains many observations in cubic crystals. The cascades in hcp crystals are found to be similar to those in cubic crystals; hence one can expect that the PBM will provide a realistic framework for the hcp metals as well. It is shown in this paper that it reproduces all the growth stages observed in annealed materials under neutron irradiation, such as the high strain rate at low, strain saturation at intermediate, and breakaway growth at relatively high doses. It accounts for the striking observations of negative strains in prismatic directions and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops, which have never been explained before. It reveals the role of cold work in the radiation growth behavior and the reasons for the alignment of basal vacancy-type loops along the basal planes. The critical parameters determining the high-dose behavior are revealed and the maximum growth rate is estimated.

  9. Channelrhodopsins provide a breakthrough insight into strategies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... order or purpose, e.g. for transient or long-term gene ex- pression according to the ..... tion of vision. In the near future, channelrhodopsins might ... Japanese Retinitis Pigmentosa Society; and Suzuken Memorial. Foundation.

  10. Designing for sustainability : Breakthrough or suboptimisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Pargman, Daniel; Ahlsén, Edvard; Engelbert, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Technological developments in screen technologies pitches the thinner, brighter and energy-stingy OLED screen as a possible replacement for today’s television, computer and smartphone LCD screens. An OLED screen does not consume any energy at all when it displays the color black, but the potentially large energy savings can unfortunately evaporate and instead turn to losses when white is displayed. There is thus a mismatch between on the one hand the energy profiles of OLED screens and on the...

  11. Developing technology pushed breakthroughs: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Sarja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a technology push product that brings real novelty to the market is difficult, risky and costly. This case study analyzes success factors defined by the literature. True industrial cases, representing Finnish ICT firms in their early phase after a successful market entry, were researched for the success factor analysis. The whole set of the previously introduced success factors were variably supported, and three new factors arose. Because the technology pushed development processes are risky with high failure rates, the validated success factors are valuable knowledge for the developments intensive firm’s management.

  12. Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of personal creativity in today's business environment, few conceptual creativity frameworks have been presented in the marketing education literature. The purpose of this article is to advance the integration of creativity instruction into marketing classrooms by presenting an applied creative marketing…

  13. Information and Announcements The Breakthrough Prize

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  14. Activity based costing the performance breakthrough

    CERN Document Server

    Turney, Peter B B

    1996-01-01

    Activity-based costing is a method of measuring the cost and performance of activities, products and customers. It is increasingly being seen as a more accurate method of costing than conventional costing systems, which are being superseded by the fact that automation means that direct material and labour consumption is now a far less accurate means of apportioning overheads. This practical book outlines why conventional cost systems fail, before going on to cover the advantages of activity-based costing, and describing how to put the system in place successfully, and how to apply the lessons learnt quickly. The book takes the reader step-by-step through the various processes involved, from setting up the system, through its operation, to evaluation of the results.

  15. Simulation of experimental breakthrough curves using multiprocess ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transport of contaminant through porous media is a very complex ... Elzein & Booker (1999) presented boundary element method to solve ... Because of minimum flow through immobile region, it is behaving as a dis- ..... before performing the experiments to measure the concentration of free chloride and fluoride.

  16. Nanopesticides, a real breakthrough for agriculture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza Cantú, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of agriculture in the world has provoked, amongst others, the increase in the use of chemical substances for plague control. Scientific advances have shown that nanomaterials have innovative properties that can be used in the development of a new generation of substances that have been called nanopesticides. Through processes of nanoemulsion preparation, polymer addition to create nanocapsules, or the simple use of metallic nanostructures, the efficiency in the application and biological efficacy of chemical methods for plague control, in comparison to conventional ones, has been improved. By performing an analysis of the possible applications and use advantages, and the possible risks to health and the environment, it is concluded that doubt and existing limitations in current knowledge on the exposure and effects in organisms, including the human being, are wide.

  17. Procedural Pain in Palliative Care: Is It Breakthrough Pain? A Multicenter National Prospective Study to Assess Prevalence, Intensity, and Treatment of Procedure-related Pain in Patients With Advanced Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Caterina; Giannarelli, Diana; Casale, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP) provoked by 6 common procedures in patients with advanced disease. A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, national study was performed in 23 palliative care units in Italy. Patients were recruited if they were undergoing one of the following procedures as part of normal care: turning, personal hygiene care, transfer from bed to chair, bladder catheterization, pressure ulcer care, and subcutaneous drug administration. The Numerical Rating Scale was used to measure pain intensity before, during, and after the procedure. One thousand seventy-nine eligible patients were enrolled: 49.7% were male and their mean age was 78.0±11.2 years. Of all patients, 20.9% had experienced a BTP episode within the 24 hours before recruitment. The overall prevalence of procedure-induced BTP was 11.8%, and the mean intensity score (Numeric Rating Scale) was 4.72±1.81. Notably, patients experienced a significant increase in pain intensity during all procedures (Ppatients (12.7%) received analgesics before undergoing any of the procedures, and almost none (1.7%) received analgesics during the procedures to alleviate acute pain. Our findings highlight that simple daily care procedures can lead to BTP among patients with advanced disease. Because such procedures are performed very often during palliative care, more individualized attention to procedural pain control is necessary. Additional research on procedural pain in patients with advanced disease should be encouraged to provide further evidence-based guidance on the use of the available medication for predictable pain flares.

  18. Curvas de distribuição de efluentes do íon nitrato em amostras de solo deformadas e indeformadas Breakthrough curves of nitrate ion using deformed and non deformed soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rossi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à grande importância em se avaliar o destino e o transporte de íons no solo, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de obter os parâmetros de transporte do nitrato no solo, como a velocidade da água nos poros (v, o fator de retardamento (R, a dispersividade (lambda e o coeficiente de dispersão (D, em solos de diferentes texturas e em amostras deformadas e indeformadas. O ensaio foi conduzido empregando as amostras deformadas e indeformadas oriundas de dois perfis distintos de solos, coletadas à profundidade de 0-20 cm, com aplicação de solução de nitrato de cálcio contendo 50 mg L-1 de NO3-. Após a obtenção dos parâmetros de transporte, ajustados pelo programa computacional CXTFIT, notou-se que as curvas de efluentes preparadas com solos a partir de amostra deformada superestimaram os valores dos parâmetros avaliados, com exceção da dispersividade, quando comparados à amostra indeformada, para os dois tipos de solo.There is a great importance to quantify the trace and the chemical elements transport in soil. This work had as objective to obtain the transport parameters of the nitrate ion in soil (pore water velocity (v, retardation factor (R, dispersivity (lambda and the dispersion coefficient (D in different textures soils, mainly, under different sampling forms (deformed and non deformed. The research was carried out under two samplings forms, mentioned previously, by application of 50 mg L-1 of NO3- in two different soils profiles at a depth of 0-20 cm. The breakthrough curves was made by two forms: traditional methodology (TFSA and the technique with non deformed sample developed during the research period. The results showed that the transport parameters fitted by the computational program CXTFIT, with deformed sampling, overestimated the parameters values, with exception of dispersivity, when compared to the non deformed sampling, for both soil types.

  19. A breakthrough in antibody-drug conjugates in anti-immune rejection%抗免疫排斥反应中抗体药物偶联物的突破性进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩龙; 莽源祎; 张雷

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The immunological rejection between host and graft is the leading cause of organ transplantation failure. The traditional immunosuppressive agents have been unable to meet the needs of clinical treatment. Antibody-drug conjugate, as a type of new drugs, may be hope for the treatment of immune rejection. OBJECTIVE:To comprehensively analyze the composition of antibody-drug conjugates, mechanism of action, clinical research progress as wel as the development trend. METHODS:A computer-based online retrieval was performed to search papers in CNKI and PubMed database using the key words of ADCs, immunosuppressive agents, immunotoxins, organ transplantation, graft rejection in Chinese and English. Recently published or published in the prestigious journals were selected in the same field. After excluding objective-independent papers and repeated studies, 42 papers were included for further analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Antibody-drug conjugates, as highly effective and lowly toxic immunosuppressant, have achieved a breakthrough in treatment of targeting tumor, while the role of it in anti-immune rejection is stil at the exploratory stage. For islet transplantation, novel antibody-drug conjugates are required to block CD8+T effector by CD103/E-Cadherin pathway, and wil probably serve as a potential drug intervention for al ograft rejection.%背景:宿主与移植物间的免疫排斥反应是器官移植失败的主要原因之一,传统的免疫抑制剂已无法满足临床治疗的需求,抗体药物偶联物作为一类新型药物,可能为免疫排斥反应的治疗带来希望。  目的:综合分析抗体药物偶联物的构成、作用机制、临床研究进展以及未来的发展趋势。  方法:以“抗体药物偶联物、免疫抑制剂、免疫毒素、器官移植、移植物排斥”,“ADCs,immunosuppressive agents,immunotoxins,organ transplantation,graft rejection”为检索

  20. Increasing retention in care of HIV-positive women in PMTCT services through continuous quality improvement-breakthrough (CQI-BTS) series in primary and secondary health care facilities in Nigeria: a cluster randomized controlled trial. The Lafiyan Jikin Mata Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeledun, Bolanle; Oronsaye, Frank; Oyelade, Taiwo; Becquet, Renaud; Odoh, Deborah; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Ogirima, Francis; Ameh, Bernice; Ajibola, Abiola; Osibo, Bamidele; Imarhiagbe, Collins; Abutu, Inedu

    2014-11-01

    Rates of retention in care of HIV-positive pregnant women in care programs in Nigeria remain generally poor with rates around 40% reported for specific programs. Poor quality of services in health facilities and long waiting times are among the critical factors militating against retention of these women in care. The aim of the interventions in this study is to assess whether a continuous quality improvement intervention using a Breakthrough Series approach in local district hospitals and primary health care clinics will lead to improved retention of HIV-positive women and mothers. A cluster randomized controlled trial with 32 health facilities randomized to receive a continuous quality improvement/Breakthrough Series intervention or not. The care protocol for HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers is the same in all sites. The quality improvement intervention started 4 months before enrollment of individual HIV-infected pregnant women and initially focused on reducing waiting times for women and also ensuring that antiretroviral drugs are dispensed on the same day as clinic attendance. The primary outcome measure is retention of HIV-positive mothers in care at 6 months postpartum. Results of this trial will inform whether quality improvement interventions are an effective means of improving retention in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programs and will also guide where health system interventions should focus to improve the quality of care for HIV-positive women. This will benefit policymakers and program managers as they seek to improve retention rates in HIV care programs.

  1. PERFORM 60 - Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.leclercq@edf.f [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Lidbury, David [SERCO Assurance - Walton House, 404 Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Van Dyck, Steven [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Material Science, Boeretang 200, BE, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Moinereau, Dominique [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France); Alamo, Ana [CEA Saclay, DEN/DSOE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mazouzi, Abdou Al [EDF R and D, Materials and Mechanics of Components, Avenue des Renardieres - Ecuelles, 77818 Moret sur Loing Cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, materials may undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and the potential degradations of some essential structures of the power plant to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. So far, the material databases needed to take account of these degradations in the design and safe operation of installations mainly rely on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. A first step towards this goal has been successfully reached through the development of the RPV-2 and Toughness Module numerical tools by the scientific community created around the FP6 PERFECT project. These tools allow to simulate irradiation effects on the constitutive behaviour of the reactor pressure vessel low alloy steel, and also on its failure properties. Relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the 4 years Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop multi-scale tools aimed at predicting the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals (austenitic stainless steels) and also to improve existing ones on RPV (bainitic steels). PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects: (i) RPV and (ii) internals. In addition to these technical sub-projects, the Users' Group and Training sub-project shall allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations... from Europe, USA and Japan to receive the information and training to get their own appraisal on limits and potentialities of the developed tools. An important effort will also be made to teach young researchers in the field of materials' degradation. PERFORM 60 has officially started on March 1st, 2009 with 20 European organizations and Universities involved in the nuclear field.

  2. The main fiscal dispositions in the domain of energy and mineral raw materials as foreseen by the 2005 finances law and by the last 2004 amended law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This short paper summarizes in tables the main changes made in the 2005 French finances law and in the 2004 amended law about: the domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP), the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP), the bio-fuel production units, the tax credits for the implementation of renewable energies in dwellings, the domestic tax on natural gas consumptions (TICGN) for greenhouse owners, the European harmonization of the added-value tax (TVA), the taxes on companies (IS), and the electric utility charges (CSPE). (J.S.)

  3. PERFORM 60 - Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sylvain; Lidbury, David; Van Dyck, Steven; Moinereau, Dominique; Alamo, Ana; Mazouzi, Abdou Al

    2010-11-01

    In nuclear power plants, materials may undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational life. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and the potential degradations of some essential structures of the power plant to ensure safe and reliable plant operation. So far, the material databases needed to take account of these degradations in the design and safe operation of installations mainly rely on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and continuous progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure. A first step towards this goal has been successfully reached through the development of the RPV-2 and Toughness Module numerical tools by the scientific community created around the FP6 PERFECT project. These tools allow to simulate irradiation effects on the constitutive behaviour of the reactor pressure vessel low alloy steel, and also on its failure properties. Relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the 4 years Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop multi-scale tools aimed at predicting the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals (austenitic stainless steels) and also to improve existing ones on RPV (bainitic steels). PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects: (i) RPV and (ii) internals. In addition to these technical sub-projects, the Users' Group and Training sub-project shall allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations… from Europe, USA and Japan to receive the information and training to get their own appraisal on limits and potentialities of the developed tools. An important effort will also be made to teach young researchers in the field of materials' degradation. PERFORM 60 has officially started on March 1st, 2009 with 20 European organizations and Universities involved in the nuclear field.

  4. Report on the obligation to make a greenhouse gas emission assessment as foreseen in article 26 of the 'National Commitment for Environment' project bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the measures defined in articles 23 and 26 of the 'National Commitment for the Environment' project bill after it has been voted by the French Senate, this report explains why companies, public institutions and local communities are asked to assess their greenhouse gas emissions. The aim is to mobilise the main French actors on the emission reduction objectives, to decentralize the measures adopted in the 'Grenelle 1' bill, to define specific objectives for companies, public institutions and local communities. In its second part, the report proposes an overview of the current situation in terms of emission assessment (main international systems of reference, methods and tools, scopes). Recommendations are formulated to perform such an assessment

  5. Main fiscal dispositions in the domains of energy and mineral raw materials as foreseen by the 2002 finances law and by the last corrigendum law for 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This short document summarizes the main changes for 2002 in the French fiscal measures (tax credits, amortization, tariffs, recovery etc..) relative to the petroleum products, the renewable energies, the energy conservation and the alternative vehicles. (J.S.)

  6. PERFORM 60: Prediction of the effects of radiation for reactor pressure vessel and in-core materials using multi-scale modelling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mazouzi, A.; Alamo, A.; Lidbury, D.; Moinereau, D.; Van Dyck, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Multi-scale and multi-physics modelling are adopted by PERFORM 60 to predict irradiation damage in nuclear structural materials. → PERFORM 60 allows to Consolidate the community and improve the interaction between universities/industries and safety authorities. → Experimental validation at the relevant scale is a key for developing the multi-scale modelling methodology. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, materials undergo degradation due to severe irradiation conditions that may limit their operational lifetime. Utilities that operate these reactors need to quantify the ageing and potential degradation of certain essential structures of the power plant to ensure their safe and reliable operation. So far, the monitoring and mitigation of these degradation phenomena rely mainly on long-term irradiation programs in test reactors as well as on mechanical or corrosion testing in specialized hot cells. Continuous progress in the physical understanding of the phenomena involved in irradiation damage and progress in computer sciences have now made possible the development of multi-scale numerical tools able to simulate the materials behaviour in a nuclear environment. Indeed, within the PERFECT project of the EURATOM framework program (FP6), a first step has been successfully reached through the development of a simulation platform that contains several advanced numerical tools aiming at the prediction of irradiation damage in both the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals using available, state-of-the-art-knowledge. These tools allow simulation of irradiation effects on the nanostructure and the constitutive behaviour of the RPV low alloy steels, as well as their fracture mechanics properties. For the more highly irradiated reactor internals, which are commonly produced using austenitic stainless steels, the first partial models were established, describing radiation effects on the nanostructure and providing a first description of the stress corrosion behaviour of these materials in a primary coolant environment. Recently, relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the FP7 Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 was launched with the overall objective of building on the success of PERFECT to develop similar tools that would allow simulation of the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals, in addition to a further improvement of the existing tools which model irradiation effects in RPV bainitic steels. From a managerial viewpoint, PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects, namely (i) RPV and (ii) Internals. In addition, a User's Group and training scheme have been initiated in order to allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations, etc. from Europe, USA and Japan to participate actively in the process of appraising the limits and potentialities of the developed tools and to assess their validation against qualified experimental data. Furthermore, significant efforts are being made to share knowledge and experience with young researchers in the field of nuclear materials degradation and to disseminate the results as widely as possible both within the project, and in international conferences, peer reviewed journals and via a dedicated website, that the latter serving as an 'open window' for internal communications and as a close link with similar projects underway worldwide. PERFORM 60 officially kicked off on March 1st, 2009 for a duration of 4 years. There are 20 participants. These comprise European organizations and Universities active in the nuclear field: all are engaged directly in the consortium to provide the intended software tools and to ensure that these are underpinned by physical understanding of the main mechanisms behind the observed in-service degradation phenomena.

  7. Tritium management and anti-permeation strategies for three different breeding blanket options foreseen for the European Power Plant Physics and Technology Demonstration reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Franza, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santucci, A.; Tosti, S. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three breeding blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

  8. Prediction of the Effects of Radiation FOr Reactor pressure vessel and in-core Materials using multi-scale modeling - 60 years foreseen plant lifetime (PERFORM-60 project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mazouzi, A.; Bugat, S.; Leclercq, S.; Massoud, J.-P.; Moinereau, D.; Lidbury, D.; Van Dyck, S.; Marini, B.; Alamo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The PERFECT project of the EURATOM framework program (FP6) is a first step through the development of a simulation platform that contains several advanced numerical tools aiming at the prediction of irradiation damage in both the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internals using state-of-the-art knowledge. These tools allow simulation of irradiation effects on the microstructure and the constitutive behavior of the RPV low alloy steels, as well as their fracture mechanics properties. For the reactor internals, the first partial models were established, describing radiation damage to the microstructure and providing a first description of the stress corrosion behaviour of austenitic steels in primary environment, without physical linking of the radiation and corrosion effects. Thus, relying on the existing PERFECT Roadmap, the FP7 Collaborative Project PERFORM 60 has mainly for objective to develop similar tools that would allow the simulation of the combined effects of irradiation and corrosion on internals, in addition to a further improvement of the existing ones on RPV made of bainitic steels. From the managerial view point, PERFORM 60 is based on two technical sub-projects, namely (i) RPV and (ii) Internals. In addition, a Users' Group and a training scheme have been adopted in order to allow representatives of constructors, utilities, research organizations... from Europe, USA and Japan to participate actively in the process of appraising the limits and potentialities of the developed tools as well as their validation against qualified experimental data

  9. Breakthrough of Oscillatoria limnetica and microcystin toxins into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... and recently regular field observations revealed heavy growth of this species in ... are 100–120 m offshore and located at 8–10 m depth in the. Nile River. ... light microscope based on taxonomic publications such as. Komárek .... eters including the type of chlorine compound, the concentra- tion used, pH ...

  10. Internet Use: Breakthrough Or Breakdown? | Omole | IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  11. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  12. Breakthrough Adsorption Study of Crude Oil Removal Using Buffing Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L. W. N.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Prasetyo, A.; Arimanintan, S. K.; Putri, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of leather industry solid waste as adsorbent to separate oil from water emulsions of surfactant flooding process is a solution that is relatively inexpensive. This study was conducted aiming to obtain a mathematical model that is appropriate for the adsorption process of crude oil by buffing dust in emulsion phase with a continuous adsorption method. Variations in the column adsorption experiments were carried out, such as: flow rate of feed of water-crude oil-surfactant, the concentration of crude oil in the feed, and mass of adsorbent used. Data were evaluated using three models: Adams Bohart, Thomas and Yan. Best results are obtained on the following conditions, the feed flow rate of 60 mL/minute, the crude oil concentration in feed is 1.5% volume and the mass of adsorbent used was 10 g. The values of kinetic constant and adsorption capacity obtained from Yan Model was 21.7774 mL/mg/minute and 220.9581 mg/g with the relative error obtained is 5.4424%.

  13. Business Model Warfare: The Strategy of Business Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdon Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There’s a story behind every business success and every business failure, sometimes the story of a great idea; sometimes one that failed. Sometimes it’s a story of insightful management, or management that failed. But almost always it’s a story about change. Change in the market; change in the economy; change in a particular product or service that transformed a failure into a success, or vice versa. Hidden behind many of these changes, or sometimes as a result of them, there is change in what customers experience, and as a result, a change in their perceptions and attitudes, and then in their buying habits. Companies soar, or collapse, as a consequence. While we study the stories to learn about the specific changes, events, insights, and breakdowns in each case, we also look for broader and deeper explanations that show how change applies across industries and the whole of the economy. The broader patterns are often Business Model Innovations, the subject of this white paper. Here we propose a specific model explaining how large companies create and sustain market leadership in today’s market, or the traps that they fall into that prevent them from doing so.

  14. Breakthroughs in Low Profile Leaky Wave HPM Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-17

    It is important to note that separate, previous, experimental work has validated the VSWR, gain, patterns, and HPM-class peak power capability in...capable LWA to be developed and was validated experimentally at AFRL/RDH (KAFB, NM) in operation with an HPM source. This led to increased awareness...individual channels are properly in phase at the aperture; embarrassing errors are easily avoidable by diligently following along the waveguide

  15. The 2002 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for today's business agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    In the last year, war broke out, the economy took a nosedive, and an alarming number of businesses went belly up. Thus it is with some urgency that we bring you this year's list of the seven best new business ideas to help you find your way through these complex times. History Returns. Many thought that the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the beginning of a new world order, one in which history didn't matter. But September 11, 2001, put an end to that theory. And it raised serious questions about globalization, security, and strategy. Enter the Everyday Leader--at Last. CEOs are used to getting all the glory, but leaders outside the limelight--middle managers and tempered radicals--are beginning to receive the attention they deserve. The Internet Is Not About You. The real value of the Internet may lie less in connecting individuals than in connecting databases, servers, and devices--a web not of people but of machines. Mind Your Behavior. Behavioral scientists are beginning to be able to accurately predict the ways individuals and crowds will respond to stimuli, and the implications for business are profound. Don't Delight Your Customers Away. Companies have wooed and coddled customers for too long. The truth is, people delight in being teased and are repelled by those who try too hard to befriend them. Games Are for Losers. Financial game playing and verbal politicking are seriously damaging businesses. Honesty is more than an admirable virtue; it's the foundation of every lasting enterprise. Three Cheers for Creativity (Sometimes). Creativity and best-practice replication are fundamentally different undertakings. Managers who mix the two achieve creativity that is merely incremental and replication that is sadly inept.

  16. City of the Sun. A break-through in sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A newly planned urban area in Heerhugowaard, Netherlands, will be named City of the Sun, while solar energy will be applied in that area in many different forms. The target is to build a district that is emission-neutral: the area will be self-sufficient where it concerns the energy supply without CO2 emission. Solar cells will be used where possible

  17. Sharing Responsibility for Results: Breakthrough to Literacy[R].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, NY. Educational and Professional Publishing Group.

    This report considers six schools in two urban districts that made deliberate commitments to improve student performance in early language and literacy--each story is different, yet they all share an important insight: that a school and a model provider can work together to help every child learn to read. As the stories in the report demonstrate,…

  18. Breakthrough without subsidies? : PV business model experiments in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a lack of steady governmental support for PV in the Netherlands over the last decade, from 2008 onwards an increased number of initiatives started experimenting with new business models for PV. Though absolute numbers of installed capacity are still low, this is a promising sign. In this

  19. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  20. Research Leads to Rights Breakthrough for Arab Women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Dec 10, 2010 ... We produced a 15-minute documentary about some of the cases, and it left ... It also reached the final round of the 2008 Aljazeera International Documentary Film Festival, held .... Changing the Currents of Water Management.

  1. Breakthrough! 100 astronomical images that changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This unique volume by two renowned astrophotographers unveils the science and history behind 100 of the most significant astronomical images of all time. The authors have carefully selected their list of images from across time and technology to bring to the reader the most relevant photographic images spanning all eras of modern astronomical history.    Based on scientific evidence today we have a basic notion of how Earth and the universe came to be. The road to this knowledge was paved with 175 years of astronomical images acquired by the coupling of two revolutionary technologies – the camera and telescope. With ingenuity and determination humankind would quickly embrace these technologies to tell the story of the cosmos and unravel its mysteries.   This book presents in pictures and words a photographic chronology of our aspiration to understand the universe. From the first fledgling attempts to photograph the Moon, planets, and stars to the marvels of orbiting observatories that record the cosmos a...

  2. [An approach to DSM-5: a breakthrough in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerlein, Andrés L

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems of current psychiatry is that its diagnostic classification systems are not precise and reliable, they do not help to identify with certainty a specific type of mental disorder and they frequently overlap two or more diagnoses. This may conduce to over diagnosis and overtreatment, which is the main criticism of the DSM system. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) launched recently the DSM-5, the fifth edition of its diagnostic manual, which provides diagnostic criteria for thousands of psychiatrist, psychologist and researchers and who will be using it in the next coming years. DSM-5, like the preceding editions, placed disorders in discrete categories such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The problem is that scientists have been unable to find yet a genetic or neurobiological evidence to support the theory of mental disorders as separate categories. Several authors wanted the latest DSM to move away from the category model towards a new "dimensional approach", where disorders can be measured and mental illnesses overlapping can be reduced. Recent findings supports this new dimensional strategy, suggesting that the disorders are a product of shared risk factors that lead to abnormalities in specific drives, which can be measured and used to place persons on one of several spectra. In some parts the DSM-5 entered changes aiming to achieve a greater objectivity. The door for new changes in each category, dimension or criteria has been opened, favoring an evidence-based development of the future versions. DSM-5 is presented as a "living document" that can be updated easily. However, the category model still remains for many disorders. The future research in psychiatric diagnostic systems requires more genetic-molecular and neurophysiological evidence and more objective multinational field trials, in order to confirm the existence of the new diagnostic entities, spectrums or dimensions. This approach may provide us reliable information about the pathogenesis, psychopathology, adequate taxonomy and treatment of mental disorders.

  3. Breakthrough in ceramic membranes; Doorbraak in keramische membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, J.F.; Van Veen, H.M. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Ceramic membranes have a promising potential for carrying out separations in a more energy efficient manner in the petrochemical industry. Researchers of ECN and the Universities of Twente and Amsterdam developed a new ceramic membrane that has a higher hydrothermal stability than existing membranes. [mk]. [Dutch] Keramische membranen gelden als potentieel veelbelovend om scheidingen in de petrochemische industrie energiezuiniger uit te voeren. Onderzoekers van ECN en de universiteiten van Twente en Amsterdam ontwikkelden een nieuw keramisch membraan dat een hogere hydrothermische stabiliteit heeft dan bestaande membranen.

  4. The new ABCs of research: achieving breakthrough collaborations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shneiderman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    ..., they can produce the advances that will enhance the lives of many people. These inspirational research leaders will break free from traditional thinking, disciplinary boundaries, and narrow aspirations...

  5. A Breakthrough Propulsion Architecture for Interstellar Precursor Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new power/propulsion architecture to enable missions such as a 12-yr flight time to 500 AU—the distance at which solar gravity lensing can be used to...

  6. Breakthrough supplies young fish to a hungry industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC) ... Research at SEAFDEC positively impacts on milkfish industry · Milkfish ... An important source of animal protein, it is vital to the country's food security.

  7. A rational reconstruction of Six Sigma's Breakthrough Cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a consistent and crystallized exposition of Six-Sigma's methodology for improvement projects, which could serve as a basis for subsequent scientific research of the method. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that reformulation of imprecise

  8. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  9. Breakthrough of Oscillatoria limnetica and microcystin toxins into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins (cyanotoxins) in processed drinking water may pose a health risk to humans and animals. The efficiency of conventional drinking water treatment processes (coagulation, flocculation, rapid sand filtration and disinfection) in removing cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins varies ...

  10. Laboratory neutrons - a breakthrough in non-nuclear disciplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The availability of laboratory neutrons at SLOWPOKE Nuclear reactor facility, has greatly facilitated interdisciplinary applied research there. Examples of the uses of the laboratory neutrons include those involved with environmental dispersal of inorganic pollutants, and those associated with public health investigations. (UK)

  11. Breakthrough Therapies: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Potentiators and Correctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, George M.; Marshall, Susan G.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in abnormal protein function. Recent advances of targeted molecular therapies and high throughput screening have resulted in multiple drug therapies that target many important mutations in the CFTR protein. In this review, we provide the latest results and current progress of CFTR modulators for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, focusing on potentiators of CFTR channel gating and Phe508del processing correctors for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular basis underlying these new therapies and emerging results from the latest clinical trials. The future directions for augmenting the rescue of Phe508del with CFTR modulators is also emphasized. PMID:26097168

  12. OTEC to hydrogen fuel cells - A solar energy breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, J. R.

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology and development are discussed, which will enhance the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-hydrogen-fuel cell mode of energy utilization. Hydrogen obtained from the ocean solar thermal resources can either be liquified or converted to ammonia, thus providing a convenient mode of transport, similar to that of liquid petroleum. The hydrogen fuel cell can convert hydrogen to electric power at a wide range of scale, feeding either centralized or distributed systems. Although this system of hydrogen energy production and delivery has been examined with respect to the U.S.A., the international market, and especially developing countries, may represent the greatest opportunity for these future generating units.

  13. Breakthrough: The Career Woman's Guide to Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Margaret L.

    This practical guide for all working women shows the reader how to recognize the barriers likely to confront her and to find the most effective way of breaking through. Chapter 1 summarizes causes of the glass ceiling and provides pointers on recognizing which situations are likely to cause problems. Chapter 2 helps the reader to understand her…

  14. Exploitation of puddles for breakthroughs in claustrum research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Irwin Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since its first identification as a thin strip of gray matter enclosed between stretches of neighboring fiber bundles, the claustrum has been considered impossible to study by many modern techniques that need a certain roominess of tissue for their application. The claustrum was known as the front wall, vormauren in German from 1822, and is still called avant-mur in French. We here propose a means for breaking into and through this wall, by utilizing the instances where the claustral tissue itself has broken free into more spacious dimensions. This has occurred several times in the evolution of modern mammals, and all that needs be done is to exploit these natural expansions in order to take advantage of a great panoply of technological advances now at our disposal. So here we review the kinds of breakout puddles that await productive exploitation, to bring our knowledge of structure and function up to the level enjoyed for other more accessible regions of the brain..

  15. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy: breakthroughs and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The principle of scanning tunneling microscopy, an imaging method with atomic resolution capability invented by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982, can be adapted for surface magnetism studies by using magnetic probe tips. The contrast mechanism of this so-called spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, or SP-STM, relies on the tunneling magneto-resistance effect, i.e. the tip-sample distance as well as the differential conductance depend on the relative magnetic orientation of tip and sample. To illustrate the working principle and the unique capabilities of SP-STM, this compilation presents some key experiments which have been performed on various magnetic surfaces, such as the topological antiferromagnet Cr(001), a double-layer of Fe which exhibits a stripe- domain pattern with about 50 nm periodicity, and the Mn monolayer on W(110), where the combination of experiment and theory reveal an antiferromagnetic spin cycloid. Recent experimental results also demonstrate the suitability of SP-STM for studies of dynamic properties, such as the spin relaxation time of single magnetic nanostructures.

  16. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  17. The 2003 HBR list. Breakthrough ideas for tomorrow's business agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    International conflict. Bear markets. Corporate scandals. The events of this past year have prompted intense soul-searching in many quarters and led us, in this year's list of the best business ideas, to reassess some of the most basic assumptions about strategy, organizations, and leadership. We began by reconsidering the role of the leader. Whether the boss is a hero or villain, discussions of leadership focus almost exclusively on the CEO. But attention also needs to be paid to the other people who make organizations work, not only to the corporate boards that oversee CEOs but to the followers--to their responsibilities, their power, and their obligation not to follow flawed leaders. And we considered the fate of soft issues, like emotional intelligence, in hard times. It's tempting to dismiss them when your employees will do anything just to keep their jobs. But hard times are good times to employ such tools on yourself. They can arm you with the self-awareness you need to understand, anticipate, and outwit your enemies. Where tools may fail, an attitude adjustment may be what's needed. Despite valiant efforts to lead change and eliminate inefficiencies, organizations stay messy. Perhaps it's better to learn to live with messiness and even focus on its benefits, one of which may be growth. Not the meteoric, effortless illusion we indulged in during the 1990s, but significant gains nonetheless. These can come when managers embrace messiness not just within their organizations but along the boundaries of the firm, blurring the line between their own core assets and functions and those of other companies. There's growth potential, too, in considering the company as a portfolio of opportunities--but only if managers can sell off poorly performing business units as easily as they've been shedding ailing stocks of late.

  18. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: TECHNOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGH OR ECOLOGICAL NIGHMARE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty years ago, Wastson and Crick described the structure of DNA, setting the stage for the past decade's biotechnology revolution. Scientists have now broken the code of the entire human genome, and delineated the function of multiple genes; similar strides are being taken with...

  19. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    channel depth, etc.) is derived from the more basic-level principles. At that stage , we are finding that further optimization is currently best...Directional Wave Beam,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. , vol. 17, pp. 115– 119, 1975. 5M.D. Haworth, et. al, "Significant Pulse- lengthening in a...IEE), York, 1991, pp. 125-128 vol.1. Haworth, M.D., et. al, "Significant Pulse- lengthening in a Multigigawatt Magnetically Insulated Transmission

  20. Challenges of managing the development of breakthrough products in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Parry, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a contingency model and hypothesize that increases in product innovativeness weaken the influence of product synergies and development proficiencies on product performance. We incorporate these hypotheses in a path model linking measures of product synergy, development proficiency,

  1. Breakthrough in fake prevention. Nuclear track-etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yushun; He Xiangming; Zhang Quanrong

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-counterfeit marking is a new weapon against fake products. The marks is manufactured by intricate high technology in state-controlled sensitive nuclear facilities which ensures that the mark can not be copied. The pattern of the mark is characterized by its permeability, and can be distinguished from fakes by using a transparent liquid (e.g. water), colored pen or chemical reagent. The technique has passed the of facial health safety examination and poses no danger of nuclear irradiation

  2. Another Breakthrough, Another Baby Thrown out with the Bathwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    "Process-oriented pedagogy: facilitation, empowerment, or control?" claims that process-oriented pedagogy (POP) represents the methodological perspective of most practising teachers and that outcomes-based education (OBE) poses a real and present danger to stakeholder autonomy. Whereas POP may characterize methodological practices in the inner…

  3. Breakthroughs in Low-Profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    approach (used previously to guide initial FAWSEA design recipes ) to apply to the Arched Aperture Waveguide Sidewall-Emitting Antenna (AAWSEA). The... recipes for efficient, high-gain, high-Ppk capable, AAWSEA configurations. Further information about the aforementioned research is provided in...acos(fc/f); % TEM modes angle % Draw the upper and lower side walls of the guide z=linspace(0,L, 500 ); for n = 1:length(z) X1(n) = -C1*z(n)^2

  4. Uncertainty in forecasting breakthrough of fluid transported through fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Tracer experiments in geothermal reservoirs emphasize the very great variability in rates of fluid movement through fractured rocks. This variability extends from the 10-meter to the kilometer-length scale. Thus tracer returns have been observed at some locations within hours at distances of up to 1 kilometer from the injection point, while other much nearer locations in the same formation do not observe the tracer until much later. In addition, transport rates have sometimes been extremely fast (up to 100 m/hr) even over such distances. This paper discusses the conclusions reached after compiling the results of a large number of tracer tests in several different fractured reservoirs. It is evident in some cases that large-scale geological features, such as faults, are responsible for the variations in tracer return time. In other cases, there is no clear physical description that explains the differences. These results suggest that there will be no a priori way of forecasting transport rates in fractured systems without performing a tracer test

  5. Recent Breakthroughs in the Conversion of Ethanol to Butadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Pomalaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Butadiene is traditionally produced as a byproduct of ethylene production from steam crackers. What is unusual is that the alternative production route for this important commodity chemical via ethanol was developed a long time ago, before World War II. Currently, there is a renewed interest in the production of butadiene from biomass due to the general trend to replace oil in the chemical industry. This review describes the recent progress in the production of butadiene from ethanol (ETB by one or two-step process through intermediate production of acetaldehyde with an emphasis on the new catalytic systems. The different catalysts for butadiene production are compared in terms of structure-catalytic performance relationship, highlighting the key issues and requirements for future developments. The main difficulty in this process is that basic, acid and redox properties have to be combined in one single catalyst for the reactions of condensation, dehydration and hydrogenation. Magnesium and zirconium-based catalysts in the form of oxides or recently proposed silicates and zeolites promoted by metals are prevailing for butadiene synthesis with the highest selectivity of 70% at high ethanol conversion. The major challenge for further application of the process is to increase the butadiene productivity and to enhance the catalyst lifetime by suppression of coke deposition with preservation of active sites.

  6. Modernization Breakthrough: Search for Innovations at the Comprador Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Viktor Aleksandrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the economy based on a new technological basis, a new cycle of scientific and technical progress, suggests the involvement of the innovative development factors. Among these new techniques we should mention technology, organization and motivation of labor, qualified labor force, management innovation, intellectual potential. This, in turn, implies broad development of inventions, the appearance of the pioneer and major inventions, the formation of innovation as well as their distribution. The article deals with the problem of the susceptibility of the Russian economy to innovative production methods. The authors examine the socio-economic background of modernization of the national economy. It is proved that the human capital plays special role in the use, development and coordination of innovative growth factors. The problems of formation and development of human capital in modern Russia are discussed. The necessity of forming and analyzing the indicators of social capital in the country, which takes into account the socio-political stability, law and order, protection from corruption, income differentiation, mutual trust. A critical analysis of the most important indicators of innovation activity of enterprises, allows to identify the factors that promote and prevent its increase. It is proved that a low level of innovation activity of enterprises due to inadequate funding of science and education, and the sharp differences in income inequality hamper the development of the infrastructure of the innovation process. The authors disclose the role of start-ups, as an effective framework for the implementation of innovations and objectify the parameters of economic growth suggesting to concentrate resources on innovation.

  7. Competitive Funding, Citation Regimes, and the Diminishment of Breakthrough Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    At first glance Sweden looks like a researcher's paradise with high levels of GDP investment in research and high scores on citation indexes, yet recent studies have suggested that Sweden might be losing its edge in groundbreaking research. This paper explores why that is happening by examining researchers' logics of decision-making at a large…

  8. Power to gas. The final breakthrough for the hydrogen economy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Goldstein, Raphael [Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI), Paris (France); Rastetter, Aline [Alphea Hydrogene, Forbach (France)

    2013-04-01

    In Germany more than 20% of the energy mix is made up of renewable energy and its share is rapidly increasing. The federal government expects renewables to account for 35% of Germany's electricity consumption by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050. According to the German Energy Agency, multi-billion euro investments in energy storage are expected by 2020 in order to reach these goals. The growth of this fluctuating energy supply has created demand for innovative storage options in Germany and it is accelerating the development of technologies in this field. Along with batteries and smart grids, hydrogen is expected to be one of the lead technologies. 2010 a commercialization roadmap for wind hydrogen was set up by the two northern federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein with the goal of utilizing surplus wind power for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. With the creation of the 'performing energy initiative', 2011, Brandenburg and Lower Saxony joined this undertaking. The aim of this initiative is to set up demonstration projects in order to develop and optimize wind-hydrogen hybrid systems and prepare their commercialization for the time after 2020. Beside the conversion of hydrogen into electricity and fuel for cars, further markets like raw material for the chemical, petrochemical, metallurgy and food industry are going to be addressed. Considering the fact there are over 40 caves currently used for natural gas storage with a total volume of 23.5 billion cubic meters and 400 000 km gas grid available in Germany, the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water sees opportunities for hydrogen to be fed into the existing natural gas grid network. The name of this concept is power-to-gas. According to the current DVGW-Standards natural gas in Germany can contain up to 5% hydrogen. The GERG, European Group on the Gas Research sees potential to increase this amount up to 6% to 20%. Power-to-gas could serve both for fuel and for the storage of extra energy produced by renewable sources. The hydrogen produced via electrolysis could be drawn upon - directly or as synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a second additional methanation process step - to provide electricity by means of CCGT (combined cycle gas turbines) or CHP (combined heat and power) using for example fuel cells. It could also address the industrial and household heat market. DVGW is furthermore participating in the 'Power-to-Gas Platform' that was set up in 2012 by the German Energy Agency, bringing together RnD institutes, renewable energy project developers and park operators, utilities, underground storage providers in order to create political support for this new technology. Demonstration projects will be completed by 2020 in order to develop business models (for storage, production and trade of 'green gas') and devices (electrolysers, turbines, smart gas metering, compressors, storage capacities amongst others) to enable the implementation of this concept on a broad scale. This means that a multitude of industrial players will be involved in the changes that will occur in the value chain: utilities (electricity, gas), power technology companies, car makers, heating device manufacturers, but also manufacturers of measurement, regulation and control devices, suppliers of the biogas and methanation industry. Germany is the pioneer in this field. This technology however increasingly interests its neighbours, with project developments in France, Italy, Spain, and UK but also in North America and North Africa. Germany can contribute its valuable experience (e.g. legal framework for power-to-gas) to the development of these industries. German participants in demonstration projects in these countries could for example be renewable energy park operators, RnD institutes and suppliers. (orig.)

  9. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  10. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  11. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-23

    May 23, 2012 ... In this paper, the physical meaning of parameters in the CRD and previous ... ity; the utility of the RIB model for application in different climatic areas under ...... TMG Aquifer feasibility study and pilot project ecological and.

  12. VITAMIN D3: RESEARCH BREAKTHROUGHS AND THERAPEUTIC USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohorila М.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, the natural form of vitamin D, is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol. The synthesis of vitamin D in the skin is the most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D can also be taken through nutrition, in the diet, but it is present in only a few food sources, containing relevant levels of vitamin D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH2D3] is the hormonally active form of vitamin D. Novel researches show it generates a number of extraskeletal biological responses including inhibition of variety types cancer progression, effects on cardiovascular disorders and mediates a protection against a number of inflammatory, autoimmune and infection diseases The biological actions of 1,25(OH2D3 are mediated by the VDR. The genomic mechanism of 1,25(OH2D3 action involves the direct binding of 1,25(OH2D3 activated VDR/RXR to specific DNA sequences in and around target genes resulting in either activation or repression of transcription [7] VDR modulates the expression of genes involved in immune function and cytokine production. The VDR and CYP27B1, the enzyme located in kidneys and target organs, are present in immune competent cells, bronchial and pulmonary epithelial cells, among others, and is up-regulated following the ligation of specific toll-like receptors by extracellular pathogens, implicating vitamin D in innate immunity. By binding the VDR, calcitriol induces several endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMP in monocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells including cathelicidin LL-37, α-defensin, β defensing and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and up-regulates nitric oxide (NO synthase. Since the inflammatory response associated with infections such influenza, pneumonia and sepsis increases both clinical severity and mortality, the ability to reduce inflammation may allow vitamin D to decrease mortality and disease burden in certain infections. Notwithstanding the width of possible vitamin D application field, which being known now, large-scale clinical trials are still demanded. Our review has the aim to summarize current scientific understanding of Vitamin D3 effects on the immunological field with the focus on its capacity to enhance the anti-infection and anti-inflammatory immune reactivity. Vitamin D and Tuberculosis. Vitamin D has been widely studied in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Current studies were focused on how calcitriol enhances the antimicrobial effects of macrophages and monocytes – important effector cells, fighting against pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT. Several studies tracked the impact of vitamin D on cytokines that promote anti-MTB activity and the resolution of infection. Suppression of antigen-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and a more rapid treatment-induced resolution of lymphopenia and monocytosis associated with TB infection occurred following 100,000 IU doses of vitamin D3 given monthly for 4 months. Conversion of sputum smear or sputum culture was used to measure response to treatment in several studies, though only sputum culture conversion is independently linked to long-term risk of treatment failure and relapse. Also it was found that 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 given daily for 6 weeks to significantly increase sputum smear conversion (100 % in the treatment group vs. 76,7 % in the placebo group, p=0,002. IFN-γ levels were impacted variably: 2 doses of vitamin D3 (600,000 IU led to increasing of IFN-γ expression , while a single 100,000 IU dose of vitamin D2 showed no change . Negative results in some studies could be explained by variability of the Taq1 vitamin D receptor genotype polymorphism. It was shown that significantly accelerated conversion is appropriate of patients who have a tt genotype compared to those with the Tt or TT genotype. But these results were not confirmed by another study, where were founded no interaction between VDR genotype effectiveness of vitamin D. Several trials show vitamin D given largely as an adjunctive therapy with traditional anti-tuberculosis regimens in a variety of dose and dosing schedule has some impact on clearance of MBT from sputum in the wide number randomized controlled multicenter trials of patients with active tuberculosis infection. Patients with infection of MBT with different strains of tuberculosis can take benefits from Vitamin D3 consumption due to its effect on the clearance of MTB from sputum and on dampening the inflammatory response or anthropometric changes that may help tuberculosis patients recover. A significant microbiologic effect of vitamin D3 was indicated in several trials that, also, sustained by in vitro tests, where its antimycobacterial effects in cultured macrophages was shown. Antimycobacterial effect is provided enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18 in cultured macrophages. The clinical benefit after high vitamin D3 doses administrating to patients does not depend of their vitamin D3 marked deficiency. The cause of this variation remains unexplained. The role of genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor, or in the multiple enzymes involved in its metabolism in vitD3 effectiveness remains unproved. Measurement of calcitriol-induced antimycobacterial activity in ex vivo whole blood culture in future studies may help in understanding the functional effects of specific genetic polymorphisms. So, big attention will be required in future studies to determine mechanism of vitamin effect on patients with tuberculosis.

  13. The Polytechnic Breakthrough in Denmark 1780-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    to the beginning of the 19th century. The analysis is focused on the political construction of the Danish polytechnic Institute and the development in engineering discourse in the period 1830-1930. The ideological changes in the discourse are considered an political effect of the second Industrial Revolution...

  14. Cancer immunotherapy: Breakthrough or "deja vu, all over again"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Stewart

    2017-06-01

    From the application of Coley's toxin in the early 1900s to the present clinical trials using immune checkpoint regulatory inhibitors, the history of cancer immunotherapy has consisted of extremely high levels of enthusiasm after anecdotal case reports of enormous success, followed by decreasing levels of enthusiasm as the results of controlled clinical trials are available. In this review, this pattern will be documented for the various immunotherapeutic approaches over the years. The sole exception being vaccination against cancer causing viruses, which have already prevented thousands of cancers. We can only hope that the present high level of enthusiasm for the use of immune stimulation by removal of blocks to cancer immunity will be more productive than the incremental improvements using previous immunotherapies.

  15. God created the integers the mathematical breakthroughs that changed history

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Bestselling author and physicist Stephen Hawking explores the "masterpieces" of mathematics, 25 landmarks spanning 2,500 years and representing the work of 15 mathematicians, including Augustin Cauchy, Bernard Riemann, and Alan Turing. This extensive anthology allows readers to peer into the mind of genius by providing them with excerpts from the original mathematical proofs and results. It also helps them understand the progression of mathematical thought, and the very foundations of our present-day technologies. Each chapter begins with a biography of the featured mathematician, clearly explaining the significance of the result, followed by the full proof of the work, reproduced from the original publication.

  16. Modern Breakthrough Technologies Enable New Applications Based on IMU Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Abbate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit platforms and their main target applications with a special focus on the 10-degree-of-freedom (10-DOF inertial platform iNEMO and its technical features and performances. The iNEMO module is equipped with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer, a 3-axis MEMS gyroscope, a 3-axis MEMS magnetometer, a pressure sensor, and a temperature sensor. Furthermore, the Microcontroller Unit (MCU collects measurements by the sensors and computes the orientation through a customized Extended Kalman Filter (EKF for sensor fusion.

  17. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  18. Greening coal: breakthroughs and challenges in carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Philip H; Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Viswanathan, Hari S; Berchtold, Kathryn A; Singh, Rajinder P; Pawar, Rajesh J; Mancino, Anthony

    2011-10-15

    Like it or not, coal is here to stay, for the next few decades at least. Continued use of coal in this age of growing greenhouse gas controls will require removing carbon dioxide from the coal waste stream. We already remove toxicants such as sulfur dioxide and mercury, and the removal of CO₂ is the next step in reducing the environmental impacts of using coal as an energy source (i.e., greening coal). This paper outlines some of the complexities encountered in capturing CO₂ from coal, transporting it large distances through pipelines, and storing it safely underground.

  19. Gene therapy, early promises, subsequent problems, and recent breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi Soofiyani, Saeideh; Baradaran, Behzad; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Kazemi, Tohid; Mohammadnejad, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in medicine. The concept of gene delivery to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed around half a century, but scientist's ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology made this purpose to reality. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. While gene therapy initially conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn errors, cancers) refractory to conventional treatment, to date gene therapy is considered for many non-life-threatening conditions including those adversely influence on a patient's quality of life. Gene therapy has made significant progress, including tangible success, although much slower than was initially predicted. Although, gene therapies still at a fairly primitive stage, it is firmly science based. There is justifiable hope that with enhanced pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will be a standard part of clinical practice within 20 years.

  20. Gene Therapy, Early Promises, Subsequent Problems, and Recent Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Razi Soofiyani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is one of the most attractive fields in medicine. The concept of gene delivery to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed around half a century, but scientist’s ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology made this purpose to reality. Various approaches, such as viral and non-viral vectors and physical methods, have been developed to make gene delivery safer and more efficient. While gene therapy initially conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn errors, cancers refractory to conventional treatment, to date gene therapy is considered for many non–life-threatening conditions including those adversely influence on a patient’s quality of life. Gene therapy has made significant progress, including tangible success, although much slower than was initially predicted. Although, gene therapies still at a fairly primitive stage, it is firmly science based. There is justifiable hope that with enhanced pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will be a standard part of clinical practice within 20 years.

  1. Contribution à l'étude des systèmes de transmission optique utilisant le format de modulation QPSK

    OpenAIRE

    Ramantanis, Petros

    2011-01-01

    The constant demand for capacity increase, together with the foreseen saturation of the single-mode optical fiber, paved the way to technological breakthroughs that have completely changed the landscape of fiber-optic telecommunications. The most important advance was, undeniably, the practical implementation of a coherent detection with the help of high-speed electronics. This has, first, enabled the use of advanced modulation formats that allowed for a more efficient use of the fiber bandwi...

  2. The impact of the new regulatory framework on the French market of photovoltaic. What is the sector's future after the decrease of purchase tariffs and the foreseen limit of market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at identifying the dynamics of the French market of photovoltaic, at assessing the impact of reviewing the legal framework of this sector, at analysing the strategies of equipment manufacturer, installers and operators, and at anticipating the evolutions of the market and competition intensity by 2015. Data and information from nearly forty companies have been used for this study

  3. Economical and geopolitical aspects bond to the foreseen development of the natural gas in an open market; Aspects economiques et geopolitiques lies au developpement prevu du gaz naturel dans un marche ouvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    For the first time in 2000, the part of natural gas is equal to those of coal in the world energy accounting. The economy and the geo-policy of this developing energy is analyzed, showing an economy dominated by the transport costs, the specificity of the european sector and the opening market since 1980. The european market opening incertitudes and opportunities are detailed. In conclusion the Gaz De France role in the european energy pole and the new regulations are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Double Walled Isolator (DWI) Breadboard Currently Under Development for Demonstration of Critical Technology Foreseen to be Used in the Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Berthoud, L.; McCulloch, Y.; Bowman, P.; Holt, J.; Bridges, J.; Bennett, A.; Gaubert, F.; Duvet, L.

    2018-04-01

    The need for biocontainment from Planetary Protection Policy and the need for cleanliness for scientific investigation requires that the samples returned from Mars by the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission must be handled in a Double Walled Isolator (DWI).

  5. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Remote Manipulator (RM) System Breadboard Currently Under Development for Demonstration of Critical Technology Foreseen to be Used in the Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Duncan, S.; Berthoud, L.; Bowman, P.; Hills, R.; McCulloch, Y.; Pisla, D.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Hofbaur, M.; Dieber, B.; Neythalath, N.; Smith, C.; van Winnendael, M.; Duvet, L.

    2018-04-01

    In order to avoid the use of 'double walled' gloves, a haptic feedback Remote Manipulation (RM) system rather than a gloved isolator is needed inside a Double Walled Isolator (DWI) to handle a sample returned from Mars.

  6. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartl HM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates

  7. Breakthrough attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema receiving long-term prophylaxis are responsive to icatibant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberer, Werner; Maurer, Marcus; Bouillet, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) experience recurrent attacks of cutaneous or submucosal edema that may be frequent and severe; prophylactic treatments can be prescribed to prevent attacks. However, despite the use of long-term prop...

  8. CD20-targeted therapy: a breakthrough in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, T.; Hagenbeek, A.

    2009-01-01

    Targeting the CD20 antigen on B lymphocytes with the monoclonal antibody rituximab has greatly improved the outcome of patients with B-cell malignancies. Despite the success of rituximab, resistance occurs in about half of the patients, resulting in non-response to treatment or early relapse of the

  9. The CMOS Breakthrough for Space Optical Detection: Recent Advances and Short Term Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Pe, Olivier; Breart de Boisanger, Michel; Larnaudie, Franck; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Magnan, Pierre; Martin Gonthier, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    .... Indeed, detectors built with both technologies allow excellent electro-optics performances to be reached, the selection of the most adequate device being driven by their functional and technological features and limits...

  10. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Enzymatic Processes: Caveats and Breakthroughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Matthew G; Borowski, Tomasz; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-02-18

    Nature has developed large groups of enzymatic catalysts with the aim to transfer substrates into useful products, which enables biosystems to perform all their natural functions. As such, all biochemical processes in our body (we drink, we eat, we breath, we sleep, etc.) are governed by enzymes. One of the problems associated with research on biocatalysts is that they react so fast that details of their reaction mechanisms cannot be obtained with experimental work. In recent years, major advances in computational hardware and software have been made and now large (bio)chemical systems can be studied using accurate computational techniques. One such technique is the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) technique, which has gained major momentum in recent years. Unfortunately, it is not a black-box method that is easily applied, but requires careful set-up procedures. In this work we give an overview on the technical difficulties and caveats of QM/MM and discuss work-protocols developed in our groups for running successful QM/MM calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Data Calibration using Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman-Traverse, Casey Lynn; Gajjar, Vishal; BSRC

    2018-01-01

    The ability to distinguish ET signals requires a deep understanding of the radio telescopes with which we search; therefore, before we observe stars of interest, the Breathrough Listen scientists at Berkeley SETI Research Center first observe a Pulsar with well-documented flux and polarization properties. The process of calibrating the flux and polarization is a lengthy process by hand, so we produced a pipeline code that will automatically calibrate the pulsar in under an hour. Using PSRCHIVE the code coherently dedisperses the pulsed radio signals, and then calibrates the flux using observation files with a noise diode turning on and off. The code was developed using PSR B1937+ 21 and is primarily used on PSR B0329+54. This will expedite the process of assessing the quality of data collected from the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and will allow us to more efficiently find life beyond Planet Earth. Additionally, the stability of the B0329+54 calibration data will allow us to analyze data taken on FRB's with confidence of its cosmic origin.

  12. A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic penicillin hydrolysis by penicillin amidase (also penicillin acylase, PA) represents a Landmark: the first industrially and economically highly important process using an immobilized biocatalyst. Resistance of infective bacteria to antibiotics had become a major topic of research and industrial activities. Solutions to this problem, the antibiotics resistance of infective microorganisms, required the search for new antibiotics, but also the development of derivatives, notably penicillin derivatives, that overcame resistance. An obvious route was to hydrolyse penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), as a first step, for the introduction via chemical synthesis of various different side chains. Hydrolysis via chemical reaction sequences was tedious requiring large amounts of toxic chemicals, and they were cost intensive. Enzymatic hydrolysis using penicillin amidase represented a much more elegant route. The basis for such a solution was the development of techniques for enzyme immobilization, a highly difficult task with respect to industrial application. Two pioneer groups started to develop solutions to this problem in the late 1960s and 1970s: that of Günter Schmidt-Kastner at Bayer AG (Germany) and that of Malcolm Lilly of Imperial College London. Here, one example of this development, that at Bayer, will be presented in more detail since it illustrates well the achievement of a solution to the problems of industrial application of enzymatic processes, notably development of an immobilization method for penicillin amidase suitable for scale up to application in industrial reactors under economic conditions. A range of bottlenecks and technical problems of large-scale application had to be overcome. Data giving an inside view of this pioneer achievement in the early phase of the new field of biocatalysis are presented. The development finally resulted in a highly innovative and commercially important enzymatic process to produce 6-APA that created a new antibiotics industry and that opened the way for the establishment of over 100 industrial processes with immobilized biocatalysts worldwide today.

  13. Trumpeting through the iron curtain: The breakthrough of jazz in socialist Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić Radina

    2012-01-01

    During the Cold War, jazz became a powerful propaganda weapon in the battle for “hearts and minds”. As early as the 1950s, the American administration began its Cold War “jazz campaign”, by broadcasting the popular jazz radio show Music USA over the Voice of America, and by sending its top jazz artists on world tours. In this specific cultural Cold War, Yugoslavia was, as in its overall politics, in a specific position between the East and the West. The pos...

  14. Structural biology revolution led by technical breakthroughs in cryo-electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, >Chang-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0504700) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31570732 and 31770785).

  15. Research on industrial 10kW CO2 laser achieves major breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The industrial 10kW CO2 laser is one of the items which the industrially developed nations are competing to develop. This laser is capable of continuous output power of over 10kW and can operate continuously for more than 6 hours. The 10kW CO2 laser developed as a key task of China's 7th Five-Year Plan and all its technological targets such as output power, electrooptical conversion efficiency and primary charging continuous operating time, have reached the level of world advancement, allowing China to enter the ranks of international advancement in the area of laser technology. The industrial 10kW CO2 laser can have wide application in such areas of industry as heat treating, machining, welding and surface treatment in industries such as steel, automobiles, ship building and aircraft manufacturing. For instance, using the high-efficiency laser beams of this 10kW laser to treat rollers, fan blades and automotive cylinder blocks can increase the life of these parts and produce large economic benefits. At present, industrial tests of gear welding is already being done on this 10kW laser.

  16. The N4 CAD chain: Another electricite de France breakthrough in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornon, P.; Durey, P.

    1996-01-01

    With the previous pressurized water reactor (PWR) series (1300 MW), Electricite de France (EdF) has experienced the first chain of computer-aided design (CAD) tools from programming drawings to instrumentation and control microprocessor memories. The Engineering and Construction Division of EdF decided to integrate the CAD tools in the design and construction process of its new N4 series (1400-MW PWR). At that time, EdF determined four safety and data quality principles for the human/machine interface of the CAD: 1. Unique data capture: A common alphanumeric database shares all the information used by more than one application, so this information is typed only once and can be verified independently. 2. Intrinsic consistency: Added to the previous principle, data consistency is also ensured by every application that provides ways to enter only allowed data when it is possible. This is completed by some checking facilities. 3. Ergonomy: Making extensive use of windows, buttons, pictures, and wysiwyg facilities, the CAD section develops applications speaking the real language of every designer who is able to understand and verify her/his work. 4. On-line help: For any question, prompted by any application, some on-line help has been written giving the list of allowed answers with explanations and/or examples

  17. Break-through in seed fertility of autotetraploid Trigonella foenum graecum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuvanshi, S.S.; Agrawal, Poonam; Singh, Jaya; Singh, Anil K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Fenugreek is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical zones of India, used as green vegetable, cattle fodder, food flavourant and for pharmaceutical purposes. The seeds are a source of diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin used for synthesis of steroidal drugs like corticosteroide sex hormone and oral contraceptives. Seeds valuing 15-20 million rupees are exported annually. Polyploids are vegetatively superior but have poorer seed fertility. Cross breeding among locally collected germplasm and autopolyploidisation did not give satisfactory results. Mutation induction using gamma rays or EMS alone and in combination was undertaken to broaden the variability for increased grain yield. In M 3 , mutants were selected with up to 143 pods per plant, compared to 80 in the diploid progenitors and up to 123 In advanced hybrids. 11 promising high yielding lines will be further evaluated. (author)

  18. Break-through technologies. Power and/or heat generation; Genombrottstekniker. Kraft- vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report gives a compilation of technologies for the future in producing electric power and heat. The focus is on the areas Cogeneration, Fuel cells, Wind power, Solar cells, Artificial photosynthesis, and Hydrogen. Refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  19. A Blueprint for Breakthroughs: Federally Funded Education Research in 2016 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael B.; Fisher, Julia Freeland

    2016-01-01

    The federal government funds a significant proportion of education research in the United States. But these research efforts have, by and large, fallen short of delivering on the promise to drive individual student outcomes across the country. By altering the priorities of education research to embrace a more complete research cycle, the federal…

  20. The Safar Center for Resuscitation Research: Searching for Breakthroughs in the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Kochanek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This review, written on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Institute for General Reanimatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, provides an update of recent research in the field of resuscitation medicine carried out at the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. Current and recent studies describing bench to bedside investigation in the areas of traumatic brain injury (TBI, cardiopulmonary arrest, hemorrhagic shock, and ultra-novel approaches to resuscitation are discussed. Investigation in TBI across a variety of topics by many investigators including mechanism of neuronal death, oxidative and nitrative stress, proteomics, adenosine, serotonin, novel magnetic resonance imaging application, inflicted childhood neurotrauma, and TBI rehabilitation is addressed. Research discussed in the program of cardiopulmonary arrest includes optimization of the use of mild hypothermia and novel investigation in experimental asphyxial cardiac arrest. In the program on hemorrhagic shock, our recent work on the application of mild hypothermia to prolong the «golden hour» is presented. Finally, a brief overview of our studies of a novel approach to the resuscitation of exsan-guination cardiac arrest using emergency preservation for resuscitation (EPR is provided.

  1. Beyond breakthrough research: Epistemic properties of research and their consequences for research funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to initiate a discussion about links between epistemic properties and institutional conditions for research by providing an exploratory analysis of such links featured by projects funded by the European Research Council (ERC). Our analysis identifies epistemic properties of

  2. Breakthrough Design and Implementation of Many-Body Theories. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, So

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the following highlights of the project: (1) grid-based Hartree-Fock equation solver; (2) explicitly correlated coupled-cluster and perturbation methods; (3) anharmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrationally averaged NMR and structural parameters of FHF; (4) anharmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrationally averaged structures of hydrocarbon combustion species; (5) anharmonic vibrational analysis of the guanine-cytosine base pair; (6) the nature of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation; (7) Polymers and solids Brillouin-zone downsampling - the modulo MP2 method; (8) explicitly correlated MP2 for extended systems; (9) fast correlated method for molecular crystals - solid formic acid; and (10) fast correlated method for molecular crystals - solid hydrogen fluoride.

  3. Creativity: the key to breakthrough changes, how teaming can harness collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, P F

    1999-08-01

    Our nation's industries do not want for concepts, philosophies or ideas to improve effectiveness. Just-in-Time, continuous improvement, re-engineering, world-class manufacturing, time compression, manufacturing excellence, total quality control, and theory of constraints are examples of approaches to improving our businesses. All have merit and are, to some degree, related.

  4. The best news for LPG in Denmark is diesel conversion breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Scandanavia, taxes seem to drive the marketplace. Governments do not want to encourage consumption of alcoholic beverages, so they tax them heavily, thereby actually discouraging their use. Using the same means, they dictate the fate of the various fuels. Taxes have depressed propane's use to a large extent; today it is priced at three times natural gas, with the result that it accounts for only 0.5%-0.7% of total energy consumption. But, this paper reports on a potential new star that has appeared on the horizon, as participants in the People-to-People sojourn to Scandanavia last August learned. It's a program of converting diesel buses to propane, and officials of the company that is marketing it, Skibby Motor A/S, are so confident of its success that they have already begun a campaign of introducing it to the U.S

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance of Breakthrough-Urinary Tract Infections in Children under Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Toshihito; Hisata, Ken; Toyama, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Keita; Igarashi, Naru; Nakao, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Nobuaki; Komatsu, Mitsutaka; Obinata, Kaoru; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis using cefaclor or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is recommended for children with vesicoureteral reflex (VUR) to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). This retrospective study was performed by reviewing the data of children ≥5 years of age treated for recurrent UTI in six hospitals from 2010 to 2015. The criteria for UTI diagnosis is fever (≥38°C) and positive results in urine culture (>104 colony-forming units/ml in midstream or withdrawn ...

  6. AN EXAMINATION OF SERVITIZATION AS A BREAKTHROUGH SUCCESS FACTOR ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit OLÁH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent changing economic environment following the 2008 global financial and economic crisis has posed a major challenge to the majority of producing and manufacturing companies. The recessionary economy of the European Union, the “marginal countries” existence on the edge of bankruptcy, the shortage of loans and the subdued consumption of the population all affect the way in which products are marketed and the integration of accompanying services. This change has a significant impact on logistics processes and logistics service providers, as they face changing tasks and challenges in supply chain management. The authors intend to address this impact in their article, which also takes into account the results of international scientific papers.

  7. Break-through in seed fertility of autotetraploid Trigonella foenum graecum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghuvanshi, S S; Agrawal, Poonam; Singh, Jaya; Singh, Anil K [Plant Genetics Unit, Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow (India)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Fenugreek is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical zones of India, used as green vegetable, cattle fodder, food flavourant and for pharmaceutical purposes. The seeds are a source of diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin used for synthesis of steroidal drugs like corticosteroide sex hormone and oral contraceptives. Seeds valuing 15-20 million rupees are exported annually. Polyploids are vegetatively superior but have poorer seed fertility. Cross breeding among locally collected germplasm and autopolyploidisation did not give satisfactory results. Mutation induction using gamma rays or EMS alone and in combination was undertaken to broaden the variability for increased grain yield. In M{sub 3}, mutants were selected with up to 143 pods per plant, compared to 80 in the diploid progenitors and up to 123 In advanced hybrids. 11 promising high yielding lines will be further evaluated. (author)

  8. Environment construction and bottleneck breakthrough in the improvement of wisdom exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-08-01

    Wisdom exhibition is an inexorable trend in convention and exhibition industry in China. Information technology must be utilized by exhibition industry to achieve intelligent application and wisdom management, breaking the limitation of time as well as space, which raise the quality of exhibition service and level of operation to a totally new standard. Accordingly, exhibition industry should optimize mobile internet, a fundamental technology platform, during the advancing process of wisdom exhibition and consummate the combination among three plates including wisdom connection of information, wisdom exhibition environment and wisdom application of technology. Besides, the industry should realize the wisdom of external environment including wisdom of exhibition city, exhibition place, exhibition resource deal etc and break through bottle-neck in construction of wisdom exhibition industry, which includes construction of big data center, development of Mobile Internet application platform, promotion of information construction, innovative design of application scenarios.

  9. Breakthrough in Power Electronics from SiC: May 25, 2004 - May 31, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marckx, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    This report explores the premise that silicon carbide (SiC) devices would reduce substantially the cost of energy of large wind turbines that need power electronics for variable speed generation systems.

  10. Early-stage detection of breakthrough-class scientific research : using micro-level citation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnink, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this PhD thesis describes ways of identifying at an early-stage, 2-3 years after their publication, discoveries in science that are expected to have a major impact on science. Bibliographic information extracted from those scientific publications is analysed to select

  11. B-type natriuretic peptides. A diagnostic breakthrough in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, P A

    2003-04-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a neurohormone synthesized in the cardiac ventricles, which is released as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and then enzymatically cleaved in to the NT fragment and the immunoreactive BNP. Both tests have been used to identify patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Important considerations for these tests include their half-lives in plasma, dependence on renal function for clearance, and the interpretation of their units of measure. In general, a BNP level below 100 pg/mL has strong negative predictive value in the assessment of patients with dyspnea caused by a disorder other than CHF. In addition, BNP levels can be used to gauge the effect of short-term treatment of acutely decompensated heart failure, and the peptide has been shown to be a reliable independent predictor of sudden cardiac death. In the absence of renal dysfunction NT-proBNP has also been shown to be an independent predictor of sudden death in CHF patients. Because both a large area of myonecrosis or concomitant left ventricular failure are related to prognosis in acute coronary syndromes, B-type natriuretic peptides have also been linked to outcomes in this condition. This article describes the physiology and timing of release of B-type natriuretic peptides and the rationale for their use in the following settings: 1) evaluation of decompensated CHF, 2) screening for chronic CHF, 3) prognosis of CHF and sudden death, and 4) prognosis in acute coronary syndromes with inferred left ventricular dysfunction.

  12. [Breakthrough in research on pluripotent stem cells and their application in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdimarsdóttir, Guðrún; Richter, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells are, as the name indicates, isolated from embryos. They are pluripotent cells which can be maintained undifferentiated or induced to differentiate into any cell type of the body. In 1998 the first isolation of human embryonic stem cells was successful and they became an interesting source for stem cell regenerative medicine. Only 8 years later pluripotent stem cells were generated by reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This was a revolution in the way people thought of cell commitment during development. Since then, a lot of research has been done in understanding the molecular biology of pluripotent stem cells. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells of a patient and therefore have the same genome. Hence, iPSCs have great potential application in medicine, as they can be utilized in disease modelling, drug screening and cell replacement therapy.

  13. Pollen from the Deep-Sea: A Breakthrough in the Mystery of the Ice Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Sánchez Goñi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from deep-sea sedimentary sequences provides an integrated regional reconstruction of vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and seasonality on the adjacent continent. More importantly, the direct correlation of pollen, marine and ice indicators allows comparison of the atmospheric climatic changes that have affected the continent with the response of the Earth’s other reservoirs, i.e., the oceans and cryosphere, without any chronological uncertainty. The study of long continuous pollen records from the European margin has revealed a changing and complex interplay between European climate, North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs, ice growth and decay, and high- and low-latitude forcing at orbital and millennial timescales. These records have shown that the amplitude of the last five terrestrial interglacials was similar above 40°N, while below 40°N their magnitude differed due to precession-modulated changes in seasonality and, particularly, winter precipitation. These records also showed that vegetation response was in dynamic equilibrium with rapid climate changes such as the Dangaard-Oeschger (D-O cycles and Heinrich events, similar in magnitude and velocity to the ongoing global warming. However, the magnitude of the millennial-scale warming events of the last glacial period was regionally-specific. Precession seems to have imprinted regions below 40°N while obliquity, which controls average annual temperature, probably mediated the impact of D-O warming events above 40°N. A decoupling between high- and low-latitude climate was also observed within last glacial warm (Greenland interstadials and cold phases (Greenland stadials. The synchronous response of western European vegetation/climate and eastern North Atlantic SSTs to D-O cycles was not a pervasive feature throughout the Quaternary. During periods of ice growth such as MIS 5a/4, MIS 11c/b and MIS 19c/b, repeated millennial-scale cold-air/warm-sea decoupling events occurred on the European margin superimposed to a long-term air-sea decoupling trend. Strong air-sea thermal contrasts promoted the production of water vapor that was then transported northward by the westerlies and fed ice sheets. This interaction between long-term and shorter time-scale climatic variability may have amplified insolation decreases and thus explain the Ice Ages. This hypothesis should be tested by the integration of stochastic processes in Earth models of intermediate complexity.

  14. Physicists get first glimpse of antimatter: Stuff of science fiction: Canadian among group making breakthrough

    CERN Multimedia

    Munro, M

    2002-01-01

    "A team of Canadian, U.S. and European physicists, working at the CERN physics facility in Geneva, is reporting in Physical Review Letters this week that it has created and probed atoms of antihydrogen" (1 page).

  15. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    2013-04-01

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next, the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.

  16. Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Xu, Jing; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of error-free 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing using the Kerr non-linearity of an only 5 cm long chalcogenide glass waveguide chip. Our approach exploits four-wave mixing by the instantaneous nonlinear response of chalcogenide. Excellent performance is achieved with onl...... 2 dB average power penalty and no indication of error-floor. Characterisation of the FWM efficiency for the chalcogenide waveguide is given and confirms the good performance of the device....

  17. Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lengeler, B; Benner, B; Guenzler, T F; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Simionovici, A S; Drakopoulos, M; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    Refractive X-ray lenses, considered for a long time as unfeasible, have been realized with a rotational parabolic profile at our institute: The main features of the new lenses are: they focus in two directions and are free of spherical aberration. By varying the number of individual lenses in the stack the focal length can be chosen in a typical range from 0.5 to 2 m for photon energies between about 6 and 60 keV. The aperture of the lens is about 1 mm matching the angular divergence of undulator beams at 3d generation synchrotron radiation sources. They cope without problems with the heat load from the white beam of an undulator. Finally, they are easy to align and to operate. Refractive X-ray lenses can be used with hard X-rays in the same way as glass lenses can be used for visible light, if it is take into account that the numerical aperture is small (of the order 10 sup - sup 4). Being high-quality optical elements, the refractive X-ray lenses can be used for generating a focal spot in the mu m range wit...

  18. LASIK flap breakthrough in Nd:YAG laser treatment of epithelial ingrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Hughes, John M.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.

    2015-01-01

    To present two cases with complications after Nd:YAG laser treatment of epithelial ingrowth. Case reports. Dense central recurrent epithelial ingrowth was treated with a Nd:YAG laser directed at the epithelial nests in the LASIK flap interface in one case. Misalignment of the aiming beam after

  19. Fire protection: no fire without smoke. CCTV breakthrough in fire detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A new CCTV-based fire detection system uses advanced software to detect and locate smoke and vapour from a fire before it becomes visible to the human eye, but is intelligent enough to avoid false alarms due to steam, moving machinery or operating staff in the monitored area. The starting point for the development effort was video motion detection software as used in the security industry. (author)

  20. Towards Organs on Demand: Breakthroughs and Challenges in Models of Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue generation in vitro has been significantly advanced by tissue-engineering methods, achieving better reproduction of complex native organs compared to conventional culture systems. This review will discuss traditional 3D cell culture techniques as well as newly developed technology platforms. These recent techniques provide new possibilities in the creation of human body parts and provide more accurate predictions of tissue response to drug and chemical challenges. Given the rapid advancement in the human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) field, these platforms also hold great promise in the development of patient-specific, transplantable tissues and organs on demand.

  1. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  2. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Radio Frequency Interference in the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    In the search for extra terrestrial intelligence, the vast majority of our “signals of interest,” are simply satellite radio frequency interference. The goal to my research, therefore, was to accurately predict the exact locations of satellites in our sky to analyze specific satellites causing the interference as well as potentially predict when satellites will cross in the way of our beams so that we can further optimize our scripts and get more usable data.I have built an algorithm that plots the exact location in altitude and azimuth of any grouping of satellites that you want in the sky from any position on earth in latitude, longitude, and elevation. From there, you can input a specific right ascension and declination of the location you are trying to track in the sky with a telescope. Using these inputs, we can calculate the angular and positional distance of certain satellites to our beam to further analyze satellite radio frequency interference.The process begins by importing a list of Two Line Element information that the algorithm reads in. Two Line Elements are how Satellites are organized and are updated frequently. They give a variety of information ranging from the Satellite ID to its Mean Motion or anomaly. From there, the code breaks up the information given by these elements to predict their location. The algorithm can also plot in 3D coordinates around an earthlike sphere to conceptualize the route that each Satellite has taken.The code has been used in a variety of ways but most notably to identify satellites interfering with the beam for Arecibo’s Ross 128 Candidate signal. From here, the code will be the backbone to calculating drift rates, Doppler shifts and intensity of certain satellites and why our team consistently receives estranged satellite signals of interest. Furthermore, in the case of a serious candidate signal in the near future, it will be important to analyze satellites interfering in the beam.

  3. Ablation - breakthrough technology to reduce uranium mining cost and increase resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, D.

    2014-01-01

    Ablation Technologies, LLC has developed and patented a revolutionary mining technology termed “ablation”. Ablation is a process using only mechanical forces to upgrade sandstone uranium ores. Uranium bearing sandstone orebodies are formed from a uranium enriched solution flowing through an aquifer until it reached some type of a “red/ox” zone forcing the uranium and other heavy metals to come out of solution. The precipitate forms a thin coating on the sand grains and fills the interstitial space between the sand grains but does no penetrate the sand grains. The ablation process knocks the precipitate off the sand grains using the forces of abrasion, elastic compression and rebounding, much like a mud coated tennis ball will sheds the mud when bounced off the ground, and to some extent, sonic waves. This produces a product which collectively is exactly the same as the ore going in but with all the individual components separated. This allows for disgressionary separation, the most important of which is screening. The uranium and heavy metals report to the finer fractions of the material, typically less than 250 mesh. The larger fractions contain less than five percent of the uranium but 90 to 95 percent of the mass. The advantages of making an enriched ore are numerous: • Reduce haulage costs from 90 to 95 percent. • Reduce milling costs by reducing material handling costs, acid consumption and tailings disposal costs. • In addition to reducing overall mining and milling costs, the overall recovery of the recourse is increased because the ablation process is so inexpensive, if the material has to be mined it will be ablated and screened. This basically means ore control is significantly reduced, cutoff grade goes to practically zero and overall resource recovery is significantly increased. • Environmentally, the two major advantages are reduced tailings requirements at the mill site and cleaner waste dumps at the mine site. This paper will show test results from sandstone uranium ores from all over the world, all getting ninety plus percent recovery in a matter of minutes plus economic comparisons with what has heretofore been referred to as conventional mining practices. (author)

  4. Distance Learning and Cloud Computing: "Just Another Buzzword or a Major E-Learning Breakthrough?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing is a model for the enabling of ubiquitous, convenient, and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and other services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction." This…

  5. Pollen from the Deep-Sea: A Breakthrough in the Mystery of the Ice Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, María F; Desprat, Stéphanie; Fletcher, William J; Morales-Molino, César; Naughton, Filipa; Oliveira, Dulce; Urrego, Dunia H; Zorzi, Coralie

    2018-01-01

    Pollen from deep-sea sedimentary sequences provides an integrated regional reconstruction of vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and seasonality) on the adjacent continent. More importantly, the direct correlation of pollen, marine and ice indicators allows comparison of the atmospheric climatic changes that have affected the continent with the response of the Earth's other reservoirs, i.e., the oceans and cryosphere, without any chronological uncertainty. The study of long continuous pollen records from the European margin has revealed a changing and complex interplay between European climate, North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), ice growth and decay, and high- and low-latitude forcing at orbital and millennial timescales. These records have shown that the amplitude of the last five terrestrial interglacials was similar above 40°N, while below 40°N their magnitude differed due to precession-modulated changes in seasonality and, particularly, winter precipitation. These records also showed that vegetation response was in dynamic equilibrium with rapid climate changes such as the Dangaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles and Heinrich events, similar in magnitude and velocity to the ongoing global warming. However, the magnitude of the millennial-scale warming events of the last glacial period was regionally-specific. Precession seems to have imprinted regions below 40°N while obliquity, which controls average annual temperature, probably mediated the impact of D-O warming events above 40°N. A decoupling between high- and low-latitude climate was also observed within last glacial warm (Greenland interstadials) and cold phases (Greenland stadials). The synchronous response of western European vegetation/climate and eastern North Atlantic SSTs to D-O cycles was not a pervasive feature throughout the Quaternary. During periods of ice growth such as MIS 5a/4, MIS 11c/b and MIS 19c/b, repeated millennial-scale cold-air/warm-sea decoupling events occurred on the European margin superimposed to a long-term air-sea decoupling trend. Strong air-sea thermal contrasts promoted the production of water vapor that was then transported northward by the westerlies and fed ice sheets. This interaction between long-term and shorter time-scale climatic variability may have amplified insolation decreases and thus explain the Ice Ages. This hypothesis should be tested by the integration of stochastic processes in Earth models of intermediate complexity.

  6. Significant breakthroughs in monitoring networks of the volcanological and seismological French observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    lemarchand, A.; Francois, B.; Bouin, M.; Brenguier, F.; Clouard, V.; Di Muro, A.; Ferrazzini, V.; Shapiro, N.; Staudacher, T.; Kowalski, P.; Agrinier, P.

    2013-12-01

    Others authors: S. Tait (1), D. Amorese (4,1), JB de Chabalier (1), A. Anglade (4,1), P. Kowalski (5,1),the teams in the IPGP Volcanological and Seismological observatories In the last few years, French West Indies observatories, in collaboration with the Seismic Research Center (University of West Indies-Trinidad), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 16 new permanent stations have been installed to strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 21 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, GNSS sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer to the observatories of Trinidad (SRC), Guadeloupe (OVSG), Martinique (OVSM). To improve the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to enhance the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding (D. Kurrle R. Widmer-Schnidrig, 2005) of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120 sec). This renewed network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanism interactions in the Lesser Antilles arc. Since 2010, the UnderVolc research program has been an opportunity to reinforce the existing volcanic seismic network of Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). 20 broadband seismometers, 20 short-period sensors, and 26 GNSS receivers now cover the volcano. The program successfully developed many new data treatment tools. They have proven to be well-adapted for monitoring volcanic activity such as the tracking of seismic velocity changes inferred from seismic noise, or the injection of dike and the resulting deformations. This upgrade has now established the monitoring network of La Réunion hot spot to high quality standards which will foster the scientific attractiveness of OVPF-IPGP. During the course of this project, trade-off was chosen to accommodate the broadband seismometer state-of-art installation to unstable substrate made of lava flows. Wifi transmission has been developed for real or near real-time data transmission. Both projects have been an opportunity to migrate the seismic data processing to SeisComP3 with new developed plugins to compute the duration magnitude and locate (modified HYPO71PC ) ever small events such as volcanic ones. The new plugins are integrated in Seiscomp3 releases. Several tools for data management and treatment (Earthworm and WebObs [Beauducel et al., 2004]) are continuously improved. GPS data, real-time and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available at the IPGP data center.

  7. Trumpeting through the iron curtain: The breakthrough of jazz in socialist Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Radina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, jazz became a powerful propaganda weapon in the battle for “hearts and minds”. As early as the 1950s, the American administration began its Cold War “jazz campaign”, by broadcasting the popular jazz radio show Music USA over the Voice of America, and by sending its top jazz artists on world tours. In this specific cultural Cold War, Yugoslavia was, as in its overall politics, in a specific position between the East and the West. The postwar period in Yugoslavia, following the establishment of the new (socialist government, was characterized by strong resistance towards jazz as “decadent” music, until 1948 when “no” to Stalin became “yes” to jazz. From the 1950s, jazz entered Yugoslav institutions and media, and during the following two decades, completely conquered the radio, TV, and record industry, as well as the manifestations such as the Youth Day. On account of the openness of the regime during the 1950s and 1960s, Yugoslavia was frequently visited by the greatest jazz stars, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong and Ella Fitzgerald. In the context of the Cold War, the promotion of jazz in Yugoslavia proved to be beneficial for both sides - by exporting jazz, America also exported its freedom, culture and system of values, while Yugoslavia showed the West to what extent its political system was open and liberal, at least concerning this type of music.

  8. Comparative epigenomics: an emerging field with breakthrough potential to understand evolution of epigenetic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Deakin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression, thereby mediating the interaction between environment, genotype and phenotype. Changes to epigenetic regulation of genes may be heritable, permitting rapid adaptation of a species to environmental cues. However, most of the current understanding of epigenetic gene regulation has been gained from studies of mice and humans, with only a limited understanding of the conservation of epigenetic mechanisms across divergent taxa. The relative ease at which genome sequence data is now obtained and the advancements made in epigenomics techniques for non-model species provides a basis for carrying out comparative epigenomic studies across a wider range of species, making it possible to start unraveling the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. We review the current knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms obtained from studying model organisms, give an example of how comparative epigenomics using non-model species is helping to trace the evolutionary history of X chromosome inactivation in mammals and explore the opportunities to study comparative epigenomics in biological systems displaying adaptation between species, such as the immune system and sex determination.

  9. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Cagniant, A.; Gross, P.; Achim, P.; Douysset, G.; Taffary, T.; Moulin, C.; Morelle, M.

    2013-01-01

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe and 135 Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX TM have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample measurements. Major improvements in detection sensitivity have been reached and quantified, especially for metastable radioactive isotopes 131m Xe and 133m Xe with a gain in minimum detectable activity (about 2 x 10 -3 Bq) relative to current CTBT SPALAX TM ark system (air sampling frequency normalized to 8 h) of about 70 and 30 respectively. (author)

  10. York University atomic scientist contributes to new breakthrough in the production of antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Physicists working in Europe, including Canada Research Chair in Atomic Physics at York University, Prof. Eric Hessels, have succeeded in capturing the first glimpse of the structure of antimatter. The ATRAP group of scientists at CERN have managed to examine the internal states of anti-hydrogen atoms (1/2 page).

  11. Moving Edtech Forward: Upstart School Networks Are Betting on a Breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution occurring in schools has focused predominantly on online education in its various forms--including fully online courses, learning management systems, games, and mobile applications--to personalize learning and boost the performance of all students. Companies have been experimenting with technologies for years, yet these…

  12. Breakthroughs in modern cancer therapy and elusive cardiotoxicity: Critical research-practice gaps, challenges, and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, P.-P. (Ping-Pin); Li, J. (Jin); J.M. Kros (Johan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo date, five cancer treatment modalities have been defined. The three traditional modalities of cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy, and the two modern modalities include molecularly targeted therapy (the fourth modality) and immunotherapy (the

  13. Nuclear fission today and tomorrow: from renaissance to technological breakthrough (Generation IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Goethem, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the major scientific and technological challenges related to the very innovative nuclear fission reactor systems to be deployed at the horizon 2040 (called Generation IV). The paper focuses on the benefits of the Generation IV systems, according to criteria or technology goals established at the international level (Generation IV International Forum (GIF)). This goals are drastic improvements on four areas: sustainable development, industrial competitiveness, safety and reliability and proliferation resistance. The focus is on the design objectives and associated research issues that have been agreed upon internationally to meet these four ambitious goals. (author)

  14. Computational Breakthrough of Natural Lead Hits from the Genus of Arisaema against Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Kamal; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Ghosh, Manik

    2018-01-01

    To date, efforts for the prevention and treatment of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection have been still vain, and there is no safe and effective clinical accepted vaccine. Arisaema genus has claimed for various traditional bioactivities, but scientific assessments are quite limited. This encouraged us to carry out our present study on around 60 phytoconstituents of different Arisaema species as a natural inhibitor against the human RSV. Selected 60 phytochemical entities were evaluated on the docking behavior of human RSV receptor (PDB: 4UCC) using Maestro 9.3 (Schrödinger, LLC, Cambridge, USA). Furthermore, kinetic properties and toxicity nature of top graded ligands were analyzed through QikProp and ProTox tools. Notably, rutin (glide score: -8.49), schaftoside (glide score: -8.18) and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside (glide score - 7.29) have resulted in hopeful natural lead hits with an ideal range of kinetic descriptors values. ProTox tool (oral rodent toxicity) has resulted in likely toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Finally, the whole efforts can be explored further as a model to confirm its anti-human RSV potential with wet laboratory experiments. Rutin, schaftoside, and apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-galactoside showed promising top hits docking profile against human respiratory syncytial virusMoreover, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties (QikProp) of top hits resulted within an ideal range of kinetic descriptorsProTox tool highlighted toxicity class ranges, LD 50 values, and possible toxicity targets of apex-graded tested ligands. Abbreviations used: RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus, PRRSV: Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, ADME-T: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity.

  15. Building new competencies for new business creation based on breakthrough technological innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Kirschbaum, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question how companies can build new capabilities or competencies based on discontinuous technological innovations? In particular, we analyze how corporate ventures are set up to develop and commercialize these radical innovations can play a crucial role in the process of

  16. Building new competencies for new business creation based on breakthrough technological innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Kirschbaum, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question how companies can build new capabilities or competencies based on discontinuous technological innovations? In particular, we analyze how corporate ventures are set up to develop and commercialize these radical innovations can play a crucial role in the process of building new competencies (not only technological capabilities). New competencies are in turn the basis to create a range of new businesses. Building and deploying competencies are intrinsically rel...

  17. New nuclear package. At last a breakthrough for a European legal framework on nuclear safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the European Commission presented what it referred to as a nuclear package. Two draft directives were to cover nuclear safety and nuclear waste management in a legally binding sense on the level of the European Union. A separate directive on funds for decommissioning nuclear power plants and for waste management up to final storage, which had still been included in preliminary drafts in 2002, had been dropped and turned into recommendations in 2006. However, the nuclear package with the 2 draft directives found no sufficient majority in the Council in 2004. In November 2008, the Commission presented a new draft directive on nuclear safety, especially the safety of nuclear power plants. The Commission demands a European legal framework for the political acceptance of nuclear power. As far as procedures were concerned, the Commission had expressed its hope that the directive could be adopted by the summer of 2009. The draft directive has been thoroughly revised over the past four months. Shaping the European Union is a difficult matter. The improvement seems to be in the field of nuclear safety. It is to be hoped that a directive will be adopted in the end which will result in more acceptance, not just in arguments exchanged between the Commission and the member countries when it comes to transposition into national law and its execution. (orig.)

  18. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  19. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  20. Three dimensional visualization breakthrough in analysis and communication of technical information for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Cerny, B.A.; Hill, E.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Smoot, J.L.; Smith, D.R.; Waldo, K.

    1990-11-01

    Computer graphics systems that provide interactive display and manipulation of three-dimensional data are powerful tools for the analysis and communication of technical information required for characterization and design of a geologic repository for nuclear waste. Greater understanding of site performance and repository design information is possible when performance-assessment modeling results can be visually analyzed in relation to site geologic and hydrologic information and engineering data for surface and subsurface facilities. In turn, this enhanced visualization capability provides better communication between technical staff and program management with respect to analysis of available information and prioritization of program planning. A commercially-available computer system was used to demonstrate some of the current technology for three-dimensional visualization within the architecture of systems for nuclear waste management. This computer system was used to interactively visualize and analyze the information for two examples: (1) site-characterization and engineering data for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and (2) three-dimensional simulations of a hypothetical release and transport of contaminants from a source of radionuclides to the vadose zone. Users may assess the three-dimensional distribution of data and modeling results by interactive zooming, rotating, slicing, and peeling operations. For those parts of the database where information is sparse or not available, the software incorporates models for the interpolation and extrapolation of data over the three-dimensional space of interest. 12 refs., 4 figs

  1. Enabling breakthroughs in Parkinson’s disease with wearable technologies and big data analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Martig, Adria K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is diagnosed and measured clinically by the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Tools for continuous and objective monitoring of PD motor symptoms are needed to complement clinical assessments of symptom severity to further inform PD therapeutic development across several arenas, from developing more robust clinical trial outcome measures to establishing biomarkers of disease progression. The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Disease Research and Intel Corporation have joined forces to develop a mobile application and an Internet of Things (IoT) platform to support large-scale studies of objective, continuously sampled sensory data from people with PD. This platform provides both population and per-patient analyses, measuring gait, activity level, nighttime activity, tremor, as well as other structured assessments and tasks. All data collected will be available to researchers on an open-source platform. Development of the IoT platform raised a number of engineering considerations, including wearable sensor choice, data management and curation, and algorithm validation. This project has successfully demonstrated proof of concept that IoT platforms, wearable technologies and the data they generate offer exciting possibilities for more robust, reliable, and low-cost research methodologies and patient care strategies. PMID:28293596

  2. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Efficient Drug and Gene Delivery Systems: Recent Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely applied as advanced drug and gene delivery nanosystems. Among them, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have attracted great attention as colloidal drug delivery systems for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs and various macromolecules as well as proteins and nucleic acids. Therefore, SLNs offer great promise for controlled and site specific drug and gene delivery. This article includes general information about SLN structures and properties, production procedures, characterization. In addition, recent progress on development of drug and gene delivery systems using SLNs was reviewed.

  3. The Relaunching of Negotiations on Green Goods and Services: Any breakthrough in Sight?

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; Vijil, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The Bali a minima agreement last December has given new hopes that the WTO is not dead. The recent announcement that negotiations on the reductions of tariffs on environmental goods are to resume starting from a list of goods identified by APEC members in September 2012 gives hope that the triple win outcome of the Doha round for trade, for development and for the environment-might materialize, at least partly. Or does it? This brève argues that unless the field of negotiations is widened, th...

  4. High-zinc rice as a breakthrough for high nutritional rice breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barokah, U.; Susanto, U.; Swamy, M.; Djoar, D. W.; Parjanto

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported climate change already takes 150,000 casualties annually, due to the emergence of various diseases and malnutrition caused by food shortages and disasters. Rice is the staple food for almost all of Indonesian citizens, therefore Zn biofortification on rice is expected to be effective, efficient, massive, and sustainable to overcome the Zn nutritional deficiency. This study aims to identify rice with high Zn content and yield for further effort in releasing this variety. Ten lines along with two varieties as a comparison (Ciherang and Inpari 5 Merawu) were tested in Plumbon Village, Mojolaban Subdistrict, Sukoharjo Regency during February-May 2017. The experiment was designed in a Randomized Completely Block Design with four replications on a 4 m x 5 m area, with 25 cm x 25 cm plant spacing using seedling transplanting techniques of 21 days old seeds. The results showed that the plant genotypes treated had differences in yield characteristics, heading date, harvest age, panicle number, filled and un-filled grain per panicle, seed set, 1000 grains weight, Zn and Iron (Fe) content in rice grain. B13884-MR-29-1-1 line (30.94 ppm Zn, 15.84 ppm Fe, 4.11 ton/ha yield) and IR 97477- 115-1-CRB-0-SKI-1-SKI-0-2 (29.61 ppm Zn, 13.49 ppm Zn, 4.4 ton/ha yield) are prospective variety to be released. Ciherang had Zn content of 23.04 ppm, 11.93 ppm Fe, and yield of 4.07 t/ha.

  5. Proposal and technological breakthrough of an integrated system for the complete usage of sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Nakao, Shin-ichi; Kato, Shigeru; Tsuji, Masamichi; Sugi, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    Serious troubles regarding scale formation may occur when the amount of recovered water from sea water increases. The main constituents of the scale are CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, all of which are salts of alkaline earth metals. Therefore, if a key technology is developed with which the main constituents of the scale, alkaline earth metal ions such as CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 , CaSO 4 and so on, can be removed and/or separated from sea water the recovery of desalted water from raw sea water using high-pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) can be increased up to 75-80%, the solubility limit of the remaining scale components. Then it will be possible to make use of all valuable materials that exist in sea water, using an integrated system that combines conventional recovery technologies with a set of the proposed technologies such as HPRO, an alkaline earth metal ions removal process, inorganic ion exchangers for recovering trace elements and so on. Furthermore, almost complete utilization of sea water may be accomplished by using of the brackish water by product for salt-resistant plants such as mangrove, salt bush and, if possible, gene-recombinated plants. (author)

  6. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  7. Business and Breakthrough: Framing (Expanded) Genetic Carrier Screening for the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Avery E; Canary, Heather E; Wong, Bob

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of research has given attention to issues surrounding genetic testing, including expanded carrier screening (ECS), an elective medical test that allows planning or expecting parents to consider the potential occurrence of genetic diseases and disorders in their children. These studies have noted the role of the mass media in driving public perceptions about such testing, giving particular attention to ways in which coverage of genetics and genetic testing broadly may drive public attitudes and choices concerning the morality, legality, ethics, and parental well-being involved in genetic technologies. However, few studies have explored how mass media are covering the newer test, ECS. Drawing on health-related framing studies that have shown in varying degrees the impact particular frames such as gain/loss and thematic/episodic can have on the public, this study examines the frame selection employed by online media in its coverage of ECS. This analysis-combined with an analysis of the sources and topics used in such coverage and how they relate to selected frames-helps to clarify how mass media are covering an increasingly important medical test and offers considerations of how such coverage may inform mass media scholarship as well as health-related practices.

  8. The Conspicuity of CRISPR-Cpf1 System as a Significant Breakthrough in Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Hadi; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahimpour, Azam

    2018-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is a microbial adaptive immune system. CRISPR-Cas systems are classified into two main classes and six types. Cpf1 is a putative type V (class II) CRISPR effector, which has revolutionized the genome editing approaches through multiple distinct features such as using T-rich protospacer-adjacent motif, applying a short guide RNA lacking trans-activating crRNA, introducing a staggered double-strand break, and possessing RNA processing activity in addition to DNA nuclease activity. In the present review, we attempt to highlight most recent advances in CRISPR-Cpf1 (CRISPR-Cas12a) system in particular, considering ground expeditions of the nature and the biology of this system, introducing novel Cpf1 variants that have broadened the versatility and feasibility of CRISPR-Cpf1 system, and lastly the great impact of the CRISPR-Cpf1 system on the manipulation of the genome of prokaryotic, mammalian, and plant models is summarized. With regard to recent developments in utilizing the CRISPR-Cpf1 system in genome editing of various organisms, it can be concluded with confidence that this system is a reliable molecular toolbox of genome editing approaches.

  9. Breakthrough In Current In Plane Metrology For Monitoring Large Scale MRAM Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The current-in-plane tunneling technique (CIPT) has been a crucial tool in the development of magnetic tunnel junction stacks suitable for Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAM) for more than a decade. The MRAM development has now reached the maturity to make the transition from R&D to large...... of the Resistance Area product (RA) and the Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements, compared to state of the art CIPT metrology tools dedicated to R&D. On two test wafers, the repeatability of RA and MR was improved up to 350% and the measurement reproducibility up to 1700%. We believe that CIPT metrology now...

  10. Modelling small scale infiltration experiments into bore cores of crystalline rock and break-through curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.; Jakob, A.

    1987-04-01

    Uranium infiltration experiments for small samples of crystalline rock have been used to model radionuclide transport. The theory, taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones, matrix diffusion out of these, and sorption, contains four independent parameters. It turns out, that the physical variables extracted from those of the best-fit parameters are consistent with values from literature and independent measurements. Moreover, the model results seem to differentiate between various geometries for the water conducting zones. Alpha-autoradiographies corroborate this result. A sensitivity analysis allows for a judgement on parameter dependences. Finally some proposals for further experiments are made. (author)

  11. Teacher and Student Perceptions on High School Science Flipped Classrooms: Educational Breakthrough or Media Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, Rebecca C.

    For years educators have struggled to ensure students meet the rigors of state mandated tests. Challenges that often impede student success are student absences, school closings due to weather, and remediation for students who need additional help while advanced students can move ahead. Many educators, especially secondary math and science teachers, have responded to these issues by implementing a teaching strategy called the flipped classroom where students view lectures, power points, or podcasts outside of school and class time shifts to allow opportunities for collaborative learning. The purpose of this research was to evaluate teacher and student perceptions of high school flipped science classrooms. A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to observe 3 high school science teachers from Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee selected through purposeful sampling who have used the flipped classroom method for a minimum of 2 years. Analysis of data from an online survey, direct observation, teacher interviews, and student focus groups helped to identify challenges and benefits of this teaching and learning strategy. Findings indicated that teachers find the flipped classroom beneficial to build student relationships but requires a significant amount of time to develop. Mixed student reactions revealed benefits of a flipped classroom as a successful learning tool for current and future endeavors for college or career preparation.

  12. How Modern Science Came into the World : Four Civilizations, One 17th-Century Breakthrough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, H. Floris

    2010-01-01

    Floris Cohen vernieuwt in How Modern Science Came into the World het begrip ‘de Wetenschappelijke Revolutie van de zeventiende eeuw’ radicaal. Hij vertelt het verhaal op een manier die van de grond af opnieuw is doordacht. Een beschavingsbrede aanpak, consequent volgehouden vergelijkingen en een

  13. Quality improvement in depression care in the Netherlands: the Depression Breakthrough Collaborative. A quality improvement report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.C.; Meeuwissen, J.A.; Sinnema, H.; Spijker, J.; Huyser, J.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Lange, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving the healthcare for patients with depression is a priority health policy across the world. Roughly, two major problems can be identified in daily practice: (1) the content of care is often not completely consistent with recommendations in guidelines and (2) the organization of

  14. Breakthrough and prospect of shale gas exploration and development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dazhong Dong; Yuman Wang; Xinjing Li; Caineng Zou; Quanzhong Guan; Chenchen Zhang; Jinliang Huang; Shufang Wang; Hongyan Wang; Honglin Liu; Wenhua Bai; Feng Liang; Wen Lin; Qun Zhao; Dexun Liu

    2016-01-01

    In the past five years, shale gas exploration and development has grown in a leaping-forward way in China. Following USA and Canada, China is now the third country where industrial shale gas production is realized, with the cumulative production exceeding 60 × 108 m3 until the end of 2015. In this paper, the main achievements of shale gas exploration and development in China in recent years were reviewed and the future development prospect was analyzed. It is pointed out that shale gas explor...

  15. "Knowledge Universe" and Virtual Schools: Educational Breakthrough or Digital Raid on the Public Treasury? Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Correspondence schools, motion pictures, radio, educational television, and computer-assisted instruction have all been hailed as technological innovations that would revolutionize education, reducing, if not eliminating entirely, education's dependence on traditional schools and their teachers. The latest innovation is "virtual…

  16. Exploitation of a Breakthrough in Magnetic Confinement Fusion to Improve Transuranic Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Nuclear and Radiation Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal non-fissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The centerpiece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS, 100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is about an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast spectrum reactors (FR) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades. The generic Hybrid, combining neutron-rich fusion with energy-rich fission, was first conceptualized several decades ago. However, it is only now that accumulated advances in fusion science and technology allow designing a neutron source like CFNS that is simultaneously compact and high power density, offering a neutron source an order of magnitude stronger than that obtained from accelerator driven systems. The former is essential for efficient coupling to the fission blanket, and the latter is key to efficient neutron production necessary to yield high neutron fluxes needed for effective transmutation. The recent invention of the SuperX-Divertor (SXD)1, a new magnetic configuration that allows the system to safely exhaust large heat and particle fluxes peculiar to CFNS-like devices, is a crucial addition to the underlying knowledge base. The subcritical FFTS acquires a definite advantage over the critical FR approach because of its ability to support an innovative fuel cycle that makes the cheaper LWR do the bulk (75%) of the transuranic transmutation via deep burn in an inert matrix fuel form. This cycle is not accessible to the FR approach because the remaining marginally fissionable long-term radio-toxic and bio-hazardous transuranics cannot be stably and safely burned in critical reactors. The fission part of the Hybrid consists of standard FR components; a sodium-cooled metal fueled lattice featuring geometry similar to that of the Generation-IV Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is proposed. The critical milestone in the development of the Hybrid lies in the realization of the CFNS as a relatively inexpensive, high source density fusion neutron source. 1. P. Valanju, M. Kotschenreuther, S. Mahajan, Fus. Eng. Des., (2008). (authors)

  17. Russia and the Iranian Nuclear Program: Replay or Breakthrough? (Strategic Perspectives, no. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Interfax– AVN Online, February 17, 2009, CEP20090217950042. 6 “Delivery of S–300 Air Defense Systems to Iran Could Be Postponed,” Interfax– AVN Online...analysis/20111115/168714032.html>. 5 “Hostilities against Iran would have unpredictable consequences—Lavrov (Part 2),” Interfax– AVN Online, November 7...Force, Death of Civilians in Iran,” Interfax– AVN Online, June 26, 2009, CEP20090626950139. This was a far cry from American reaction. Several days

  18. Feedback Control in Quantum Optics: An Overview of Experimental Breakthroughs and Areas of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Serafini

    2012-01-01

    We present a broad summary of research involving the application of quantum feedback control techniques to optical set-ups, from the early enhancement of optical amplitude squeezing to the recent stabilisation of photon number states in a microwave cavity, dwelling mostly on the latest experimental advances. Feedback control of quantum optical continuous variables, quantum non-demolition memories, feedback cooling, quantum state control, adaptive quantum measurements and coherent feedback str...

  19. Breakthrough therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kitayama, Joji; Ishigami, Hironori; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-11-15

    The effect of chemotherapy on peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric cancer remains unclear. Recently, the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of taxanes [e.g., paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DOC)] during the perioperative period has shown promising results. Herein, we summarized the rationale and methodology for using IP chemotherapy with taxanes and reviewed the clinical results. IP administered taxanes remain in the IP space at an extremely high concentration for 48-72 h. The drug directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules from the surface and then produces antitumor effects, making it ideal for IP chemotherapy. There are two types of perioperative IP chemotherapy with taxanes: neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy and sequential perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). In SPIC, patients receive neoadjuvant IP chemotherapy and the same regimen of IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) until disease progression. Usually, a taxane dissolved in 500-1000 mL of saline at ordinary temperature is administered through an IP access port on an outpatient basis. According to phase I studies, the recommended doses (RD) are as follows: IP DOC, 45-60 mg/m(2); IP PTX [without intravenous (IV) PTX], 80 mg/m(2); and IP PTX (with IV PTX), 20 mg/m(2). Phase II studies have reported a median survival time of 14.4-24.6 mo with a 1-year overall survival of 67%-78%. A phase III study comparing S-1 in combination with IP and IV PTX to S-1 with IV cisplatin started in 2011. The prognosis of patients who underwent CRS was better than that of those who did not; however, this was partly due to selection bias. Although several phase II studies have shown promising results, a randomized controlled study is needed to validate the effectiveness of IP chemotherapy with taxanes for PC of gastric cancer.

  20. Shape Memory Alloy connectors for Ultra High Vacuum applications: a breakthrough for accelerator technologies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091326; Garion, Cedric

    Beam-pipe coupling in particle accelerators is nowadays provided by metallic flanges that are tightly connected by several screws or heavy collars. Their installation and dismounting in radioactive areas contribute to the radiation doses received by the technical personnel. Owing to the increased proton-beam intensity and luminosity of the future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), radioactivity in some specific zones will be significantly higher than in the present LHC; the presence of the technical staff in these areas will be strictly controlled and minimized. Remote interventions are being considered, too. Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) offer a unique possibility to generate tight connections and fast clamping/unclamping by remotely changing the temperature of the junction unit. In fact, SMAs exhibit unique strain and stress recovery capabilities which are related to reversible phase transition mechanisms, induced thermally or mechanically. In this PhD work, a novel Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) coupling system based on ...

  1. New rules for transient advantage, social business, breakthrough innovation, big data and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Business models and processes are evolving in quicktime to take advantage of opportunities enabled by the rapid advance of digital technology. Meanwhile, the preferences of customers and the jobs they need to do are co-evolving. What's accelerating the transformation of markets is that, using digital networks, customers and other stakeholder can instantly influence the development of new offerings. As a result, upstart businesses that can connect with customers through new social channels burgeon and thrive and long-established segments suddenly wither and vanish. This book identifies several

  2. Enabling breakthroughs in Parkinson's disease with wearable technologies and big data analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shahar; Bataille, Lauren R; Martig, Adria K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is diagnosed and measured clinically by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Tools for continuous and objective monitoring of PD motor symptoms are needed to complement clinical assessments of symptom severity to further inform PD therapeutic development across several arenas, from developing more robust clinical trial outcome measures to establishing biomarkers of disease progression. The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Disease Research and Intel Corporation have joined forces to develop a mobile application and an Internet of Things (IoT) platform to support large-scale studies of objective, continuously sampled sensory data from people with PD. This platform provides both population and per-patient analyses, measuring gait, activity level, nighttime activity, tremor, as well as other structured assessments and tasks. All data collected will be available to researchers on an open-source platform. Development of the IoT platform raised a number of engineering considerations, including wearable sensor choice, data management and curation, and algorithm validation. This project has successfully demonstrated proof of concept that IoT platforms, wearable technologies and the data they generate offer exciting possibilities for more robust, reliable, and low-cost research methodologies and patient care strategies.

  3. The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC): A Multifunction, Low Power, Attitude Determination Technology Breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dennehy, Neil; Gambino, Joel; Maynard, Andrew; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Zinchuk, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC) is a miniature, low power, stellar inertial attitude determination system with an accuracy of better than 0.1 degree (1 sigma) in three axes. The ISC consumes only 3.5 Watts of power and is contained in a 2.5 kg package. With its embedded on-board processor, the ISC provides attitude quaternion information and has Lost-in-Space (LIS) initialization capability. The attitude accuracy and LIS capability are provided by combining a wide field of view Active Pixel Sensor (APS) star camera and Micro- ElectroMechanical System (MEMS) inertial sensor information in an integrated sensor system. The performance and small form factor make the ISC a useful sensor for a wide range of missions. In particular, the ISC represents an enabling, fully integrated, micro-satellite attitude determination system. Other applications include using the ISC as a single sensor solution for attitude determination on medium performance spacecraft and as a bolt on independent safe-hold sensor or coarse acquisition sensor for many other spacecraft. NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) has selected the ISC technology for a Space Technology 6 (ST6) flight validation experiment scheduled for 2004. NMP missions, such a s ST6, are intended to validate advanced technologies that have not flown in space in order to reduce the risk associated with their infusion into future NASA missions. This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of the ISC and outlines the technology validation plan. A number of mission applications for the ISC technology are highlighted, both for the baseline ST6 ISC configuration and more ambitious applications where ISC hardware and software modifications would be required. These applications demonstrate the wide range of Space and Earth Science missions that would benefit from infusion of the ISC technology.

  4. Family life clinics for Gulf state: Bahrain FPA helps bring a family planning breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Family life clinics which will provide family planning services alongside maternal and child health services and general counseling are opening in health centers throughout Bahrain and in the main hospital at Manama. Bahrain, a small island in the Arabian Gulf, formed its first Family Planning Association (FPA) just 4 years ago; and this new initiative is seen as a direct result of cooperation between FPA and the government. To spread family planning awareness and services particularly to the poorer section of the population, Bahrain's FPA developed in various stages. Stage 1, in 1975, was to attract and educate volunteers and channel their interest into special committees dealing with programs; public relations; child welfare; legal and medical affairs; research; and conferences and education. Stage 2 came with the need to coordinate the work and set up a 2-person staff and an office. Stage 3 developed with the first field campaign. Door-to-door visiting was tried but was not popular with volunteers or residents. Approaching the population through community clubs and institutions was tried with much success. The new family life clinics are the latest stage of a fruitful cooperation between FPA and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. In addition to the new family life clinics, an active effort to improve family planning awareness has continued using national seminars and mass media. Fund-raising is under way for a mobile,clinic which will provide health services and methods of contraception, to which there is still substantial resistance, to many on the island who have no exposure to the mass media. Wide acceptance of the need for family planning for the sake of mothers, the family, and the child is growing in Bahrain.

  5. Networking for ovarian rare tumors: a significant breakthrough improving disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiannilkulchai, N; Pautier, P; Genestie, C; Bats, A S; Vacher-Lavenu, M C; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, M; Treilleux, I; Floquet, A; Croce, S; Ferron, G; Mery, E; Pomel, C; Penault-Llorca, F; Lefeuvre-Plesse, C; Henno, S; Leblanc, E; Lemaire, A S; Averous, G; Kurtz, J E; Ray-Coquard, I

    2017-06-01

    Rare ovarian tumors represent >20% of all ovarian cancers. Given the rarity of these tumors, natural history, prognostic factors are not clearly identified. The extreme variability of patients (age, histological subtypes, stage) induces multiple and complex therapeutic strategies. Since 2011, a national network with a dedicated system for referral, up to 22 regional and three national reference centers (RC) has been supported by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). The network aims to prospectively monitor the management of rare ovarian tumors and provide an equal access to medical expertise and innovative treatments to all French patients through a dedicated website, www.ovaire-rare.org. Over a 5-year activity, 4612 patients have been included. Patients' inclusions increased from 553 in 2011 to 1202 in 2015. Expert pathology review and patients' files discussion in dedicated multidisciplinary tumor boards increased from 166 cases in 2011 (25%) to 538 (45%) in 2015. Pathology review consistently modified the medical strategy in 5-9% every year. The rate of patients' files discussed in RC similarly increased from 294 (53%) to 789 (66%). An increasing number (357 in 5 years) of gynecologic (non-ovarian) rare tumors were also registered by physicians seeking for pathological or medical advice from expert tumor boards. Such a nation-wide organization for rare gynecological tumors has invaluable benefits, not only for patients, but also for epidemiological, clinical and biological research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sutter: Breakthrough Telescope Innovation for Asteroid Survey Missions To Start a Gold Rush In Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PROBLEM: These are three primary reasons why it is important for NASA to develop better ways to locate and characterize Near Earth Objects (NEOs). First, NEOs are an...

  7. Achieving performance breakthroughs in an HMO business process through quality planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, K B

    1993-01-01

    Kaiser Permanente's Georgia Region commissioned a quality planning team to design a new process to improve payments to its suppliers and vendors. The result of the team's effort was a 73 percent reduction in cycle time. This team's experiences point to the advantages of process redesign as a quality planning model, as well as some general guidelines for its most effective use in teams. If quality planning project teams are carefully configured, sufficiently expert in the existing process, and properly supported by management, organizations can achieve potentially dramatic improvements in process performance using this approach.

  8. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    processing is one of the largest and oldest industries world-wide and responsible for a substantial resource consumption and pollution. Especially the wet processing part of the industry, i.e. pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing, is polluting and resource consuming in terms of both water, energy...... dyehouse, Trevira Neckelmann A/S, has now for two consecutive years successfully implemented direct water recycling saving 40 % water. Mass Integration and water pinch techniques were used to identify the potentials and combined with textile intelligence to achieve the best system design for the reuse...... of water, energy and chemicals. The same approach of combining pinch techniques and textile intelligence was applied in South African textile industry. System designs for water recycling in both cotton and acrylic wet treatment were developed. The system for cotton was successfully documented in full scale...

  9. Collision Welding of Dissimilar Materials by Vaporizing Foil Actuator: A Breakthrough Technology for Dissimilar Metal Joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, Glenn S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Vivek, Anupam [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, Bert C. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-30

    This work demonstrated and further developed Vaporizing Foil Actuator Welding (VFAW) as a viable technique for dissimilar-metal joining for automotive lightweighting applications. VFAW is a novel impact welding technology, which uses the pressure developed from electrically-assisted rapid vaporization of a thin aluminum foil (the consumable) to launch and ultimately collide two of more pieces of metal to create a solid-state bond between them. 18 dissimilar combinations of automotive alloys from the steel, aluminum and magnesium alloy classes were screened for weldability and characterized by metallography of weld cross sections, corrosion testing, and mechanical testing. Most combinations, especially a good number of Al/Fe pairs, were welded successfully. VFAW was even able to weld combinations of very high strength materials such as 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys to boron and dual phase steels, which is difficult to impossible by other joining techniques such as resistance spot welding, friction stir welding, or riveting. When mechanically tested, the samples routinely failed in a base metal rather than along the weld interface, showing that the weld was stronger than either of the base metals. As for corrosion performance, a polymer-based protective coating was used to successfully combat galvanic corrosion of 5 Al/Fe pairs through a month-long exposure to warm salt fog. In addition to the technical capabilities, VFAW also consumes little energy compared to conventional welding techniques and requires relatively light, flexible tooling. Given the technical and economic advantages, VFAW can be a very competitive joining technology for automotive lightweighting. The success of this project and related activities has resulted in substantial interest not only within the research community but also various levels of automotive supply chain, which are collaborating to bring this technology to commercial use.

  10. Deadlocks and breakthroughs in urban renewal : A network analysis in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Elsinga, M.

    2009-01-01

    Urban renewal in the Netherlands has become a matter of ‘networking’. Housing associations, Dutch social landlords, became financially independent in the 1990s and have a responsibility in urban renewal. It is a joint responsibility in which local authority, social landlord and tenants are dependent

  11. Decarbonising the Hungarian Electricity and Heat Sectors: What Is the Least impossible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaderjak, P.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation will report on an economic assessment of decarbonisation scenarios for the Hungarian electricity and heat sectors by 2050. The assessment is based on economic modeling that assumes an expanding application of existing technologies. The results suggest that CO 2 abatement in the heat sector might be a cheaper and more realistic option for decarbonisation in the Hungarian case. With regard to the electricity sector, decarbonisation foreseen in the Commission's 2050 vision (90-95%) is not feasible without a massive application of CCS technology or without a non-foreseeable technology breakthrough.(author)

  12. African American Social Work Faculty: Overcoming Existing Barriers and Achieving Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Holosko, Michael J.; Briggs, Harold E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the scholarship experiences of top-ranked African American faculty in schools of social work. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted with N = 10 top-ranked African American faculty identified as achieving considerable productivity and impact of scholarship. Findings: Four major themes were identified, each of…

  13. Social Media: Valuable Tools in Today’s Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Lee Odden, ―Best and Worst Practices Social Media Marketing,‖ Top Rank® Online Market Blog, entry posted 12 February 2009, http://www.toprankblog.com...1001 (accessed 30 March 2011). Odden, Lee. ―Best and Worst Practices Social Media Marketing.‖ Top Rank® Online Market Blog, entry posted 12

  14. Law proposal detailing the modalities of creation of an installation for the reversible storage in deep geological layers of high and intermediate level and long life radioactive wastes (Sent back to the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning, because of a failure of constituting a special commission within delays as foreseen in articles 30 and 31 of the rules) - Nr 3210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Deaut, Jean-Yves; Dumont, Jean-Louis; Bataille, Christian; Le Dain, Anne-Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This law proposal contains adjustments to the legal arrangement implemented in 2006 for a normal continuation of the project of a reversible storage in deep geological layers. It defines the notion of reversibility, specifies that the exploitation of the installation must start with a pilot industrial phase, and defines the authorisation procedure for such an installation and the project schedule. It also contains technical arrangements which are required for the request of authorisation of creation of the installation

  15. Screening metal-organic frameworks by analysis of transient breakthrough of gas mixtures in a fixed bed adsorber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.; Long, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer considerable potential for separating a variety of mixtures that are important in applications such as CO2 capture and H2 purification. In view of the vast number of MOFs that have been synthesized, there is a need for a reliable procedure for comparing

  16. The Influence of Low Salivary Flow Rates on the Absorption of a Sublingual Fentanyl Citrate Formulation for Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Mundin, Gill; Vriens, Joanna; Webber, Kath; Buchanan, Alison; Waghorn, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction may affect the absorption of drugs through the oral mucosa, which in turn may affect their clinical efficacy (e.g., onset of action). The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of a sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet (Abstral, Prostrakan Inc.) in a group of cancer patients with salivary gland hypofunction. Nine cancer patients with salivary gland hypofunction underwent a series of three pharmacokinetic studies with the sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet. In the first phase, the patients received no pretreatment; in the second phase, the patients were allowed to moisten the oral cavity before dosing; in the third phase, the patients were given pilocarpine hydrochloride (saliva stimulant) before dosing. Fentanyl concentrations were measured using a method of high-performance liquid chromatography with validated tandem mass spectrometric detection. The Tmax was longer, the Cmax was lower, the AUC0-30 lower, and the AUClast lower in the phase involving no pretreatment; the Tmax/Cmax/AUC0-30/AUClast were similar in the phase involving moistening of the oral cavity and the phase involving giving pilocarpine hydrochloride. The pharmacokinetics of the sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet appear to be negatively affected by the presence of salivary gland hypofunction, although the moistening of the oral cavity before dosing results in a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that seen with the giving of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent breakthrough and outlook in constraining the non-Newtonian gravity and axion-like particles from Casimir physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimchitskaya, G.L. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology and Telecommunications, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    The strongest constraints on the Yukawa-type corrections to Newton's gravitational law and on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons, following from recently performed experiments of Casimir physics, are presented. Specifically, the constraints obtained from measurements of the lateral and normal Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces, and from the isoelectronic experiment are considered, and the ranges of their greatest strength are refined. Minor modifications in the experimental setups are proposed which allow for strengthening the resultant constraints up to an order of magnitude. The comparison with some weaker constraints derived in the Casimir regime is also made. (orig.)

  18. Breakthrough in precision (0.3 percent) of neutron activation analyses applied to provenience studies of obsidian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaro, Frank; Stross, Fred H.; Burger, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer at LBNL (the Luis W. Alvarez Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer), that was specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of iridium abundances, has been significantly modified in order to provide precisions of measurement in neutron activation analysis of obsidian significantly better than previously obtained (about 1%). Repeated measurements on a single sample of obsidian from a deposit near Chivay, Arequipa, Peru, showed a precision (average coefficient of variation) of 0.19% for the 6 best-measured elements, the value anticipated from the known random errors of measurement. In measurement of samples made from 7 different obsidian nodules from two locations near Chivay, a group of 5 had a spread of 0.30% for the 6 elements measured with counting statistics of better than 0.3% (and 1.8% for the remaining 6 elements). The data suggest there are source inhomogeneity and/or sample preparation contamination errors totaling 0.24 ± .05% for the 6 best measured elements. A sixth obsidian sample could be distinguished from the main group because it differed by +0.8% for most elements, and the last sample could be easily distinguished because several elements differed by more than 1%. The precision of measurements now being developed may provide a significantly more precise determination of the provenience of obsidian artifacts than has been heretofore possible. Also the techniques of measurement developed for obsidian will provide even better precisions with pottery, as many elements are more abundant in pottery than in obsidian

  19. Break-through bleeding in relation to predicted factor VIII levels in patients receiving prophylactic treatment for severe hemophilia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P. W.; Blanchette, V. S.; Fischer, K.; Bjorkman, S.; Oh, M.; Fritsch, S.; Schroth, P.; Spotts, G.; Astermark, J.; Ewenstein, B.

    Background: The role of prophylactic factor VIII (FVIII) to decrease hemophilic bleeding and arthropathy is well established. The rationale for this strategy is to convert patients with severe hemophilia A to a moderate clinical phenotype by reducing time spent with a FVIII level <1 IU dL(-1).

  20. Specific methodology for capacitance imaging by atomic force microscopy: A breakthrough towards an elimination of parasitic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Ivan [Laboratoire de Génie Électrique de Paris (LGEP), UMR 8507 CNRS-Supélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Paris 06 Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis (France); Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: houze@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Électrique de Paris (LGEP), UMR 8507 CNRS-Supélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Paris 06 Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-02-24

    On the basis of a home-made nanoscale impedance measurement device associated with a commercial atomic force microscope, a specific operating process is proposed in order to improve absolute (in sense of “nonrelative”) capacitance imaging by drastically reducing the parasitic effects due to stray capacitance, surface topography, and sample tilt. The method, combining a two-pass image acquisition with the exploitation of approach curves, has been validated on sets of calibration samples consisting in square parallel plate capacitors for which theoretical capacitance values were numerically calculated.

  1. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expec...

  2. Relational Challenges and Breakthroughs: How Pre-Service English Teachers' Figured Worlds Impact Their Relationships with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, April S.; Kibler, Amanda K.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Figured worlds have been conceptualized as spaces, or "realms" (Holland, Skinner, Lachicotte, & Cain, 1998), where individuals assign meaning and significance to actors and characters or understand what they take as "typical or normal" (Gee, 2014). This study applies a lens of figured worlds to…

  3. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannetti, Biagio F.; Agostinho, Feni; Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B.; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high environmental loading ratio (24.95 and 27.47). While the environmental cost–benefit ratio shows that recycling is a favorable option, the emergy performance indicators highlight that the efficiency of recycling is still insufficient and improvements in the tanning processes are needed to ensure renewability and sustainability. A number of process chemicals were involved in the investigated tannery operations, which required emergy evaluations. As a side result of this study, the Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) of SO 2 , H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 , HCL, Na 2 S, NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH) 2 , Cr 2 O 3 , MnSO 4 , and Al(OH) 3 , were also calculated thus adding to the emergy database about chemicals. - Highlights: • Cleaner production strategies for tannery processes are presented and evaluated. • Local and global scales are considered under economical and biophysical approaches. • A multicriteria approach should be considered for decision making. • Recycling strategies have better indicators than traditional processes. • Emergy integrates energy and monetary indicators for more comprehensive assessment

  4. Antiplatelet Regimen for Patients With Breakthrough Strokes While on Aspirin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng; Saver, Jeffrey L; Hong, Keun-Sik; Rao, Neal M; Wu, Yi-Ling; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Optimal antiplatelet therapy after an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while on aspirin is uncertain. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed (1966 to August 2016) and bibliographies of relevant published original studies to identify randomized trials and cohort studies reporting patients who were on aspirin at the time of an index ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and reported hazard ratio for major adverse cardiovascular events or recurrent stroke associated with a switch to or addition of another antiplatelet agent versus maintaining aspirin monotherapy. Estimates were combined using a random effects model. Five studies with 8723 patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were identified. Clopidogrel was used in 4 cohorts, and ticagrelor was used in 1 cohort. Pooling results showed that addition of or a switch to another antiplatelet agent, versus aspirin monotherapy, was associated with reduced risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.85) and recurrent stroke (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.92). Each of the strategies of addition of and switching another antiplatelet agent showed benefit versus continued aspirin monotherapy, and studies with regimen initiation in the first days after index event showed more homogenous evidence of benefit. Among patients who experience an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack while on aspirin monotherapy, the addition of or a switch to another antiplatelet agent, especially in the first days after index event, is associated with fewer future vascular events, including stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. RCSB Protein Data Bank: Sustaining a living digital data resource that enables breakthroughs in scientific research and biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Stephen K; Berman, Helen M; Christie, Cole; Duarte, Jose M; Feng, Zukang; Westbrook, John; Young, Jasmine; Zardecki, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is one of two archival resources for experimental data central to biomedical research and education worldwide (the other key Primary Data Archive in biology being the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration). The PDB currently houses >134,000 atomic level biomolecular structures determined by crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and 3D electron microscopy. It was established in 1971 as the first open-access, digital-data resource in biology, and is managed by the Worldwide Protein Data Bank partnership (wwPDB; wwpdb.org). US PDB operations are conducted by the RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB; RCSB.org; Rutgers University and UC San Diego) and funded by NSF, NIH, and DoE. The RCSB PDB serves as the global Archive Keeper for the wwPDB. During calendar 2016, >591 million structure data files were downloaded from the PDB by Data Consumers working in every sovereign nation recognized by the United Nations. During this same period, the RCSB PDB processed >5300 new atomic level biomolecular structures plus experimental data and metadata coming into the archive from Data Depositors working in the Americas and Oceania. In addition, RCSB PDB served >1 million RCSB.org users worldwide with PDB data integrated with ∼40 external data resources providing rich structural views of fundamental biology, biomedicine, and energy sciences, and >600,000 PDB101.rcsb.org educational website users around the globe. RCSB PDB resources are described in detail together with metrics documenting the impact of access to PDB data on basic and applied research, clinical medicine, education, and the economy. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  6. Fighting global warming by greenhouse gas removal: destroying atmospheric nitrous oxide thanks to synergies between two breakthrough technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Tingzhen; de Richter, Renaud; Shen, Sheng; Caillol, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Even if humans stop discharging CO2 into the atmosphere, the average global temperature will still increase during this century. A lot of research has been devoted to prevent and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the atmosphere, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one of the technologies that might help to limit emissions. In complement, direct CO2 removal from the atmosphere has been proposed after the emissions have occurred. But, the removal of all the excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 will not be enough, due to the fact that CO2 outgases from the ocean as its solubility is dependent of its atmospheric partial pressure. Bringing back the Earth average surface temperature to pre-industrial levels would require the removal of all previously emitted CO2. Thus, the atmospheric removal of other greenhouse gases is necessary. This article proposes a combination of disrupting techniques to transform nitrous oxide (N2O), the third most important greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of current radiative forcing, which is harmful for the ozone layer and possesses quite high global warming potential. Although several scientific publications cite "greenhouse gas removal," to our knowledge, it is the first time innovative solutions are proposed to effectively remove N2O or other GHGs from the atmosphere other than CO2.

  7. Exploring the limits for CO2 emission abatement in the EU power and industry sectors—Awaiting a breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the prospects for presently available abatement technologies to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions from large stationary sources of CO 2 in the EU up to year 2050. The study covers power generation, petroleum refining, iron and steel, and cement production. By simulating capital stock turnover, scenarios that assume future developments in the technology stock, energy intensities, fuel and production mixes, and the resulting CO 2 emissions were generated for each sector. The results confirm that the EU goal for reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emission in the sectors covered by the EU Emission Trading System, i.e., 21% reduction by 2020 as compared to the levels in 2005, is attainable with the abatement measures that are already available. However, despite the optimism regarding the potential for, and implementation of, available abatement strategies within current production processes, our results indicate that the power and industrial sectors will fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in both the medium term (2030) and long term (2050). Deliberate exclusion from the analysis of mitigation technologies that are still in the early phases of development (e.g., CO 2 capture and storage) provides an indirect measure of the requirements for novel low-carbon technologies and production processes. - Highlights: • Explore the limits for CO 2 emission abatement within current production processes. • Analysis of scenarios for CO 2 emissions from EU power and industrial sectors 2010–2050. • Short-term (2020) emission targets are attainable with available abatement measures. • Fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in the long term (2050). • Efforts to develop new low-carbon production processes need to be accelerated

  8. Endoscopic management is the preferred treatment modality for a Grade III vesicoureteric reflux with breakthrough infections in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic injection treatment for VUR appears to have less success rate than open surgical treatment, even in Gr 3 VUR. Economics of use of deflux injection and its success rate do not suit Indian milieu. To achieve high success rate of Atlanta group in endoscopic injection treatmnent , requires a longer learning curve and yet it has not achieved success rate of 96-98% achieved by open surgical techniques. Recent addition of modified extravesical reimplantation technique has reduced significantly the post operative pain and patient can be discharged within 2 days from the hospital.

  9. Experimental investigation of the impact of compound-specific dispersion and electrostatic interactions on transient transport and solute breakthrough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    . The experimental results show that compound-specific effects and charge-induced Coulombic interactions are important not only at low velocities and/or for steady state plumes but also for transient transport under high flow velocities. Such effects can lead to a remarkably different behavior of measured....... The latter is based on the multicomponent formulation of coupled diffusive/dispersive fluxes and was used to describe and explain the electrostatic effects of charged species. Furthermore, we determined experimentally the temporal profiles of the flux-related dilution index. This metric of mixing, used...

  10. The Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation: Soviet Breakthrough and Pursuit in the Arctic, October 1944 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    A road also joined Salmiiarvi, Nikel , and Luostari. East of Petsamo and Luostari were three trunk roads that supported the three division-size...allowed for all-around observation and fire and was surrounded by barbed- wire obstacles and minefields, as needed. The size of each strongpoint...positions guarded the approaches to Petsamo and Luostari. Additional defensive positions protected the mines at Nikel , the port at Liinakhamari

  11. Highly efficient inactivation of bacteria found in drinking water using chitosan-bentonite composites: Modelling and breakthrough curve analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, Sarah C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of bacterially-contaminated drinking water requires a robust and effective technique and can be achieved by using an appropriate disinfectant material. The advanced use of nanomaterials is observed as an alternative and effective way...

  12. Development of Breakthrough Technology for Spaceflight Microwave Radiometers’ RFI Noise Detection and Mitigation Based on the HHT2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft passive radiometry makes use of natural thermal emissions to remotely sense Earth phenomena of interest to science (surface moisture, for example) in...

  13. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Biagio F. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Agostinho, Feni, E-mail: feni@unip.br [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Ulgiati, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ulgiati@uniparthenope.it [Università degli studi di Napoli, Parthenope (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high environmental loading ratio (24.95 and 27.47). While the environmental cost–benefit ratio shows that recycling is a favorable option, the emergy performance indicators highlight that the efficiency of recycling is still insufficient and improvements in the tanning processes are needed to ensure renewability and sustainability. A number of process chemicals were involved in the investigated tannery operations, which required emergy evaluations. As a side result of this study, the Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) of SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HCL, Na{sub 2}S, NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnSO{sub 4}, and Al(OH){sub 3}, were also calculated thus adding to the emergy database about chemicals. - Highlights: • Cleaner production strategies for tannery processes are presented and evaluated. • Local and global scales are considered under economical and biophysical approaches. • A multicriteria approach should be considered for decision making. • Recycling strategies have better indicators than traditional processes. • Emergy integrates energy and monetary indicators for more comprehensive assessment.

  14. On promotion of base technologies of atomic energy. Aiming at breakthrough in atomic energy technologies in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization decided in June, 1987 by the Atomic Energy Commission, it was recognized that hereafter, the opening-up of the new potential that atomic energy possesses should be aimed at, and the policy was shown so that the research and development hereafter place emphasis on the creative and innovative region which causes large technical innovation, by which the spreading effect to general science and technology can be expected, and the development of the base technologies that connect the basic research and project development is promoted. The trend of atomic energy development so far, the change of the situation surrounding atomic energy, the direction of technical development of atomic energy hereafter and the base technologies are discussed. The concept of the technical development of materilas, artificial intelligence, lasers, and the evaluation and reduction of radiation risks used for atomic energy is described. As the development plan of atomic energy base technologies, the subjects of technical development, the future image of technical development, the efficient promotion of the development and so on are shown. (Kato, I.).

  15. Stem cell research: licit or complicit? Is a medical breakthrough based on embryonic and fetal tissue compatible with Catholic teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branick, V; Lysaught, M T

    1999-01-01

    In November 1998 biologists announced that they had discovered a way to isolate and preserve human stem cells. Since stem cells are capable of developing into any kind of human tissue or organ, this was a great scientific coup. Researchers envision using the cells to replace damaged organs and to restore tissue destroyed by, for example, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, or even Alzheimer's. But, since stem cells are taken from aborted embryonic and fetal tissue or "leftover" in vitro embryos, their use raises large ethical issues. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently decided to fund research employing, not stem cells, but "cell lines" derived from them. The NIH has essentially made an ethical determination, finding sufficient "distance" between cell lines and abortion. Can Catholic universities sponsoring biological research agree with this finding? Probably not. In Catholic teaching, the concept of "complicity" would likely preclude such research. However, Catholic teaching would probably allow research done with stem cells obtained from postpartum placental tissue and from adult bone marrow and tissue. These cells, which lack the pluripotency of embryonic and fetal stem cells, are nevertheless scientifically promising and do not involve the destruction of human life.

  16. Ruthenium–Platinum Catalysts and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC: A Review of Theoretical and Experimental Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Moura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing miniaturization of devices creates the need for adequate power sources and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC are a strong option in the various possibilities under current development. DMFC catalysts are mostly based on platinum, for its outperformance in three key areas (activity, selectivity and stability within methanol oxidation framework. However, platinum poisoning with products of methanol oxidation led to the use of alloys. Ruthenium–platinum alloys are preferred catalysts active phases for methanol oxidation from an industrial point of view and, indeed, ruthenium itself is a viable catalyst for this reaction. In addition, the route of methanol decomposition is crucial in the goal of producing H2 from water reaction with methanol. However, the reaction pathway remains elusive and new approaches, namely in computational methods, have been ensued to determine it. This article reviews the various recent theoretical approaches for determining the pathway of methanol decomposition, and systematizes their validation with experimental data, within methodological context.

  17. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Breakthrough Design and Implementation of Many-Body Theories for Electron Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So Hirata

    2012-01-03

    This report discusses the following highlights of the project: (1) grid-based Hartree-Fock equation solver; (2) explicitly correlated coupled-cluster and perturbation methods; (3) anharmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrationally averaged NMR and structural parameters of FHF; (4) anharmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrationally averaged structures of hydrocarbon combustion species; (5) anharmonic vibrational analysis of the guanine-cytosine base pair; (6) the nature of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation; (7) Polymers and solids Brillouin-zone downsampling - the modulo MP2 method; (8) explicitly correlated MP2 for extended systems; (9) fast correlated method for molecular crystals - solid formic acid; and (10) fast correlated method for molecular crystals - solid hydrogen fluoride.

  18. A modelling breakthrough for market design analysis to test massive intermittent generation integration in markets results of selected OPTIMATE studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaude, Francois; Atayi, A.; Bourmaud, J.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    The OPTIMATE1 platform focuses on electricity system and market designs modelling in order to assess current and innovative designs in Europe. The current paper describes the results of the first validation studies' conducted with the tool. These studies deal with day-ahead market rules, load...... flexibility, cross-border management and intermittent renewable support schemes with a view to better integrating large amounts of renewable energy in Europe. Market and system designs were assessed based on economic efficiency, security of supply2 and environmental impact3 indicators. These results give...

  19. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative on Service Integration: A Mixed Methods Study of a Strengths-Based Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Lietz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Arizona’s Department of Economic Security (DES engaged in a strengths-based initiative to increase quality and integration of human services. Twenty teams including employees from state agencies, community leaders, and families were brought together to discuss and implement improvements to a variety of social services. A mixed methods study was conducted to explore the complex process of forming diverse teams to strengthen social services. Specifically, the research team conducted focus groups to collect qualitative data from a purposive sample of the teams to explore their experiences in greater depth. Analysis of the data led to the development of an online survey instrument that allowed all collaborative members an opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest that while the teams faced many challenges, a commitment to the process brought perseverance, communication, and creativity allowing this collaborative to initiate 105 activities to bring about positive changes in social services within their communities.

  20. Breakthrough dynamics of s-metolachlor metabolites in drinking water wells: Transport pathways and time to trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlin, Julien; Gallé, Tom; Bayerle, Michael; Pittois, Denis; Köppchen, Stephan; Krause, Martina; Hofmann, Diana

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a two years study on the contamination of the Luxembourg Sandstone aquifer by metolachlor-ESA and metolachlor-OXA, two major transformation products of s-metolachlor. The aim of the study was twofold: (i) assess whether elevated concentrations of both transformation products (up to 1000 ng/l) were due to fast flow breakthough events of short duration or the signs of a contamination of the entire aquifer and (ii) estimate the time to trend reversal once the parent compound was withdrawn from the market. These two questions were addressed by a combined use of groundwater monitoring, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of the fate of the degradation products in the subsurface. Twelve springs were sampled weekly over an eighteen month period, and the degradation rates of both the parent compound and its transformation products were measured on a representative soil in the laboratory using a radiolabeled precursor. Modelling with the numeric code PEARL simulating pesticide fate in soil coupled to a simple transfer function model for the aquifer compartment, and calibrated from the field and laboratory data, predicts a significant damping by the aquifer of the peaks of concentration of both metolachlor-ESA and -OXA leached from the soil. The time to trend reversal following the ban of s-metolachlor in spring protection zones should be observed before the end of the decade, while the return of contaminant concentrations below the drinking water limit of 100 ng/l however is expected to last up to twelve years. The calculated contribution to total water discharge of the fast-flow component from cropland and short-circuiting the aquifer was small in most springs (median of 1.2%), but sufficient to cause additional peaks of concentration of several hundred nanograms per litre in spring water. These peaks are superimposed on the more steady contamination sustained by the base flow, and should cease immediately once application of the parent compound stops.

  1. Breakthrough in precision (0.3 percent) of neutron activation analyses applied to provenience studies of obsidian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaro, Frank; Stross, Fred H.; Burger, Richard L.

    2002-10-01

    A gamma ray spectrometer at LBNL (the Luis W. Alvarez Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer), that was specifically designed for high sensitivity measurements of iridium abundances, has been significantly modified in order to provide precisions of measurement in neutron activation analysis of obsidian significantly better than previously obtained (about 1%). Repeated measurements on a single sample of obsidian from a deposit near Chivay, Arequipa, Peru, showed a precision (average coefficient of variation) of 0.19% for the 6 best-measured elements, the value anticipated from the known random errors of measurement. In measurement of samples made from 7 different obsidian nodules from two locations near Chivay, a group of 5 had a spread of 0.30% for the 6 elements measured with counting statistics of better than 0.3% (and 1.8% for the remaining 6 elements). The data suggest there are source inhomogeneity and/or sample preparation contamination errors totaling 0.24 {+-} .05% for the 6 best measured elements. A sixth obsidian sample could be distinguished from the main group because it differed by +0.8% for most elements, and the last sample could be easily distinguished because several elements differed by more than 1%. The precision of measurements now being developed may provide a significantly more precise determination of the provenience of obsidian artifacts than has been heretofore possible. Also the techniques of measurement developed for obsidian will provide even better precisions with pottery, as many elements are more abundant in pottery than in obsidian.

  2. Top-down approach is possible strategy for predicting breakthrough fUTIs and renal scars in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shina; Kanai, Takahiro; Hyuga, Taiju; Nakamura, Shigeru; Aoyagi, Jun; Ito, Takane; Saito, Takashi; Odaka, Jun; Furukawa, Rieko; Aihara, Toshinori; Nakai, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    Acute-phase technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy is recommended for initial imaging in children with febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI). Recently, the importance of identifying patients at risk of recurrent fUTI (r-fUTI) has been emphasized. To clarify the effectiveness of DMSA scintigraphy for predicting r-fUTI in infants, we investigated the relationship between defects on DMSA scintigraphy and r-fUTI. Seventy-nine consecutive infants (male: female, 60:19) with fUTI were enrolled in this study. DMSA scintigraphy was performed in the acute phase, and patients with defect underwent voiding cystourethrography and chronic-phase (6 months later) DMSA scintigraphy. Patients were followed on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP). Defects on acute-phase DMSA scintigraphy were observed in 32 children (40.5%) of 79. The mean follow-up observation period was 17.0 ± 10.1 months. Four patients had r-fUTI (5%). Two of them had defects on DMSA scintigraphy in both the acute phase and chronic phase, and had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade IV. Two others had r-fUTI without defects on DMSA and did not have VUR. Twelve patients had defect on chronic-phase DMSA scintigraphy and four of them had no VUR. The top-down approach is a possible method for predicting r-fUTI in infants and does not miss clinically significant VUR. Also, given that the prevalence of r-fUTI was 5% regardless of the presence of defects on acute-phase DMSA, then, in conjunction with genital hygiene and CAP, acute-phase DMSA might be unnecessary if chronic-phase DMSA is performed for all patients to detect renal scar. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. The breakthrough of common rail system. Closed-loop control strategy using injector with built-in pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaki, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko; Ishizuka, Koji; Sasaki, Satoru [DENSO Corporation, Aichi-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    DENSO has developed the world's first common rail system injector with built-in pressure sensor. This technology makes it possible to execute closed loop injection control in the cylinders, which has been one of the most challenging issues for diesel engine systems. Attaining both further fuel economy and emission reduction requires further technological innovation in the air system and fuel injection system. With the combustion technology that has been developed, stable combustion with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required in order to reduce nitrogen oxide's (NOx), however robustness is also required in order to handle bio-diesel and low-cetane value fuels and the range for attaining this is extremely narrow. Therefore, for the fuel injection system, in addition to conventional high pressure and high response, lifetime accuracy compensation is key. With this newly developed technology, the fuel injection rate, which determines the combustion within the engine cylinders, is directly detected and controlled in a closed loop to allow precise compensation of the injection system for its entire service life. Highly advanced injection control allows for extremely close multiple injections and variable injection rate control to be possible on the mass production level for the first time. Furthermore, the use of this technology can provide three major advantages for the overall engine system. Firstly succeeds in an expansion of the possible calibration range, which improves fuel economy and emissions, secondly it provides an improvement in the overall engine robustness and reliability. Thirdly, the use of closed loop control makes it possible to greatly reduce the man-hours required for calibration. Given this, the new DENSO common rail system using injectors with built-in pressure sensors is the first step to opening up a new era of diesel engine control. (orig.)

  4. Product development in the socio-sphere game changing paradigms for 21st century breakthrough product development and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of a number of game-changing paradigms that are anticipated to reshape 21st century product development. Topics including cloud computing-based design, cloud manufacturing, crowd-sourcing and mass collaboration, open source and social product development will be discussed in the context of advanced distributed and collaborative product creation. The purpose of the book is threefold: (1) to provide decision makers in industry with a solid base for strategic design and manufacturing-related process re-organization; (2) to provide researchers and scientist with the state-of-the-art from an academic perspective as well as a research agenda aimed at advancing the theoretical foundations of the field; and (3) to serve as supplementary reading in design and manufacturing-related courses at universities and technical colleges.

  5. A breakthrough low energy desalination process : production of sustainable water from brackish water for the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, M.; Sparrow, B.; Zoshi, J. [Saltwork Technologies Inc., BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an innovative desalination system pilot study that is currently being conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The thermo-ionic proof-tested system has the potential to achieve an electrical energy consumption rate of less than 1 kW per m{sup 3} through the harnessing of low grade heat. The energy transfer is accomplished by manipulating concentration gradients established and maintained through the evaporation of salt water into the atmosphere. The ion exchange mechanism reduced pre-treatment requirements and provided a self-cleaning mechanism to maintain steady production levels. The electrical energy created during the process was used to run low-pressure circulation pumps and process controls. The driving force for evaporation was the vapor pressure difference between the solution and moisture in the air. Discharges from the system can be tuned to various salt water concentrations. Results of the pilot study to date indicate that it is suitable for use in oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. High-throughput materials discovery and development: breakthroughs and challenges in the mapping of the materials genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    High-Throughput Quantum-Mechanics computation of materials properties by ab initio methods has become the foundation of an effective approach to materials design, discovery and characterization. This data driven approach to materials science currently presents the most promising path to the development of advanced technological materials that could solve or mitigate important social and economic challenges of the 21st century. In particular, the rapid proliferation of computational data on materials properties presents the possibility to complement and extend materials property databases where the experimental data is lacking and difficult to obtain. Enhanced repositories such as AFLOWLIB open novel opportunities for structure discovery and optimization, including uncovering of unsuspected compounds, metastable structures and correlations between various properties. The practical realization of these opportunities depends almost exclusively on the the design of efficient algorithms for electronic structure simulations of realistic material systems beyond the limitations of the current standard theories. In this talk, I will review recent progress in theoretical and computational tools, and in particular, discuss the development and validation of novel functionals within Density Functional Theory and of local basis representations for effective ab-initio tight-binding schemes. Marco Buongiorno Nardelli is a pioneer in the development of computational platforms for theory/data/applications integration rooted in his profound and extensive expertise in the design of electronic structure codes and in his vision for sustainable and innovative software development for high-performance materials simulations. His research activities range from the design and discovery of novel materials for 21st century applications in renewable energy, environment, nano-electronics and devices, the development of advanced electronic structure theories and high-throughput techniques in materials genomics and computational materials design, to an active role as community scientific software developer (QUANTUM ESPRESSO, WanT, AFLOWpi)

  7. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  8. EIT and the Popular Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board SOHO, designed and built by Principal Investigator Jean-Pierre Delaboudiniere and his French/Belgan/US team, has produced numerous scientific breakthroughs, and has become both the standard coronal finder telescope and the determinant of whether halo coronal mass ejections are earthward-directed. Due to the dramatic nature of the images produced by EIT over the last nearly ten years, those images have been adopted worldwide in a manner no one could have foreseen before the launch of SOHO. I examine a small sample of the many scientific, commercial, and cultural uses of EIT imagery from the last decade in order to demonstrate how well-visualized, scientific imagery can first penetrate and then become an accepted part of the popular imagination.

  9. 76 FR 42164 - Announcement of Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... the entries, starting from the top-ranked entry, the entrants will be eligible to share in the prize... of the unauthorized use of or disclosure by the agency of the intellectual property, trade secrets or...

  10. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn

    OpenAIRE

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ?cock-a-doodle-doo? crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always start...

  11. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-07-23

    The "cock-a-doodle-doo" crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always started to crow first, followed by its subordinates, in descending order of social rank. When the top-ranking rooster was physically removed from a group, the second-ranking rooster initiated crowing. The presence of a dominant rooster significantly reduced the number of predawn crows in subordinates. However, the number of crows induced by external stimuli was independent of social rank, confirming that subordinates have the ability to crow. Although the timing of subordinates' predawn crowing was strongly dependent on that of the top-ranking rooster, free-running periods of body temperature rhythms differed among individuals, and crowing rhythm did not entrain to a crowing sound stimulus. These results indicate that in a group situation, the top-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn, and that subordinate roosters are patient enough to wait for the top-ranking rooster's first crow every morning and thus compromise their circadian clock for social reasons.

  12. How Much Will My Child's Operation Cost? Availability of Consumer Prices From US Hospitals for a Common Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgical Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racimo, Allison R; Talathi, Nakul S; Zelenski, Nicole A; Wells, Lawrence; Shah, Apurva S

    2018-05-02

    Price transparency allows patients to make value-based health care decisions and is particularly important for individuals who are uninsured or enrolled in high-deductible health care plans. The availability of consumer prices for children undergoing orthopaedic surgery has not been previously investigated. We aimed to determine the availability of price estimates from hospitals in the United States for an archetypal pediatric orthopaedic surgical procedure (closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of a distal radius fracture) and identify variations in price estimates across hospitals. This prospective investigation utilized a scripted telephone call to obtain price estimates from 50 "top-ranked hospitals" for pediatric orthopaedics and 1 "non-top-ranked hospital" from each state and the District of Columbia. Price estimates were requested using a standardized script, in which an investigator posed as the mother of a child with a displaced distal radius fracture that needed closed reduction and pinning. Price estimates (complete or partial) were recorded for each hospital. The number of calls and the duration of time required to obtain the pricing information was also recorded. Variation was assessed, and hospitals were compared on the basis of ranking, teaching status, and region. Less than half (44%) of the 101 hospitals provided a complete price estimate. The mean price estimate for top-ranked hospitals ($17,813; range, $2742 to $49,063) was 50% higher than the price estimate for non-top-ranked hospitals ($11,866; range, $3623 to $22,967) (P=0.020). Differences in price estimates were attributable to differences in hospital fees (P=0.003), not surgeon fees. Top-ranked hospitals required more calls than non-top-ranked hospitals (4.4±2.9 vs. 2.8±2.3 calls, P=0.003). A longer duration of time was required to obtain price estimates from top-ranked hospitals than from non-top-ranked hospitals (8.2±9.4 vs. 4.1±5.1 d, P=0.024). Price estimates for pediatric

  13. Seeking A Breakthrough: The Improvement of The Asia-Pacific Security Structure From the Perspective of “One Belt One Road” Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoxi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S alliance in the Asia-Pacific region has exerted significant influence on Asia-Pacific security architecture for a long time. While with the deepening of interdependence among Asia-Pacific countries, the development of regional international relations has outdated the existing security architecture in this region. It is imperative to improve the architecture in that there are plenty of structural hurdles, such as the obsolescence of security concepts, the fragmentation of security mechanism and the dearth of public goods on security affairs. OBOR, which is exemplary as a new multilateral cooperative initiative and has interacted profoundly with the regional security of the Asia-Pacific, holds endogenous relations with the Asia-Pacific security architecture. OBOR could improve the Asia-Pacific security architecture in the following ways: to create a new model of security maintenance in light of the advanced ideas given by OBOR; to design new institutional frameworks which are more normative and effective with mechanical innovations stemming from OBOR; to enrich the security public goods in the Asia-Pacific region under the reference of co-construction and sharing the idea of OBOR. However, the practice of improvement will face tremendous challenges both internally and externally. These challenges should be prudently analyzed and treated in order to better fulfill the co-evolution in the process of the construction of OBOR and the improvement of the Asia-Pacific security architecture, for the promotion of long-termed prosperity and stability in this region.

  14. A breakthrough in the technical dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG; Durchbruch in der technischen Staubbekaempfung der RAG-Abbaubetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Klaus-Peter [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Gelsenkrichen (Germany). Dezernat 62; Suedhofer, Frank [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Bottrop (Germany). Servicebereich Belegschaft - BB S1 Ergonomie/Umgebungseinfluesse

    2010-02-15

    In the years 2005 to 2007, the dust abatement in the mining operations of RAG AG (Bottrop, Federal Republic of Germany) fundamentally is regulated and standardised without a distinction between primary and secondary measures. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on measures and effects of the optimization of dust abatement in workings of the German coal mining. Positive developments of the dust load for the employees are stated on the basis of operational data.

  15. Female Leadership: Understanding Female Roles in Business, Gender-based Barriers to Senior Management Positions, and How to Make the Breakthrough

    OpenAIRE

    LU, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Gender has become a significant issue in management and organization, which is worth to be noticed in both theory and practical perspectives. Also as the improvement of female education level, more successful female leaders/managers play important roles in business world. However, there still exist some traditional barriers for many women to develop their career. Therefore, understanding the patterns to make female leaderships distinctive is a modern topic, and researching the women different...

  16. Breakthrough or one-hit wonder? Three attempts to replicate single-exposure musical conditioning effects on choice behavior (Gorn, 1982).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, I.E.; Batenburg, A.E.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Smits, T.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies replicated a classroom experiment on single-exposure musical conditioning of consumer choice (Gorn, 1982), testing whether simultaneous exposure to liked (vs. disliked) music and a pen image induced preferences for the shown (vs. a different) pen. Experiments 1 and 2 employed the

  17. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuang Liao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD and chemical bath deposition (CBD as used by the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

  18. Technology breakthroughs in high performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices for ultra-high density, low power non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Augustin Jinwoo

    Non-volatile memory devices have attracted much attention because data can be retained without power consumption more than a decade. Therefore, non-volatile memory devices are essential to mobile electronic applications. Among state of the art non-volatile memory devices, NAND flash memory has earned the highest attention because of its ultra-high scalability and therefore its ultra-high storage capacity. However, human desire as well as market competition requires not only larger storage capacity but also lower power consumption for longer battery life time. One way to meet this human desire and extend the benefits of NAND flash memory is finding out new materials for storage layer inside the flash memory, which is called floating gate in the state of the art flash memory device. In this dissertation, we study new materials for the floating gate that can lower down the power consumption and increase the storage capacity at the same time. To this end, we employ various materials such as metal nanodot, metal thin film and graphene incorporating complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. Experimental results show excellent memory effects at relatively low operating voltages. Detailed physics and analysis on experimental results are discussed. These new materials for data storage can be promising candidates for future non-volatile memory application beyond the state of the art flash technologies.

  19. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  20. Continuation of the energy policy turnaround. Regenerative full supply on the verge of breakthrough; Energiewende fortsetzen. Regenerative Vollversorgung vor dem Durchbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Nina

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy is expanded in Germany - with worldwide political charisma. The full supply by renewable energy sources is within your grasp. However: How can the expansion be accelerated within scarce resources and climate change? Is there a decentral or central expansion? The author of this book points out the hurdles and challenges of full supply by renewable energies. Other aspects of this contribution are state autonomy, civic participation, complexity of development. Requirements for the next process of renewable, efficient, value-oriented energy policies are formulated.