WorldWideScience

Sample records for tone erodes prefrontal

  1. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone...... and an exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market......", "habitual inclinations" and "feeling for the game" are used as theoretical framework. When the author interprets and explains the language pattern as unequal distribution of recognition and as continuation of reproduction of a socio-cultural hierarchy among the children she relates to this framework...

  2. Erodibility of cemented materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gass, BG

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of stabilised layers is cost effective in road construction in South Africa. Some stabilised materials have however been found to be susceptible to erosion. To identify erodible materials the Erosion Test was developed in 1989...

  3. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  4. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  5. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  6. Change of tone

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  7. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  8. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

  9. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  10. Dispersive and erodible soils - fundamental differences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive, erodible and slaking soils are prevalent over wide areas of South Africa. Each of these materials increases the cost of construction, but dispersive soils are likely to lead to far more serious problems, particularly in dam construction...

  11. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  12. Morphodynamic modeling of erodible laminar channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2007-11-01

    A two-dimensional model for the erosion generated by viscous free-surface flows, based on the shallow-water equations and the lubrication approximation, is presented. It has a family of self-similar solutions for straight erodible channels, with an aspect ratio that increases in time. It is also shown, through a simplified stability analysis, that a laminar river can generate various bar instabilities very similar to those observed in natural rivers. This theoretical similarity reflects the meandering and braiding tendencies of laminar rivers indicated by F. Métivier and P. Meunier [J. Hydrol. 27, 22 (2003)]. Finally, we propose a simple scenario for the transition between patterns observed in experimental erodible channels.

  13. Cognitive deficits caused by prefrontal cortical and hippocampal neural disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie; McGarrity, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, that is, deficient GABA transmission, within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity, and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline. Regional neural disinhibition, disrupting spatio-temporal control of neural activity and causing aberrant drive of projections, may disrupt processing within the disinhibited region and efferent regions. Recent studies in rats showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition (by local GABA antagonist microinfusion) dysregulates burst firing, which has been associated with important aspects of neural information processing. Using translational tests of clinically relevant cognitive functions, these studies showed that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupts regional cognitive functions (including prefrontal attention and hippocampal memory function). Moreover, hippocampal neural disinhibition disrupted attentional performance, which does not require the hippocampus but requires prefrontal-striatal circuits modulated by the hippocampus. However, some prefrontal and hippocampal functions (including inhibitory response control) are spared by regional disinhibition. We consider conceptual implications of these findings, regarding the distinct relationships of distinct cognitive functions to prefrontal and hippocampal GABA tone and neural activity. Moreover, the findings support the proposition that prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition

  14. Soil erodibility for water erosion: A perspective and Chinese experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zheng, Fenli; Römkens, Mathias J. M.; Darboux, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of soil erodibility is an essential requirement for erosion prediction, conservation planning, and the assessment of sediment related environmental effects of watershed agricultural practices. This paper reviews the status of soil erodibility evaluations and determinations based on 80 years of upland area erosion research mainly in China and the USA. The review synthesizes the general research progress made by discussing the basic concepts of erodibility and its evaluation, determination, and prediction as well as knowledge of its spatio-temporal variations. The authors found that soil erodibility is often inappropriately or inaccurately applied in describing soil loss caused by different soil erosion component processes and mechanisms. Soil erodibility indicators were related to intrinsic soil properties and exogenic erosional forces, measurements, and calculations. The present review describes major needs including: (1) improved definition of erodibility, (2) modified erodibility determinations in erosion models, especially for specific geographical locations and in the context of different erosion sub-processes, (3) advanced methodologies for quantifying erodibilities of different soil erosion sub-processes, and (4) a better understanding of the mechanism that causes temporal variations in soil erodibility. The review also provides a more rational basis for future research on soil erodibility and supports predictive modeling of soil erosion processes and the development of improved conservation practices.

  15. Quality Uncertainty Erodes Trust in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simine Vazire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When consumers of science (readers and reviewers lack relevant details about the study design, data, and analyses, they cannot adequately evaluate the strength of a scientific study. Lack of transparency is common in science, and is encouraged by journals that place more emphasis on the aesthetic appeal of a manuscript than the robustness of its scientific claims. In doing this, journals are implicitly encouraging authors to do whatever it takes to obtain eye-catching results. To achieve this, researchers can use common research practices that beautify results at the expense of the robustness of those results (e.g., p-hacking. The problem is not engaging in these practices, but failing to disclose them. A car whose carburetor is duct-taped to the rest of the car might work perfectly fine, but the buyer has a right to know about the duct-taping. Without high levels of transparency in scientific publications, consumers of scientific manuscripts are in a similar position as buyers of used cars – they cannot reliably tell the difference between lemons and high quality findings. This phenomenon – quality uncertainty – has been shown to erode trust in economic markets, such as the used car market. The same problem threatens to erode trust in science. The solution is to increase transparency and give consumers of scientific research the information they need to accurately evaluate research. Transparency would also encourage researchers to be more careful in how they conduct their studies and write up their results. To make this happen, we must tie journals’ reputations to their practices regarding transparency. Reviewers hold a great deal of power to make this happen, by demanding the transparency needed to rigorously evaluate scientific manuscripts. The public expects transparency from science, and appropriately so – we should be held to a higher standard than used car salespeople.

  16. Eroded Layered Material in Southwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)dramatically illustrate that many places on the red planet have outcrops of layered geologic materials. The two pictures above show the remains of layered material inside craters in southwestern Utopia Planitia (see inset for detailed view). These remnant layers indicate that the craters--and perhaps the plains that surround them--were once buried beneath a deposit that has since been eroded away. This theme of layered outcrops and exhumed craters appears to be one of the dominant observations that MGS MOC has made--to date--about Mars. The origin and composition of the layered material--and its ultimate fate once it was largely eroded away--are unknown. Each of the two pictures shown here covers an area about 4 kilometers (2.5 miles)by 6.3 kilometers (3.9 miles). Illumination is from the lower right. These are subframes of a single MOC image acquired in July 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign. This figure was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  18. Prefrontal Cortex Lesions and Sex Differences in Fear Extinction and Perseveration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Sarah E.; Armstrong, Charles E.; Niren, Danielle C.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    Electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFCX) were examined using fear conditioning to assess the recall of fear extinction and performance in the Y-maze, open field, and object location/recognition in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were conditioned to seven tone/footshocks, followed by extinction after 1-h and 24-h…

  19. Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Automated tone grading of granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalina Hernández, J.C.; Fernández Ramón, G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of a natural stone processing plant is subject to the intrinsic variability of the stone blocks that constitute its raw material, which may cause problems of lack of uniformity in the visual appearance of the produced material that often triggers complaints from customers. The best way to tackle this problem is to classify the product according to its visual features, which is traditionally done by hand: an operator observes each and every piece that comes out of the production line and assigns it to the closest match among a number of predefined classes, taking into account visual features of the material such as colour, texture, grain, veins, etc. However, this manual procedure presents significant consistency problems, due to the inherent subjectivity of the classification performed by each operator, and the errors caused by their progressive fatigue. Attempts to employ automated sorting systems like the ones used in the ceramic tile industry have not been successful, as natural stone presents much higher variability than ceramic tiles. Therefore, it has been necessary to develop classification systems specifically designed for the treatment of the visual parameters that distinguish the different types of natural stone. This paper describes the details of a computer vision system developed by AITEMIN for the automatic classification of granite pieces according to their tone, which provides an integral solution to tone grading problems in the granite processing and marketing industry. The system has been designed to be easily trained by the end user, through the learning of the samples established as tone patterns by the user. [es

  1. Does Central Bank Tone Move Asset Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeling, Maik; Wagner, Christian

    the next press conference. Moreover, we find that positive tone changes are associated with increasing government bond yields, lower implied equity volatility, lower variance risk premia, and lower corporate credit spreads. Since we also show that tone changes are unrelated to current and future economic...... fundamentals, these results support the conjecture that central bank tone matters for asset prices through a risk-based channel. Our main findings also apply to U.S. markets, where stock prices and Treasury yields increase when the Fed chair’s tone in the Congressional Testimony becomes more positive....

  2. U.S.V.I. Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S.V.I. soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  3. Soil erodibility variability in laboratory and field rainfall simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are the most common way to observe and to model the soil erosion processes in in situ and ex situ circumstances. During modelling soil erosion, one of the most important factors are the annual soil loss and the soil erodibility which represent the effect of soil properties on soil loss and the soil resistance against water erosion. The amount of runoff and soil loss can differ in case of the same soil type, while it's characteristics determine the soil erodibility factor. This leads to uncertainties regarding soil erodibility. Soil loss and soil erodibility were examined with the investigation of the same soil under laboratory and field conditions with rainfall simulators. The comparative measurement was carried out in a laboratory on 0,5 m2, and in the field (Shower Power-02) on 6 m2 plot size where the applied slope angles were 5% and 12% with 30 and 90 mm/h rainfall intensity. The main idea was to examine and compare the soil erodibility and its variability coming from the same soil, but different rainfall simulator type. The applied model was the USLE, nomograph and other equations which concern single rainfall events. The given results show differences between the field and laboratory experiments and between the different calculations. Concerning for the whole rainfall events runoff and soil loss, were significantly higher at the laboratory experiments, which affected the soil erodibility values too. The given differences can originate from the plot size. The main research questions are that: How should we handle the soil erodibility factors and its significant variability? What is the best solution for soil erodibility determination?

  4. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2018-01-01

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  6. Tone as a health concept: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Donald; Emmanuel, Elizabeth; Grace, Sandra; Chaseling, Marilyn

    2017-11-01

    Concept analysis. This paper is a report on the analysis of the concept of tone in chiropractic. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of tone as originally understood by Daniel David Palmer from 1895 to 1914 and to monitor its evolution over time. Data was sourced from Palmer's original work, published between 1895 and 1914. A literature search from 1980 to 2016 was also performed on the online databases CINHAL, PubMed and Scopus with key terms including 'tone', 'chiropractic', 'Palmer', 'vitalism', 'health', 'homeostasis', 'holism' and 'wellness'. Finally hand-searches were conducted through chiropractic books and professional literature from 1906 to 1980 for any references to 'tone'. Rodgers' evolutionary method of analysis was used to categorise the data in relation to the surrogates, attributes, references, antecedents and consequences of tone. A total of 49 references were found: five from publications by Palmer; three from the database searches, and; the remaining 41 from professional books, trade journals and websites. There is no clear interpretation of tone in the contemporary chiropractic literature. Tone is closely aligned with functional neurology and can be understood as an interface between the metaphysical and the biomedical. Using the concept of tone as a foundation for practice could strengthen the identity of the chiropractic profession. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling pitch perception of complex tones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    When one listens to a series of harmonic complex tones that have no acoustic energy at their fundamental frequencies, one usually still hears a melody that corresponds to those missing fundamentals. Since it has become evident some two decades ago that neither Helmholtz's difference tone theory nor

  8. CONSTRUCTION SENSITIVITY IN PINGYAO TONE SANDHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-shan Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates tone sandhi phenomena in Pingyao, a Jin dialect spoken in Shanxi province in China. Pingyao tone sandhi is special in that tone sandhi in bi-syllabic strings is construction sensitive, but tone sandhi in tri-syllabic strings is not fully conditioned by construction types. Based on Optimality Theory (OT, this paper proposes analyses for bi-tonal and tri-tonal sandhi in Pingyao. We show that while bi-tonal sandhi can be accounted for by assuming that there are different grammars associated with different construction types, the lack of construction sensitivity in certain tri-syllabic strings suggests that the association between construction types and phonological grammars can be sacrificed to comply with a higher demand. In Pingyao, the higher demand is to avoid having a tri-tonal string with marked tone sandhi domain from being associated with conflicting grammars.

  9. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  10. Neurobiology of hedonic tone: the relationship between treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternat T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tia Sternat,1,2 Martin A Katzman1–4 1START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, 2Department of Psychology, Adler Graduate Professional School, Toronto, 3Division of Clinical Sciences, The Northern Ontario School of Medicine, 4Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada Abstract: Anhedonia, defined as the state of reduced ability to experience feelings of pleasure, is one of the hallmarks of depression. Hedonic tone is the trait underlying one’s characteristic ability to feel pleasure. Low hedonic tone represents a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, thus increasing the likelihood of experiencing anhedonia. Low hedonic tone has been associated with several psychopathologies, including major depressive disorder (MDD, substance use, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The main neural pathway that modulates emotional affect comprises the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic circuits. The activity of various components of the limbic–cortical–striatal–pallidal–thalamic pathway is correlated with hedonic tone in healthy individuals and is altered in MDD. Dysfunction of these circuits has also been implicated in the relative ineffectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat anxiety and depression in patients with low hedonic tone. Mood disorders such as MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse share low hedonic tone as well as altered activation of brain regions involved in reward processing and monoamine signaling as their features. Given the common features of these disorders, it is not surprising that they have high levels of comorbidities. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology of hedonic tone as it pertains to depression, ADHD, and the potential for substance abuse. We propose that, since low hedonic tone is a shared feature of MDD, ADHD, and substance abuse, evaluation of hedonic tone may become a diagnostic feature used to predict subtypes

  11. What Can Lexical Tone Training Studies in Adults Tell Us about Tone Processing in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Antoniou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies on the acquisition of lexical tone by adult learners have revealed that factors such as language background, musical experience, cognitive abilities, and neuroanatomy all play a role in determining tone learning success. On the basis of these findings, it has been argued that the effectiveness of tone learning in adulthood depends on individual differences in these factors. However, it is not clear whether similar individual differences play an analogous role in tone learning in childhood. Indeed, relatively few studies have made comparisons between how adults and children learn lexical tones. Here, we review recent developments for tone learning in both adults and children. The review covers tone training in a range of contexts, including in naive listeners, in native speakers of other tone languages, in listeners with varying levels of musical experience, and in individuals with speech and hearing disorders. Finally, we discuss the parallels between adult and child tone learning, and provide recommendations concerning how findings in adult tone training can provide insights into tone learning for children by accommodating the needs of individual learners.

  12. Perspectives on the Pure-Tone Audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiek, Frank E; Shinn, Jennifer; Chermak, Gail D; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement. To review and synthesize the literature regarding the utility and limitations of the pure-tone audiogram in determining dysfunction of peripheral sensory and neural systems, as well as the CANS, and to identify other tests and procedures that can supplement pure-tone thresholds and provide enhanced diagnostic insight, especially regarding problems of the central auditory system. A systematic review and synthesis of the literature. The authors independently searched and reviewed literature (journal articles, book chapters) pertaining to the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram. The pure-tone audiogram provides information as to hearing sensitivity across a selected frequency range. Normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds sometimes are observed despite cochlear damage. There are a surprising number of patients with acoustic neuromas who have essentially normal pure-tone thresholds. In cases of central deafness, depressed pure-tone thresholds may not accurately reflect the status of the peripheral auditory system. Listening difficulties are seen in the presence of normal pure-tone thresholds. Suprathreshold procedures and a variety of other tests can provide information regarding other and often more central functions of the auditory system. The audiogram is a primary tool for determining type

  13. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  14. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology,. Kumasi, Ghana. ABSTRACT. The use of mercury containing skin toning creams is becoming ..... Country of Origin. Colour. Aleo Whitening Milk. 0.013. China. White.

  15. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  16. Preattentive cortical-evoked responses to pure tones, harmonic tones, and speech: influence of music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-08-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials, including mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a to pure tones, harmonic complexes, and speech syllables, were examined across groups of trained musicians and nonmusicians. Because of the extensive formal and informal auditory training received by musicians throughout their lifespan, it was predicted that these electrophysiological indicators of preattentive pitch discrimination and involuntary attention change would distinguish musicians from nonmusicians and provide insight regarding the influence of auditory training and experience on central auditory function. A total of 102 (67 trained musicians, 35 nonmusicians) right-handed young women with normal hearing participated in three auditory stimulus conditions: pure tones (25 musicians/15 nonmusicians), harmonic tones (42 musicians/20 nonmusicians), and speech syllables (26 musicians/15 nonmusicians). Pure tone and harmonic tone stimuli were presented in multideviant oddball paradigms designed to elicit MMN and P3a. Each paradigm included one standard and two infrequently occurring deviants. For the pure tone condition, the standard pure tone was 1000 Hz, and the two deviant tones differed in frequency from the standard by either 1.5% (1015 Hz) or 6% (1060 Hz). The harmonic tone complexes were digitally created and contained a fundamental frequency (F0) and three harmonics. The amplitude of each harmonic was divided by its harmonic number to create a natural amplitude contour in the frequency spectrum. The standard tone was G4 (F0 = 392 Hz), and the two deviant tones differed in fundamental frequency from the standard by 1.5% (F0 = 386 Hz) or 6% (F0 = 370 Hz). The fundamental frequencies of the harmonic tones occur within the average female vocal range. The third condition to elicit MMN and P3a was designed for the presentation of speech syllables (/ba/ and /da/) and was structured as a traditional oddball paradigm (one standard/one infrequent deviant). Each speech stimulus was

  17. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  18. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  19. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  20. Seasonal change of WEPP erodibility parameters on a fallow plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. K. McCool; S. Dun; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    In cold regions, frozen soil has a significant influence on runoff and water erosion. Frozen soil can reduce infiltration capacity, and the freeze-thaw processes degrade soil cohesive strength and increase soil erodibility. In the Inland Pacific Northwest of the USA, major erosion events typically occur during winter from low-intensity rain, snowmelt, or both as frozen...

  1. Constraints on Tone Sensitivity in Novel Word Learning by Monolingual and Bilingual Infants: Tone Properties Are More Influential than Tone Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Singh, Leher; Mattock, Karen; Woo, Pei J.; Kalashnikova, Marina

    2018-01-01

    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation. PMID:29354077

  2. Advancing Understanding of Earthquakes by Drilling an Eroding Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, R.; Vannucchi, P.; Ranero, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    A program of IODP with great societal relevance is sampling and instrumenting the seismogenic zone. The zone generates great earthquakes that trigger tsunamis, and submarine slides thereby endangering coastal communities containing over sixty percent of the earth’s population. To asses and mitigate this endangerment it is urgent to advance understanding of fault dynamics that allows more timely anticipation of hazardous seismicity. Seismogenesis on accreting and eroding convergent plate boundaries apparently differ because of dissimilar materials along the interplate fault. As the history of instrumentally recorded earthquakes expands the difference becomes clearer. The more homogeneous clay, silt and sand subducted at accreting margins is associated with great earthquakes (M 9) whereas the fragmented upper plate rock that can dominate subducted material along an eroding margin plate interface is associated with many tsunamigenic earthquakes (Bilek, 2010). Few areas have been identified where the seismogenic zone can be reached with scientific drilling. In IODP accreting margins are studied on the NanTroSeize drill transect off Japan where the ultimate drilling of the seismogenic interface may occur by the end of IODP. The eroding Costa Rica margin will be studied in CRISP where a drill program will begin in 2011. The Costa Rican geophysical site survey will be complete with acquisition and processing of 3D seismic data in 2011 but the entire drilling will not be accomplished in IODP. It is appropriate that the accreting margin study be accomplished soon considering the indications of a pending great earthquake that will affect a country that has devoted enormous resources to IODP. However, understanding the erosional end-member is scientifically as important to an understanding of fault mechanics. Transoceanic tsunamis affect the entire Pacific rim where most subduction zones are eroding margins. The Costa Rican subduction zone is less complex operationally and

  3. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days. Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond, two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond, or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250. Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37°C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α = 0.05. After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  4. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  5. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  6. Effects of PPARγ ligands on vascular tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2012-06-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ), originally described as a transcription factor for genes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, has been more recently studied in the context of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Here, we review the available data on PPARγ ligands as modulator of vascular tone. PPARγ ligands include: thiazolidinediones (used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus), glitazars (bind and activate both PPARγ and PPARα), and other experimental drugs (still in development) that exploit the chemistry of thiazolidinediones as a scaffold for PPARγ-independent pharmacological properties. In this review, we examine both short (mostly from in vitro data)- and long (mostly from in vivo data)-term effects of PPARγ ligands that extend from PPARγ-independent vascular effects to PPARγ-dependent gene expression. Because endothelium is a master regulator of vascular tone, we have attempted to differentiate between endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent effects of PPARγ ligands. Based on available data, we conclude that PPARγ ligands appear to influence vascular tone in different experimental paradigms, most often in terms of vasodilatation (potentially increasing blood flow to some tissues). These effects on vascular tone, although potentially beneficial, must be weighed against specific cardiovascular warnings that may apply to some drugs, such as rosiglitazone.

  7. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  8. 7 CFR 12.20 - NRCS responsibilities regarding highly erodible land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.20 NRCS responsibilities regarding highly... public lists of highly erodible soil map units; (c) Make soil surveys for purposes of identifying highly erodible land; and (d) Provide technical guidance to conservation districts which approve conservation...

  9. Influences on tone in Sepedi, a Southern Bantu language

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zerbian, S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tone in Bantu languages is rarely studied experimentally. This paper reports a production study which reveals the intricate interaction of tonal context and morphological structure in surface tone realization in Sepedi, a South African Bantu...

  10. [Dichotic perception of Mandarin third tone by Mexican Chinese learners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between the advantage ear (cerebral hemisphere) of Spanish-speaking Mexican learners and the third Chinese tone. Third tone Chinese vowel syllables were used as experimental materials with dichotic listening technology to test the Spanish-speaking Mexican Chinese learners (20-32 years old) who studied Chinese about 20 h. In terms of error rates to identify the third Chinese tone, the Spanish-speaking Mexican Chinese learners's reaction to the third tone suggested that their left ears were the advantageous ear (the right cerebral hemisphere) (Z=-2.091, P=0.036). The verbal information of tones influenced the perception of Mexican Chinese learners' mandarin tones. In the process of learning mandarin tones, Mexican Chinese learners gradually formed the category of tones.

  11. The Significance of the Level Tone in Ghanaian English: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-29

    May 29, 2016 ... act functions, and perform interactive functions (Chun, 2002). Apart from these functions, ... that the use of falling tones can communicate deliberate rudeness he ..... phonetic features for the segmentation of tone units. In the ...

  12. Wind erodibility of soils from North Darfur State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medani, G. H.; Mustafa, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Wind erodibility of soils (WE) is a prime factor for the prediction, assessment and mapping of wind erosion. Hence, this study was undertaken to generate WE data and pertinent relationships for North Darfur State. Surface soil samples (0-3 cm) were collected from forty farms scattered all over the state. Non-erodible soil particles (NEP) (>0.84 mm in diameter), WE and various relevant physical and chemical soil properties were determined. Regression analysis showed that NEP significantly (p 2 =0.825), clay (r 2 =0.754), silt (r 2 =0.737) and clay/ (silt + sand) ratio (r 2 =0.663), and decreased with increase in sand (r 2 =0.761), (silt+sand) / clay ratio (r 2 =0.766) and (silt+sand) / (clay+organic matter) ratio (r 2 =0.811). The four basic soil properties and their ratios gave the reverse effects on WE with slightly lower coefficients of determinations. Although organic matter is a slightly better predictor of both NEP and WE than (Si+S)/ (C+OM) ratio, the latter is preferred because it integrates in addition to OM resilient soil properties. A multiple regression equation with a relatively high coefficient of determination (R 2 =0.830) may also be used for predicting NEP from knowledge of the four prime soil properties. These properties accounted for only 62% of the variation of WE, thus it is not recommended for prediction purposes. The determined wind erodibility groups correlated very well with those established else where.(Author)

  13. Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Sharpe, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Ojima, D.S.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.; Dabney, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Links between erosion/sedimentation history and soil carbon cycling were examined in a highly erosive setting in Mississippi loess soils. We sampled soils on (relatively) undisturbed and cropped hillslopes and measured C, N, 14C, and CO2 flux to characterize carbon storage and dynamics and to parameterize Century and spreadsheet 14C models for different erosion and tillage histories. For this site, where 100 years of intensive cotton cropping were followed by fertilization and contour plowing, there was an initial and dramatic decline in soil carbon content from 1870 to 1950, followed by a dramatic increase in soil carbon. Soil erosion amplifies C loss and recovery: About 100% of the original, prehistoric soil carbon was likely lost over 127 years of intensive land use, but about 30% of that carbon was replaced after 1950. The eroded cropland was therefore a local sink for CO2 since the 1950s. However, a net CO2 sink requires a full accounting of eroded carbon, which in turn requires that decomposition rates in lower slopes or wetlands be reduced to about 20% of the upland value. As a result, erosion may induce unaccounted sinks or sources of CO2, depending on the fate of eroded carbon and its protection from decomposition. For erosion rates typical of the United States, the sink terms may be large enough (1 Gt yr-1, back-of-the-envelope) to warrant a careful accounting of site management, cropping, and fertilization histories, as well as burial rates, for a more meaningful global assessment.

  14. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  15. A statistical model for horizontal mass flux of erodible soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, A.G.A.G.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-11-01

    It is shown that the mass flux of erodible soil transported horizontally by a statistically distributed wind flow has a statistical distribution. Explicit expression for the probability density function, p.d.f., of the flux is derived for the case in which the wind speed has a Weibull distribution. The statistical distribution for a mass flux characterized by a generalized Bagnold formula is found to be Weibull for the case of zero threshold speed. Analytic and numerical values for the average horizontal mass flux of soil are obtained for various values of wind parameters, by evaluating the first moment of the flux density function. (author)

  16. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms...

  17. When does the tone of earnings press releases matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudt, Kris; Thewissen, James; Torsin, Wouter

    2018-01-01

    The tone of a firm's financial disclosure is increasingly used as a variable in panel data regressions to predict future performance and explain investors’ reaction at earnings announcement. We investigate when tone is informative, and argue that the informativeness of tone increases with the

  18. Limited Access to a High Fat Diet Alters Endocannabinoid Tone in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Satta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggest an impaired endocannabinoid activity in the pathophysiology of binge eating disorder (BED. Herein, we investigated whether endocannabinoid tone could be modified as a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating in female rats. For this purpose, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG, as well as two endocannabinoid-like lipids, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, were assessed in different brain areas involved in the hedonic feeding (i.e., prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The brain density of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1 was also evaluated. Furthermore, we determined plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, and corticosterone hormones, which are well-known to control the levels of endocannabioids and/or CB1 receptors in the brain. To induce binge eating behavior, rats were subject to an intermittent and limited access to a high fat diet (HFD (margarine. Three experimental groups were used, all with ad libitum access to chow: control (CTRL, with no access to margarine; low restriction (LR, with 2 h margarine access 7 days/week; high restriction (HR, with 2 h margarine access 3 days/week. Bingeing was established when margarine intake in the HR group exceeded that of the LR group. Our results show that, compared to CTRL, AEA significantly decreased in the caudate putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus of HR group. In contrast, 2-AG significantly increased in the hippocampus while OEA decreased in the hypothalamus. Similar to the HR group, AEA and OEA decreased respectively in the amygdala and hypothalamus and 2-AG increased in the hippocampus of LR group. Moreover, LR group also had AEA decreased in the prefrontal cortex and increased in the nucleus accumbens. In both groups we found the same reduction of CB1 receptor density in the prefrontal cortex compared to CTRL. Also, LR and HR groups showed alterations in both

  19. Impact of land use change on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taleshian Jeloudar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of soil separates to detachment by water is described as soil erodibility by Universal Soil Loss Equation which can be affected by land use change. In this study it was attempted to quantify the changes of Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor and its soil driving factors in three land uses including rangeland, rainfed farming, and orchards in Babolrood watershed, northern Iran. Soil composite samples were obtained from two layers in three land uses, and the related soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The rainfed farming land use showed the highest clay contents, but the highest amounts of soil organic matter and sand particles were found in orchard land use. The high intensity of tillage led to the significant decrease of soil aggregate stability and permeability in the rainfed farming land use. The Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor was negatively correlated with soil permeability (r=-0.77**. In rangeland, the K-factor (0.045 Mg h/MJ/mm was significantly higher and the particle size distribution had a great impact on the K-factor. The orchard land use, converted from the rangeland, did not show any increase of soils erodibility and can potentially be introduced as a good alternative land use in sloping areas. However, more detailed studies on environmental, social and economic aspects of this land use are needed.

  20. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  1. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  2. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  3. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do......Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  4. Eroding market stability by proliferation of financial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioli, F.; Marsili, M.; Vivo, P.

    2009-10-01

    We contrast Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), the theoretical basis for the development of financial instruments, with a dynamical picture of an interacting market, in a simple setting. The proliferation of financial instruments apparently provides more means for risk diversification, making the market more efficient and complete. In the simple market of interacting traders discussed here, the proliferation of financial instruments erodes systemic stability and it drives the market to a critical state characterized by large susceptibility, strong fluctuations and enhanced correlations among risks. This suggests that the hypothesis of APT may not be compatible with a stable market dynamics. In this perspective, market stability acquires the properties of a common good, which suggests that appropriate measures should be introduced in derivative markets, to preserve stability. in here

  5. Analysis of eroded bovine teeth through laser speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoji, Nelson H.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Bortoletto, Carolina C.; Oliveira, Marcelo T.; Prates, Renato A.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Dental erosion is a non-carious lesion that causes progressive tooth wear of structure through chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. Its origin is related to eating habits or systemic diseases involving tooth contact with substances that pose a very low pH. This work demonstrates a new methodology to quantify the erosion by coherent light scattering of tooth surface. This technique shows a correlation between acid etch duration and laser speckle contrast map (LASCA). The experimental groups presented a relative contrast between eroded and sound tissue of 17.8(45)%, 23.4 (68)% 39.2 (40)% and 44.3 (30)%, for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min and 40 min of acid etching, respectively.

  6. Deep brain stimulation reveals emotional impact processing in ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Geday, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that modulation of monoaminergic tone with deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus would reveal a site of reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that we previously identified by modulating serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms by blocking serotonin......-noradrenaline reuptake sites. We tested the hypothesis in patients with Parkinson's disease in whom we had measured the changes of blood flow everywhere in the brain associated with the deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We determined the emotional reactivity of the patients as the average impact...

  7. Cosmeceuticals: efficacy and influence on skin tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-04-01

    Cosmeceuticals are understood to be active cosmetics that are sold over-the-counter, but have profound effects on skin appearance and functioning. This term has no legal meaning in the United States, because only cosmetics and pharmaceuticals are recognized by regulatory bodies. Cosmeceuticals are carefully developed and tested by the cosmetics industry to deliver consumer-recognizable benefits, with an excellent safety profile. Persons use these products worldwide, including those of African descent, for improvement of skin tone. This article discusses the issues surrounding cosmeceutical use by persons of African descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  9. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Unsteady phenomena in the edge tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, G.; Vaik, I.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its geometrical simplicity, the edge tone displays a remarkably complex behaviour. A plane jet oscillates around the wedge-shaped object with a relatively stable frequency and under certain circumstances emits an audible tone. This configuration plays a central role in the sound production of several wind instruments but occurs in industrial situations too. The flow exhibits various interesting nonlinear phenomena reported in the literature which are not entirely explained. In this paper, detailed high precision numerical simulations of the flow are reported under various conditions. Several phenomena are reproduced in agreement with the literature such as the existence of 'stages', the dependence of oscillation frequency on the outflow velocity and the orifice-edge distance within one stage, the pressure distribution on the edge surface, etc. A criterion for the appropriate time step for constant accuracy has been derived. The location of force action is surprisingly stable; it remains in a very narrow region of the wedge surface independently of the Reynolds number and the orifice-edge distance but it is much further behind the edge tip than reported in the literature. The various stages can coexist in different ways: jumping back and forth between stages or being superposed on each other. Regardless of the form, the first stage continues to be dominant even when the second and third stage appears. The question of disturbance propagation velocity and disturbance wavelength is also investigated. The development of higher harmonics of a single stage along the orifice-edge tip distance is presented

  11. Inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil inhibits consolidation of contextual- but not tone-fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Laura Segismundo; Correa-Netto, Nelson Francisco; Masukawa, Marcia Yuriko; Lima, Ariadiny Caetano; Maluf, Samia; Linardi, Alessandra; Santos-Junior, Jair Guilherme

    2018-04-06

    Although the current treatment for anxiety is effective, it promotes a number of adverse reactions and medical interactions. Inhaled essential oils have a prominent action on the central nervous system, with minimal systemic effects, primarily because of reduced systemic bioavailability. The effects of drugs on the consolidation of fear conditioning reflects its clinical efficacy in preventing a vicious cycle of anticipatory anxiety leading to fearful cognition and anxiety symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the consolidation of aversive memories and its influence on c-Fos expression. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a fear conditioning protocol. Immediately after the training session, the rats were exposed to vaporized water or essential oil (1%, 2.5% and 5% solutions) for 4h. The next day, the rats underwent contextual- or tone-fear tests and 90min after the test they were euthanized and their brains processed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry. In the contextual-fear test, essential oil at 2.5% and 5% (but not 1%) reduced the freezing response and its respective c-Fos expression in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. In the tone-fear test, essential oil did not reduce the freezing response during tone presentation. However, rats that inhaled essential oil at 2.5% and 5% (but not 1%) showed decreased freezing in the three minutes after tone presentation, as well as reduced c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. These results show that the inhalation of L. angustifolia essential oil inhibited the consolidation of contextual- but not tone-fear conditioning and had an anxiolytic effect in a conditioned animal model of anxiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  13. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Penamel wear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  14. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  15. Surgical excision of eroded mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Mary M T; Foster, Raymond T; Webster, George D; Weidner, Alison C; Amundsen, Cindy L

    2007-12-01

    months. Seven patients ultimately required abdominal excision and all had symptom resolution, however, not without complications. Two patients had bowel injury during lysis of adhesions requiring bowel resection in 1 case and repair in another, 1 had a postoperative wound infection with breakdown, 1 was readmitted for postoperative fever requiring antibiotics, and 1 had an acute coronary syndrome requiring transfer to the cardiology service. Transvaginal excision of mesh with or without endoscopy appears to be a safe and less invasive method for excision of eroded vaginal mesh after prior abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Up to 3 vaginal excision attempts may be necessary to achieve symptom resolution, and complete removal of mesh will likely improve outcomes with the transvaginal technique. Although abdominal excision can be considered the gold standard for excision of eroded mesh, it is not without potentially increased morbidity.

  16. Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.

  17. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18A SE-752 36, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126,relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. EROD induction by environmental contaminants in avian embryo livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunstroem, B.; Halldin, K.

    1998-01-01

    The CYP1A (EROD)-inducing potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3minutes or feet,4,4minutes or feet,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and benzo(k)fluoranthene (B(k)F) were studied in avian embryo livers. TCDD and PCB126 proved to be much more potent as inducers in the chicken than in the other species examined. This finding is consistent with a considerably higher sensitivity of the chicken compared with a number of other avian species to the embryotoxic effects of these compounds. Furthermore, the relative potencies of the tested Ah receptor agonists as CYP1A inducers differed substantially between species. B(k)F and PCB126 showed similar induction potencies in domestic duck embryos, whereas PCB126 is much more potent than B(k)F in the chicken. Also, the potency of PCB126, relative to that of TCDD, was much lower in quail embryo liver in vitro than in chicken embryo liver. Thus, there are large interspecific differences in birds in the sensitivity to CYP1A inducers and furthermore, the relative potencies of these compounds may differ substantially between species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Eroding students' rural motivation: first do no harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is one of the drivers of vast inequalities in access to healthcare, as medical graduates tend to move away from both poorer countries and rural areas. One of the central ethical problems raised in attempting to alleviate these inequalities is the tension between the healthcare needs of under-served patients and the rights of medical graduates to choose their place of work and specialty. If medical graduates had greater motivation to work in under-served rural areas, this tension would decrease accordingly. Medical schools have a duty to avoid eroding existing motivation for such training and practice. This duty has practical implications. Medical students' motivation regarding their choice of specialty changes during medical training, turning them away from choices such as primary care and rural practice towards more highly specialised, more hospital based specialties. Although students may be victims of a number of biases in the initial assessment, this is unlikely to be the whole story. Students' priorities are likely to change based on their admiration for specialist role models and the visibility of the financial and non-financial rewards attached to these specialties. Students may also have a false expectation upon admission that they will be proficient in rural medicine on graduation, and change their mind once they realise the limits of their skills in that area. Although the measures required to reverse this effect currently lack a solid evidence base, they are plausible and supported by the available data.

  20. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  1. Correlation of erosion and erodibility assessments using caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, G.L.; Campbell, B.L.; Loughran, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented which show that in soils in which net erosion is occurring, the content of the environmental isotope caesium-137 is highly correlated with soil loss. Other soil characteristics which may be related to the caesium content and therefore to soil loss have also been examined. Of these factors, an improved index of soil aggregate stability explained the most variation in caesium content (52%). Soil organic matter content explained 27% of variation in caesium content and other soil erodibility indices based on quantitative measurement of aggregate stability, explained between 6% and 21% of the variation. Indices based on implied hydrologic characteristics, implied aggregation and clay dispersion explained between 1% and 3% of caesium variation. It is suggested that practical factors of soil protection are relevant to the prediction of erosion hazard and may be more relevant than some indices of soil resistance. It is noted further that caesium-137 content of a soil gives every indication of being a most suitable predictor of soil erosion status

  2. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  3. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... implementation of the WEPS system does not affect the Highly Erodible Map Unit List contained in the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide as of January 1, 1990. This 1990 list will continue to be used for all erodibility... plant damage, and predict PM-10 emissions when wind speeds exceed the erosion threshold. The WEPS model...

  4. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  5. 7 CFR 12.21 - Identification of highly erodible lands criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE): (i) Rainfall and runoff (R); (ii) The degree to which the... and surface soil moisture (C) and the degree to which soil resists wind erosion (I). (3) The USLE is...) Basis for identification as highly erodible. Soil map units and an erodibility index will be used as the...

  6. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  7. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  8. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10–15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,” has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language. PMID:21811479

  9. Spectral analysis of major heart tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejkowski, W.; Dobrowolski, A. P.; Majka, K.; Olszewski, R.

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) figures clearly indicate that cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and disability in the world. Early detection of cardiovascular pathologies may contribute to reducing such a high mortality rate. Auscultatory examination is one of the first and most important step in cardiologic diagnostics. Unfortunately, proper diagnosis is closely related to long-term practice and medical experience. The article presents the author's system of recording phonocardiograms and the way of saving data, as well as the outline of the analysis algorithm, which will allow to assign a case to a patient with heart failure or healthy voluntaries' with a certain high probability. The results of a pilot study of phonocardiographic signals were also presented as an introduction to further research aimed at the development of an efficient diagnostic algorithm based on spectral analysis of the heart tone.

  10. Consonants, vowels and tones across Vietnamese dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhȦm, Ben; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-04-01

    Vietnamese is spoken by over 89 million people in Vietnam and it is one of the most commonly spoken languages other than English in the US, Canada and Australia. This study defines between one and nine different dialects of Vietnamese spoken in Vietnam. In Vietnamese schools, children learn Standard Vietnamese which is based on the northern dialect; however, if they live in other regions they may speak a different dialect at home. This paper describes the differences between the consonants, semivowels, vowels, diphthongs and tones for four dialects: Standard, northern, central and southern Vietnamese. The number and type of initial consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 23, northern = 20, central = 23, southern = 21). For example, the letter "r" is pronounced in the Standard and central dialects as the retroflex /ʐ/, northern dialect as the voiced alveolar fricative /z/ or the trilled /r/ and in the southern dialect as the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. Additionally, the letter "v" is pronounced in the Standard, northern and central dialects as the voiced bilabial fricative /v/, the southern dialect as the voiced palatal approximant /j/ and in the lower northern dialect (Ninh Binh) as the voiceless bilabial fricative /f/. Similarly, the number of final consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 10, central = 10, southern = 8). Finally, the number and type of tones differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 6, central = 5, southern = 5). Understanding differences between Vietnamese dialects is important so that speech-language pathologists and educators provide appropriate services to people who speak Vietnamese.

  11. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  12. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  13. Five-Year-olds' Acoustic Realization of Mandarin Tone Sandhi and Lexical Tones in Context Are Not Yet Fully Adult-Like

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu Rattanasone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of children around the world are learning tone languages, but few studies have examined the acoustic properties of children's early tone productions. Even more scarce are acquisition studies on tone sandhi, a tone change phenomenon which alters the surface realization of lexical tones. Two studies using perceptual coding report the emergence of lexical tone and tone sandhi at around 2 years (Li and Thompson, 1977; Hua and Dodd, 2000. However, the only acoustic study available shows that 3-year-olds are not yet adult-like in their lexical tone productions (Wong, 2012. This raises questions about when children's productions become acoustically adult-like and how their tone productions differ from those of adults. These questions were addressed in the current study which compared Mandarin-speaking pre-schoolers' (3–5-year-olds tone productions to that of adults. A picture naming task was used with disyllabic real words familiar to pre-schoolers. Overall children produced appropriate tone contours for all tones, i.e., level for tone 1, rising for tones 2, 3 and full sandhi, falling for tone 4 and half sandhi. However, children's productions were not adult-like for tones 3, 4, and the sandhi forms, in terms of coordinating pitch range, slope and curvature, with little evidence of development across ages. These results suggest a protracted process in achieving adult-like acoustic realization of both lexical and sandhi tones.

  14. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2004-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  15. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  16. Improving Tone Recognition with Nucleus Modeling and Sequential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siwei

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese and many other tonal languages use tones that are defined as specific pitch patterns to distinguish syllables otherwise ambiguous. It had been shown that tones carry at least as much information as vowels in Mandarin Chinese [Surendran et al., 2005]. Surprisingly, though, many speech recognition systems for Mandarin Chinese have…

  17. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  18. Empirical measurements on a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the empirical assessments employed on two versions of a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm. This algorithm uses linguistically-defined Sesotho tonal rules to predict the tone labels on the syllables of Sesotho words. The two...

  19. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  20. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  1. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    distinct schools of thought have emerged in relation to tone in teaching phonetics ... the argument of the present writer is that the phenomenon of tone is essentially a ... Three notable published books in the area of Cibemba grammar have also ..... Sharman (1956) Tabulation of tenses in a Bantu language (Bemba). Africa.

  2. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  3. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Many people reach adulthood without acquiring significant music performance skills (singing or instrumental playing). A substantial proportion of these adults consider that this has come about because they are "not musical." Some of these people may be "true" congenital amusics, characterized by specific and substantial anomalies in the processing of musical pitch and rhythm sequences, while at the same time displaying normal processing of speech and language. It is likely, however, that many adults who believe that they are unmusical are neurologically normal. We could call these adults "false" amusics. Acquisition of musical competence has multiple personal, social, and environmental precursors. Deficiencies in these areas may lead to lack of musical achievement, despite the fact that an individual possesses the necessary underlying capacities. Adults may therefore self-define as "unmusical" or "tone-deaf" for reasons unconnected to any underlying anomaly. This paper reports on two linked research studies. The first is an interview study with adults defining themselves as tone-deaf or unmusical. The interview schedule was designed to discover what criteria are being used in their self-definitions. Preliminary results suggest that performance criteria (e.g., judging oneself as unable to sing) play a major role, even for people who claim and demonstrate no perceptual deficits. The second study reports progress on the development of new subtests for a revised version of the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz et al., 2003). This currently contains six tests that allow for the assessment of melodic perception: contour, intervals, scale, rhythm, meter, and recognition memory. The MBEA does not assess two capacities that are generally accepted as central to normal music cognition: harmony and emotion. The development and norming of the emotion subtest will be described. When completed, the MBEA(R) will form a robust screening device for use with

  5. Relationship between soil erodibility and modeled infiltration rate in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and modeled infiltration rate were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration rates were modeled based on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration model, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff rate, sediment yield rate and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and modeled infiltration rates indicated that the model represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration rate (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.

  6. Cardiac vagal tone, a non-invasive measure of parasympathetic tone, is a clinically relevant tool in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Jessen, N; Brock, B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To compare a novel index of parasympathetic tone, cardiac vagal tone, with established autonomic variables and to test the hypotheses that (1) cardiac vagal tone would be associated with established time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and (2) cardiac vagal tone would be lower...... identification of people with Type 1 diabetes who should undergo formal autonomic function testing....

  7. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  8. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  9. The perceptual enhancement of tones by frequency shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demany, Laurent; Carcagno, Samuele; Semal, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    In a chord of pure tones with a flat spectral profile, one tone can be perceptually enhanced relative to the other tones by the previous presentation of a slightly different chord. "Intensity enhancement" (IE) is obtained when the component tones of the two chords have the same frequencies, but in the first chord the target of enhancement is attenuated relative to the other tones. "Frequency enhancement" (FE) is obtained when both chords have a flat spectral profile, but the target of enhancement shifts in frequency from the first to the second chord. We report here an experiment in which IE and FE were measured using a task requiring the listener to indicate whether or not the second chord included a tone identical to a subsequent probe tone. The results showed that a global attenuation of the first chord relative to the second chord disrupted IE more than FE. This suggests that the mechanisms of IE and FE are not the same. In accordance with this suggestion, computations of the auditory excitation patterns produced by the chords indicate that the mechanism of IE is not sufficient to explain FE for small frequency shifts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Disturbs Coronary Tone and Its Regulatory Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kuzhel, Olga P; Belyaeva, Lyudmila E; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Fred Downey, H; Tseilikman, Olga B; Komelkova, Maria V; Tseilikman, Vadim E

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myocardial injury, but changes in coronary regulatory mechanisms in PTSD have not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of PTSD-inducing stress on coronary tone and its regulation by nitric oxide (NO) and voltage-gated K + channels. PTSD was induced by exposing rats to predator stress, 15 min daily for 10 days, followed by 14 stress-free days. Presence of PTSD was confirmed by the elevated plus-maze test. Coronary tone was evaluated from changes in coronary perfusion pressure of Langendorff isolated hearts. Predator stress induced significant decreases in coronary tone of isolated hearts and in blood pressure of intact rats. L-NAME, a non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, but not S-MT, a selective iNOS inhibitor, and increased coronary tone of control rats. In PTSD rats, both L-NAME and S-MT increased coronary tone. Therefore, the stress-induced coronary vasodilation resulted from NO overproduction by both iNOS and eNOS. NOS induction was apparently due to systemic inflammation as evidenced by increased serum interleukin-1β and C-reactive protein in PTSD rats. Decreased corticosterone in PTSD rats may have contributed to inflammation and its effect on coronary tone. PTSD was also associated with voltage-gated K + channel dysfunction, which would have also reduced coronary tone.

  11. Representations of race and skin tone in medical textbook imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Patricia; Wilkes, Rima

    2018-04-01

    Although a large literature has documented racial inequities in health care delivery, there continues to be debate about the potential sources of these inequities. Preliminary research suggests that racial inequities are embedded in the curricular edification of physicians and patients. We investigate this hypothesis by considering whether the race and skin tone depicted in images in textbooks assigned at top medical schools reflects the diversity of the U.S. We analyzed 4146 images from Atlas of Human Anatomy, Bates' Guide to Physical Examination & History Taking, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, and Gray's Anatomy for Students by coding race (White, Black, and Person of Color) and skin tone (light, medium, and dark) at the textbook, chapter, and topic level. While the textbooks approximate the racial distribution of the U.S. population - 62.5% White, 20.4% Black, and 17.0% Person of Color - the skin tones represented - 74.5% light, 21% medium, and 4.5% dark - overrepresent light skin tone and underrepresent dark skin tone. There is also an absence of skin tone diversity at the chapter and topic level. Even though medical texts often have overall proportional racial representation this is not the case for skin tone. Furthermore, racial minorities are still often absent at the topic level. These omissions may provide one route through which bias enters medical treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Musical Scales in Tone Sequences Improve Temporal Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min S; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    Predicting the time of stimulus onset is a key component in perception. Previous investigations of perceived timing have focused on the effect of stimulus properties such as rhythm and temporal irregularity, but the influence of non-temporal properties and their role in predicting stimulus timing has not been exhaustively considered. The present study aims to understand how a non-temporal pattern in a sequence of regularly timed stimuli could improve or bias the detection of temporal deviations. We presented interspersed sequences of 3, 4, 5, and 6 auditory tones where only the timing of the last stimulus could slightly deviate from isochrony. Participants reported whether the last tone was 'earlier' or 'later' relative to the expected regular timing. In two conditions, the tones composing the sequence were either organized into musical scales or they were random tones. In one experiment, all sequences ended with the same tone; in the other experiment, each sequence ended with a different tone. Results indicate higher discriminability of anisochrony with musical scales and with longer sequences, irrespective of the knowledge of the final tone. Such an outcome suggests that the predictability of non-temporal properties, as enabled by the musical scale pattern, can be a factor in determining the sensitivity of time judgments.

  13. [Spatiotemporal variation of typical red soil eroded landscape pattern: a case study in Changting County of Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-sheng; Lin, Hui-hua; Zhu, He-jian; Sha, Jin-ming; Dai, Wen-yuan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the 1988, 2000, and 2007 remote sensing images of a typical red soil eroded region (Changting County, Fujian Province) and the digital elevation model (DEM), the eroded landscape types were worked out, and the changes of the eroded landscape pattern in the region from 1988 to 2007 were analyzed with the spatial mathematics model. In 1988-2007, different eroded landscape types in the region had the characteristics of inter-transfer, mainly manifested in the transfer from seriously eroded to lightly eroded types but still existed small amount of the transference from lightly eroded to seriously eroded types. Little change was observed in the controid of the eroded landscape. In the County, Hetian Town was all along the eroded center. During the study period, the landscape pattern index showed a tendency of low heterogeneity, low fragmentation, and high regularization at landscape level, but an overall improvement and expansion of lightly eroded and easy-to-tackle patches as well as the partial improvement and fragmentation of seriously eroded and difficult-to-tackle patches at patch level.

  14. Improvement of Tone's method with two-term rational approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Endo, Tomohiro; Chiba, Go

    2011-01-01

    An improvement of Tone's method, which is a resonance calculation method based on the equivalence theory, is proposed. In order to increase calculation accuracy, the two-term rational approximation is incorporated for the representation of neutron flux. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects of Tone's method, i.e., its inherent approximation and choice of adequate multigroup cross section for collision probability estimation, are also discussed. The validity of improved Tone's method is confirmed through a verification calculation in an irregular lattice geometry, which represents part of an LWR fuel assembly. The calculation result clarifies the validity of the present method. (author)

  15. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  16. Elastic wave generated by granular impact on rough and erodible surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Vincent; Mangeney, Anne; de Rosny, Julien; Toussaint, Renaud; Farin, Maxime

    2018-01-01

    The elastic waves generated by impactors hitting rough and erodible surfaces are studied. For this purpose, beads of variable materials, diameters, and velocities are dropped on (i) a smooth PMMA plate, (ii) stuck glass beads on the PMMA plate to create roughness, and (iii) the rough plate covered with layers of free particles to investigate erodible beds. The Hertz model validity to describe impacts on a smooth surface is confirmed. For rough and erodible surfaces, an empirical scaling law that relates the elastic energy to the radius Rb and normal velocity Vz of the impactor is deduced from experimental data. In addition, the radiated elastic energy is found to decrease exponentially with respect to the bed thickness. Lastly, we show that the variability of the elastic energy among shocks increases from some percents to 70% between smooth and erodible surfaces. This work is a first step to better quantify seismic emissions of rock impacts in natural environment, in particular on unconsolidated soils.

  17. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  18. An iso-erodent map Imo state of Nigeria | Madubuike | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...

  19. Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasqualle; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    The greatest obstacle to soil erosion modelling at larger spatial scales is the lack of data on soil characteristics. One key parameter for modelling soil erosion is the soil erodibility, expressed as the K-factor in the widely used soil erosion model, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). The K-factor, which expresses the susceptibility of a soil to erode, is related to soil properties such as organic matter content, soil texture, soil structure and permeability. With the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) soil survey in 2009 a pan-European soil dataset is available for the first time, consisting of around 20,000 points across 25 Member States of the European Union. The aim of this study is the generation of a harmonised high-resolution soil erodibility map (with a grid cell size of 500 m) for the 25 EU Member States. Soil erodibility was calculated for the LUCAS survey points using the nomograph of Wischmeier and Smith (1978). A Cubist regression model was applied to correlate spatial data such as latitude, longitude, remotely sensed and terrain features in order to develop a high-resolution soil erodibility map. The mean K-factor for Europe was estimated at 0.032 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1) with a standard deviation of 0.009 thahha(-1)MJ(-1)mm(-1). The yielded soil erodibility dataset compared well with the published local and regional soil erodibility data. However, the incorporation of the protective effect of surface stone cover, which is usually not considered for the soil erodibility calculations, resulted in an average 15% decrease of the K-factor. The exclusion of this effect in K-factor calculations is likely to result in an overestimation of soil erosion, particularly for the Mediterranean countries, where highest percentages of surface stone cover were observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

  1. Erodibility of waste (Loess) soils from construction sites under water and wind erosional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Argaman, Eli; Ben-Hur, Meni

    2018-03-01

    Excess soils from construction sites (waste soils) become a problem when exposed to soil erosion by water or wind. Understanding waste soil erodibility can contribute to its proper reuse for various surface applications. The general objective of the study was to provide a better understanding of the effects of soil properties on erodibility of waste soils excavated from various depths in a semiarid region under rainfall and wind erosive forces. Soil samples excavated from the topsoil (0-0.3m) and subsoil layers (0.3-0.9 and >1m depths) were subjected to simulated rainfall and wind. Under rainfall erosive forces, the subsoils were more erodible than the topsoil, in contrast to the results obtained under wind erosive forces. Exchangeable sodium percentage was the main factor controlling soil erodibility (K i ) under rainfall, and a significant logarithmic regression line was found between these two parameters. In addition, a significant, linear regression was found between K i and slaking values for the studied soil samples, suggesting that the former can be predicted from the latter. Soil erodibility under wind erosion force was controlled mainly by the dry aggregate characteristics (mean weight diameter and aggregate density): their higher values in the subsoil layers resulted in lower soil erodibility compared to the topsoil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Physically—Based Geometry Model for Transport Distance Estimation of Rainfall-Eroded Soil Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Gui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of rainfall-induced soil erosion are mostly derived from the weight of sediment measured in natural runoff. The transport distance of eroded soil is important for evaluating landscape evolution but is difficult to estimate, mainly because it cannot be linked directly to the eroded sediment weight. The volume of eroded soil is easier to calculate visually using popular imaging tools, which can aid in estimating the transport distance of eroded soil through geometry relationships. In this study, we present a straightforward geometry model to predict the maximum sediment transport distance incurred by rainfall events of various intensity and duration. In order to verify our geometry prediction model, a series of experiments are reported in the form of a sediment volume. The results show that cumulative rainfall has a linear relationship with the total volume of eroded soil. The geometry model can accurately estimate the maximum transport distance of eroded soil by cumulative rainfall, with a low root-mean-square error (4.7–4.8 and a strong linear correlation (0.74–0.86.

  3. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  4. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available development. Extracted contours are processed and analysed statistically to describe acoustic properties in different tonal contexts. The authors demonstrate how features useful for tone recognition or synthesis can be successfully extracted from a corpus...

  5. Predicting human epidermal melanin concentrations for different skin tones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available epidermal melanin concentrations for different skin tones JE Smit 1 , AE Karsten 2 , RW Sparrow 1 1 CSIR Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa 2 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa Author e-mail address: KSmit...

  6. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of harmonic rank on the streaming of complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Dau, Torsten; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the rank of the harmonics on sequential stream segregation of complex tones was investigated for normal-hearing participants with no musical training. It was hypothesized that stream segregation would be greater for tones with high pitch salience, as assessed by fundamental frequency....... There was a significant trend for less stream segregation with increasing harmonic rank. The amount of stream segregation was inversely correlated with the f0 difference limens, consistent with the hypothesis....

  8. Dissociation of tone and vowel processing in Mandarin idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiehui; Gao, Shan; Ma, Weiyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2012-09-01

    Using event-related potentials, this study measured the access of suprasegmental (tone) and segmental (vowel) information in spoken word recognition with Mandarin idioms. Participants performed a delayed-response acceptability task, in which they judged the correctness of the last word of each idiom, which might deviate from the correct word in either tone or vowel. Results showed that, compared with the correct idioms, a larger early negativity appeared only for vowel violation. Additionally, a larger N400 effect was observed for vowel mismatch than tone mismatch. A control experiment revealed that these differences were not due to low-level physical differences across conditions; instead, they represented the greater constraining power of vowels than tones in the lexical selection and semantic integration of the spoken words. Furthermore, tone violation elicited a more robust late positive component than vowel violation, suggesting different reanalyses of the two types of information. In summary, the current results support a functional dissociation of tone and vowel processing in spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Continuous tone printing in silicone from CNC milled matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, S.; McCallion, P.

    2014-02-01

    Current research at the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) at the University of the West of England, Bristol, is exploring the potential of creating coloured pictorial imagery from a continuous tone relief surface. To create the printing matrices the research team have been using CNC milled images where the height of the relief image is dictated by creating a tone curve and then milling this curve into a series of relief blocks from which the image is cast in a silicone ink. A translucent image is cast from each of the colour matrices and each colour is assembled - one on top of another - resulting is a colour continuous tone print, where colour tone is created by physical depth of colour. This process is a contemporary method of continuous tone colour printing based upon the Nineteenth Century black and white printing process of Woodburytype as developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury in 1865. Woodburytype is the only true continuous tone printing process invented, and although its delicate and subtle surfaces surpassed all other printing methods at the time. The process died out in the late nineteenth century as more expedient and cost effective methods of printing prevailed. New research at CFPR builds upon previous research that combines 19th Century Photomechanical techniques with digital technology to reappraise the potential of these processes.

  11. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  12. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed.

  13. Testing a model of intonation in a tone language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, M

    1986-09-01

    Schematic fundamental frequency curves of simple statements and questions are generated for Hausa, a two-tone language of Nigeria, using a modified version of an intonational model developed by Gårding and Bruce [Nordic Prosody II, edited by T. Fretheim (Tapir, Trondheim, 1981), pp. 33-39]. In this model, rules for intonation and tones are separated. Intonation is represented as sloping grids of (near) parallel lines, inside which tones are placed. The tones are associated with turning points of the fundamental frequency contour. Local rules may also modify the exact placement of a tone within the grid. The continuous fundamental frequency contour is modeled by concatenating the tonal points using polynomial equations. Thus the final pitch contour is modeled as an interaction between global and local factors. The slope of the intonational grid lines depends at least on sentence type (statement or question), sentence length, and tone pattern. The model is tested by reference to data from nine speakers of Kano Hausa.

  14. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  15. Working Memory in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley’s working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand. Recent neurophysiological studies have attempted to reveal how prefrontal neurons achieve the functions of the central executive. For example, the neural mechanisms of memory control have been examined using the interference effect in a dual-task paradigm. It has been shown that this interference effect is caused by the competitive and overloaded recruitment of overlapping neural populations in the prefrontal cortex by two concurrent tasks and that the information-processing capacity of a single neuron is limited to a fixed level, can be flexibly allocated or reallocated between two concurrent tasks based on their needs, and enhances behavioral performance when its allocation to one task is increased. Further, a metamemory task requiring spatial information has been used to understand the neural mechanism for monitoring its own operations, and it has been shown that monitoring the quality of spatial information represented by prefrontal activity is an important factor in the subject's choice and that the strength of spatially selective delay-period activity reflects confidence in decision-making. Although further studies are needed to elucidate how the prefrontal cortex controls memory resource and supervises other systems, some important mechanisms related to the central executive have been identified. PMID:28448453

  16. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  17. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  18. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  19. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  20. Tone Attrition in Mandarin Speakers of Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin–English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method We tested 72 Mandarin–English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of acquisition of English. Participants viewed 2 photographs at a time while hearing a familiar Mandarin word referring to 1 photograph. The names of the 2 photographs diverged in tone, vowels, or both. Word recognition was evaluated using clicking accuracy, reaction times, and an online recognition measure (gaze) and was compared in the 3 conditions. Results Relative proficiency in English was correlated with reduced word recognition success in tone-disambiguated trials, but not in vowel-disambiguated trials, across all 3 dependent measures. This selective attrition for tone content emerged even though all bilinguals had learned Mandarin from birth. Lengthy experience with English thus weakened tone use. Conclusions This finding has implications for the question of the extent to which bilinguals' 2 phonetic systems interact. It suggests that bilinguals may not process pitch information language-specifically and that processing strategies from the dominant language may affect phonetic processing in the nondominant language—even when the latter was learned natively. PMID:28124064

  1. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  2. Two-Tone Interference Caused by Active Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Andor, D.; Jülicher, F.

    2003-02-01

    To capture faint sounds, the ear uses an active system of amplification. We and our colleagues have put forward the idea that the amplifier comprises a set of "self-tuned critical oscillators": each hair cell contains a force-generating dynamical system which is maintained at the threshold of an oscillatory instability, or Hopf bifurcation. Our analysis shows that the active response to a pure tone is perfectly suited to the ear's needs, since it provides frequency selectivity, exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range. However, the intrinsic nonlinearity of the mechanism causes tones of different frequency to interfere with one another in the cochlea. In order to provide a framework for understanding how the ear processes the more complex sounds of speech and music, we have examined the response of a critical Hopf oscillator to two tones. Our calculations indicate how the response to one tone is suppressed by the presence of a second tone of similar frequency. They also show how a characteristic spectrum of distortion products is generated. Based on this analysis, we discuss to what extent psychophysical phenomena such as the sensation of dissonance and auditory illusions can be attributed to the physical nature of the peripheral detection apparatus.

  3. Textural characteristics and sedimentary environment of sediment at eroded and deposited regions in the severely eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini; Nawang, Siti Aminah Bassa; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Benson, Yannie Anak; Azhary, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7.25 ϕ, poorly sorted, positively skewed and has wide distributions. Samples from eroded and deposition regions displayed no distinctive characteristics and exhibited similar profiles. The high energy condition transported the sediments as suspension, mostly as pelagic and the sediments were deposited as shallow marine and agitated deposits. The fluvial sediments of up to 3km into the river have particularly similar profile of textural characteristics with the neighbouring marine sediments from the river mouth. Profiles were similar with marine sediments about 3km opposite the main current and can go up to 10km along the current of Malacca Straits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In the hummocky ground moraine soil landscape, a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils developed from till under intensive agricultural cultivation. Water flow and solute transport are affected by the variable soil structural and pedological developments, which are posing a challenge...... for flux estimation. The objective of this study was to investigate transport of water, dissolved organic (DOC), and particulate carbon (PC) through soil profiles of an eroded Haplic Luvisol and a heavily eroded Haplic Regosol. We studied 5 soil horizons in three replicates each: Ap (0-20 cm) and E (20...... boundary. Breakthrough curves for a pre-applied tracer (Br-) on the soil surface and a tracer applied with irrigation water (3H2O) were modeled analytically using CXTFIT. The heterogeneity of the Luvisol horizons was generally higher than that of the Regosol horizons, which relates to the higher...

  5. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Audiometric Testing With Pulsed, Steady, and Warble Tones in Listeners With Tinnitus and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Jennifer J; Walker, Matthew A; Short, Ciara E; Skinner, Kimberly G

    2017-09-18

    This study evaluated the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's recommendation that audiometric testing for patients with tinnitus should use pulsed or warble tones. Using listeners with varied audiometric configurations and tinnitus statuses, we asked whether steady, pulsed, and warble tones yielded similar audiometric thresholds, and which tone type was preferred. Audiometric thresholds (octave frequencies from 0.25-16 kHz) were measured using steady, pulsed, and warble tones in 61 listeners, who were divided into 4 groups on the basis of hearing and tinnitus status. Participants rated the appeal and difficulty of each tone type on a 1-5 scale and selected a preferred type. For all groups, thresholds were lower for warble than for pulsed and steady tones, with the largest effects above 4 kHz. Appeal ratings did not differ across tone type, but the steady tone was rated as more difficult than the warble and pulsed tones. Participants generally preferred pulsed and warble tones. Pulsed tones provide advantages over steady and warble tones for patients regardless of hearing or tinnitus status. Although listeners preferred pulsed and warble tones to steady tones, pulsed tones are not susceptible to the effects of off-frequency listening, a consideration when testing listeners with sloping audiograms.

  7. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  8. I find you more attractive … after (prefrontal cortex) stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Lega, C.; Tamietto, M.; Nadal, M.; Cattaneo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Facial attractiveness seems to be perceived immediately. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the appraisal of facial attractiveness is mediated by a network of cortical and subcortical regions, mainly encompassing the reward circuit, but also including prefrontal cortices. The prefrontal cortex is

  9. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  10. An Integrated Tone Mapping for High Dynamic Range Image Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Zhuang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    There are two type tone mapping operators for high dynamic range (HDR) image visualization. HDR image mapped by perceptual operators have strong sense of reality, but will lose local details. Empirical operators can maximize local detail information of HDR image, but realism is not strong. A common tone mapping operator suitable for all applications is not available. This paper proposes a novel integrated tone mapping framework which can achieve conversion between empirical operators and perceptual operators. In this framework, the empirical operator is rendered based on improved saliency map, which simulates the visual attention mechanism of the human eye to the natural scene. The results of objective evaluation prove the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  11. Morphology of ductile metals eroded by a jet of spherical particles impinging at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadra Rao, P.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used, together with surface profile measurements, in the present morphological study of the erosion of an aluminum alloy and copper by the normal impact of spherical glass erodent particles. The morphology of the damage pattern is a manifestation of the flow pattern of erodent particles, and yields insight into the mechanisms that may be active at different stages of erosion. The simultaneous appearance of radial cracks and concentric rings is reported, together with wave crests which contain an accumulation of metallic flakes. A preliminary analysis is advanced to explain the formation of the various damage patterns observed.

  12. Wind-eroded silicate as a source of hydrogen peroxide on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend Knak

    -sists of silicates [4] that due to wind erosion has a very fine grained texture. Based on the composition of the surface material and investigations showing that crushing of silicates can give rise to reactive oxygen species [5], we hypothesized that wind erosion of silicates can explain the reactivity of Martian...... soil. Wind-erosion of silicate could thus be one of several causes of the soil’s reactivity. As our experiments show, the globally distributed wind eroded silicate dust can lead to the production of hydrogen peroxide which might explain the reactivity of the Martian soil. The reactivity of eroded...

  13. Continuum modeling of ion-beam eroded surfaces under normal incidence: Impact of stochastic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimann, Karsten; Linz, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Deterministic surface pattern (left) and its stochastic counterpart (right) arising in a stochastic damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation that serves as a model equation for ion-beam eroded surfaces and is systematically investigated. - Abstract: Using a recently proposed field equation for the surface evolution of ion-beam eroded semiconductor target materials under normal incidence, we systematically explore the impact of additive stochastic fluctuations that are permanently present during the erosion process. Specifically, we investigate the dependence of the surface roughness, the underlying pattern forming properties and the bifurcation behavior on the strength of the fluctuations.

  14. Perception of Lexical Neutral Tone Among Adults and Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Fan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutral tone (T0 is a special tone form in Mandarin that contains tonal and stress information. Compared with canonical tones, T0 has a much shorter duration and reduced pitch contour. Its tonal contour is determined by the preceding canonical tone. However, not much is known about the perception of tonal and stress information in T0. In the current study, we investigate (1 whether T0 can be perceived as lexically unstressed by stress-language listeners; and (2 how Mandarin (tone language- and Dutch (stress language-learning infants perceive T0. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, Dutch adults identified T0 as unstressed when presented with disyllabic sequences ending in T0. In Experiment 2, we used the visual fixation paradigm to test 4- to 6-month-old and 10- to 12-month-old Dutch and Mandarin infants on pseudoword discrimination (/pan1san4/ [high-level + high-falling] and /pan1san0/ [high-level + mid-falling]. T4 and T0 each exhibit a similar falling contour. The results show that (1 after being habituated to neutral tone sequences (/pan1san0/, Dutch infants discriminated the T1T0–T1T4 contrast; and (2 neither age groups of Mandarin infants discriminated the tone contrast. Assuming Mandarin infants’ lack of discrimination might be due to the similar F0 contours, we tested Mandarin infants in Experiment 3 using a more salient contrast, /pan1san2/ (high-level + mid-rising and /pan1san0/. While no overall discrimination was observed, those who were habituated to /pan1san0/ demonstrated discrimination. The continuous discrimination of Dutch infants suggests that they might process neutral–canonical tone contrast as lexical stress rather than as tonal information. Overall, Mandarin infants’ failure implies that the representation of T0 is not complete during their 1st year of life; the acquisition of tonal categories may therefore take longer than we expected.

  15. Implementation and preliminary evaluation of 'C-tone': A novel algorithm to improve lexical tone recognition in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Wang, Ningyuan; Tang, Guofang; Lu, Thomas; Yin, Li; Tu, Wenhe; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system. Subjects were given 2 weeks of experience with C-tone. Recognition of Chinese tones, monosyllables, and disyllables in quiet was measured with and without the C-tone algorithm. Subjective quality ratings were also obtained for C-tone. After 2 weeks of experience with C-tone, there were small but significant improvements in recognition of lexical tones, monosyllables, and disyllables (P C-tone were greater for disyllables than for monosyllables. Subjective quality ratings showed no strong preference for or against C-tone, except for perception of own voice, where C-tone was preferred. The real-time C-tone algorithm provided small but significant improvements for speech performance in quiet with no change in sound quality. Pre-processing algorithms to reduce noise and better real-time F0 extraction would improve the benefits of C-tone in complex listening environments. Chinese CI users' speech recognition in quiet can be significantly improved by modifying the amplitude contour to better resemble the F0 contour.

  16. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  17. Altered Communicative Decisions following Ventromedial Prefrontal Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.; D'Imperio, D.; Pellegrino, G. di; Toni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) leads to profound changes in everyday social interactions [1, 2]. Yet, in the lab, vmPFC patients show surprising proficiency in reasoning about other agents [3-8]. These conflicting observations suggest that what vmPFC patients lack in

  18. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  19. Monetary reward activates human prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thut, G.; Roelcke, U.; Nienhusmeier, M.; Missimer, J.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Schultz, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a rCBF PET activation study, in which we demonstrated that reward processing in humans activates a cortical-subcortical network including dorsolateral prefrontal, orbital frontal, thalamic and midbrain regions. It is suggested that, as found for non-human primates, the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system is implicated in reward processing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  20. Neural modeling of prefrontal executive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Brain executive function is based in a distributed system whereby prefrontal cortex is interconnected with other cortical. and subcortical loci. Executive function is divided roughly into three interacting parts: affective guidance of responses; linkage among working memory representations; and forming complex behavioral schemata. Neural network models of each of these parts are reviewed and fit into a preliminary theoretical framework.

  1. Crack cocaine inhalation induces schizophrenia-like symptoms and molecular alterations in mice prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, Lorena Bianchine; Herlinger, Alice Laschuk; Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita Gomes Wanderley

    2017-08-01

    Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users. Social withdraw and executive function deficits are, respectively, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia mediated by reduced dopamine (DA) tone in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients. That could be explained by an increased expression of D2R short isoform (D2S) in the PFC of such patients and/or by hypofunctioning NMDA receptors in this region. Reduced DA tone has already been described in the PFC of mice exposed to crack smoke. Therefore, it is possible that behavioral alterations presented by crack users result from molecular and biochemical neuronal alterations akin to schizophrenia. Accordingly, we found that upon crack inhalation mice have shown decreased social interaction and working memory deficits analogous to schizophrenia's symptoms, along with increased D2S/D2L expression ratio and decreased expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits in the PFC. Herein we propose two possible mechanisms to explain the reduced DA tone in the PFC elicited by crack consumption in mice, bringing also the first direct evidence that crack use may result in schizophrenia-like neurochemical, molecular and behavioral alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological Modulation of Long-Term Potentiation-Like Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Salavati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term potentiation (LTP depends on glutamatergic neurotransmission and is modulated by cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic inputs. Paired associative stimulation (PAS is a neurostimulation paradigm that, when combined with electroencephalography (EEG, assesses LTP-like activity (PAS-induced LTP in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thus, we conducted a study to assess the role of cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission on PAS-induced LTP in the DLPFC. We hypothesized that increasing the dopaminergic tone with L-DOPA and the cholinergic tone with rivastigmine will enhance PAS-induced LTP, while increasing the GABAergic tone with baclofen and inhibiting glutamatergic neurotransmission with dextromethorphan will reduce it compared to placebo.Methods: In this randomized controlled, double-blind cross-over within-subject study, 12 healthy participants received five sessions of PAS to the DLPFC in a random order, each preceded by the administration of placebo or one of the four active drugs. PAS-induced LTP was assessed after each drug administration and compared to PAS-induced LTP after placebo.Results: As predicted, L-DOPA and rivastigmine resulted in enhanced PAS-induced LTP in the DLPFC and dextromethorphan inhibited it compared to placebo. In contrast, baclofen did not significantly suppress PAS-induced LTP compared to placebo.Conclusions: This study provides a novel approach to study DLPFC neuroplasticity and its modulation in patients with brain disorders that are associated with abnormalities in these neurochemical systems. This study was based on a single dose administration of each drug. Given that these drugs are typically administered chronically, future studies should assess the effects of chronic administration.

  3. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural

  4. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibil......Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment...... erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass...... of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore...

  5. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  6. Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janocko, M.; Cartigny, M.J.B.; Nemec, W.; Hansen, E.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the hydraulics of turbidity currents in erodible sinuous channels and the resulting intra-channel sediment depocentres (channel bars). Four factors are considered to exert critical control on sedimentation in sinuous submarine channels: (1) the

  7. THE CORRELATED TRACK RECEIVER OF TONE TRACK CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.

  8. Consonance perception of complex-tone dyads and chords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marc; Santurette, Sébastien; MacDonald, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Sensory consonance and dissonance are perceptual attributes of musical intervals conveying pleasant- ness, tension, and harmony in musical phrases. For complex-tone dyads, corresponding to two musical notes played simultaneously, consonance is known to vary with the ratio in fundamental frequency...... for a potential role of frequency selectivity for consonance perception of dyads, might not hold for chords...

  9. Acute effects of gamma irradiation on vascular arterial tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourlier, V.; Diserbo, M.; Multon, E.; Verdetti, J.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    In rat aortic rings, we showed an increase in arterial tone during irradiation. This effect is acute reversible. This effect is only observed on pre-contracted rings and needs the integrity of vascular endothelium. The molecular mechanism of this effect is discussed. (author)

  10. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Dwight P; George, Sahara E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2015-07-01

    Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180 s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100 Hz), and additionally varied in modulation depth from 0% to 100% at the 4-Hz frequency only. Every 30 s, normal-hearing subjects estimated the loudness of one of the stimuli played at 15 dB above threshold in random order. Without any amplitude modulation, the loudness of the unmodulated tone after 180 s was only 20% of the loudness at the onset of the stimulus. Amplitude modulation systematically reduced the amount of loudness adaptation, with the 100%-modulated stimuli, regardless of modulation frequency, maintaining on average 55%-80% of the loudness at onset after 180 s. Because the present low-frequency amplitude modulation produced minimal changes in long-term spectral cues affecting the spatial distribution of excitation produced by a 12-kHz pure tone, the present result indicates that neural synchronization is critical to maintaining loudness perception over time.

  11. Syllabification, Tone Marking, and Minimality in Eleme Ngulube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    accounting for the fact that they only appear in word-final position. Word-initial ... Having established the basic principles of syllabification for Eleme, I would like to turn now to consider tone ... 'I have shared the book.' (17) b b r. 'they beat you'.

  12. Ileoanal pouch function is related to postprandial pouch tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, J.; Bemelman, W. A.; Meijerink, W. J.; Griffioen, G.; van Hogezand, R. A.; Masclee, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    Functional impairments are frequently observed in patients with an ileoanal pouch. Meal ingestion increases pouch tone and motility. Little is known, however, about the influence of meal-stimulated pouch characteristics on pouch function. The aim was to characterize basal and postprandial pouch

  13. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  14. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  15. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on Cavity Tone and Sound Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokoyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the effects of freestream turbulence on cavity tones, flow and acoustic fields were directly predicted for cavity flows with various intensities of freestream turbulence. The freestream Mach number was 0.09 and the Reynolds number based on the cavity length was 4.0 × 104. The depth-to-length ratio of the cavity, D/L, was 0.5 and 2.5, where the acoustic resonance of a depth-mode occurs for D/L = 2.5. The incoming boundary layer was laminar. The results for the intensity of freestream turbulence of Tu = 2.3% revealed that the reduced level of cavity tones in a cavity flow with acoustic resonance (D/L=2.5 was greater than that without acoustic resonance (D/L=0.5. To clarify the reason for this, the sound source based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy was computed, and the contributions of the intensity and spanwise coherence of the sound source to the reduction of the cavity tone were estimated. As a result, the effects of the reduction of spanwise coherence on the cavity tone were greater in the cavity flow with acoustic resonance than in that without resonance, while the effects of the intensity were comparable for both flows.

  16. Electromagnetic correlates of musical expertise in processing of tone patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the influence of long term musical training on the processing of partly imagined tone patterns (imagery condition) compared to the same perceived patterns (perceptual condition). The magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm) was recorded and compared between musicians and non-musicians in order to assess the effect of musical training on the detection of deviants to tone patterns. The results indicated a clear MMNm in the perceptual condition as well as in a simple pitch oddball (control) condition in both groups. However, there was no significant mismatch response in either group in the imagery condition despite above chance behavioral performance in the task of detecting deviant tones. The latency and the laterality of the MMNm in the perceptual condition differed significantly between groups, with an earlier MMNm in musicians, especially in the left hemisphere. In contrast the MMNm amplitudes did not differ significantly between groups. The behavioral results revealed a clear effect of long-term musical training in both experimental conditions. The obtained results represent new evidence that the processing of tone patterns is faster and more strongly lateralized in musically trained subjects, which is consistent with other findings in different paradigms of enhanced auditory neural system functioning due to long-term musical training.

  17. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  18. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja X. Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  19. Tone and Style: Developing a Neglected Segment of Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenman, Leon F.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of tone and style to communication is attested by the longevity of the popularity of "Elements of Style," published originally in 1918, with the fourth edition published in 2000 (Strunk, 1918; Strunk & White, 2000). Communicators in business and academia at all levels need to send messages that are understood pleasantly and…

  20. Pitch identification and discrimination for complex tones with many harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.; Smurzyński, J.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing up to 11 successive harmonics. In particular, the question is raised whether the pitch percept of the missing fundamental is mediated only by low-order resolvable harmonics, or whether it can also be

  1. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discussed the concept of tone in African languages generally and in the Bantu linguistic group in particular from a pedagogical perspective. Using illustrative examples from Cibemba, the major language of Zambia, with an air of extension in DR Congo, in comparison with Germanic and Romance languages, the ...

  2. Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tones by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Colleen M.; Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Dowell, Richard C.; Vogel, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess Cantonese word recognition and the discrimination of Cantonese tones with manipulated contours by child and adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and a group of peers with normal hearing (NH). It was hypothesized that the CI users would perform more poorly than their counterparts with NH in both…

  3. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweazea Karen L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed high fat (HFD or high sucrose (HSD diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM. Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM and catalase (1200 U/mL, also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Knyazeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman’s population separation model of auditory streaming.

  5. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, Stanislava; Selezneva, Elena; Gorkin, Alexander; Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C; Brosch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman's population separation model of auditory streaming.

  6. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  7. Hearing and Seeing Tone through Color: An Efficacy Study of Web-Based, Multimodal Chinese Tone Perception Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Lin, Chin-Hsi; Ryu, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal approaches have been shown to be effective for many learning tasks. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of five multimodal methods for second language (L2) Mandarin tone perception training: three single-cue methods (number, pitch contour, color) and two dual-cue methods (color and number, color and pitch contour). A total of…

  8. Prefrontal contributions to visual selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Ryan F; Noudoost, Behrad; Schafer, Robert J; Moore, Tirin

    2013-07-08

    The faculty of attention endows us with the capacity to process important sensory information selectively while disregarding information that is potentially distracting. Much of our understanding of the neural circuitry underlying this fundamental cognitive function comes from neurophysiological studies within the visual modality. Past evidence suggests that a principal function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is selective attention and that this function involves the modulation of sensory signals within posterior cortices. In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying the specific prefrontal circuits controlling visual attention and its neural correlates within the primate visual system. In addition, we examine the persisting challenge of precisely defining how behavior should be affected when attentional function is lost.

  9. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  10. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E K; Cohen, J D

    2001-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of activity along neural pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task. We review neurophysiological, neurobiological, neuroimaging, and computational studies that support this theory and discuss its implications as well as further issues to be addressed

  11. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingulate sectors of PFC are theorized to mediate a number of social and affective decision-making functions that appear to be disrupted in psychopathy. This article provides a critical summary of human neuroimaging data implicating prefrontal dysfunction in psychopathy. A growing body of evidence associates psychopathy with structural and functional abnormalities in ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. Although this burgeoning field still faces a number of methodological challenges and outstanding questions that will need to be resolved by future studies, the research to date has established a link between psychopathy and PFC. PMID:22752782

  12. Capacity-speed relationships in prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Prabhakaran

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM capacity and WM processing speed are simple cognitive measures that underlie human performance in complex processes such as reasoning and language comprehension. These cognitive measures have shown to be interrelated in behavioral studies, yet the neural mechanism behind this interdependence has not been elucidated. We have carried out two functional MRI studies to separately identify brain regions involved in capacity and speed. Experiment 1, using a block-design WM verbal task, identified increased WM capacity with increased activity in right prefrontal regions, and Experiment 2, using a single-trial WM verbal task, identified increased WM processing speed with increased activity in similar regions. Our results suggest that right prefrontal areas may be a common region interlinking these two cognitive measures. Moreover, an overlap analysis with regions associated with binding or chunking suggest that this strategic memory consolidation process may be the mechanism interlinking WM capacity and WM speed.

  13. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  14. Specialized prefrontal auditory fields: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal auditory field as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  15. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Domains of H tone spreading and the noun class prefix in Xitsonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports results from an investigation of domains of H tone spreading in Xitsonga, a southern Bantu language. High (H) tone spreads into toneless syllables but it spreads only to the first syllable if a nominal root has an H tone. Kisseberth (1994) argues that domain structures created by the Pre-High Projection rule ...

  17. Perceived Pitch of Violin and Cello Vibrato Tones among Music Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…

  18. Effects of Fundamental Frequency and Duration Variation on the Perception of South Kyungsang Korean Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The…

  19. Hierarchical tone mapping for high dynamic range image visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guoping; Duan, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient, practically easy to use tone mapping techniques for the visualization of high dynamic range (HDR) images in low dynamic range (LDR) reproduction devices. The new method, termed hierarchical nonlinear linear (HNL) tone-mapping operator maps the pixels in two hierarchical steps. The first step allocates appropriate numbers of LDR display levels to different HDR intensity intervals according to the pixel densities of the intervals. The second step linearly maps the HDR intensity intervals to theirs allocated LDR display levels. In the developed HNL scheme, the assignment of LDR display levels to HDR intensity intervals is controlled by a very simple and flexible formula with a single adjustable parameter. We also show that our new operators can be used for the effective enhancement of ordinary images.

  20. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at 193 nm using an erodible mask: new developments and clinical progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Seiler, Theo; Carey, Joseph P.; Friedman, Marc D.; Johnsson, N. M. F.; King, Michael C.; Muller, David F.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on our progress using an erodible mask to perform photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopic astigmatism. We describe modifications to the mask, the mask eye cup and the surgical microscope aimed at simplifying the procedure and improving the ergonomics of the hardware. We report the clinical results of the post-op exam for 20 patients who have undergone PRK for myopic astigmatism under a Phase IIA study. The results compare favorably with an earlier Phase IIA study for performing PRK with a computer-controlled iris. Most important, the clinical data show the absence of any significant corneal haze and no significant decrease in spectacle corrected visual acuity. Although more long term follow-up is needed, the preliminary results support the safety and effectiveness of using an erodible mask to perform PRK for myopic astigmatism.

  1. Testing the effect of a microbial-based soil amendment on aggregate stability and erodibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    to the rainfall-runoff experiment where the microbial-based product had a clear effect on soil erodibility. In relation to measurement of aggregate stability as well as clay dispersion, the picture was less clear. Especially for the sandy Tanzania soil with a low content of organic matter, a clear effect was seen...... aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...

  2. Advances in dual-tone development for pitch frequency doubling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos; Somervell, Mark; Scheer, Steven; Kuwahara, Yuhei; Nafus, Kathleen; Gronheid, Roel; Tarutani, Shinji; Enomoto, Yuuichiro

    2010-04-01

    Dual-tone development (DTD) has been previously proposed as a potential cost-effective double patterning technique1. DTD was reported as early as in the late 1990's2. The basic principle of dual-tone imaging involves processing exposed resist latent images in both positive tone (aqueous base) and negative tone (organic solvent) developers. Conceptually, DTD has attractive cost benefits since it enables pitch doubling without the need for multiple etch steps of patterned resist layers. While the concept for DTD technique is simple to understand, there are many challenges that must be overcome and understood in order to make it a manufacturing solution. Previous work by the authors demonstrated feasibility of DTD imaging for 50nm half-pitch features at 0.80NA (k1 = 0.21) and discussed challenges lying ahead for printing sub-40nm half-pitch features with DTD. While previous experimental results suggested that clever processing on the wafer track can be used to enable DTD beyond 50nm halfpitch, it also suggest that identifying suitable resist materials or chemistries is essential for achieving successful imaging results with novel resist processing methods on the wafer track. In this work, we present recent advances in the search for resist materials that work in conjunction with novel resist processing methods on the wafer track to enable DTD. Recent experimental results with new resist chemistries, specifically designed for DTD, are presented in this work. We also present simulation studies that help and support identifying resist properties that could enable DTD imaging, which ultimately lead to producing viable DTD resist materials.

  3. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  4. Effects of human pharmaceuticals on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in fish hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, N.; Aiet-Aiessa, S.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Porcher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in the aquatic environment but their potential effects on non-target species like fish remain unknown. This in vitro study is a first approach in the toxicity assessment of human drugs on fish. Nine pharmaceuticals were tested on two fish hepatocyte models: primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (PRTH) and PLHC-1 fish cell line. Cell viability, interaction with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme and oxidative stress were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide tetrazolium (MTT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. The tested drugs were clofibrate (CF), fenofibrate (FF), carbamazepine (CBZ), fluoxetine (FX), diclofenac (DiCF), propranolol (POH), sulfamethoxazole (SFX), amoxicillin (AMX) and gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ). All substances were cytotoxic, except AMX at concentration up to 500 μM. The calculated MTT EC 50 values ranged from 2 μM (CF) to 651 μM (CBZ) in PLHC-1, and from 53 μM (FF) to 962 μM (GdCl 3 ) in PRTH. CF, FF, and FX were the most cytotoxic drugs and induced oxidative stress before being cytotoxic. Compared to hepatocytes from human and dog, fish hepatocytes seemed to be more susceptible to the peroxisome proliferators (PPs) CF and FF. In PLHC-1 cells none of the tested drugs induced the EROD activity whereas POH appeared as a weak EROD inducer in PRTH. Moreover, in PRTH, SFX, DiCF, CBZ and to a lesser extend, FF and CF inhibited the basal EROD activity at clearly sublethal concentrations which may be of concern at the biological and chemical levels in a multipollution context

  5. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    P. N. Palanisamy; A. Geetha; M. Sujatha; P. Sivakumar; K. Karunakaran

    2007-01-01

    Ground water samples collected from different localities in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was compared with the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, CN-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca & Mg in CaCO3 equivalents, phenolphthalein alkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbo...

  6. Erodibility of surface-mine spoil banks in southeastern Ohio : an approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, C D; Studlick, J R.J.

    1979-07-01

    Measurements of accumulated sediment in inter-bank basins of unreclaimed strip mines determined the average annual site loss from unvegetated, 18-year-old spoil banks. Assuming that the universal soil loss equation (USLE) can be used to estimate sediment yield from strip mine slopes, the topographic factor in the USLE was determined in 2 ways, and values for erodibility well calculated. The technique is applicable to unreclaimed mines where inter-bank basins trap all slope-derived sediment.

  7. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Cai

    Full Text Available The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME.Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB.Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to identify and

  8. Tone perception in Mandarin-speaking school age children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting; McPherson, Bradley; Li, Caiwei; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored tone perception ability in school age Mandarin-speaking children with otitis media with effusion (OME) in noisy listening environments. The study investigated the interaction effects of noise, tone type, age, and hearing status on monaural tone perception, and assessed the application of a hierarchical clustering algorithm for profiling hearing impairment in children with OME. Forty-one children with normal hearing and normal middle ear status and 84 children with OME with or without hearing loss participated in this study. The children with OME were further divided into two subgroups based on their severity and pattern of hearing loss using a hierarchical clustering algorithm. Monaural tone recognition was measured using a picture-identification test format incorporating six sets of monosyllabic words conveying four lexical tones under speech spectrum noise, with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions ranging from -9 to -21 dB. Linear correlation indicated tone recognition thresholds of children with OME were significantly correlated with age and pure tone hearing thresholds at every frequency tested. Children with hearing thresholds less affected by OME performed similarly to their peers with normal hearing. Tone recognition thresholds of children with auditory status more affected by OME were significantly inferior to those of children with normal hearing or with minor hearing loss. Younger children demonstrated poorer tone recognition performance than older children with OME. A mixed design repeated-measure ANCOVA showed significant main effects of listening condition, hearing status, and tone type on tone recognition. Contrast comparisons revealed that tone recognition scores were significantly better under -12 dB SNR than under -15 dB SNR conditions and tone recognition scores were significantly worse under -18 dB SNR than those obtained under -15 dB SNR conditions. Tone 1 was the easiest tone to identify and Tone 3 was the most

  9. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range....... In the “loudness” task there was no difference in mean level across the two intervals. In the “sample discrimination” task, the two complexes differed by an average of 5 dB. For both tasks, perceptual weights were derived by correlating the differences in level between matched-frequency tones in the complexes...... and the loudness decision on each trial. Weights derived from the loudness task (no mean level difference) were highly correlated with weights derived from the sample discrimination task (5-dB difference). For SPL conditions, both NH and SNHL subjects placed less weight on the lowest frequency and greater weight...

  10. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  11. TONE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES WITH A STUDENT DURING FLUTE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Aytemur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of a five stage study program applied by the researcher to one student who had entered university playing the flute, but who had not resolved lip and tone problems in one educational semester through basic long sound studies and scale studies. The participant in the research was a 19 year old student who had completed first year of the music teaching program and had performed in the year-end concert; however she was criticized by listeners and flute teachers for forced and scratchy tone. The research had the basic aim of solving these problems. As a result the “single subject study model”, chosen for research on individuals requesting private training, was chosen for this research model. The findings of the study were collected as video recordings of scale, study and piece work in initial, training and final stages of a six-week education course run every day. To evaluate the obtained recordings, a “Behavior for Quality Flute Tone Scale” was created. The video recordings were investigated by three flute teaching staff, expert in the area, who provided points in accordance with the scale. The obtained points were analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The results showed that the study program created by the researcher provided rapid tonal development of the student. It is considered that the study is important to present an alternative route for flute students experiencing similar problems.

  12. TONE AND IMAGERY IN TENNYSON‟S „TITHONUS‟

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifqi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying poetry is considered the most difficult by most of the students in my classes in EFL context. This can be understood since poetry in general has a unique form different from other types of literary works. With very limited lines and space provided in poetry, poets are able to put forward their ideas. Such reality enables readers to explore the most possible and acceptable meaning of poetry. However, it seems impossible for readers to find out the poets‘ exact intended meaning through their writings. So, it is notthe readers‘ job to get the poets‘ exact intended meaning but to explore the possible and acceptable meaning by using the clues presented within the poem. In interpreting the poem‘s meaning, readers should consider any poetic devices applied by the poet in expressing his/her ideas. Poets are very intelligent in playing with figures of speech. They use figurative languages more freshly and vividly than common writers. Through this article, I intend to investigate how the tone and imagery are applied in the poem ―Tithonus‖ written by Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892, the most popular poet of Victorian Era. This poem is very rich of imagery. Afterward, the tone will also be scrutinized. As all poetic devices work complementarily and so do tone and imagery to support each other.I will also show how they work intertwiningly together in creating the whole meaning of the poem.

  13. The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schramm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .

  14. Predicting of soil erosion with regarding to rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Razak, Mohd Amirun Anis Ab; Ahmad, Nordila

    2018-02-01

    The soil along the hill and slope are wearing away due to erosion and it can take place due to occurrence of weak and heavy rainfall. The aim of this study is to predict the soil erosion degree in Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) area focused on two major factor which is soil erodibility and rainfall erosivity. Soil erodibility is the possibilities of soil to detach and carried away during rainfall and runoff. The "ROM" scale was used in this study to determine the degree of soil erodibility, namely low, moderate, high, and very high. As for rainfall erosivity, the erosive power caused by rainfall that cause soil loss. A daily rainfall data collected from January to April was analyzed by using ROSE index classification to identify the potential risk of soil erosion. The result shows that the soil erodibilty are moderate at MTD`s hill, high at behind of block Lestari and Landslide MTD hill, and critical at behind the mess cadet. While, the highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in March and April. Overall, this study would benefit the organization greatly in saving cost in landslide protection as relevant authorities can take early measures repairing the most affected area of soil erosion.

  15. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, Birgül; Callaway, Angelika; Kurth, Petra; Willershausen, Brita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effect of bleaching agents on eroded and sound enamel specimens. Enamel specimens prepared from human permanent anterior teeth were incubated with different bleaching agents containing active ingredients as 7.5 or 13.5% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide, ranging in pH from 4.9 to 10.8. The effect of the tooth whitening agents on surface roughness was tested for sound enamel surfaces as well as for eroded enamel specimens. To provoke erosive damage, the enamel specimens were incubated for 10 hours with apple juice (pH = 3.4). Afterwards, pretreated and untreated dental slices were incubated with one of the bleaching agents for 10 hours. The surface roughness (R(a)) of all enamel specimens (N = 80) was measured using an optical profilometric device. A descriptive statistical analysis of the R(a) values was performed. The study demonstrated that exposure to an acidic bleaching agent (pH = 4.9) resulted in a higher surface roughness (p = 0.043) than treatment with a high peroxide concentration (pH = 6.15). If the enamel surface was previously exposed to erosive beverages, subsequent bleaching may enhance damage to the dental hard tissue. Bleaching agents with a high concentration of peroxide or an acidic pH can influence the surface roughness of sound or eroded enamel. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Frijolito Watershed: Integrated investigations of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Pitlick, J.

    1995-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been widely recognized, but few process-based studies of this phenomenon have been undertaken. In an attempt to identify the underlying causes, and the factors that affect erosion processes, we have initiated an interdisciplinary study of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Since July 1993, we have collected data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions from a 1-ha catchment study area and have conducted surveys of topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that although runoff makes up less than 10% of the annual water budget, runoff events - which are frequent in the summer - are capable of moving large amounts of sediment. We estimate that between July 1993 and October 1994, between 25,000 and 50,000 kg of sediment has eroded and been transported from the catchment. The information gained from such studies is essential to our ability to formulate effective strategies for managing these rapidly eroding woodlands

  17. Impact of Vortioxetine on Synaptic Integration in Prefrontal-Subcortical Circuits: Comparisons with Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreaya Chakroborty

    2017-10-01

    , indicating that complex modulation of 5-HT receptors by vortioxetine may offset SSRI-like effects in this region. Lastly, neurons in the msNAc were more responsive to stimulation of the HF following both vortioxetine and escitalopram administration, indicating that elevation of 5-HT tone and 5-HT receptor modulation may facilitate excitatory hippocampal synaptic drive in this region. The above findings point to complex 5-HT receptor-dependent effects of vortioxetine which may contribute to its unique impact on the function of prefrontal-subcortical circuits and the development of novel strategies for treating mood disorders.

  18. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ting Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  19. Predicting utterance pitch targets in Yoruba for tone realisation in speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available well studied African tone language of which the linguistic details of the tone system have been thoroughly described. Three level tones, labelled High (H), Mid (M) and Low (L) are associated with syllables and have a high functional load (Courtenay... (see Figure 1). Distinct intra-syllable patterns occurring in Yoru`ba´ are falling and rising pitch contours when L and H tones are realised after H and L tones respectively. downstep downstep H L Figure 1: A simplified illustration of terracing...

  20. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  1. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  2. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood.

  3. Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eKolb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.

  4. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2012-10-01

    Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.

  5. Amodal processing in human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin J; Dux, Paul E; Tombu, Michael N; Asplund, Christopher L; Marois, René

    2013-07-10

    Information enters the cortex via modality-specific sensory regions, whereas actions are produced by modality-specific motor regions. Intervening central stages of information processing map sensation to behavior. Humans perform this central processing in a flexible, abstract manner such that sensory information in any modality can lead to response via any motor system. Cognitive theories account for such flexible behavior by positing amodal central information processing (e.g., "central executive," Baddeley and Hitch, 1974; "supervisory attentional system," Norman and Shallice, 1986; "response selection bottleneck," Pashler, 1994). However, the extent to which brain regions embodying central mechanisms of information processing are amodal remains unclear. Here we apply multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to compare response selection, a cognitive process widely believed to recruit an amodal central resource across sensory and motor modalities. We show that most frontal and parietal cortical areas known to activate across a wide variety of tasks code modality, casting doubt on the notion that these regions embody a central processor devoid of modality representation. Importantly, regions of anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex consistently failed to code modality across four experiments. However, these areas code at least one other task dimension, process (instantiated as response selection vs response execution), ensuring that failure to find coding of modality is not driven by insensitivity of multivariate pattern analysis in these regions. We conclude that abstract encoding of information modality is primarily a property of subregions of the prefrontal cortex.

  6. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Contributions to Human Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control functions for human intelligence, the necessity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) for key competencies of general intelligence and executive function remains to be well established. Here we studied human brain lesion patients with dlPFC lesions to investigate whether this region is computationally necessary for performance on neuropsychological tests of general intelligence and executive function, administering the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) to three groups: dlPFC lesions (n = 19), non-dlPFC lesions (n = 152), and no brain lesions (n = 55). The key results indicate that: (1) patients with focal dlPFC damage exhibit lower scores, at the latent variable level, than controls in general intelligence (g) and executive function; (2) dlPFC patients demonstrate lower scores than controls in several executive measures; and (3) these latter differences are no longer significant when the pervasive influence of the general factor of intelligence (g) is statistically removed. The observed findings support a central role for the dlPFC in general intelligence and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the WAIS and D-KEFS to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22634247

  7. Electrophysiological mapping of novel prefrontal - cerebellar pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Watson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the cerebellum is predominantly considered a sensorimotor control structure, accumulating evidence suggests that it may also subserve non motor functions during cognition. However, this possibility is not universally accepted, not least because the nature and pattern of links between higher cortical structures and the cerebellum are poorly characterized. We have therefore used in vivo electrophysiological methods in anaesthetized rats to directly investigate connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subdivision, PrL and the cerebellum. Stimulation of deep layers of PrL evoked distinct field potentials in the cerebellar cortex with a mean latency to peak of approximately 35ms. These responses showed a well-defined topography, and were maximal in lobule VII of the contralateral vermis (a known oculomotor centre; they were not attenuated by local anesthesia of the overlying M2 motor cortex, though M2 stimulation did evoke field potentials in lobule VII with a shorter latency. Single-unit recordings showed that prelimbic cortical stimulation elicits complex spikes in lobule VII Purkinje cells, indicating transmission via a previously undescribed cerebro-olivocerebellar pathway. Our results therefore establish a physiological basis for communication between PrL and the cerebellum. The role(s of this pathway remain to be resolved, but presumably relate to control of eye movements and/or distributed networks associated with integrated prefrontal cortical functions.

  8. A Bacon Tone Ring on an Open-Back Banjo

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Head taps on a new Goodtime banjo rim fitted with a reproduction Bacon Professional ff tone ring are contrasted with a new Goodtime, a 2002 Goodtime, and a 1999 Goodtime fitted with a 1/4′′ diameter brass ring. Conclusions: The 1/4" ring does what’s commonly imagined, the upgrades to the Goodtime over the years are not merely cosmetic, and the Bacon ring’s biggest effect is to damp head ringing and suppress high harmonics. Detailed comparisons of the new Goodtimes with and without the Bacon r...

  9. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  10. Strength, shrinkage, erodibility and capillary flow characteristics of cement-treated recycled pavement materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fedrigo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-depth recycling with portland cement (FDR-PC has been widely used for pavement rehabilitation; however, doubts remain regarding factors affecting some properties of the recycled material. Aiming on quantifying the effects of those factors on the strength, drying shrinkage, erodibility, capillary rise and absorption of cement-treated mixtures (CTM of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and graded crushed stone, tests were conducted considering different RAP contents, cement contents, compaction efforts and curing times. Cement addition increased the mixtures strength and reduced their erodibility and capillary flow characteristics, but increased shrinkage. Low cement contents resulted in acceptable strength for CTM, but in high capillary rise and absorption, not being suitable if the layer is exposed to long periods of water soaking. Higher compaction effort led to similar effects as cement addition, counterbalancing low cement contents usage and reducing costs and shrinkage cracking risk. Strength and shrinkage showed higher growth rates at early stages, and then precautions should be taken in order to avoid moisture loss. Increasing RAP content decreased strength; though, RAP effect on the other properties was statistically non-significant, indicating a similar behaviour as CTM without RAP. Considering the studied properties, the mixture with most satisfactory behaviour for field applications was identified. The results highlighted strength is not the only property to be considered when designing FDR-PC mixtures; although presenting acceptable strength, some mixtures may fail due to shrinkage cracking or erosion, when exposed to water content variations. Keywords: Full-depth recycling with cement, Strength, Drying shrinkage, Erodibility, Capillary rise, Absorption

  11. Cantonese tone production performance of mainstream school children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.

  12. Khat distorts the prefrontal cortex histology and function of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khat is a psychoactive herbal drug of pronounced ethno-pharmacological significance often abused due to its unregulated use. It affects many brain centers including the prefrontal cortex which is the anterior most part of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal cortex modulates working memory, planning complex cognitive ...

  13. Implicit and Explicit Learning Mechanisms Meet in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, Matthew V; Crowe, David A

    2017-10-11

    In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement and analysis of phased array data on haystacked tones from a source located in a free jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tester, Brian J.; Sijtsma, P.

    2017-01-01

    Significant spectral broadening of tone noise by jet shear-layer turbulence can occur if the tone frequency and the path length through the shear layer are sufficiently large. A typical example of spectral broadening or ‘tone haystacking’ are turbine aero-engine tones which exhibit little or no

  15. No Perceptual Reorganization for Limburgian Tones? A Cross-Linguistic Investigation with 6- to 12-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachers, Stefanie; Brouwer, Susanne; Fikkert, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Despite the fact that many of the world's languages use lexical tone, the majority of language acquisition studies has focused on non-tone languages. Research on tone languages has typically investigated wellknown tone languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese Chinese. The current study looked at a Limburgian dialect of Dutch that uses lexical…

  16. Are lexical tones musical? Native language's influence on neural response to pitch in different domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Wijnen, Frank; Schnack, Hugo; Burnham, Denis

    2018-04-21

    Language experience shapes musical and speech pitch processing. We investigated whether speaking a lexical tone language natively modulates neural processing of pitch in language and music as well as their correlation. We tested tone language (Mandarin Chinese), and non-tone language (Dutch) listeners in a passive oddball paradigm measuring mismatch negativity (MMN) for (i) Chinese lexical tones and (ii) three-note musical melodies with similar pitch contours. For lexical tones, Chinese listeners showed a later MMN peak than the non-tone language listeners, whereas for MMN amplitude there were no significant differences between groups. Dutch participants also showed a late discriminative negativity (LDN). In the music condition two MMNs, corresponding to the two notes that differed between the standard and the deviant were found for both groups, and an LDN were found for both the Dutch and the Chinese listeners. The music MMNs were significantly right lateralized. Importantly, significant correlations were found between the lexical tone and the music MMNs for the Dutch but not the Chinese participants. The results suggest that speaking a tone language natively does not necessarily enhance neural responses to pitch either in language or in music, but that it does change the nature of neural pitch processing: non-tone language speakers appear to perceive lexical tones as musical, whereas for tone language speakers, lexical tones and music may activate different neural networks. Neural resources seem to be assigned differently for the lexical tones and for musical melodies, presumably depending on the presence or absence of long-term phonological memory traces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed

    2013-01-01

    Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jabel Nefusa area located in northwest of Libya; therefore, erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and dryfarming research Station, University of the Al-japel Al-gharbi in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width and the percentage of its slope is 3%. The station were established to measure the amount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96...

  18. Numerical simulation of evolutionary erodible bedforms using the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Becker, Pablo; Ortiz, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical strategy for the simulation of flows with evolutionary erodible boundaries. The fluid equations are fully resolved in 3D, while the sediment transport is modelled using the Exner equation and solved with an explicit Lagrangian procedure based on a fixed 2D mesh. Flow and sediment are coupled in geometry by deforming the fluid mesh in the vertical direction and in velocities with the experimental sediment flux computed using the Meyer Peter Müller model. A comparison with real experiments on channels is performed, giving good agreement.

  19. Distribution of Shrubland and Grassland Soil Erodibility on the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most severe problems facing environments and has increased throughout the 20th century. Soil erodibility (K-factor is one of the important indicators of land degradation, and many models have been used to estimate K values. Although soil erodibility has been estimated, the comparison of different models and their usage at a regional scale and, in particular, for different land use types, need more research. Four of the most widely distributed land use types were selected to analyze, including introduced and natural grassland, as well as introduced and natural shrubland. Soil particle size, soil organic matter and other relevant soil properties were measured to estimate soil erodibility in the Loess Plateau. The results show that: (1 the erosion productivity impact calculator (EPIC model and SHIRAZI model are both suitable for the Loess Plateau, while the SHIRAZI model has the advantage of fewer parameters; (2 introduced grassland has better ability to protect both the 0–5 cm soils and 5–20 cm soils, while the differences between introduced and natural shrubland are not obvious at a catchment scale; (3 the K values of introduced grassland, natural grassland, introduced shrubland and natural shrubland in the 0–5 cm layer vary from 0.008 to 0.037, 0.031 to 0.046, 0.012 to 0.041 and 0.008 to 0.045 (t·hm2·h/(MJ·mm·hm2, while the values vary from 0.009 to 0.039, 0.032 to 0.046, 0.012 to 0.042 and 0.008 to 0.048 (t·hm2·h/(MJ·mm·hm2 in the 5–20 cm layer. The areas with a mean multiyear precipitation of 370–440 mm are the most important places for vegetation restoration construction management at a regional scale. A comprehensive balance between water conservation and soil conservation is needed and important when selecting the species used to vegetation restoration. This study provides suggestions for ecological restoration and provides a case study for the estimate of soil erodibility in arid and semiarid

  20. The Development of the Ventral Prefrontal Cortex and Social Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eric E.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years a number of studies in both humans and animals have suggested that the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices play an important role in generating flexible behavior. We suggest that input from these brain regions contribute to three functions involved in generating flexible behavior within social contexts: valuation, inhibition, and rule use. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex undergoes a prolonged course of maturation that extends well after puberty. Here, we review evidence that the prolonged development of these prefrontal regions parallels a slowly emerging ability for flexible social behavior. We also speculate on the possibility that sensitive periods for organizing social behavior may be embedded within this developmental time-fame. Finally, we discuss the role of prefrontal cortex in adolescent mood and anxiety disorders, particularly as orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices are engaged in a social context. PMID:21804907

  1. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.

  2. How well can anaesthetists discriminate pulse oximeter tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R W; Mohacsi, P J

    2005-08-01

    The ability of experienced anaesthetists to discern oxygen saturation by listening to the tones of a Datex AS3 pulse oximeter was examined. Five-second samples were recorded using a high fidelity patient simulator and replayed singly and in pairs. Whilst the lower saturations were generally recognized as lower, the perceived range was greatly compressed. Median perceived estimates for 70% saturation was 89%, for 80% was 93% and for 94% was 94%. When comparing pairs of samples, the direction of the difference was correctly discerned by 70% of anaesthetists for differences of 2%, rising to 95% for differences of greater than 8% oxygen saturation. The magnitude of the difference was consistently underestimated. With an actual difference of 20%, the median estimate was 5%. The results indicate that while qualitative estimate changes in oxygen saturation are moderately reliable, quantitative estimation is severely limited by a compromised perceived scale. This may lead to underestimation of the severity if the auditory signal is relied on in isolation. A non-linear (musical) scale may prove more appropriate and should be investigated. Testing experienced anaesthetists demonstrated that most could detect the direction, but not the magnitude of a change in saturation by listening to the change in pitch of a Datex AS3 pulse oximeter tone.

  3. Effects of low harmonics on tone identification in natural and vocoded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Tahmina, Qudsia; Hu, Yi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of low-frequency harmonics to identifying Mandarin tones in natural and vocoded speech in quiet and noisy conditions. Results showed that low-frequency harmonics of natural speech led to highly accurate tone identification; however, for vocoded speech, low-frequency harmonics yielded lower tone identification than stimuli with full harmonics, except for tone 4. Analysis of the correlation between tone accuracy and the amplitude-F0 correlation index suggested that "more" speech contents (i.e., more harmonics) did not necessarily yield better tone recognition for vocoded speech, especially when the amplitude contour of the signals did not co-vary with the F0 contour.

  4. Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Pawson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the first time the relative importance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC in the fluvial carbon flux from an actively eroding peatland catchment in the southern Pennines, UK. Event scale variability in DOC and POC was examined and the annual flux of fluvial organic carbon was estimated for the catchment. At the event scale, both DOC and POC were found to increase with discharge, with event based POC export accounting for 95% of flux in only 8% of the time. On an annual cycle, exports of 35.14 t organic carbon (OC are estimated from the catchment, which represents an areal value of 92.47 g C m−2 a−1. POC was the most significant form of organic carbon export, accounting for 80% of the estimated flux. This suggests that more research is required on both the fate of POC and the rates of POC export in eroding peatland catchments.

  5. Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Heisel, Michael; Guala, Michele

    2018-02-01

    A modeling framework is derived to predict the scour induced by marine hydrokinetic turbines installed on fluvial or tidal erodible bed surfaces. Following recent advances in bridge scour formulation, the phenomenological theory of turbulence is applied to describe the flow structures that dictate the equilibrium scour depth condition at the turbine base. Using scaling arguments, we link the turbine operating conditions to the flow structures and scour depth through the drag force exerted by the device on the flow. The resulting theoretical model predicts scour depth using dimensionless parameters and considers two potential scenarios depending on the proximity of the turbine rotor to the erodible bed. The model is validated at the laboratory scale with experimental data comprising the two sediment mobility regimes (clear water and live bed), different turbine configurations, hydraulic settings, bed material compositions, and migrating bedform types. The present work provides future developers of flow energy conversion technologies with a physics-based predictive formula for local scour depth beneficial to feasibility studies and anchoring system design. A potential prototype-scale deployment in a large sandy river is also considered with our model to quantify how the expected scour depth varies as a function of the flow discharge and rotor diameter.

  6. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTION FOR ESTIMATING THE SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil erodibility factor, K, of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE is a simple descriptor of the soil susceptibility to rill and interrill erosion. The original procedure for determining K needs a knowledge of soil particle size distribution (PSD, soil organic matter, OM, content, and soil structure and permeability characteristics. However, OM data are often missing and soil structure and permeability are not easily evaluated in regional analyses. The objective of this investigation was to develop a pedotransfer function (PTF for estimating the K factor of the USLE in Sicily (south Italy using only soil textural data. The nomograph soil erodibility factor and its associated first approximation, K’, were determined at 471 sampling points distributed throughout the island of Sicily. Two existing relationships for estimating K on the basis of the measured geometric mean particle diameter were initially tested. Then, two alternative PTFs for estimating K’ and K, respectively, on the basis of the measured PSD were derived. Testing analysis showed that the K estimate by the proposed PTF (eq.11, which was characterized by a Nash-Suttcliffe efficiency index, NSEI, varying between 0.68 and 0.76, depending on the considered data set, was appreciably more accurate than the one obtained by other existing equations, yielding NSEI values varying between 0.21 and 0.32.

  8. Geomorphology and forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Marden, Michael; Basher, Les R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we outline how geomorphological understanding has underpinned forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands, where it contributes to current forest management, and suggest where it will be of value in the future. We focus on the highly erodible soft-rock hill country of the East Coast region of North Island, but cover other parts of New Zealand where appropriate. We conclude that forestry will continue to make a significant contribution to New Zealand's economy, but several issues need to be addressed. The most pressing concerns are the incidence of post-harvest, storm-initiated landslides and debris flows arising from steepland forests following timber harvesting. There are three areas where geomorphological information and understanding are required to support the forest industry - development of an improved national erosion susceptibility classification to support a new national standard for plantation forestry; terrain analysis to support improved hazard and risk assessment at detailed operational scales; and understanding of post-harvest shallow landslide-debris flows, including their prediction and management.

  9. The role of tone and segmental information in visual-word recognition in Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather; Ratitamkul, Theeraporn; Charoensit, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Tone languages represent a large proportion of the spoken languages of the world and yet lexical tone is understudied. Thai offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of lexical tone processing during visual-word recognition, as tone is explicitly expressed in its script. We used colour words and their orthographic neighbours as stimuli to investigate facilitation (Experiment 1) and interference (Experiment 2) Stroop effects. Five experimental conditions were created: (a) the colour word (e.g., ขาว /k h ã:w/ [white]), (b) tone different word (e.g., ข่าว /k h à:w/[news]), (c) initial consonant phonologically same word (e.g., คาว /k h a:w/ [fishy]), where the initial consonant of the word was phonologically the same but orthographically different, (d) initial consonant different, tone same word (e.g., หาว /hã:w/ yawn), where the initial consonant was orthographically different but the tone of the word was the same, and (e) initial consonant different, tone different word (e.g., กาว /ka:w/ glue), where the initial consonant was orthographically different, and the tone was different. In order to examine whether tone information per se had a facilitative effect, we also included a colour congruent word condition where the segmental (S) information was different but the tone (T) matched the colour word (S-T+) in Experiment 2. Facilitation/interference effects were found for all five conditions when compared with a neutral control word. Results of the critical comparisons revealed that tone information comes into play at a later stage in lexical processing, and orthographic information contributes more than phonological information.

  10. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  11. Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age-dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun

    2017-02-01

    The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistics of EMIC Rising Tones Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K. M.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Santolik, O.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from an ongoing statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave rising tones observed by the Van Allen Probes. Using data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) fluxgate magnetometer, we have identified orbits by both Van Allen Probes with EMIC wave events from the start of the mission in fall 2012 through fall 2016. Orbits with EMIC wave events were further examined for evidence of rising tones. Most EMIC wave rising tones were found during H+ band EMIC wave events. In Fourier time-frequency power spectrograms of the fluxgate magnetometer data, H+ band rising tones generally took the form of triggered emission type events, where the discrete rising tone structures rapidly rise in frequency out of the main band of observed H+ EMIC waves. A smaller percentage of EMIC wave rising tone events were found in the He+ band, where rising tones may appear as discrete structures with a positive slope embedded within the main band of observed He+ EMIC waves, similar in appearance to whistler-mode chorus elements. Understanding the occurrence rate and properties of rising tone EMIC waves will provide observational context for theoretical studies indicating that EMIC waves exhibiting non-linear behavior, such as rising tones, may be more effective at scattering radiation belt electrons than ordinary EMIC waves.

  13. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin’s assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  14. Determination of interrill soil erodibility coefficient based on Fuzzy and Fuzzy-Genetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Palizvan Zand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the fuzzy logic science has been used successfully in various sudies of hydrology and soil erosion, but in literature review no article was found about its performance for estimating of interrill erodibility. On the other hand, studies indicate that genetic algorithm techniques can be used in fuzzy models and finding the appropriate membership functions for linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. So this study was conducted to develop the fuzzy and fuzzy–genetics models and investigation of their performance in the estimation of soil interrill erodibility factor (Ki. Materials and Methods: For this reason 36 soil samples with different physical and chemical properties were collected from west of Azerbaijan province . soilsamples were also taken from the Ap or A horizon of each soil profile. The samples were air-dried , sieved and Some soil characteristics such as soil texture, organic matter (OM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, EC and pH were determined by the standard laboratory methods. Aggregates size distributions (ASD were determined by the wet-sieving method and fractal dimension of soil aggregates (Dn was also calculated. In order to determination of soil interrill erodibility, the flume experiment performed by packing soil a depth of 0.09-m in 0.5 × 1.0 m. soil was saturated from the base and adjusted to 9% slope and was subjected to at least 90 min rainfall . Rainfall intensity treatments were 20, 37 and 47 mm h-1. During each rainfall event, runoff was collected manually in different time intervals, being less than 60 s at the beginning, up to 15 min near the end of the test. At the end of the experiment, the volumes of runoff samples and the mass of sediment load at each time interval were measured. Finally interrill erodibility values were calculated using Kinnell (11 Equation. Then by statistical analyses Dn and sand percent of the soils were selected as input variables and Ki as

  15. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  16. Ray tracing study of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Grison, Benjamin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions have been subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research in last years. These emissions are characterized by high coherence values and a frequency range of 0.5 - 2.0 Hz, close to local helium gyrofrequency. We perform ray tracing case studies of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft in both nightside and dayside regions off the equatorial plane. By comparison of simulated and measured wave properties, namely wave vector orientation, group velocity, dispersion and ellipticity of polarization, we determine possible source locations. Diffusive equilibrium density model and other, semi-empirical models are used with ion composition inferred from cross-over frequencies. Ray tracing simulations are done in cold plasma approximation with inclusion of Landau and cyclotron damping. Various widths, locations and profiles of plasmapause are tested.

  17. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    in listeners with SNHL, it is likely that HI listeners rely on the enhanced envelope cues to retrieve the pitch of unresolved harmonics. Hence, the relative importance of pitch cues may be altered in HI listeners, whereby envelope cues may be used instead of TFS cues to obtain a similar performance in pitch......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... that are necessary for the auditory system to retrieve the pitch of complex sounds. The existence of different pitch-coding mechanisms for low-numbered (spectrally resolved) and high-numbered (unresolved) harmonics was investigated by comparing pitch-discrimination performance across different cohorts of listeners...

  18. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  19. Effect of tone mapping operators on visual attention deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Manish; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick; Pepion, Romuald

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) images/videos require the use of a tone mapping operator (TMO) when visualized on Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. From an artistic intention point of view, TMOs are not necessarily transparent and might induce different behavior to view the content. In this paper, we investigate and quantify how TMOs modify visual attention (VA). To that end both objective and subjective tests in the form of eye-tracking experiments have been conducted on several still image content that have been processed by 11 different TMOs. Our studies confirm that TMOs can indeed modify human attention and fixation behavior significantly. Therefore our studies suggest that VA needs consideration for evaluating the overall perceptual impact of TMOs on HDR content. Since the existing studies so far have only considered the quality or aesthetic appeal angle, this study brings in a new perspective regarding the importance of VA in HDR content processing for visualization on LDR displays.

  20. Proton beam micromachined buried microchannels in negative tone resist materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Chatzichristidi, M.; Baradacs, E.; Cserhati, C.; Raptis, I.; Manoli, K.; Valamontes, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work the Atomki, Debrecen microprobe facility has been used to write long tilted structures by 2 MeV protons. For the formation of the structures, two exposures have been carried out at +20 o and -20 o using a goniometer stage sample holder. The tilted structures were resolved in the negative tone resist materials SU-8 and ADEPR (an aqueous base developable chemically amplified resist). The length of the microchannels was varied between 100 μm and 1000 μm, the wall thickness was less than 10 μm. By applying the developed methodology it was possible to resolve the desired layout through the whole length of the channel

  1. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Background Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. Objective To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Methods Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD, and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms: 1) crossed, 2) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Results Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (ptouch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD: r=− 0.72 to −0.95 and controls: r=−0.74 to−0.85). Conclusions We showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone. PMID:22415944

  2. Vowel and tone recognition in quiet and in noise among Mandarin-speaking amusics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Wang, Xi-Jian; Li, Jia-Qi; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-03-06

    Music and language are two intricately linked communication modalities in humans. A deficit in music pitch processing as manifested in the condition of congenital amusia has been related to difficulties in lexical tone processing for both tone and non-tonal languages. However, it is still unclear whether amusia also affects the perception of vowel phonemes in quiet and in noise. In this study, we examined vowel-plus-tone identification in quiet and noise conditions among Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without speech tone difficulties (tone agnosics and pure amusics, respectively), and IQ- and age-matched controls. Overall, pure amusics showed vowel and tone identification comparable to the controls in both quiet and noise conditions. Compared to pure amusics and controls, tone agnosics showed deficits in tone perception in both quiet and noise conditions. More importantly, their vowel perception was lower than pure amusics and controls in noise conditions, e.g., at a signal-to-noise ratio of -4 dB, although they showed normal-like performance in quiet and at a signal-to-noise ratio of -8 dB. These results suggest that when amusia affected speech tone processing (e.g., tone agnosics), it could also compromise vowel processing in noise. However, amusia alone does not affect tone or vowel perception in Mandarin Chinese either in quiet or in noise. Overall, the current study highlights the necessity of taking heterogeneity within the amusic group into account when considering the related speech deficits in this group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Coupled diffusion of two species in a slab with an eroding boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, S.B.; Ozisik, M.N.; Verghese, K.

    1981-01-01

    The diffusion of two interchangeable species in a medium with an eroding boundary is analyzed by modeling the problem as the solution of two diffusion equations coupled at the source term for a slab with a moving boundary. Formal solutions are developed for the concentration of the two species as a function of time and position in the slab for arbitrary initial distributions of the diffusing species, arbitrary sources within the medium and boundary conditions of the third kind at the bounding surfaces. It is shown with an illustrative example, that the resulting coupled integral equations for the species can be solved very efficiently by an approach employing both a lower- and upper-bound starting function for the concentrations. (author)

  4. Bond Stability of a Universal Adhesive System to Eroded/Abraded Dentin After Deproteinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, M G; Torres, Crg; Pucci, C R; Schlueter, N; Borges, A B

    Erosive/abrasive challenges can potentially compromise bonding to dentin. Aiming to improve the quality and stability of bonding to this substrate, this study investigated the combined effect of erosion and toothbrush abrasion on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) stability to dentin using a universal adhesive system in total and self-etching modes, associated or not associated with deproteinization. Bovine dentin specimens were divided into five groups according to the organic matrix condition (n=20): control (C); erosion (E); erosion + abrasion (EA); erosion + sodium hypochlorite (EH); erosion + abrasion + sodium hypochlorite (EAH). The groups were further divided (n=10) according to the mode of application (total or self-etching) of a universal adhesive. After the bonding procedure, composite blocks were built up, and the samples were cut to obtain sticks for μTBS testing. For each specimen, one-half of the sticks was immediately tested, and the other one-half was tested after artificial aging (5000 thermocycles, 5°C and 55°C). Three-way analysis of variance (α=5%) showed a significant difference for the triple interaction ( p=0.0007). Higher μTBS means were obtained for the EH and EAH groups compared with the E and EA groups. The control group showed immediate μTBS values similar to that of the E and EA groups for both bond strategies. Erosion and erosion/abrasion did not significantly influence the immediate μTBS to dentin. Artificial aging reduced μTBS values for the groups C, E, and EA using the total-etching mode. Deproteinization maintained the bond stability to artificially aged eroded and eroded/abraded dentin.

  5. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  6. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  7. Deposition of eroded soil on terraced croplands in Minchet catchment, Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemtsehay Subhatu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ethiopian Highlands, soil and water conservation practices are of utmost importance to conserve eroded soil and combat soil loss. This study provides detailed results on on-site sediment deposition and net soil loss in terraced croplands in a catchment in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands. Sediment deposition was measured on horse bean and maize fields during the crop growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. Measurements took place on observation plots on terraced cropland with varying spacing between terraces and varying slope gradients. Net soil loss, in this case the amount leaving the terraced cropland, was calculated by modelling the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for the whole observation field and subtracting the measured sediment deposition. The study result showed about 8–11 t ha−1 sediment was deposited in the deposition zone of the terraced cropland, with greater sediment deposition on terraces with narrow spacing and steeper slope gradients. Sediment deposition was highest in July and August, and relatively low in September. Annual soil loss ranged from 32 to 37 t ha−1 in the terraced cropland of the study area. From the total soil loss in the crop growing season, about 54–74% sediment was deposited on the deposition zone of terraced crop fields. Implementation of soil and water conservation with narrow spacing, especially on the steep slopes of the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands or other similar area, are thus highly recommended as they enable conservation of the eroded soil in the cropland.

  8. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  9. Processing of Acoustic Cues in Lexical-Tone Identification by Pediatric Cochlear-Implant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Lu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Nelson; Lin, Yung-Song; Deroche, Mickael L. D.; Chatterjee, Monita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to investigate acoustic cue processing in lexical-tone recognition by pediatric cochlear-implant (CI) recipients who are native Mandarin speakers. Method: Lexical-tone recognition was assessed in pediatric CI recipients and listeners with normal hearing (NH) in 2 tasks. In Task 1, participants identified naturally…

  10. Contrasting the effects of duration and number of syllables on the perceptual normalization of lexical tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Valter; Francis, Alexander L.; Yau, Teresa S.-K.

    2004-05-01

    In tonal languages, syllabic fundamental frequency (F0) patterns (``lexical tones'') convey lexical meaning. Listeners need to relate such pitch patterns to the pitch range of a speaker (``tone normalization'') to accurately identify lexical tones. This study investigated the amount of tonal information required to perform tone normalization. A target CV syllable, perceived as either a high level, a low level, or a mid level Cantonese tone, was preceded by a four-syllable carrier sentence whose F0 was shifted (1 semitone), or not shifted. Four conditions were obtained by gating one, two, three, or four syllables from the onset of the target. Presentation rate (normal versus fast) was set such that the duration of the one, two, and three syllable conditions (normal carrier) was equal to that of the two, three, and four syllable conditions (fast carrier). Results suggest that tone normalization is largely accomplished within 250 ms or so prior to target onset, independent of the number of syllables; additional tonal information produces a relatively small increase in tone normalization. Implications for models of lexical tone normalization will be discussed. [Work supported by the RGC of the Hong Kong SAR, Project No. HKU 7193/00H.

  11. Loudness of brief tones in listeners with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level. Loudness functions derived from these data indicated that the gain required to restore loudness usually is the same for short and long sounds....

  12. Simultaneous pure-tone masking : the dependence of masking asymmetries on intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, L.L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Phase locking between probe and masker was used in a series of pure-tone masking experiments. The masker was a stationary sine wave of variable frequency; the probe a fixed-frequency tone burst. We have observed that for small frequency separation the masking behaves asymmetrically around the probe

  13. 'Tone at the top': Fighting military corruption in Latin America | Klaus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay aims to discuss how tone at the top works in the traditional military contexts found in Latin America, and how the right tone could be adopted in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. For this endeavour, several strategies that can help military generals to fight military ...

  14. Auditory Stream Segregation Improves Infants' Selective Attention to Target Tones Amid Distracters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of auditory stream segregation in the selective attention to target tones in infancy. Using a task adapted from Bregman and Rudnicky's 1975 study and implemented in a conditioned head-turn procedure, infant and adult listeners had to discriminate the temporal order of 2,200 and 2,400 Hz target tones presented alone,…

  15. Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…

  16. Effects of muscle tension dysphonia on tone phonation: acoustic and perceptual studies in Vietnamese female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T

    2009-07-01

    Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) is a hyperfunctional voice disorder commonly seen in professional voice users. To date, published acoustic studies of this disorder have mainly focused on nontonal language speakers, and no publication has documented its impact on lexical tone characteristics. In this study, we examined whether and how this voice disorder affected acoustically and perceptually the characteristics of tones in Vietnamese teachers. Voice data were obtained from 42 Vietnamese female primary school teachers diagnosed with MTD and 30 vocally healthy teachers. Tonal data were analyzed using Computerized Speech Lab (CSL-4300B) and Speech Analyzer. Parameters analyzed included the two most important acoustic cues in Vietnamese tones, that is, tonal fundamental frequency (F(0)) and laryngealization. Tonal F(0) was assessed using a factorial analysis of variance with group and career durations as independent variables. Tonal samples were also perceptually assessed by a panel of native speakers of the same dialect. The results showed that MTD lowered tonal F(0) in high tones and tones with extensive fundamental frequency variation. There was also a significant main effect for career duration; in MTD group, tonal F(0) was lower in teachers with longer career duration. The teachers with MTD showed different patterns of laryngealization compared with the control group. Tone perception was poorer for tones with extensive fundamental frequency variation and without a typical phonation type. The results in this group of teachers supported our hypothesis that MTD impairs lexical tone phonation.

  17. Endothelin-1 Regulation of exercise-induced changes in flow: Dynamic regulation of vascular tone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapoport, R.M. (Robert M.); D. Merkus (Daphne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAlthough endothelin (ET)-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at

  18. On the design of tone-free ΣΔ modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Traditional one-bit ΣΔ modulators used for A/D and D/A conversion produce very predominant tones near half the sample rate which might intermodulate in the analog converter section and cause in-band tones. This paper demonstrates how the use of chaos can substitute dither as a means for extinguis...

  19. The Effect of Intertalker Variations on Acoustic-Perceptual Mapping in Cantonese and Mandarin Tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Zhang, Caicai; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Minett, James W.; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the impact of intertalker variations on the process of mapping acoustic variations on tone categories in two different tone languages. Method: Pitch stimuli manipulated from four voice ranges were presented in isolation through a blocked-talker design. Listeners were instructed to identify the stimuli that they…

  20. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  1. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An In Vivo Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Brubaker, B.; Wu, S.M.; MacWhinney, B.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to

  2. Impaired prefrontal hemodynamic maturation in autism and unaffected siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kawakubo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions of the prefrontal cortex have been previously reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Previous studies reported that first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD show atypical brain activity during tasks associated with social function. However, developmental changes in prefrontal dysfunction in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the change in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal cortex as measured with near-infrared spectroscopy, in children and adults with ASD during the letter fluency test. Moreover, to clarify the genetic influences on developmental changes in the prefrontal dysfunction in ASD, unaffected siblings of the ASD participants were also assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study participants included 27 individuals with high-functioning ASD, age- and IQ-matched 24 healthy non-affected siblings, and 27 unrelated healthy controls aged 5 to 39 years. The relative concentration of hemoglobin ([Hb] in the prefrontal cortex was measured during the letter fluency task. For children, neither the [oxy-Hb] change during the task nor task performances differed significantly among three groups. For adults, the [oxy-Hb] increases during the task were significantly smaller in the bilateral prefrontal cortex in ASD than those in control subjects, although task performances were similar. In the adult siblings the [oxy-Hb] change was intermediate between those in controls and ASDs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although indirectly due to a cross-sectional design, the results of this study indicate altered age-related change of prefrontal activity during executive processing in ASD. This is a first near-infrared spectroscopy study that implies alteration in the age-related changes of prefrontal activity in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena.

  3. Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Prefrontal and Limbic Volume and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.

    2017-01-01

    with matched healthy volunteers (HV). Methods: Structural MRI (MPRAGE) data were collected in 92 subjects (23 CSB males and 69 age-matched male HV) and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Resting state functional MRI data using multi-echo planar sequence and independent components analysis (ME-ICA) were...... prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions...

  4. Prefrontal control of attention to threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly V Peers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g. trait anxiety and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show, that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  5. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions for spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi T

    2018-04-01

    Animals have the ability to navigate to a desired location by making use of information about environmental landmarks and their own movements. While decades of neuroscience research have identified neurons in the hippocampus and parahippocampal structures that represent an animal's position in space, it is still largely unclear how an animal can choose the next movement direction to reach a desired goal. As the goal destination is typically located somewhere outside of the range of sensory perception, the animal is required to rely on the internal metric of space to estimate the direction and distance of the destination to plan a next action. Therefore, the hippocampal spatial map should interact with action-planning systems in other cortical regions. In accordance with this idea, several recent studies have indicated the importance of functional interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex for goal-directed navigation. In this paper, I will review these studies and discuss how an animal can estimate its future positions correspond to a next movement. Investigation of the navigation problem may further provide general insights into internal models of the brain for action planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Prefrontal Dopamine in Associative Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M. Victoria; Antzoulatos, Evan G.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulate associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. PMID:25241063

  7. Prefrontal dopamine in associative learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M V; Antzoulatos, E G; Miller, E K

    2014-12-12

    Learning to associate specific objects or actions with rewards and remembering the associations are everyday tasks crucial for our flexible adaptation to the environment. These higher-order cognitive processes depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontostriatal circuits that connect areas in the frontal lobe with the striatum in the basal ganglia. Both structures are densely innervated by dopamine (DA) afferents that originate in the midbrain. Although the activity of DA neurons is thought to be important for learning, the exact role of DA transmission in frontostriatal circuits during learning-related tasks is still unresolved. Moreover, the neural substrates of this modulation are poorly understood. Here, we review our recent work in monkeys utilizing local pharmacology of DA agents in the PFC to investigate the cellular mechanisms of DA modulation of associative learning and memory. We show that blocking both D1 and D2 receptors in the lateral PFC impairs learning of new stimulus-response associations and cognitive flexibility, but not the memory of highly familiar associations. In addition, D2 receptors may also contribute to motivation. The learning deficits correlated with reductions of neural information about the associations in PFC neurons, alterations in global excitability and spike synchronization, and exaggerated alpha and beta neural oscillations. Our findings provide new insights into how DA transmission modulates associative learning and memory processes in frontostriatal systems. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current and ideal skin tone: Associations with tanning behavior among sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Patrycja; Lamb, Kalina M; Nogg, Kelsey A; Rooney, Benjamin M; Blashill, Aaron J

    2018-06-01

    Sexual minority men have high rates of skin cancer, yet little is known about skin cancer risk behaviors in this population. It was hypothesized that current skin tone would moderate the association between darker ideals and tanning behaviors. Data were collected online from 231 sexual minority men in San Diego, United States of America, with a mean age of 24.66 (SD = 5.44). Ideal and current skin tone ratings and indoor and outdoor tanning behaviors were assessed. Darker ideals were significantly associated with increased indoor and outdoor tanning. The effect of darker ideals on tanning was strongest among individuals with lighter current skin tone, indicating a significant interaction. Sexual minority men whose perceived skin tone did not match their ideal were more likely to engage in skin cancer risk behaviors. Future skin cancer prevention programs aimed at sexual minority men may consider techniques that modify ideal skin tone internalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  10. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  11. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  12. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  13. Tone of voice guides word learning in informative referential contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2013-06-01

    Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker's tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., "daxen") spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives' meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalize them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning.

  14. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capmany, Jose; Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone Ω can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of ℎΩ. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F 1 , the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F 1 is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  15. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capmany, Jose [ITEAM Research Institute, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R, E-mail: c.pousa@umh.es [Signal Theory and Communications, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Univ. Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2011-02-14

    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone {Omega} can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of {h_bar}{Omega}. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F{sub 1}, the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F{sub 1} is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  16. Interrill Erodibility of P and C on conventially and organically farmed Devon soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion can have significant off-site effects on water quality and thus human and habitat health. Apart from sedimentation, the transfer of nutrients, both dissolved and particulate, is a major concern. The particulate transfer of nutrients from agricultural land can occur either by rill or interrill erosion. Rill erosion is non-selective and affects only a limited extent of agricultural land. Interrill processes such as crusting, splash and raindrop-impacted wash, on the other hand, act on all cropland and affect the quality of the water from all areas generating runoff. A significant amount of phosphorus (P) is contained in the surface soil layer transformed by interrill processes annually. In the EU, the P content of a crusted (2 mm) surface layer corresponds to 4 to 40 kg ha-1 of P on arable land (1.094 mil km2). Therefore, the role of interrill processes and erosion for regional nutrient cycling requires close attention. Interrill erosion is a complex phenomenon, involving the detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles by raindrop impacted flow. Resistance to interrill erosion varies between soils depending on their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. In addition, significant changes in soil resistance to interrill erosion occur during storms as a result of changes in surface roughness, cohesion and particle size. As a consequence, erosion on interrill areas is selective, moving the most easily detached small and/or light soil particles which are often enriched in clay, P and organic C. Commonly, the risk of erosion associated with organically farmed soils is lower than those farmed in a conventional way. This is attributed to greater aggregate stability and thus greater infiltration and lower erodibility. Erosion of nutrients on organically farmed soils is therefore considered to be reduced by the same order of magnitude than the amount of eroded soil compared to conventionally farmed soils. However, the selective nature of

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of the USLE Soil Erodibility Factor to Its Determining Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Milena; Rousseva, Svetla

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the most serious soil threats worldwide. Soil erosion prediction is the first step in soil conservation planning. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the most widely used models for soil erosion predictions. One of the five USLE predictors is the soil erodibility factor (K-factor), which evaluates the impact of soil characteristics on soil erosion rates. Soil erodibility nomograph defines K-factor depending on soil characteristics, such as: particle size distribution (fractions finer that 0.002 mm and from 0.1 to 0.002 mm), organic matter content, soil structure and soil profile water permeability. Identifying the soil characteristics, which mostly influence the K-factor would give an opportunity to control the soil loss through erosion by controlling the parameters, which reduce the K-factor value. The aim of the report is to present the results of analysis of the relative weight of these soil characteristics in the K-factor values. The relative impact of the soil characteristics on K-factor was studied through a series of statistical analyses of data from the geographic database for soil erosion risk assessments in Bulgaria. Degree of correlation between K-factor values and the parameters that determine it was studied by correlation analysis. The sensitivity of the K-factor was determined by studying the variance of each parameter within the range between minimum and maximum possible values considering average value of the other factors. Normalizing transformation of data sets was applied because of the different dimensions and the orders of variation of the values of the various parameters. The results show that the content of particles finer than 0.002 mm has the most significant relative impact on the soil erodibility, followed by the content of particles with size from 0.1 mm to 0.002 mm, the class of the water permeability of the soil profile, the content of organic matter and the aggregation class. The

  18. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle is being affected by the human impacts (Novara et al., 2011; Yan-Gui et al., 2013), and one of those is the intensification in the soil erosion in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009; García Orenes et al., 2009). Vineyards also are affected by the human activities (Fernández Calviño, 2012). Vineyards in Sicily are cultivated on 110.000 ha, 10% of which on >10% slope. Deficiencies of soil organic matter are typical of the semi arid Mediterranean environment especially where traditional intensive cropping practices are adopted (Novara et al., 2012; 2013). These practices in vineyards could lead soil to intensive erosion processes (Novara et al., 2011). The fate of SOC under erosion processes is difficult to understand because of the influence of the erosion impact on SOC pathway, which depends on the different features of the process involved (detachment, transport and/or deposition). Soil erosion must be considered a net C source (Lal, 2003), as eroded soils have lower net primary productivity (NPP) (Dick and Gregorich, 2004) caused by reduction in the effective rooting depth and all in all determining decline in soil quality. Breakdown of aggregates and soil dispersion expose SOM to microbial/enzymatic processes and chemical soil properties (Dimoyiannis, 2012; Kocyigit and Demirci, 2012). Moreover the light fraction, transported by runoff, is labile and easily mineralized determining CO2 emission in the atmosphere (Jacinthe and Lal, 2004). Therefore, the carbon pool is lower in eroded than in un-eroded soil scapes and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter is higher in sediments than in original soil. In this survey we show a research conducted on a slope sequence of three soil profiles in an irrigated vineyard located in Sambuca di Sicilia, Italy (UTM33-WGS84: 4169367N; 325011E). The SOC content was measured at depth intervals of 10 cm up to a depth of 60 cm in each pedon. Wet aggregate-size fractions with no prior chemical

  19. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  20. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  1. The impacts of grazing land management on the wind erodibility of the Mulga Lands of western Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 100 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year. Wind erosion may be widespread across the arid and semi-arid rangelands, with impacts on soil nutrients, carbon and ecosystem services, human health, and climate. The susceptibility of landscapes to wind erosio...

  2. Altered communicative decisions following ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; D'Imperio, Daniela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Toni, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) leads to profound changes in everyday social interactions [1, 2]. Yet, in the lab, vmPFC patients show surprising proficiency in reasoning about other agents [3-8]. These conflicting observations suggest that what vmPFC patients lack in everyday social interactions might be the ability to guide their decisions with knowledge about a social partner [9-13], despite preserved access to that knowledge [2, 14]. Quantification of socially relevant decisions during live interaction with different partners offers the possibility of testing this hypothesis. Eight patients with vmPFC damage, eight patients with brain damage elsewhere, and 15 healthy participants were asked to communicate non-verbally with two different addressees, an adult or a child, in an experimentally controlled interactive setting [15, 16]. In reality, a confederate blindly performed the role of both adult and child addressee, with matched performance and response times, such that the two addressees differed only in terms of the communicator's beliefs. Patients with vmPFC damage were able-and motivated-to generate communicatively effective behaviors. However, unlike patient and healthy controls, vmPFC patients failed to adjust their communicative decisions to the presumed abilities of their addressee. These findings indicate that the human vmPFC is necessarily involved in social interactions, insofar as those interactions need to be tailored toward knowledge about a social partner. In this perspective, the known contribution of this region to disparate domains like value-based decision-making [17-19], schema-based memory-processing [20-22], and person-specific mentalizing [11-13] might be instances of decisions based on contingently updated conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Restoring crop productivity of eroded lands through , integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) for sustained production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.U.; Ali, S.

    2005-01-01

    Crop productivity of eroded lands is very poor due to removal of top fertile soil losing organic matter and plant nutrients, with consequent exposure of the sub-soil with poor fertility status. Crop productivity of such lands needs to be restored in order to help farmers feed many mouths because of increased population and high land pressure. Three field experiments were laid out at three sites, Thana, Malakand Agency; Kabal and Matta, Swat during 2003-2004 to study the effect of integrated plant nutrient management on the yield of wheat. The fertilizer treatments consisted of farmer's practice (60-45-0 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/), recommended fertilizer rate (120-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -l/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1), and combined application of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients (FYM at the rate of 20 t ha/sup -1/ plus 60-90-60 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + 5 kg Zn ha/sup -1/). The results obtained from these field trails showed that the combined application of FYM with NPK Zn increased the grain yield significantly over the other two treatments with an increase of 50-80% over the farmer's practice and 11 to 23 % over the recommended dose. As regards straw yields, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ increased the yields significantly over farmer's practice (T) at all the sites; However, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal were at par with each other. As regards effect of various treatments on soil properties, organic matter content was improved at Thana and Kabal sites while at Matta the results were inconsistent. Similarly soil P and Zn contents were increased considerably in T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/ at Thana and Kabal being at par with each other. It is apparent from these results that the crop productivity of eroded lands at all the three sties was considerably restored and the soil fertility status was improved by integrated plant nutrient management. (author)

  4. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality.

  5. The molecular basis of the genesis of basal tone in internal anal sphincter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Keaney Jr, John F.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca2+-activated Cl− channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca2+]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca2+]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932

  6. Erodibility of calcareous soils as influenced by land use and intrinsic soil properties in a semiarid region of central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Mokhtari, Javad; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Zeraatpisheh, Mojtaba

    2018-03-06

    The most important properties affecting the soil loss and runoff were investigated, and the effects of land use on the soil properties, together with the erodibility indices in a semiarid zone, central Iran, were evaluated. The locations of 100 positions were acquired by cLHS and 0-5-cm surface soil layer samples were used for laboratory analyses from the Borujen Region, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province, central Iran. To measure in situ runoff and soil erodibility of three different land uses comprising dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland, a portable rainfall simulator was used. The results showed that the high variations (coefficient of variation, CV) were obtained for electrical conductivity (EC), mean weight diameter (MWD), soil organic carbon (SOC), and soil erodibility indices including runoff volume, soil loss, and sediment concentration (CV ~ 43.6-77.4%). Soil erodibility indices showed positive and significant correlations with bulk density and negative correlations with SOC, MWD, clay content, and soil shear strength in the area under investigation. The values of runoff in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 1.5, 28.9, and 58.7 cm 3 ; soil loss in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were observed 0.25, 2.96, and 76.8 g; and the amount of sediment concentration in the dryland, irrigated farming, and rangeland were found 0.01, 0.11, and 0.15 g cm -3 . It is suggested that further investigations should be carried out on soil erodibility and the potential of sediment yield in various land uses with varying topography and soil properties in semiarid regions of Iran facing the high risk of soil loss.

  7. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  8. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  9. Usefulness of 1000-Hz probe tone in tympanometry according to age in Korean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mina; Han, Kyu-Hee; Jung, Hyunseo; Kim, Mee-Hee; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the superiority of a 1000-Hz frequency probe tone for evaluating the middle ear status of infants. However, most of these studies examined Caucasian populations. This study validated the 1000-Hz probe tone and evaluated the age at which it should be used in Korean infants. Data from 83 infants (43 males, 40 females; mean age 9.2±6.2 (range 1-30) months, 165 ears) were analyzed. Tympanograms were classified according to Baldwin's modification of the method of Marchant et al. and correlated with results based on combined diagnostic tests, including an endoscopic examination of the tympanic membrane, myringotomy findings, and the air and bone conduction auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds. Data were analyzed in five age groups, each covering a 3-month range. The traces were measured for both 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones. The sensitivity and specificity for the different age groups were also determined. For the 226-Hz probe tone, the tympanograms showed normal traces for most ears with otitis media effusions in infants younger than 12 months. By contrast, the tympanograms using the 1000-Hz probe tone showed abnormal traces in most of the infants with otitis media effusions in all age groups. In infants with no otitis media effusion, the tympanograms using both 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones were interpreted as normal in most cases in all age groups. In infants younger than 12 months, the sensitivity of the 226-Hz probe tone was very low (0-6.6%), whereas that of the 1000-Hz probe tone was very high (90-100%). In infants older than 13 months, however, the sensitivities of the 226- and 1000-Hz probe tones were 76.2% and 85.7%, respectively. Regarding specificity, the difference between the two probe tones was not significant for any age group. This study confirmed the superiority of the 1000-Hz probe tone for evaluating the middle ear in infants. We recommend using a 1000-Hz probe tone at least up to the age of 12 months for Korean

  10. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Temperature Distribution in an Eroded Bend Pipe and Prediction of Erosion Reduced Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Feng, Guang; Wang, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of erosion thickness is essential for pipe engineering. The objective of the present paper is to study the temperature distribution in an eroded bend pipe and find a new method to predict the erosion reduced thickness. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations with FLUENT software are carried out to investigate the temperature field. And effects of oil inlet rate, oil inlet temperature, and erosion reduced thickness are examined. The presence of erosion pit brings about the obvious fluctuation of temperature drop along the extrados of bend. And the minimum temperature drop presents at the most severe erosion point. Small inlet temperature or large inlet velocity can lead to small temperature drop, while shallow erosion pit causes great temperature drop. The dimensionless minimum temperature drop is analyzed and the fitting formula is obtained. Using the formula we can calculate the erosion reduced thickness, which is only needed to monitor the outer surface temperature of bend pipe. This new method can provide useful guidance for pipeline monitoring and replacement. PMID:24719576

  12. Evaluation of the WEPP hillslope model on stable and eroding semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Simanton, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate runoff and erosion prediction by the WEPP hillslope model for two pinyon-juniper sites in New Mexico: one has a low erosion rate (stable site) and the other (unstable site) is eroding at very rapid rates (as a result of landuse and climatic perturbations over the last century). Runoff and erosion measurements were made at plot and hillslope scales at both sites. WEPP was evaluated using both rainfall simulation and natural rainfall data. Rainfall simulation was performed on both vegetated and bare plots. Parameter values used were developed from rainfall simulation experiments and site characteristics. In general, runoff and erosion were underpredicted at both sites but to a much larger degree at the unstable site. On the unstable site predictions were much improved when we used hydraulic conductivity (Ke) derived from the bare plot rainfall simulation. Also of importance, at the unstable site we observed a large increase in erosion as scale increased from the plot to the hillslope as a result of a well developed channel network. These results are preliminary, in that only a few storms were evaluated, however, they do suggest some important strategies for predicting the impact of reduced vegetation cover to erosion in semiarid landscapes

  13. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS

  14. Workplace bullying erodes job and personal resources: between- and within-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Neall, Annabelle M

    2014-10-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious psychosocial occupational hazard. Despite a wealth of empirical study, research has rarely examined the mechanisms through which bullying has its negative effects. Accordingly, using both between- and within-person approaches, we investigated the erosion of job (Study 1) and personal (Study 2) resources following workplace bullying, mediated by the depletion of emotional energy. In Study 1, self-report survey data were collected from 221 retail workers at 2 time-points spaced 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that over time bullying depletes coworker support, partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, a 6-week diary was completed by a separate sample of 45 workers employed in various occupations. Within-person weekly variability in bullying exposure was 34%. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that weekly emotional exhaustion partially mediated the negative effects of weekly workplace bullying on both optimism and self-efficacy. The consistent pattern across both studies supports the idea of a resource loss process whereby exposure to bullying at work erodes job and personal resources by depleting energy. Future research should clarify the role of exhaustion in utilizing resources to respond to bullying, focus on predictors of within-person variability in bullying exposure, and more explicitly model the resource loss spiral following workplace bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  16. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  17. Erodibility of cement-stabilized tropical soils in highway engineering in Togo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklu-Natey, T.E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This work contains a methodical study on the suceptibility to weather of cement-stabilized tropical soils of Togo by simulating on the one hand the climatic conditions of the original surroundings and on the other hand the variations occuring in situ of the degree of saturation and compaction. The chosen tests ensure for the first time a simple execution and at the same time reproducible numerical values of the results achieved. From results of the slaking, erosion, adhesion, durability and swelling tests clear parameters and classification criteria were derived which help to forecast the susceptibility to weather of soils in tropical climates. A method for the determination of the reaction to water of soils is proposed consisting of a particular process of derivation and interpretation of the consistency value for a given swelling rate. Moreover a possibility is recommended with which the time-consuming and expensive mineralogical analyses which were frequently used in the past for torpical soils can be avoided. The proposed evaluation criteria provides civil engineers working in permanently moist, arid or intermittently moist tropical regions with practical and theoretical bases for the estimation of the erodibility of soils. (orig./BBR) [de

  18. Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Jordon D; Hilton, Robert G; Hovius, Niels; Eglinton, Timothy I; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Chen, Meng-Chiang; Galy, Valier V

    2018-04-13

    Lithospheric organic carbon ("petrogenic"; OC petro ) is oxidized during exhumation and subsequent erosion of mountain ranges. This process is a considerable source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the atmosphere over geologic time scales, but the mechanisms that govern oxidation rates in mountain landscapes are poorly constrained. We demonstrate that, on average, 67 ± 11% of the OC petro initially present in bedrock exhumed from the tropical, rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan is oxidized in soils, leading to CO 2 emissions of 6.1 to 18.6 metric tons of carbon per square kilometer per year. The molecular and isotopic evolution of bulk OC and lipid biomarkers during soil formation reveals that OC petro remineralization is microbially mediated. Rapid oxidation in mountain soils drives CO 2 emission fluxes that increase with erosion rate, thereby counteracting CO 2 drawdown by silicate weathering and biospheric OC burial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Local and non-local effects of spanwise finite perturbations in erodible river bathymetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the effect of axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine models on an erodible river bed under live-bed conditions. Results indicate that the presence of an operating turbine rotor creates a blockage in the mean flow which produces a remarkable geomorphic signature in the migrating bedforms. These impacts affect a local area downstream of the turbines when placed symmetrically with respect to the cross section of the channel. On the other hand, more interesting results are observed with an asymmetric installation of the turbines. This configuration demonstrates a stronger effect on the mean flow, resulting in a larger plan-wise distortion of the mean topography and differential migration patterns of bedforms. Different turbine installation arrangements and hub heights above the mean bed were investigated, focusing mainly on the perturbation of sediment transport characteristics influenced by the turbine wake. Additional results with spanwise modulated submerged walls explore the possibility to control river topography harvesting this type of geomorphic destabilization.

  20. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates visual attention during facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is known to play a crucial role in regulating human social and emotional behaviour, yet the precise mechanisms by which it subserves this broad function remain unclear. Whereas previous neuropsychological studies have largely focused on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in higher-order deliberative processes related to valuation and decision-making, here we test whether ventromedial prefrontal cortex may also be critical for more basic aspects of orienting attention to socially and emotionally meaningful stimuli. Using eye tracking during a test of facial emotion recognition in a sample of lesion patients, we show that bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage impairs visual attention to the eye regions of faces, particularly for fearful faces. This finding demonstrates a heretofore unrecognized function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex-the basic attentional process of controlling eye movements to faces expressing emotion. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Bond strength and interfacial morphology of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts or resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenoble, Aline; Vennat, Elsa; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

     To investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with preventive approaches and to examine the enamel/bracket interfaces.  Ninety-one brackets were bonded to seven groups of enamel samples: sound; eroded; eroded+treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts (CSP); eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® ; eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® and brackets bonded with 1-month delay; eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin; and eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin and brackets bonded with 1-month delay. For each group, 12 samples were tested in SBS and bond failure was assessed with the adhesive remnant index (ARI); one sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).  Samples treated with CSP or infiltration showed no significant differences in SBS values with sound samples. Infiltrated samples followed by a delayed bonding showed lower SBS values. All of the values remained acceptable. The ARI scores were significantly higher for sound enamel, eroded, and treated with CSP groups than for all infiltrated samples. SEM examinations corroborated the findings.  Using CSP or resin infiltration before orthodontic bonding does not jeopardize the bonding quality. The orthodontic bonding should be performed shortly after the resin infiltration.

  2. IHC-TM connect-disconnect in relation to sensitization and masking of a HF-tone burst by a LF tone. IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H D

    1982-05-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate that although the outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea are firmly bonded to the tectorial membrane (TM), the inner hair cells (IHCS) are not. This is the fourth in a series of papers that explores how the idea of a set of disconnected hair cells that "impact" the TM is consistent with psychophysical data. The paper extends the exploration to the masking of high-frequency (HF) tone bursts by low-frequency (LF) tones and shows that the model can explain the important features of these complex data.

  3. Interplay of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have considerably advanced our understanding of the distinct roles of these brain areas in the encoding and retrieval of memories, and of how they interact in the prolonged process by which new memories are consolidated into our permanent storehouse of knowledge. These studies have led to a new model of how the hippocampus forms and replays memories and how the prefrontal cortex engages representations of the meaningful contexts in which related memories occur, as well as how these areas interact during memory retrieval. Furthermore, they have provided new insights into how interactions between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex support the assimilation of new memories into pre-existing networks of knowledge, called schemas, and how schemas are modified in this process as the foundation of memory consolidation. PMID:24028960

  4. Association of GSK-3β genetic variation with GSK-3β expression, prefrontal cortical thickness, prefrontal physiology, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Napolitano, Francesco; Ursini, Gianluca; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Caforio, Grazia; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Attrotto, Maria Teresa; Colagiorgio, Lucia; Todarello, Giovanna; Piva, Francesco; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Masellis, Rita; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Rampino, Antonio; Quarto, Tiziana; Giulietti, Matteo; Lipska, Barbara K; Kleinman, Joel E; Popolizio, Teresa; Weinberger, Daniel R; Usiello, Alessandro; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is an enzyme implicated in neurodevelopmental processes with a broad range of substrates mediating several canonical signaling pathways in the brain. The authors investigated the association of variation in the GSK-3β gene with a series of progressively more complex phenotypes of relevance to schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic risk. METHOD Based on computer predictions, the authors investigated in humans the association of GSK-3β functional variation with 1) GSK-3β mRNA expression from postmortem prefrontal cortex, 2) GSK-3β and β-catenin protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 3) prefrontal imaging phenotypes, and 4) diagnosis of schizophrenia. RESULTS Consistent with predictions, the TT genotype of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in GSK-3β (rs12630592) was associated with reduced GSK-3β mRNA from postmortem prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, this genotype was associated with GSK-3β protein expression and kinase activity, as well as with downstream effects on β-catenin expression in PBMCs. Finally, the TT genotype was associated with attenuated functional MRI prefrontal activity, reduced prefrontal cortical thickness, and diagnosis of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that GSK-3β variation is implicated in multiple phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia.

  5. Validation of Portable Muscle Tone Measurement Device Based on a Motor-Driven System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jia-Jin

    2001-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to extend a sophisticated motor-driven measurement system, developed in our previous research, as a validation platform for developing a portable muscle tone measurement system...

  6. ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoubi, S.A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil

  7. Pressure injuries in people with darker skin tones: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozageer Gunowa, Neesha; Hutchinson, Marie; Brooke, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2017-09-08

    In this article, we aimed to explore the literature to ascertain what research evidence exists in relation to the identification of pressure injuries in people with dark skin tones. Pressure injuries development has been widely researched and documented; however, much of this work does not address ethnicity or race and assumes Caucasian-ness. Thus, the perceptions of people with dark skin tones and the influence of skin pigmentation on identification and management of pressure injuries is under examined. Literature review. A comprehensive electronic database search was undertaken of PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane and British Nursing Index (BNI) between 1990-July 2016. Alongside the electronic data, journals, books, papers from conferences, relevant national and international organisations and reference lists were also used to help source key studies. A search of the literature revealed 11 relevant articles. The foci of studies included the following: risk of sustaining a pressure injuries based on skin tones, identification of pressure injuries amongst people with dark skin tones, pressure injuries and place of care and socio-economic impact on pressure injuries development. Overall, findings indicate that people with darker skin tones are more likely to develop higher stage pressure injuries. Reasons for this are not fully elucidated; however, it may be associated with current skin assessment protocols being less effective for people who have darker skin tones resulting in early damage arising from pressure not being recognised. From the literature reviewed, it can be seen that there is a lack of guidance and evidence, and people with darker skin tones are more likely in comparison with people presenting as Caucasian to develop higher stage pressure injuries. The current literature suggests a need for researchers and clinicians to consider skin tone variances rather than ethnicity when exploring comprehensive skin

  8. Opposite patterns of hemisphere dominance for early auditory processing of lexical tones and consonants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hao; Ni, Jing-Tian; Li, Zhi-Hao; Li, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Da-Ren; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2006-01-01

    in tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese, a lexical tone carries semantic information and is preferentially processed in the left brain hemisphere of native speakers as revealed by the functional MRI or positron emission tomography studies, which likely measure the temporally aggregated neural events including those at an attentive stage of auditory processing. Here, we demonstrate that early auditory processing of a lexical tone at a preattentive stage is actually ...

  9. Left auditory cortex is involved in pairwise comparisons of the direction of frequency modulated tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eAngenstein

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating series of complex sounds like those in speech and music requires sequential comparisons to extract task-relevant relations between subsequent sounds. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we investigated whether sequential comparison of a specific acoustic feature within pairs of tones leads to a change in lateralized processing in the auditory cortex of humans. For this we used the active categorization of the direction (up versus down of slow frequency modulated (FM tones. Several studies suggest that this task is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex. These studies, however, tested only the categorization of the FM direction of each individual tone. In the present study we ask the question whether the right lateralized processing changes when, in addition, the FM direction is compared within pairs of successive tones. For this we use an experimental approach involving contralateral noise presentation in order to explore the contributions made by the left and right auditory cortex in the completion of the auditory task. This method has already been applied to confirm the right-lateralized processing of the FM direction of individual tones. In the present study, the subjects were required to perform, in addition, a sequential comparison of the FM-direction in pairs of tones. The results suggest a division of labor between the two hemispheres such that the FM direction of each individual tone is mainly processed in the right auditory cortex whereas the sequential comparison of this feature between tones in a pair is probably performed in the left auditory cortex.

  10. Effects of emotional tone and visual complexity on processing health information in prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Rebecca L; Bailey, Rachel L; Bolls, Paul D; Wise, Kevin R

    2012-01-01

    This experiment explored how the emotional tone and visual complexity of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertisements affect the encoding and storage of specific risk and benefit statements about each of the drugs in question. Results are interpreted under the limited capacity model of motivated mediated message processing framework. Findings suggest that DTC drug ads should be pleasantly toned and high in visual complexity in order to maximize encoding and storage of risk and benefit information.

  11. Role of Prefrontal Persistent Activity in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mitchell R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is activated during working memory, as evidenced by fMRI results in human studies and neurophysiological recordings in animal models. Persistent activity during the delay period of working memory tasks, after the offset of stimuli that subjects are required to remember, has traditionally been thought of as the neural correlate of working memory. In the last few years several findings have cast doubt on the role of this activity. By some accounts, activity in other brain areas, such as the primary visual and posterior parietal cortex, is a better predictor of information maintained in visual working memory and working memory performance; dynamic patterns of activity may convey information without requiring persistent activity at all; and prefrontal neurons may be ill-suited to represent non-spatial information about the features and identity of remembered stimuli. Alternative interpretations about the role of the prefrontal cortex have thus been suggested, such as that it provides a top-down control of information represented in other brain areas, rather than maintaining a working memory trace itself. Here we review evidence for and against the role of prefrontal persistent activity, with a focus on visual neurophysiology. We show that persistent activity predicts behavioral parameters precisely in working memory tasks. We illustrate that prefrontal cortex represents features of stimuli other than their spatial location, and that this information is largely absent from early cortical areas during working memory. We examine memory models not dependent on persistent activity, and conclude that each of those models could mediate only a limited range of memory-dependent behaviors. We review activity decoded from brain areas other than the prefrontal cortex during working memory and demonstrate that these areas alone cannot mediate working memory maintenance, particularly in the presence of distractors. We finally discuss the discrepancy between

  12. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and, when dysfunctional, psychopathy. This model proposes that the amygdala, through stimulus-reinforcement learning, enables the association of actions that harm others with the aversive reinforcement of the victims' distress. Consequent information on reinforcement expectancy, fed forward to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, can guide the healthy individual away from moral transgressions. In psychopathy, dysfunction in these structures means that care-based moral reasoning is compromised and the risk that antisocial behavior is used instrumentally to achieve goals is increased.

  13. Repetition Suppression in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Predicts Tone Learning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Takashima, Atsuko; Dediu, Dan; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2016-06-01

    Do individuals differ in how efficiently they process non-native sounds? To what extent do these differences relate to individual variability in sound-learning aptitude? We addressed these questions by assessing the sound-learning abilities of Dutch native speakers as they were trained on non-native tone contrasts. We used fMRI repetition suppression to the non-native tones to measure participants' neuronal processing efficiency before and after training. Although all participants improved in tone identification with training, there was large individual variability in learning performance. A repetition suppression effect to tone was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) before training. No whole-brain effect was found after training; a region-of-interest analysis, however, showed that, after training, repetition suppression to tone in the left IFG correlated positively with learning. That is, individuals who were better in learning the non-native tones showed larger repetition suppression in this area. Crucially, this was true even before training. These findings add to existing evidence that the left IFG plays an important role in sound learning and indicate that individual differences in learning aptitude stem from differences in the neuronal efficiency with which non-native sounds are processed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  15. COX-1 vs. COX-2 as a determinant of basal tone in the internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Neeru; Rattan, Satish

    2009-02-01

    Prostanoids, produced endogenously via cyclooxygenases (COXs), have been implicated in the sustained contraction of different smooth muscles. The two major types of COXs are COX-1 and COX-2. The COX subtype involved in the basal state of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone is not known. To identify the COX subtype, we examined the effect of COX-1- and COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively, on basal tone in the rat IAS. We also determined the effect of selective deletion of COX-1 and COX-2 genes (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) mice) on basal tone in murine IAS. Our data show that SC-560 causes significantly more efficacious and potent concentration-dependent decreases in IAS tone than rofecoxib. In support of these data, significantly higher levels of COX-1 than COX-2 mRNA were found in the IAS. In addition, higher levels of COX-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in rat IAS than rectal smooth muscle. In wild-type mice, IAS tone was decreased 41.4 +/- 3.4% (mean +/- SE) by SC-560 (1 x 10(-5) M) and 5.4 +/- 2.2% by rofecoxib (P IAS from wild-type mice and significantly less (0.080 +/- 0.015 mN/mg) in the IAS from COX-1(-/-) mice (P IAS tone.

  16. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  17. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati; Water, Jorrit J; Baldursdottír, Stefania; Almdal, Kristoffer; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicochemical characterization of diverse PEC (molecular weights: 85, 110, 133, 174 and 196kDa), the degradation and drug release behavior of rifampicin- and bovine serum albumin-loaded PEC films was investigated in vitro (in the presence and absence of cholesterol esterase), in cell culture (RAW264.7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half-lives correlated well with the observed in vitro half-times of drug delivery (R 2 =0.96). Here, the PEC of the highest molecular weight resulted in the fastest degradation/drug release. When incubated with macrophages or implanted in animals, the degradation rate of PEC films superimposed the results of in vitro incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal shift of sea turtle nest sites in an eroding barrier island beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.

  19. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rainbow trout exposed to diluted oil sand wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; Birkholz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastewaters, such as those from oil sands extraction, must be assessed for their potential sublethal effects before they can be safely disposed in the environment. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was assessed as a potential bioindicator of sublethal stress in rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of oil sands tailings water. The mixed-function oxygenase system in rainbow trout responded rapidly following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sands tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 times the LC 50 (Toxic Units), occurred rapidly within 24 hours of exposure. The linearity of the relationship between the concentration of oil sands tailings pond water and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, expressed by the following regression equation, In EROD = 3.68 (conc.) + 3.20, had an r 2 value of 0.593. Maximal induction required 0.4--0.8 Toxic Units. The absolute level of maximal induction was only one-fifth to one-sixth of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.). The authors also present data that suggests that the different levels of induction observed in trout exposed to tailings pond water vs those injected with 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.) may be indicative of two different P450 isoforms, the CYP4Al isoform responding to the organic acidic surfactants in oil sands tailings pond water and the CYP1A1 isoform, the isoform generally associated with most xenobiotic transformation in fish, responding to β-naphthoflavone

  20. Reconstruction of Eroded and Visually Complicated Archaeological Geometric Patterns: Minaret Choli, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Al Ajlouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visually complicated patterns can be found in many cultural heritages of the world. Islamic geometric patterns present us with one example of such visually complicated archaeological ornaments. As long-lived artifacts, these patterns have gone through many phases of construction, damage, and repair and are constantly subject to erosion and vandalism. The task of reconstructing these visually complicated ornaments faces many practical challenges. The main challenge is posed by the fact that archaeological reality often deals with ornaments that are broken, incomplete or hidden. Recognizing faint traces of eroded or missing parts proved to be an extremely difficult task. This is also combined with the need for specialized knowledge about the mathematical rules of patterns’ structure, in order to regenerate the missing data. This paper presents a methodology for reconstructing deteriorated Islamic geometric patterns; to predict the features that are not observed and output a complete reconstructed two-dimension accurate measurable model. The simulation process depends primarily on finding the parameters necessary to predict information, at other locations, based on the relationships embedded in the existing data and in the prior -knowledge of these relations. The aim is to build up from the fragmented data and from the historic and general knowledge, a model of the reconstructed object. The proposed methodology was proven to be successful in capturing the accurate structural geometry of many of the deteriorated ornaments on the Minaret Choli, Iraq. However, in the case of extremely deteriorated samples, the proposed methodology failed to recognize the correct geometry. The conceptual framework proposed by this paper can serve as a platform for developing professional tools for fast and efficient results.

  1. Modification of the USLE K factor for soil erodibility assessment on calcareous soils in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali; Naderi, Mehdi; Dematte, Jose Alexandre M.; Kerry, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of soil erodibility (K) in the field is tedious, time-consuming and expensive; therefore, its prediction through pedotransfer functions (PTFs) could be far less costly and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to develop new PTFs to estimate the K factor using multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems, and artificial neural networks. For this purpose, K was measured in 40 erosion plots with natural rainfall. Various soil properties including the soil particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent, organic matter, permeability, and wet-aggregate stability were measured. The results showed that the mean measured K was 0.014 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1 and 2.08 times less than the estimated mean K (0.030 t h MJ- 1 mm- 1) using the USLE model. Permeability, wet-aggregate stability, very fine sand, and calcium carbonate were selected as independent variables by forward stepwise regression in order to assess the ability of multiple linear regression, Mamdani fuzzy inference systems and artificial neural networks to predict K. The calcium carbonate equivalent, which is not accounted for in the USLE model, had a significant impact on K in multiple linear regression due to its strong influence on the stability of aggregates and soil permeability. Statistical indices in validation and calibration datasets determined that the artificial neural networks method with the highest R2, lowest RMSE, and lowest ME was the best model for estimating the K factor. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.81, n = 40, p soils.

  2. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  3. Quantifying sediment connectivity in an actively eroding gully complex, Waipaoa catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J.; Massey, Chris; Fuller, Ian C.; Marden, Mike; Archibald, Garth; Ries, William

    2018-04-01

    Using a combination of airborne LiDAR (2005) and terrestrial laser scanning (2007, 2008, 2010, 2011), sediment delivery processes and sediment connectivity in an 20-ha gully complex, which significantly contributes to the Waipaoa sediment cascade, are quantified over a 6-year period. The acquisition of terrain data from high-resolution surveys of the whole gully-fan system provides new insights into slope processes and slope-channel linkages operating in the complex. Raw terrain data from the airborne and ground-based laser scans were converted into raster DEMs with a vertical accuracy between surveys of models of change across the gully and fan complex. In these models deposition equates to positive and erosion to negative vertical change. Debris flows, slumping, and erosion by surface runoff (gullying in the conventional sense) generated on average 95,232 m3 of sediment annually, with a standard deviation of ± 20,806 m3. The volumes of debris eroded from those areas dominated by surface erosion processes were higher than in areas dominated by landslide processes. Over the six-year study period, sediment delivery from the source zones to the fan was a factor of 1.4 times larger than the volume of debris exported from the fan into Te Weraroa Stream. The average annual volume of sediment exported to Te Weraroa Stream varies widely from 23,195 to 102,796 m3. Fluctuations in the volume of stored sediment within the fan, rather than external forcing by rainstorms or earthquakes, account for this annual variation. No large rainfall events occurred during the monitoring period; therefore, sediment volumes and transfer processes captured by this study are representative of the background conditions that operate in this geomorphic system.

  4. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  5. An integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies in eroding deltas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergillos, Rafael J; López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Principal-Gómez, Daniel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Many deltas across the globe are retreating, and nearby beaches are undergoing strong erosion as a result. Among soft and prompt solutions, nourishments are the most heavily used. This paper presents an integrated methodology to forecast the efficiency of nourishment strategies by means of wave climate simulations, wave propagations with downscaling techniques, computation of longshore sediment transport rates and application of the one-line model. It was applied to an eroding deltaic beach (Guadalfeo, southern Spain), where different scenarios as a function of the nourished coastline morphology, input volume and grain size were tested. For that, the evolution of six scenarios of coastline geometry over a two-year period (lifetime of nourishment projects at the study site) was modelled and the uncertainty of the predictions was also quantified through Monte Carlo techniques. For the most efficient coastline shape in terms of gained dry beach area, eight sub-scenarios with different nourished volumes were defined and modelled. The results indicate that an input volume around 460,000m 3 is the best strategy since nourished morphologies with higher volumes are more exposed to the prevailing storm directions, inducing less efficient responses. After setting the optimum coastline morphology and input sediment volume, eleven different nourished grain sizes were modelled; the most efficient coastline responses were obtained for sediment sizes greater than 0.01m. The availability of these sizes in the sediment accumulated upstream of a dam in the Guadalfeo River basin allows for the conclusion that this alternative would not only mitigate coastal erosion problems but also sedimentation issues in the reservoir. The methodology proposed in this work is extensible to other coastal areas across the world and can be helpful to support the decision-making process of artificial nourishment projects and other environmental management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Prefrontal-limbic Functional Connectivity during Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-04-15

    This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from the nuclei of the habenula and other regions implicated in aversive conditioning, such as infralimbic cortex, amygdala and periaqueductal gray regions. The activity patterns among these regions were inter-correlated during acquisition, extinction or pseudorandom training to develop a functional connectivity model. Two subdivisions of the habenular complex showed increased activity after acquisition relative to extinction, with the pseudorandom group intermediate between the other two groups. Significant acquisition activation effects were also found in centromedial amygdala, dorsomedial and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. FDG uptake increases during extinction were found only in dorsal and ventral infralimbic cortex. The overall pattern of activity correlations between these regions revealed extensive but differential functional connectivity during acquisition and extinction training, with less functional connectivity found after pseudorandom training. Interestingly, habenula nuclei showed a distinct pattern of inter-correlations with amygdala nuclei during extinction. The functional connectivity model revealed changing interactions among infralimbic cortex, amygdala, habenula and periaqueductal gray regions through the stages of Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction. This study provided new data on the contributions of the habenula to fear conditioning, and revealed previously unreported infralimbic-amygdala-habenula-periaqueductal gray interactions implicated in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    that the turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture......The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition......, aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  8. Split SR-RLS for the Joint Initialization of the Per-Tone Equalizers and Per-Tone Echo Cancelers in DMT-Based Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysebaert Geert

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.

  9. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1977-01-01

    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  10. Spatially variable rock erodibility in bedrock channels undergoing transient response to baselevel change, Great Falls area, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Shobe, Charles; Kee, Connor; Hancock, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    This is a poster that was presented in April 2014 at the Geological Society of America southeastern section meeting in Blacksburg, VA, USA. The poster presents rock strength and roughness data from tributaries to the Potomac River in Virginia. Our data support the idea that bedrock channel erodibility is greater on the channel margins than at the thalweg, which we hypothesize to be the result of weathering damage preferentially accumulated on the channel banks. This work was published in Shob...

  11. Evaluating the influence of feedbacks between erosion rate and weathering on the distribution of erodibility in bedrock river channels

    OpenAIRE

    Shobe, Charles; Hancock, Gregory; Eppes, Martha; Small, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This is a poster presented on November 3rd, 2015 at the Geological Society of America annual meeting in Baltimore, MD, USA. The poster presents rock strength and roughness data from tributaries to the Potomac River in Virginia. Our data support the idea that bedrock channel erodibility is greater on the channel margins than at the thalweg, which we hypothesize to be the result of weathering damage preferentially accumulated on the channel banks. This work was published in Shobe et al (2017; E...

  12. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; Lopez-Alonso, Marta; Freire, Juan; Perez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  13. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  14. Land degradation assessment by geo-spatially modeling different soil erodibility equations in a semi-arid catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygın, Selen Deviren; Basaran, Mustafa; Ozcan, Ali Ugur; Dolarslan, Melda; Timur, Ozgur Burhan; Yilman, F Ebru; Erpul, Gunay

    2011-09-01

    Land degradation by soil erosion is one of the most serious problems and environmental issues in many ecosystems of arid and semi-arid regions. Especially, the disturbed areas have greater soil detachability and transportability capacity. Evaluation of land degradation in terms of soil erodibility, by using geostatistical modeling, is vital to protect and reclaim susceptible areas. Soil erodibility, described as the ability of soils to resist erosion, can be measured either directly under natural or simulated rainfall conditions, or indirectly estimated by empirical regression models. This study compares three empirical equations used to determine the soil erodibility factor of revised universal soil loss equation prediction technology based on their geospatial performances in the semi-arid catchment of the Saraykoy II Irrigation Dam located in Cankiri, Turkey. A total of 311 geo-referenced soil samples were collected with irregular intervals from the top soil layer (0-10 cm). Geostatistical analysis was performed with the point values of each equation to determine its spatial pattern. Results showed that equations that used soil organic matter in combination with the soil particle size better agreed with the variations in land use and topography of the catchment than the one using only the particle size distribution. It is recommended that the equations which dynamically integrate soil intrinsic properties with land use, topography, and its influences on the local microclimates, could be successfully used to geospatially determine sites highly susceptible to water erosion, and therefore, to select the agricultural and bio-engineering control measures needed.

  15. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  16. The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2011-01-01

    System-level memory consolidation theory posits that the hippocampus initially links the neocortical representations, followed by a shift to a hippocampus-independent neocortical network. With consolidation, an increase in activity in the human subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has

  17. Prefrontal dysfunction in early and continuously treated phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, NBA; Kalverboer, AF; van der Meere, JJ; de Jong, LW; Slijper, FME; Verkerk, PH; van Spronsen, FJ

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (PKU) are selectively impaired in cognitive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) over a wide age range. Thirty-six patients with PKU between 8 and 20 years of age and 36 controls

  18. khat distorts the prefrontal cortex histology and function of adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... It affects many brain centers including the prefrontal cortex which is the ... cognitive behaviors however; it is linked to many psychological ... by traumatic events while others experience ... scientific research in exposing the effects. ... between 3 to 5pm daily. ... needle attached a plastic tubing was connected.

  19. Comparison of (stereotactic) parcellations in mouse prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the

  20. The impact of social disparity on prefrontal function in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Sheridan

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children.

  1. Prefrontal Cortex and Social Cognition in Mouse and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicks, Lucy K.; Koike, Hiroyuki; Akbarian, Schahram; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio) within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain. PMID:26635701

  2. Social cognition in patients following surgery to the prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, L.M.; Andrewes, D.G.; Nicholas, C.L.; Drummond, K.J.; Moffat, B.A.; Phal, P.; Desmond, P.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We

  3. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  4. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  5. Neural mechanisms of memory retrieval: role of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, I

    2000-01-01

    In the primate brain, long-term memory is stored in the neocortical association area which is also engaged in sensory perception. The coded representation of memory is retrieved via interactions of hierarchically different cortical areas along bottom-up and top-down anatomical connections. The functional significance of the fronto-cortical top-down neuronal projections has been relevantly assessed in a new experimental paradigm using posterior-split-brain monkeys. When the splenium of the corpus callosum and the anterior commissure were selectively split, the bottom-up visual signal originating from the unilateral striate cortex could not reach the contralateral visual cortical areas. In this preparation, long-term memory acquired through visual stimulus-stimulus association learning was prevented from transferring across hemispheres. Nonetheless, following the presentation of a visual cue to one hemisphere, the prefrontal cortex could instruct the contralateral hemisphere to retrieve the correct stimulus specified by the cue. These results support the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex can regulate memory recall in the absence of bottom-up sensory input. In humans, functional neuroimaging studies have revealed activation of a distributed neural network, including the prefrontal cortex, during memory retrieval tasks. Thus, the prefrontal cortex is consistently involved in retrieval of long-term memory in primates.

  6. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  7. Selective reductions in prefrontal glucose metabolism in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M S; Stanley, J; Lottenberg, S; Abel, L; Stoddard, J

    1994-09-15

    This study tests the hypothesis that seriously violent offenders pleading not guilty by reason of insanity or incompetent to stand trial are characterized by prefrontal dysfunction. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 22 subjects accused of murder and 22 age-matched and gender-matched controls by measuring local cerebral uptake of glucose using positron emission tomography during the continuous performance task. Murderers had significantly lower glucose metabolism in both lateral and medial prefrontal cortex relative to controls. No group differences were observed for posterior frontal, temporal, and parietal glucose metabolism, indicating regional specificity for the prefrontal deficit. Group differences were not found to be a function of raised levels of left-handedness, schizophrenia, ethnic minority status, head injury, or motivation deficits in the murder group. These preliminary results suggest that deficits localized to the prefrontal cortex may be related to violence in a selected group of offenders, although further studies are needed to establish the generalizability of these findings to violent offenders in the community.

  8. Disrupted thalamic prefrontal pathways in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Hurd, Mark W.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    There are quantifiable abnormalities in water diffusion properties of the white matter in thalamic and prefrontal areas in patients with idiopathic dystonia (ID). However, it is unclear which pathways are disrupted in these patients. Using probabilistic tractography of high resolution DTI, we

  9. Lexical tone recognition in noise in normal-hearing children and prelingually deafened children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Xu, Li

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Mandarin tone recognition in background noise in children with cochlear implants (CIs), and to examine the potential factors contributing to their performance. Tone recognition was tested using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm in various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions (i.e. quiet, +12, +6, 0, and -6 dB). Linear correlation analysis was performed to examine possible relationships between the tone-recognition performance of the CI children and the demographic factors. Sixty-six prelingually deafened children with CIs and 52 normal-hearing (NH) children as controls participated in the study. Children with CIs showed an overall poorer tone-recognition performance and were more susceptible to noise than their NH peers. Tone confusions between Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 were most prominent in both CI and NH children except for in the poorest SNR conditions. Age at implantation was significantly correlated with tone-recognition performance of the CI children in noise. There is a marked deficit in tone recognition in prelingually deafened children with CIs, particularly in noise listening conditions. While factors that contribute to the large individual differences are still elusive, early implantation could be beneficial to tone development in pediatric CI users.

  10. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  11. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  12. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1 ) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2 ) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3 ) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. [The application of artificial neural network on the assessment of lexical tone production of pediatric cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y T; Chen, Z M; Xu, L

    2017-08-07

    Objective: The present study was carried out to explore the tone production ability of the Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CI) by using an artificial neural network model and to examine the potential contributing factors underlining their tone production performance. The results of this study might provide useful guidelines for post-operative rehabilitation processes of pediatric CI users. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-eight prelingually deafened children who received unilateral CI participated in this study. As controls, 170 similarly-aged children with normal hearing (NH) were recruited. A total of 36 Chinese monosyllabic words were selected as the tone production targets. Vocal production samples were recorded and the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of each syllable was extracted using an auto-correlation algorithm followed by manual correction. An artificial neural network was created in MATLAB to classify the tone production. The relationships between tone production and several demographic factors were evaluated. Results: Pediatric CI users produced Mandarin tones much less accurately than did the NH children (58.8% vs. 91.5% correct). Tremendous variability in tone production performance existed among the CI children. Tones 2 and 3 were produced less accurately than tones 1 and 4 for both groups. For the CI group, all tones when in error tended to be judged as tone 1. The tone production accuracy was negatively correlated with age at implantation and positively correlated with CI use duration with correlation coefficients ( r ) of -0.215 ( P =0.003) and 0.203 ( P =0.005), respectively. Age was one of the determinants of tonal ability for NH children. Conclusions: For children with severe to profound hearing loss, early implantation and persistent use of CI are beneficial to their tone production development. Artificial neural network is a convenient and reliable assessment tool for the development of tonal ability of hearing

  14. The evolution of stream coupled hillslopes by bedrock landsliding in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenske, Dirk; Jen, Chia-Hung; Böse, Margot; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    Being affected frequently by violent weather condition such as typhoons and regular seismic activity, the high mountains of Taiwan belong to the earth's most dynamic landscapes. In the fast-eroding mountain belt of Taiwan, hillslopes and valley systems have been reported to show a high level of coupling (Hovius et al. 2000). In the catchment of the Tachia river numerous bedrock landslides occur frequently as a result of seismic events and typhoons (Lin et al. 2006). This study attempts to take a closer look at the temporal and spatial pattern of hillslope evolution at two study sites in the upper catchement of the Tachia river. Therefore we have carried out a repeated field surveying of active slopes by means of traditional survey instruments and terrestrial laser scanning from early 2008 until late 2009 on a half year basis. Additionally, a set of aerial photos and satellite images from 1969, 1980,2001, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009 is used to assess the long-term and short-term changes of the river channel. Near the town of Huan Shan, the valley bottom shows elevations around 1520 m above sea level and the river is draining and upstream area of 155 km². Downstream of Huan Shan lies the confluence of the Tachia River and two of its tributaries, namely the Nanhu River and the Hehuan River. Therefore, the catchment area upstream of second study area in Sung Mao is considerably larger being of 420 km², in that place, the current level of the channel varies around 1425 m above sea level. In the two study areas strong lateral erosion has been observed. In the case of the Sung Mao study area, the latter is linked to a severe aggradation of sediments in the channel since the building of the Dechi Dam downstream. The active hillslopes have been surveyed and their reaction to the typhoons in 2008 and 2009 is studied. Rates of sediment yield from the slopes have been calculated for three periods between April 2008, November 2008, April 2009 and November 2009. Furthermore, the

  15. Effect of biocrust: study of mechanical and hydraulic properties and erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Martin; Bruthans, Jiří; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-04-01

    It is well-known that lichens and other organisms forming crust on soil or rock surface play important role in weathering but may also protect underlying material from fast erosion. So far, there have been only few measurements comparing mechanical or hydraulic properties of biocrust with its subsurface on locked sand and friable sandstones, so the overall effect of the biocrust is not well-understood. Objective of our study is to quantify the effect of the biocrust on mechanical and hydraulic properties of friable sandstone and locked sand of Cretaceous age in six different localities with varying aspect and inclination and age of exposure in sandpit Strelec (Czech Rep.). On the artificial exposures, biocrust developed within last 10-30 years. Beside measurements of mechanical and hydraulic properties, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry in crust and subsurface was performed. Drilling resistance technique was found an excellent method to distinguish the biocrust from its subsurface (~3 mm thick biocrust has up to 12 times higher drilling resistance than underlying material). Surface zone with the biocrust has 3 - 25 times higher tensile strength than the subsurface material (1 - 25 kPa). In comparison with the subsurface, the biocrust is considerably less erodible (based on water jet testing). Biocrust saturated hydraulic conductivity is 15 - 240 times lower than the subsurface (6*10 -5 - 1*10 -4 m/s) and its permeability for water vapor is 4 - 9 times lower than subsurface. Presence of the biocrust slows down capillary absorption of water 4 - 25 times. The biocrust is thus forming firm surface which protects underlying material from rain and flowing water erosion and which considerably modifies its hydraulic properties. Material with crust exposed to calcination, leaching by concentrated peroxide and experiments with zymoliase enzyme strongly indicate that major contribution to crust hardening is provided by organic matter. Based on DNA sequencing the crust is

  16. A dorsolateral prefrontal cortex semi-automatic segmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Fallon, James; Nain, Delphine; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-03-01

    Structural, functional, and clinical studies in schizophrenia have, for several decades, consistently implicated dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of the disease. Functional and structural imaging studies, combined with clinical, psychometric, and genetic analyses in schizophrenia have confirmed the key roles played by the prefrontal cortex and closely linked "prefrontal system" structures such as the striatum, amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, and anterior cingulate cortices. The nodal structure of the prefrontal system circuit is the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or Brodmann area 46, which also appears to be the most commonly studied and cited brain area with respect to schizophrenia. 1, 2, 3, 4 In 1986, Weinberger et. al. tied cerebral blood flow in the DLPFC to schizophrenia.1 In 2001, Perlstein et. al. demonstrated that DLPFC activation is essential for working memory tasks commonly deficient in schizophrenia. 2 More recently, groups have linked morphological changes due to gene deletion and increased DLPFC glutamate concentration to schizophrenia. 3, 4 Despite the experimental and clinical focus on the DLPFC in structural and functional imaging, the variability of the location of this area, differences in opinion on exactly what constitutes DLPFC, and inherent difficulties in segmenting this highly convoluted cortical region have contributed to a lack of widely used standards for manual or semi-automated segmentation programs. Given these implications, we developed a semi-automatic tool to segment the DLPFC from brain MRI scans in a reproducible way to conduct further morphological and statistical studies. The segmenter is based on expert neuroanatomist rules (Fallon-Kindermann rules), inspired by cytoarchitectonic data and reconstructions presented by Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic. 5 It is semi-automated to provide essential user interactivity. We present our results and provide details on

  17. Dopamine, Noradrenaline and Differences in Sexual Behavior between Roman High and Low Avoidance Male Rats: A Microdialysis Study in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Bratzu, Jessica; Piludu, Maria A; Corda, Maria G; Melis, Maria R; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) outbred rats, which differ for a respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response in the shuttle-box, display differences in sexual activity when put in the presence of a sexually receptive female rat. Indeed RHA rats show higher levels of sexual motivation and copulatory performance than RLA rats, which persist also after repeated sexual activity. These differences have been correlated to a higher tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats vs. RLA rats, revealed by the higher increase of dopamine found in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens of RHA than RLA rats during sexual activity. This work shows that extracellular dopamine and noradrenaline (NA) also, increase in the dialysate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of male RHA and RLA rats put in the presence of an inaccessible female rat and more markedly during direct sexual interaction. Such increases in dopamine (and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC) and NA were found in both sexually naïve and experienced animals, but they were higher: (i) in RHA than in RLA rats; and (ii) in sexually experienced RHA and RLA rats than in their naïve counterparts. Finally, the differences in dopamine and NA in the mPFC occurred concomitantly to those in sexual activity, as RHA rats displayed higher levels of sexual motivation and copulatory performance than RLA rats in both the sexually naïve and experienced conditions. These results suggest that a higher dopaminergic tone also occurs in the mPFC, together with an increased noradrenergic tone, which may be involved in the different copulatory patterns found in RHA and RLA rats, as suggested for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system.

  18. Current versus ideal skin tones and tanning behaviors in Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemrich, Ashley; Pawlow, Laura; Pomerantz, Andrew; Segrist, Dan

    2014-01-01

    To explore tanning behaviors and whether a discrepancy between current and ideal skin tones exists. The sample included 78 Caucasian women from a mid-sized midwestern university. Data were collected in spring 2012 via a paper questionnaire. Sixty-two percent of the sample regularly engaged in salon tanning at least once per week, with an average frequency of 2.5 visits per week. Thirteen percent endorsed regularly tanning 4 or more times per week, and 26% reported visiting a tanning bed more than once in a 24-hour period. Ninety-four percent wished their current skin tone was darker, and ideal tone was significantly darker than current tone. The data suggest that the young Caucasian women in this sample tend to be dissatisfied with their current skin tone to an extent that leads the majority of them to engage in risky, potentially cancer-causing behavior by either salon tanning or considering tanning in the future as time and finances become available.

  19. Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung

    Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of speech rhythm, such as rise time and intensity. This study set out to investigate to what extent suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., Cantonese lexical tone perception) and rise time sensitivity could distinguish Chinese children with dyslexia from typically developing children. Sixteen children with dyslexia and 44 age-matched controls were administered a Cantonese lexical tone perception task, psychoacoustic tasks, a nonverbal reasoning ability task, and word reading and dictation tasks. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls on Cantonese lexical tone perception, rise time, and intensity. Furthermore, Cantonese lexical tone perception appeared to be a stable indicator that distinguishes children with dyslexia from controls, even after controlling for basic auditory processing skills. These findings suggest that suprasegmental phonological processing (i.e., lexical tone perception) is a potential factor that accounts for reading difficulty in Chinese.

  20. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  1. The effects of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonhee

    Building mechanical equipment often generates prominent tones because most systems include rotating parts like fans and pumps. These tonal noises can cause unpleasant user experiences in spaces and, in turn, lead to increased complaints by building occupants. Currently, architectural engineers can apply the noise criteria guidelines in standards or publications to achieve acceptable noise conditions for assorted types of spaces. However, these criteria do not apply well if the noise contains perceptible tones. The annoyance thresholds experienced by the general population with regards to the degree of tones in noise is a significant piece of knowledge that has not been well-established. Thus, this dissertation addresses the relationship between human perception and noises with tones in the built environment. Four phases of subjective testing were conducted in an indoor acoustic testing chamber at the University of Nebraska to achieve the research objective. The results indicate that even the least prominent tones in noises can significantly decrease the cognitive performance of participants on a mentally demanding task. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance of test results have proven that tonality has a crucial influence on working memory capacity of subjects, whereas loudness levels alone did not. A multidimensional annoyance model, incorporating psycho-acoustical attributes of noise in addition to loudness and tonality, has been proposed as a more accurate annoyance model.

  2. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Soil Erodibility (KFFACT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the adjusted soil erodibility factor within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the...

  4. Metronome-Cued Stepping in Place after Hemiparetic Stroke: Comparison of a One- and Two-Tone Beat

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Rachel L.; Masood, Afia; Maccormac, Elinor S.; Pratt, David; Sackley, Catherine M.; Wing, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Hemiparetic gait is characterised by temporal asymmetry and variability, and these variables are improved by auditory cueing. Stepping in place incorporates aspects of gait and may be a useful tool for locomotor training. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the use of a single-tone and dual-tone metronome to cue stepping in place after hemiparetic stroke. Eight participants completed an uncued baseline stepping condition and two cued stepping conditions utilising a single-tone and ...

  5. Lexical Tones in Mandarin Chinese Infant-Directed Speech: Age-Related Changes in the Second Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengru Han

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonal information is essential to early word learning in tone languages. Although numerous studies have investigated the intonational and segmental properties of infant-directed speech (IDS, only a few studies have explored the properties of lexical tones in IDS. These studies mostly focused on the first year of life; thus little is known about how lexical tones in IDS change as children’s vocabulary acquisition accelerates in the second year (Goldfield and Reznick, 1990; Bloom, 2001. The present study examines whether Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS addressing 18- and 24-month-old children—at which age children are learning words at a rapid speed—vs. adult-directed speech (ADS. Thirty-nine Mandarin Chinese–speaking mothers were tested in a semi-spontaneous picture-book-reading task, in which they told the same story to their child (IDS condition and to an adult (ADS condition. Results for the F0 measurements (minimum F0, maximum F0, and F0 range of tone in the speech data revealed a continuum of differences among IDS addressing 18-month-olds, IDS addressing 24-month-olds, and ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 18-month-old children had a higher minimum F0, higher maximum F0, and larger pitch range than lexical tones in ADS. Lexical tones in IDS addressing 24-month-old children showed more similarity to ADS tones with respect to pitch height: there were no differences in minimum F0 and maximum F0 between ADS and IDS. However, F0 range was still larger. These results suggest that lexical tones are generally hyperarticulated in Mandarin Chinese IDS addressing 18- and 24- month-old children despite the change in pitch level over time. Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS when talking to toddlers and potentially facilitate tone acquisition and word learning.

  6. Feasibity of Using a Measure of Heart Rate Change in Human Adults to Signal Occurrence of Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    clearly with the binaural subjects in the 85 dB free response live trials situation on post-tone offset beat 1. Here, the significant response...seen when comparing the sign test results of post-tone offset beat I in the binaural 15 db motor response live trial situation to the analagous 85 db...subject response consistency. Tills is most evident in the binaural 85 db fret live situation comparison of post-tone offset beat one to

  7. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  8. New segmentation-based tone mapping algorithm for high dynamic range image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weiwei; Guo, Huinan; Zhou, Zuofeng; Huang, Huimin; Cao, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    The traditional tone mapping algorithm for the display of high dynamic range (HDR) image has the drawback of losing the impression of brightness, contrast and color information. To overcome this phenomenon, we propose a new tone mapping algorithm based on dividing the image into different exposure regions in this paper. Firstly, the over-exposure region is determined using the Local Binary Pattern information of HDR image. Then, based on the peak and average gray of the histogram, the under-exposure and normal-exposure region of HDR image are selected separately. Finally, the different exposure regions are mapped by differentiated tone mapping methods to get the final result. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm achieve the better performance both in visual quality and objective contrast criterion than other algorithms.

  9. The affective tone of narration and posttraumatic growth in organ transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that positive affective tone of narratives is connected to the experience of posttraumatic growth among transplant patients. Kidney transplant patients (N = 51 and liver transplant patients (N = 48 participated in the study. In the first stage, about 10 weeks after transplant, the participants told two stories about important, freely chosen events from their lives. During the second meeting 10-12 months later we measured posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that the affective tone of narratives about past events was associated with the level of post-traumatic growth measured 10-12 months later. This proves that the affective tone of narratives about life, understood as a relatively constant individual characteristic, promote posttraumatic growth.

  10. Effects of cochlear compression and frequency selectivity on pitch discrimination of complex tones with unresolved harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated...... for the RP condition. Overall, these findings suggest that both reduced cochlear compression and auditory filter broadening alter the envelope representation of unresolved complex tones, leading to changes in pitch-discrimination performance....... pitchdiscrimination performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained in 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearingimpaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) unresolved complex tones. The HI listeners performed, on average, similarly as the NH listeners in the SP...

  11. Trellis Tone Modulation Multiple-Access for Peer Discovery in D2D Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiwoo Lim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new non-orthogonal multiple-access scheme, trellis tone modulation multiple-access (TTMMA, is proposed for peer discovery of distributed device-to-device (D2D communication. The range and capacity of discovery are important performance metrics in peer discovery. The proposed trellis tone modulation uses single-tone transmission and achieves a long discovery range due to its low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. The TTMMA also exploits non-orthogonal resource assignment to increase the discovery capacity. For the multi-user detection of superposed multiple-access signals, a message-passing algorithm with supplementary schemes are proposed. With TTMMA and its message-passing demodulation, approximately 1.5 times the number of devices are discovered compared to the conventional frequency division multiple-access (FDMA-based discovery.

  12. Congenital amusics use a secondary pitch mechanism to identify lexical tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Oliver; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-09-01

    Amusia is a pitch perception disorder associated with deficits in processing and production of both musical and lexical tones, which previous reports have suggested may be constrained to fine-grained pitch judgements. In the present study speakers of tone-languages, in which lexical tones are used to convey meaning, identified words present in chimera stimuli containing conflicting pitch-cues in the temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope, and which therefore conveyed two distinct utterances. Amusics were found to be more likely than controls to judge the word according to the envelope pitch-cues. This demonstrates that amusia is not associated with fine-grained pitch judgements alone, and is consistent with there being two distinct pitch mechanisms and with amusics having an atypical reliance on a secondary mechanism based upon envelope cues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Presbycusis occurs after cochlear implantation also: a retrospective study of pure tone thresholds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosman, Samuel; Matusik, Deanna Kattah; Ferro, Lia; Gao, Weihua; Saadia-Redleaf, Miriam

    2012-12-01

    To assess aided soundfield pure tone thresholds after cochlear implantation in adults over time. Retrospective case review. Academic tertiary care center. Seventy-seven severe-to-profoundly deafened adults implanted with one of 5 different internal devices. Cochlear implantation. Outcome measures were cochlear implant aided soundfield pure tone thresholds at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz. For the 77 adult patients in the study, pure tone aided thresholds deteriorated over time at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, and 6,000 Hz at rates ranging from 0.54 to 0.86 dB per year with the implant (p presbycusis, this deterioration is most prominent at the highest frequencies; however, the incidence and rate of deterioration is higher than that seen in presbycusis. These physiologic changes are not indicative of device failure and do not mean that performance measures will necessarily deteriorate.

  14. Detection of time-varying harmonic amplitude alterations due to spectral interpolations between musical instrument tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B; Beauchamp, James W; So, Richard H Y

    2009-01-01

    Gradated spectral interpolations between musical instrument tone pairs were used to investigate discrimination as a function of time-averaged spectral difference. All possible nonidentical pairs taken from a collection of eight musical instrument sounds consisting of bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, and violin were tested. For each pair, several tones were generated with different balances between the primary and secondary instruments, where the balance was fixed across the duration of each tone. Among primary instruments it was found that changes to horn and bassoon [corrected] were most easily discriminable, while changes to saxophone and trumpet timbres were least discriminable. Among secondary instruments, the clarinet had the strongest effect on discrimination, whereas the bassoon had the least effect. For primary instruments, strong negative correlations were found between discrimination and their spectral incoherences, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting time-varying alterations such as spectral interpolation.

  15. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  16. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  17. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  18. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  19. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Kaufman

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity, followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  20. Long-term Relationships between Cholinergic Tone, Synchronous Bursting and Synaptic Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A.; Ziv, Noam E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited. PMID:22911726

  1. Long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, synchronous bursting and synaptic remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Maya; Corner, Michael A; Ziv, Noam E

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neuromodulation plays key roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability, network activity, arousal, and behavior. On longer time scales, cholinergic systems play essential roles in cortical development, maturation, and plasticity. Presumably, these processes are associated with substantial synaptic remodeling, yet to date, long-term relationships between cholinergic tone and synaptic remodeling remain largely unknown. Here we used automated microscopy combined with multielectrode array recordings to study long-term relationships between cholinergic tone, excitatory synapse remodeling, and network activity characteristics in networks of cortical neurons grown on multielectrode array substrates. Experimental elevations of cholinergic tone led to the abrupt suppression of episodic synchronous bursting activity (but not of general activity), followed by a gradual growth of excitatory synapses over hours. Subsequent blockage of cholinergic receptors led to an immediate restoration of synchronous bursting and the gradual reversal of synaptic growth. Neither synaptic growth nor downsizing was governed by multiplicative scaling rules. Instead, these occurred in a subset of synapses, irrespective of initial synaptic size. Synaptic growth seemed to depend on intrinsic network activity, but not on the degree to which bursting was suppressed. Intriguingly, sustained elevations of cholinergic tone were associated with a gradual recovery of synchronous bursting but not with a reversal of synaptic growth. These findings show that cholinergic tone can strongly affect synaptic remodeling and synchronous bursting activity, but do not support a strict coupling between the two. Finally, the reemergence of synchronous bursting in the presence of elevated cholinergic tone indicates that the capacity of cholinergic neuromodulation to indefinitely suppress synchronous bursting might be inherently limited.

  2. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P < 0.001 for DR and ER or P < 0.01 for SSI). In addition, native shrub land and converted land to agriculture were found different in terms of AggSD in all aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  3. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  4. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  5. Higher Order Spike Synchrony in Prefrontal Cortex during visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon ePipa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise temporal synchrony of spike firing has been postulated as an important neuronal mechanism for signal integration and the induction of plasticity in neocortex. As prefrontal cortex plays an important role in organizing memory and executive functions, the convergence of multiple visual pathways onto PFC predicts that neurons should preferentially synchronize their spiking when stimulus information is processed. Furthermore, synchronous spike firing should intensify if memory processes require the induction of neuronal plasticity, even if this is only for short-term. Here we show with multiple simultaneously recorded units in ventral prefrontal cortex that neurons participate in 3 ms precise synchronous discharges distributed across multiple sites separated by at least 500 µm. The frequency of synchronous firing is modulated by behavioral performance and is specific for the memorized visual stimuli. In particular, during the memory period in which activity is not stimulus driven, larger groups of up to 7 sites exhibit performance dependent modulation of their spike synchronization.

  6. Prefrontal Cortex, Emotion, and Approach/Withdrawal Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Levin, Rebecca L; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a selective review of the literature and current theories regarding the role of prefrontal cortex, along with some other critical brain regions, in emotion and motivation. Seemingly contradictory findings have often appeared in this literature. Research attempting to resolve these contradictions has been the basis of new areas of growth and has led to more sophisticated understandings of emotional and motivational processes as well as neural networks associated with these processes. Progress has, in part, depended on methodological advances that allow for increased resolution in brain imaging. A number of issues are currently in play, among them the role of prefrontal cortex in emotional or motivational processes. This debate fosters research that will likely lead to further refinement of conceptualizations of emotion, motivation, and the neural processes associated with them.

  7. Prefrontal gray matter volume mediates genetic risks for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, N; Redlich, R; Kaehler, C; Grotegerd, D; Dohm, K; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Thalamuthu, A; Koutsouleris, N; Arolt, V; Teuber, A; Wersching, H; Baune, B T; Berger, K; Dannlowski, U

    2017-05-01

    Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples. Building on this, the successful individualized prediction of BMI by means of multivariate pattern classification algorithms trained on whole-brain imaging data and external validations in the second cohort points to potential clinical applications of this imaging trait marker.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MUSICAL TONES, IN THE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OF PREFERENCE OF GEOMETRICAL FIGURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILSON LÓPEZ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This research intended to create preferences on geometric figures using a classical conditioning procedurewhere 2 specific variations of musical structure were used -mayor and dissonant tones- as unconditionedstimulus. 24 university students with an age average of 23 years were exposed to stimular conditionswhere 2 geometric figures (CS+, were matched with mayor tones (UCS+ and other 2 (CS- withdissonant (UCS-; subsequently the figures were rated on a scale (where +10 = very pleasant and -10 =very unpleasant. According with the formulated hypothesis and the previous discoveries in both basicand applied research, three of the four conditions tested showed significant values using the Wilcoxonsign ranks test.

  9. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due......, spectral broadening is calculated and analyzed for typical meteorological regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer and different flight trajectories of UAVs. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Spectral broadening might also provide a means for remotely sensing...

  10. Multi-tone suppression of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sieck, Nicole E.; Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Jesteadt, Walt; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of multiple suppressors. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were made in normal-hearing participants. Primary tones had fixed frequencies (f2 = 4000 Hz; f1 / f2 = 1.22) and a range of levels. Suppressor tones were at three frequencies (fs = 2828, 4100, 4300 Hz) and range of levels. Decrement was defined as the attenuation in DPOAE level due to the presence of a suppressor. A measure of suppression calle...

  11. Linear combination of auditory steady-state responses evoked by co-modulated tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Marozeau, Jeremy; Epp, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Up to medium intensities and in the 80–100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used...... for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Ui of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different...

  12. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with approx......In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  13. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Meagan L.; Floresco, Stan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates ...

  14. Atomoxetine Enhances Connectivity of Prefrontal Networks in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Robin J; Rittman, Timothy; Passamonti, Luca; Ye, Zheng; Sami, Saber; Jones, Simon P; Nombela, Cristina; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Vatansever, Deniz; Rae, Charlotte L; Hughes, Laura E; Robbins, Trevor W; Rowe, James B

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but often not improved by dopaminergic treatment. New treatment strategies targeting other neurotransmitter deficits are therefore of growing interest. Imaging the brain at rest ('task-free') provides the opportunity to examine the impact of a candidate drug on many of the brain networks that underpin cognition, while minimizing task-related performance confounds. We test this approach using atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that modulates the prefrontal cortical activity and can facilitate some executive functions and response inhibition. Thirty-three patients with idiopathic PD underwent task-free fMRI. Patients were scanned twice in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, following either placebo or 40-mg oral atomoxetine. Seventy-six controls were scanned once without medication to provide normative data. Seed-based correlation analyses were used to measure changes in functional connectivity, with the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) a critical region for executive function. Patients on placebo had reduced connectivity relative to controls from right IFG to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and to left IFG and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Atomoxetine increased connectivity from the right IFG to the dorsal anterior cingulate. In addition, the atomoxetine-induced change in connectivity from right IFG to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was proportional to the change in verbal fluency, a simple index of executive function. The results support the hypothesis that atomoxetine may restore prefrontal networks related to executive functions. We suggest that task-free imaging can support translational pharmacological studies of new drug therapies and provide evidence for engagement of the relevant neurocognitive systems.

  15. Reward Inference by Primate Prefrontal and Striatal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Fan, Hongwei; Sawa, Kosuke; Tsuda, Ichiro; Tsukada, Minoru; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. To understand the nature of these processes, we recorded single-unit activity from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the striatum in monkeys performing a reward inference task using an asymmetric reward schedule. We found that neurons both in the LPFC and in the striatum predicted reward values for stimuli that had been previously well experienced with set reward quantities in the asymmetric reward task. Im...

  16. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, adding value to autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, W. J.; Horner, A. J.; Burgess, N.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found tha...

  17. Prefrontal cortex activity during swallowing in dysphagia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Yamate, Chisato; Taira, Masato; Shinoda, Masamichi; Urata, Kentaro; Maruno, Mitsuru; Ito, Reio; Saito, Hiroto; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Iwata, Koichi

    2018-05-24

    Prefrontal cortex activity is modulated by flavor and taste stimuli and changes during swallowing. We hypothesized that changes in the modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by flavor and taste were associated with swallowing movement and evaluated brain activity during swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To evaluate prefrontal cortex activity in dysphagia patients during swallowing, change in oxidized hemoglobin (z-score) was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy while dysphagia patients and healthy controls swallowed sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly. Total z-scores were positive during swallowing of flavored/unsweetened jelly and negative during swallowing of unflavored/sweetened jelly in controls but negative during swallowing of sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly in dysphagia patients. These findings suggest that taste and flavor during food swallowing are associated with positive and negative z-scores, respectively. Change in negative and positive z-scores may be useful in evaluating brain activity of dysphagia patients during swallowing of sweetened and unsweetened food.

  18. Major Thought Restructuring: The Roles of Different Prefrontal Cortical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Avanaki, Zahra Nasiri; Bahrami, Bahador; Shallice, Tim

    2017-07-01

    An important question for understanding the neural basis of problem solving is whether the regions of human prefrontal cortices play qualitatively different roles in the major cognitive restructuring required to solve difficult problems. However, investigating this question using neuroimaging faces a major dilemma: either the problems do not require major cognitive restructuring, or if they do, the restructuring typically happens once, rendering repeated measurements of the critical mental process impossible. To circumvent these problems, young adult participants were challenged with a one-dimensional Subtraction (or Nim) problem [Bouton, C. L. Nim, a game with a complete mathematical theory. The Annals of Mathematics, 3, 35-39, 1901] that can be tackled using two possible strategies. One, often used initially, is effortful, slow, and error-prone, whereas the abstract solution, once achieved, is easier, quicker, and more accurate. Behaviorally, success was strongly correlated with sex. Using voxel-based morphometry analysis controlling for sex, we found that participants who found the more abstract strategy (i.e., Solvers) had more gray matter volume in the anterior medial, ventrolateral prefrontal, and parietal cortices compared with those who never switched from the initial effortful strategy (i.e., Explorers). Removing the sex covariate showed higher gray matter volume in Solvers (vs. Explorers) in the right ventrolateral prefrontal and left parietal cortex.

  19. Brain injury impairs working memory and prefrontal circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin James Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI each year. Even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI, the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI.

  20. Neural correlates of memory retrieval in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher, Verónica; Ojeda, Sabiela; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Acuña, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Working memory includes short-term representations of information that were recently experienced or retrieved from long-term representations of sensory stimuli. Evidence is presented here that working memory activates the same dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons that: (a) maintained recently perceived visual stimuli; and (b) retrieved visual stimuli from long-term memory (LTM). Single neuron activity was recorded in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while trained monkeys discriminated between two orientated lines shown sequentially, separated by a fixed interstimulus interval. This visual task required the monkey to compare the orientation of the second line with the memory trace of the first and to decide the relative orientation of the second. When the behavioural task required the monkey to maintain in working memory a first stimulus that continually changed from trial to trial, the discharge in these cells was related to the parameters--the orientation--of the memorized item. Then, what the monkey had to recall from memory was manipulated by switching to another task in which the first stimulus was not shown, and had to be retrieved from LTM. The discharge rates of the same neurons also varied depending on the parameters of the memorized stimuli, and their response was progressively delayed as the monkey performed the task. These results suggest that working memory activates dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons that maintain parametrical visual information in short-term and LTM, and that the contents of working memory cannot be limited to what has recently happened in the sensory environment.

  1. Glucose-monitoring neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Papp, Szilárd; Takács, Gábor; Szalay, Csaba; Karádi, Zoltán

    2012-03-20

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), a key structure of the limbic neural circuitry, plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding. As an integrant part of the forebrain dopamine (DA) system, it performs complex roles via interconnections with various brain areas where glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons have been identified. The main goal of the present experiments was to examine whether similar GM neurons exist in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. To search for such chemosensory cells here, and to estimate their involvement in the DA circuitry, extracellular single neuron activity of the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex of anesthetized Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats was recorded by means of tungsten wire multibarreled glass microelectrodes during microelectrophoretic administration of d-glucose and DA. One fourth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate in response to glucose, thus, proved to be elements of the forebrain GM neural network. DA responsive neurons in the mdPFC were found to represent similar proportion of all cells; the glucose-excited units were shown to display excitatory whereas the glucose-inhibited neurons were demonstrated to exert mainly inhibitory responses to dopamine. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct DA sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in adaptive processes of the central feeding control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suprasegmental Features Are Not Acquired Early: Perception and Production of Monosyllabic Cantonese Lexical Tones in 4- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Tsz-Tin Leung, Carrie

    2018-05-17

    Previous studies reported that children acquire Cantonese tones before 3 years of age, supporting the assumption in models of phonological development that suprasegmental features are acquired rapidly and early in children. Yet, recent research found a large disparity in the age of Cantonese tone acquisition. This study investigated Cantonese tone development in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty-eight 4- to 6-year-old Cantonese-speaking children and 28 mothers of the children labeled 30 pictures representing familiar words in the 6 tones in a picture-naming task and identified pictures representing words in different Cantonese tones in a picture-pointing task. To control for lexical biases in tone assessment, tone productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Five judges categorized the tones in filtered stimuli. Tone production accuracy, tone perception accuracy, and correlation between tone production and perception accuracy were examined. Children did not start to produce adultlike tones until 5 and 6 years of age. Four-year-olds produced none of the tones with adultlike accuracy. Five- and 6-year-olds attained adultlike productions in 2 (T5 and T6) to 3 (T4, T5, and T6) tones, respectively. Children made better progress in tone perception and achieved higher accuracy in perception than in production. However, children in all age groups perceived none of the tones as accurately as adults, except that T1 was perceived with adultlike accuracy by 6-year-olds. Only weak association was found between children's tone perception and production accuracy. Contradicting to the long-held assumption that children acquire lexical tone rapidly and early before the mastery of segmentals, this study found that 4- to 6-year-old children have not mastered the perception or production of the full set of Cantonese tones in familiar monosyllabic words. Larger development was found in children's tone perception than tone production. The higher tone perception

  3. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children’s performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults’ performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants’ difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts’ similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  4. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  5. DRD2/CHRNA5 interaction on prefrontal biology and physiology during working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Di Giorgio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prefrontal behavior and activity in humans are heritable. Studies in animals demonstrate an interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on prefrontal behavior but evidence in humans is weak. Therefore, we hypothesize that genetic variation regulating dopamine D2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling impact prefrontal cortex activity and related cognition. To test this hypothesis in humans, we explored the interaction between functional genetic variants in the D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560 and in the nicotinic receptor α5 gene (CHRNA5, rs16969968 on both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediated behavior and physiology during working memory and on prefrontal gray matter volume. METHODS: A large sample of healthy subjects was compared for genotypic differences for DRD2 rs1076560 (G>T and CHNRA5 rs16969968 (G>A on prefrontal phenotypes, including cognitive performance at the N-Back task, prefrontal physiology with BOLD fMRI during performance of the 2-Back working memory task, and prefrontal morphometry with structural MRI. RESULTS: We found that DRD2 rs1076560 and CHNRA5 rs16969968 interact to modulate cognitive function, prefrontal physiology during working memory, and prefrontal gray matter volume. More specifically, CHRNA5-AA/DRD2-GT subjects had greater behavioral performance, more efficient prefrontal cortex activity at 2Back working memory task, and greater prefrontal gray matter volume than the other genotype groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present data extend previous studies in animals and enhance our understanding of dopamine and acetylcholine signaling in the human prefrontal cortex, demonstrating interactions elicited by working memory that are modulated by genetic variants in DRD2 and CHRNA5.

  6. DRD2/CHRNA5 interaction on prefrontal biology and physiology during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Annabella; Smith, Ryan M; Fazio, Leonardo; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Gelao, Barbara; Tomasicchio, Aldo; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Taurisano, Paolo; Quarto, Tiziana; Masellis, Rita; Rampino, Antonio; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sadee, Wolfgang; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Prefrontal behavior and activity in humans are heritable. Studies in animals demonstrate an interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on prefrontal behavior but evidence in humans is weak. Therefore, we hypothesize that genetic variation regulating dopamine D2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling impact prefrontal cortex activity and related cognition. To test this hypothesis in humans, we explored the interaction between functional genetic variants in the D2 receptor gene (DRD2, rs1076560) and in the nicotinic receptor α5 gene (CHRNA5, rs16969968) on both dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediated behavior and physiology during working memory and on prefrontal gray matter volume. A large sample of healthy subjects was compared for genotypic differences for DRD2 rs1076560 (G>T) and CHNRA5 rs16969968 (G>A) on prefrontal phenotypes, including cognitive performance at the N-Back task, prefrontal physiology with BOLD fMRI during performance of the 2-Back working memory task, and prefrontal morphometry with structural MRI. We found that DRD2 rs1076560 and CHNRA5 rs16969968 interact to modulate cognitive function, prefrontal physiology during working memory, and prefrontal gray matter volume. More specifically, CHRNA5-AA/DRD2-GT subjects had greater behavioral performance, more efficient prefrontal cortex activity at 2Back working memory task, and greater prefrontal gray matter volume than the other genotype groups. The present data extend previous studies in animals and enhance our understanding of dopamine and acetylcholine signaling in the human prefrontal cortex, demonstrating interactions elicited by working memory that are modulated by genetic variants in DRD2 and CHRNA5.

  7. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  8. Contaminated soil phytoremediation by Cyperus laxus Lam. cytochrome p450 EROD-activity induced by hydrocarbons in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, S; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Pérez-Flores, L J; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments with Cyperus laxus Lam were conducted to determine the rate and extent of phytoremediation and the effect of hydrocarbons on the cytochrome P450 EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) enzymatic activity in roots. Plants were cultivated on hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (HCS) and spiked perlite. Phytoremediation was evaluated using 6.5 kg HCS (173 +/- 15 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] g(-1) of dry soil) pots at different moisture contents; the average removal rate was 3.46-0.25 mg TPH g(-1) dry soil month(-1) and 48% was removed when moisture was kept at 60%. The aromatic hydrocarbon fraction was the mostly removed, 60%; aliphatic, 51%; and polar 24% after 24-month experiments. In unplanted pots, TPH concentration did not exhibit significant differences with respect to the initial concentration. We confirmed that the presence of hydrocarbons induced ERODactivity up to 6.5-fold. Moreover, short-term experiments (up to 13 d) with spiked perlite demonstrated that two EROD activities in roots contributed to the total detected; 60% was found in the cytosolic and 40% in the microsomal fraction. To our knowledge, this is the first work that tries to build links between the hydrocarbon-inducible character of ERODactivity in roots and the phytoremediation ability of C. laxus in highly contaminated soils.

  9. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L; Zheng, J; Zhang, Y F; Qian, L M; Zhou, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel. (paper)

  10. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y. F.; Qian, L. M.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2013-10-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel.

  11. Interaction and notation of tone, stress and intonation in Ika Igbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prominence has been proved by both acoustic and perceptual analyses. Hence in Ika, every intonation group (or tonal intonation group) has a nucleus (a stressed syllable) and it is this nucleus that bears the intonation. This is how stress interacts with intonation in Ika. Tone, on its part, is also affected by this interaction ...

  12. Skin Tone, Racism, Locus of Control, Hostility, and Blood Pressure in Hispanic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Brandy; Ernst, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence that blood pressure is higher in persons with darker skin tone but the reasons for this remain unclear. When seen in minorities, the positive relationship between darkness of skin and blood pressure invites hypotheses about potential mediators of the relationship. We investigated the relationship in Hispanics of primarily…

  13. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  14. Changes in Syllabus Tone Affect Warmth (But Not Competence) Ratings of Both Male and Female Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner Denton, Ashley; Veloso, James

    2018-01-01

    The syllabus is often the first meaningful piece of information that students receive about a course. Previous research has indicated that students form more positive impressions of a course instructor after reading a syllabus that has been manipulated to convey information in a friendly, rather than unfriendly, tone (Harnish and Bridges in…

  15. AUDITORY NUCLEI: DISTINCTIVE RESPONSE PATTERNS TO WHITE NOISE AND TONES IN UNANESTHETIZED CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALIN, D

    1964-10-09

    Electrical responses to "white" noise and tonal stimuli were recorded from unanesthetized cats with permanently implanted bipolar electrodes. The cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, and medial geniculate each showed distinctive patterns of evoked activity. White noise and tones produced qualitatively different types of response. A decrease in activity characterized the response of the inferior colliculus to tonal stimuli.

  16. Speaking a Tone Language Enhances Musical Pitch Perception in 3-5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D.; Lee, Kang

    2018-01-01

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared…

  17. [The role of temporal fine structure in tone recognition and music perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Gu, X; Liu, B

    2017-11-07

    The sound signal can be decomposed into temporal envelope and temporal fine structure information. The temporal envelope information is crucial for speech perception in quiet environment, and the temporal fine structure information plays an important role in speech perception in noise, Mandarin tone recognition and music perception, especially the pitch and melody perception.

  18. Relationship Between Mandarin Speech Reception Thresholds and Pure-tone Thresholds in the Geriatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Chien

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study established the agreement between Mandarin SRTs and PTTs in the low tone area of speech frequencies in the geriatric population. In clinical settings, SRT test can be rapidly and easily performed and is relatively inexpensive. It is a vital indicator of the accuracy of PTT measurement.

  19. Auditory evoked potentials to abrupt pitch and timbre change of complex tones: electrophysiological evidence of 'streaming'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Longe, O; Vaz Pato, M

    1998-03-01

    Examination of the cortical auditory evoked potentials to complex tones changing in pitch and timbre suggests a useful new method for investigating higher auditory processes, in particular those concerned with 'streaming' and auditory object formation. The main conclusions were: (i) the N1 evoked by a sudden change in pitch or timbre was more posteriorly distributed than the N1 at the onset of the tone, indicating at least partial segregation of the neuronal populations responsive to sound onset and spectral change; (ii) the T-complex was consistently larger over the right hemisphere, consistent with clinical and PET evidence for particular involvement of the right temporal lobe in the processing of timbral and musical material; (iii) responses to timbral change were relatively unaffected by increasing the rate of interspersed changes in pitch, suggesting a mechanism for detecting the onset of a new voice in a constantly modulated sound stream; (iv) responses to onset, offset and pitch change of complex tones were relatively unaffected by interfering tones when the latter were of a different timbre, suggesting these responses must be generated subsequent to auditory stream segregation.

  20. Using Adaptive Tone Mapping to Enhance Edge-Preserving Color Image Automatically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Min-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One common characteristic of most high-contrast images is the coexistence of dark shadows and bright light source in one scene. It is very difficult to present details in both dark and bright areas simultaneously on most display devices. In order to resolve this problem, a new method utilizing bilateral filter combined with adaptive tone-mapping method is proposed to improve image quality. First of all, bilateral filter is used to decompose image into two layers: large-scale layer and detail layer. Then, the large-scale layer image is divided into three regions: bright, mid-tone, and dark region. Finally, an appropriate tone-mapping method is chosen to process each region according to its individual property. Only large-scale layer image is enhanced by using adaptive tone mapping; therefore, the details of the original image can be preserved. The experiment results demonstrate the success of proposed method. Furthermore, the proposed method can also avoid posterization produced by methods using histogram equalization.

  1. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions: body position effects with simultaneous presentation of tone pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Atcherson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three different body positions on distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitude and noise levels with multiple primary tone pairs simultaneously-presented to 36 normal-hearing female human adults. Other studies have demonstrated that the simultaneously presented tone pairs method shows clinical promise as a screener, but the sequential method remains in widespread clinical use. Postural changes have been suggested to have an effect not only on DPOAEs, but also transient-evoked OAEs and stimulus- frequency OAEs. DPOAE amplitude and noise levels were recorded in seated, supine, and side-lying positions to the following order of simultaneously-presented tone pairs relative to the f2 frequencies: 1187, 2375, and 4812 Hz; 1500, 3000, and 6062 Hz; and 1875, 3812, and 7625 Hz. No DPOAE could be detected reliably at 7625 Hz as result of poor signal-to-noise ratio. For remaining DPOAEs, statistical analyses revealed that amplitudes were not significantly different among the three body positions. However, at 1500 Hz and below, body position did have a statistically significant effect on noise levels though they are likely clinically negligible. Except at 7625 Hz, results suggest that DPOAEs recorded using a simultaneously presented tone pairs appear to be comparably recorded regardless of an individual’s body position.

  2. Online chromatic dispersion monitoring and compensation using a single inband subcarrier tone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal; Pan, Z.; Lee, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a simple technique for dispersion monitoring by adding a single inband subcarrier tone to the transmitted data signal. A measurable dispersion of up to 1200 ps/nm is demonstrated in a 10-Gb/s channel using a 7-9 GHz subcarrier and the addition of the subcarrier indu...

  3. Categorization in 3- and 4-Month-Old Infants: An Advantage of Words over Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Alissa L.; Hespos, Susan J.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Neonates prefer human speech to other nonlinguistic auditory stimuli. However, it remains an open question whether there are any conceptual consequences of words on object categorization in infants younger than 6 months. The current study examined the influence of words and tones on object categorization in forty-six 3- to 4-month-old infants.…

  4. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  5. Endothelin-1 Regulation of Exercise-Induced Changes in Flow: Dynamic Regulation of Vascular Tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Rapoport

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although endothelin (ET-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO. Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO. Moreover, even if the balance between ET-1 and NO were reversed as the result of lowered NO activity, as occurs in a number of pathophysiologies associated with endothelial dysfunction, the well-known resistance of ET-1 constriction to reversal (as determined with exogenous ET-1 precludes ET-1 in the dynamic, i.e., moment-to-moment, regulation of vascular tone. On the other hand, and as presently reviewed, findings of ET-1-dependent modulation of organ blood flow with exercise under physiologic conditions demonstrate the dynamic regulation of vascular tone by ET-1. We speculate that this regulation is mediated at least in part through changes in ET-1 synthesis/release caused by pulsatile flow-induced shear stress and NO.

  6. Management Consulting and Teaching: Lessons Learned Teaching Professionals to Control Tone in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2009-01-01

    In working with business executives, engineers, and government officials to improve their writing, the author learned that it is much easier to teach clarity than tone. To achieve clarity, writers can follow concrete action steps: (1) organize the ideas; (2) write previews and summaries; (3) insert substantive headings; (4) use active verbs; and…

  7. Nonlinear effects contributing to hand-stopping tones in a horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Hand stopping is a technique for playing the French horn while closing the bell relatively tightly using the right hand. The resulting timbre is called "penetrating" and "metallic." The effect of hand stopping on the horn input impedance has been studied, but the tone quality has hardly ever been considered. In the present paper, the dominant physical cause of the stopped-tone quality is discussed in detail. Numerical calculations of the transmission function of the stopped-horn model and the measurements of both sound pressure and wall vibration in hand stopping are carried out. They strongly suggest that the metallicness of the stopped tone is characterized by the generation of higher harmonics extending over 10 kHz due to the rapidly corrugating waveform and that the associated wall vibration on the bell may be responsible for this higher harmonic generation. However, excitation experiments and immobilization experiments performed to elucidate the relationship between sound radiation and wall vibration deny their correlation. Instead, the measurement result of the mouthpiece pressure in hand stopping suggests that minute wave corrugations peculiar to the metallic stopped tones are probably formed by nonlinear sound propagation along the bore.

  8. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q

    2017-01-01

    -VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which...

  9. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  10. J.F. Schouten revisited : pitch of complex tones having many high-order harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smurzynski, J.; Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing many high-order, aurally unresolvable partials. Melodic-interval identilication performance ill the case of sounds with increasing harmonic order remains significantly above chalice level, even if the

  11. Effects of Focus of Attention on Tone Production in Trained Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Motor performance in familiar tasks is often advantaged when performers focus on the effects of their movements rather than on the movements themselves. But, this phenomenon has yet to be studied systematically in the context of vocal production. I evaluated 20 trained singers' vocal tone as they varied their focus of attention. Each participant…

  12. Pre-attentive modulation of brain responses to tones in coloured-hearing synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäncke Lutz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coloured-hearing (CH synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which an acoustic stimulus (the inducer initiates a concurrent colour perception (the concurrent. Individuals with CH synesthesia "see" colours when hearing tones, words, or music; this specific phenomenon suggesting a close relationship between auditory and visual representations. To date, it is still unknown whether the perception of colours is associated with a modulation of brain functions in the inducing brain area, namely in the auditory-related cortex and associated brain areas. In addition, there is an on-going debate as to whether attention to the inducer is necessarily required for eliciting a visual concurrent, or whether the latter can emerge in a pre-attentive fashion. Results By using the EEG technique in the context of a pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we show that the binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is associated with increased MMN amplitudes in response to deviant tones supposed to induce novel concurrent colour perceptions. Most notably, the increased MMN amplitudes we revealed in the CH synesthetes were associated with stronger intracerebral current densities originating from the auditory cortex, parietal cortex, and ventral visual areas. Conclusions The automatic binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is accompanied by an early pre-attentive process recruiting the auditory cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as ventral occipital areas.

  13. Thresholds of Tone Burst Auditory Brainstem Responses for Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Lee

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on the published research and our study, we suggest setting the normal criterion levels for infants and young children in Taiwan of the tone burst auditory brainstem response to air-conducted tones as 30 dB nHL for 500 and 1000 Hz, and 25 dB nHL for 2000 and 4000 Hz.

  14. Can't Sing? Won't Sing? Aotearoa/New Zealand "Tone-Deaf" Early Childhood Teachers' Musical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Singing is an important part of teaching for early childhood teachers. However, some teachers find this difficult and may even identify themselves as "tone-deaf". We invited a group of early childhood teachers who self-identified as "tone-deaf" to participate in a study to investigate their beliefs and behaviours about singing…

  15. The Analysis for Activations in the Brain during Hearing the Amplitude-Modulated Tone by fMRI Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (pvs. unmodulated tone, the bilaterally superior frontal gyrus (BA 6) and precuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (p<0.021, uncorrected). Activations of visual perception due to eye-opened state were detected in some parts of activations. As a result, we inferred that modulated tone was recognized in the medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.

  16. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  17. Acute physiological and electrical accentuation of vagal tone has no effect on pain or gastrointestinal motility in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Soren S.

    2017-01-01

    derived parameters of autonomic tone, quantitative sensory testing of bone and muscle pain pressure, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and assessments of gastroduodenal motility with ultrasound were performed. Results: In comparison to sham, t-VNS and DSB increased cardiac vagal tone (CVT) (P

  18. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  19. Processing and Integration of Contextual Information in Monkey Ventrolateral Prefrontal Neurons during Selection and Execution of Goal-Directed Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Stefania; Giorgetti, Valentina; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-08-26

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deemed to underlie the complexity, flexibility, and goal-directedness of primates' behavior. Most neurophysiological studies performed so far investigated PFC functions with arm-reaching or oculomotor tasks, thus leaving unclear whether, and to which extent, PFC neurons also play a role in goal-directed manipulative actions, such as those commonly used by primates during most of their daily activities. Here we trained two macaques to perform or withhold grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions, depending on the combination of two subsequently presented cues: an auditory go/no-go cue (high/low tone) and a visually presented target (food/object). By varying the order of presentation of the two cues, we could segment and independently evaluate the processing and integration of contextual information allowing the monkey to make a decision on whether or not to act, and what action to perform. We recorded 403 task-related neurons from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC): unimodal sensory-driven (37%), motor-related (21%), unimodal sensory-and-motor (23%), and multisensory (19%) neurons. Target and go/no-go selectivity characterized most of the recorded neurons, particularly those endowed with motor-related discharge. Interestingly, multisensory neurons appeared to encode a behavioral decision independently from the sensory modality of the stimulus allowing the monkey to make it: some of them reflected the decision to act or refraining from acting (56%), whereas others (44%) encoded the decision to perform (or withhold) a specific action (e.g., grasp-to-eat). Our findings indicate that VLPFC neurons play a role in the processing of contextual information underlying motor decision during goal-directed manipulative actions. We demonstrated that macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) neurons show remarkable selectivity for different aspects of the contextual information allowing the monkey to select and execute goal

  20. Representation of acoustic signals in the eighth nerve of the Tokay gecko: I. Pure tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, F; Capranica, R R

    1994-06-01

    A systematic study of the encoding properties of 146 auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko, L) was conducted with respect to pure tones and two-tone rate suppression. Our aim was a comprehensive understanding of the peripheral encoding of simple tonal stimuli and their representation by temporal synchronization and spike rate codes as a prelude to subsequent studies of more complex signals. Auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko have asymmetrical, V-shaped excitatory tuning curves with best excitatory frequencies that range from 200-5100 Hz and thresholds between 4-35 dB SPL. A low-frequency excitatory 'tail' extends far into the low-frequency range and two-tone suppression is present only on the high frequency side of the tuning curve. The response properties to pure tones at different loci within a tuning curve can differ greatly, due to evident interactions between the representations of temporal, spectral and intensity stimulus features. For frequencies below 1250 Hz, pure tones are encoded by both temporal synchronization and spike rate codes, whereas above this frequency a fiber's ability to encode the waveform periodicity is lost and only a rate code predominates. These complimentary representations within a tuning curve raise fundamental issues which need to be addressed in interpreting how more complex, bioacoustic communication signals are represented in the peripheral and central auditory system. And since auditory nerve fibers in the Tokay gecko exhibit tonal sensitivity, selective frequency tuning, and iso-intensity and iso-frequency contours that seem comparable to similar measures in birds and mammals, these issues likely apply to most higher vertebrates in general. The simpler wiring diagram of the reptilian auditory system, coupled with the Tokay gecko's remarkable vocalizations, make this animal a good evolutionary model in which to experimentally explore the encoding of more complex sounds of communicative significance.

  1. The derived allele of ASPM is associated with lexical tone perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The ASPM and MCPH1 genes have been implicated in the adaptive evolution of the human brain [Mekel-Bobrov N. et al., 2005. Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in homo sapiens. Science 309; Evans P.D. et al., 2005. Microcephalin, a gene regulating brain size, continues to evolve adaptively in humans. Science 309]. Curiously, experimental attempts have failed to connect the implicated SNPs in these genes with higher-level brain functions. These results stand in contrast with a population-level study linking the population frequency of their alleles with the tendency to use lexical tones in a language [Dediu D., Ladd D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104]. In the present study, we found a significant correlation between the load of the derived alleles of ASPM and tone perception in a group of European Americans who did not speak a tone language. Moreover, preliminary results showed a significant correlation between ASPM load and hemodynamic responses to lexical tones in the auditory cortex, and such correlation remained after phonemic awareness, auditory working memory, and non-verbal IQ were controlled. As in previous studies, no significant correlation between ASPM and cognitive measures were found. MCPH1 did not correlate with any measures. These results suggest that the association between the recently derived allele of ASPM is likely to be specific and is tied to higher level brain functions in the temporal cortex related to human communication.

  2. Dissociation of Detection and Discrimination of Pure Tones following Bilateral Lesions of Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R.; Koh, Christine K.; Braida, Louis D.; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5±2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5±1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6±0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7±0.19 dB). The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed. PMID:22957087

  3. Effects of hypnagogic imagery on the event-related potential to external tone stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, Nanae; Hayashi, Mitsuo; Hori, Tadao

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of hypnagogic imagery on the information processes of external tone stimuli during the sleep onset period with the use of event-related potentials. Event-related potentials to tone stimuli were compared between conditions with and without the experience of hypnagogic imagery. To control the arousal level when the tone was presented, a certain criterion named the electroencephalogram stage was used. Stimuli were presented at electroencephalogram stage 4, which was characterized by the appearance of a vertex sharp wave. Data were collected in the sleep laboratory at Hiroshima University. Eleven healthy university and graduate school students participated in the study. N/A. Experiments were performed at night. Reaction times to tone stimuli were measured, and only trials with shorter reaction times than 5000 milliseconds were analyzed. Electroencephalograms were recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz, T5 and T6. There were no differences in reaction times and electroencephalogram spectra between the conditions of with and without hypnagogic imagery. These results indicated that the arousal levels were not different between the 2 conditions. On the other hand, the N550 amplitude of the event-related potentials in the imagery condition was lower than in the no-imagery condition. The decrease in the N550 amplitude in the imagery condition showed that experiences of hypnagogic imagery exert some influence on the information processes of external tone stimuli. It is possible that the processing of hypnagogic imagery interferes with the processing of external stimuli, lowering the sensitivity to external stimuli.

  4. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Vessières

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO and control mother offspring (CMO aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.

  5. Electrophysiological measurement of binaural beats: effects of primary tone frequency and observer age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Mamo, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the electrophysiological binaural beat steady state response as a gauge of temporal fine structure coding, particularly as it relates to the aging auditory system. The hypothesis was that the response would be more robust in a lower, than in a higher, frequency region and in younger, than in older, adults. Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured the 40 Hz binaural beat steady state response elicited by tone pairs in two frequency regions: lower (390 and 430 Hz tone pair) and higher (810 and 850 Hz tone pair). Frequency following responses (FFRs) evoked by the tones were also recorded. Ten young adults with normal hearing participated. The second experiment measured the binaural beat and FFRs in older adults but only in the lower frequency region. Fourteen older adults with relatively normal hearing participated. Response metrics in both experiments included response component signal-to-noise ratio (F statistic) and magnitude-squared coherence. Experiment 1 showed that FFRs were elicited in both frequency regions but were more robust in the lower frequency region. Binaural beat responses elicited by the lower frequency pair of tones showed greater amplitude fluctuation within a participant than the respective FFRs. Experiment 2 showed that older adults exhibited similar FFRs to younger adults, but proportionally fewer older participants showed binaural beat responses. Age differences in onset responses were also observed. The lower prevalence of the binaural beat response in older adults, despite the presence of FFRs, provides tentative support for the sensitivity of this measure to age-related deficits in temporal processing. However, the lability of the binaural beat response advocates caution in its use as an objective measure of fine structure coding.

  6. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Koh, Christine K; Braida, Louis D; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB). The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  7. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dykstra

    Full Text Available It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB. The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  8. The impact of face skin tone on perceived facial attractiveness: A study realized with an innovative methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Cruz, Germano

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to assess the impact of target faces' skin tone and perceivers' skin tone on the participants' attractiveness judgment regarding a symmetrical representative range of target faces as stimuli. Presented with a set of facial features, 240 Mozambican adults rated their attractiveness along a continuous scale. ANOVA and Chi-square were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the skin tone of the target faces had an impact on the participants' attractiveness judgment. Overall, participants preferred light-skinned faces over dark-skinned ones. This finding is not only consistent with previous results on skin tone preferences, but it is even more powerful because it demonstrates that the light skin tone preference occurs regardless of the symmetry and baseline attractiveness of the stimuli.

  9. Ritmos circadianos y neurotransmisores : estudios en la corteza prefrontal de la rata

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez de Prado García, Blanca

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis doctoral fue el estudio los posibles ritmos circadianos de los neurotransmisores glutamato, GABA, dopamina y acetilcolina en la corteza prefrontal. Una vez descritos los ritmos circadianos de estos neurotransmisores en corteza prefrontal se estudió su regulación por cambios en el fotoperíodo y la melatonina. Se estudiaron también los efectos del envejecimiento sobre los ritmos circadianos neurotransmisores en corteza prefrontal, estriado y núcleo accumbens. Se realiz...

  10. Developmental change in tone perception in Mandarin monolingual, English monolingual, and Mandarin-English bilingual infants: Divergences between monolingual and bilingual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Seet, Xian Hui; Tong, Ashley P Y; Wang, Joelle L; Best, Catherine T

    2018-09-01

    Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle. Discrimination was investigated in three groups: Mandarin-English bilinguals, English monolinguals, and Mandarin monolinguals at 6 months and 9 months of age in a cross-sectional design. Results demonstrated relatively strong Mandarin tone discrimination in Mandarin monolinguals, with salient tone discrimination at 6 months and both salient and subtle tone discrimination at 9 months. English monolinguals discriminated neither contrast at 6 months but discriminated the salient contrast at 9 months. Surprisingly, there was no evidence for tone discrimination in Mandarin-English bilingual infants. In a second experiment, 12- and 13-month-old Mandarin-English bilingual and English monolingual infants were tested to determine whether bilinguals would demonstrate tone sensitivity at a later age. Results revealed a lack of tone sensitivity at 12 or 13 months in bilingual infants, yet English monolingual infants were sensitive to both salient and subtle Mandarin tone contrasts at 12 or 13 months. Our findings provide evidence for age-related convergence in Mandarin tone discrimination in English and Mandarin monolingual infants and for a distinct pattern of tone discrimination in bilingual infants. Theoretical implications for phonetic category acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve; Ingamells, Ed; Gathercole, Susan; Baddeley, Alan; Green, Gary G R

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  12. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  13. Impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits linked to increased volume and functional connectivity within prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponay, Cole; Pujara, Maia; Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  15. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cocaine mummies and the pre-frontal reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Mark Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community frames its world with facts - facts which have been subjected to tests and apparently proven themselves and are therefore proffered by scientists to mankind as things upon which it can rely to steer it safely through life. However, facts are a moveable feast. Time and fresh minds often prove scientific 'facts' wrong. The cocaine mummies seem to indicate that 2000 years ago the Ancient Egyptians had access to both tobacco and cocaine - something previously believed impossible. One part of the German and British scientific community has proven in laboratory tests that the mummies are telling the truth. The rest of the scientific community disputes that truth'. But if the laboratory tests are right, then humanity has to rewrite its entire history. Nuclear communicators have very little credibility with the general public because they represent scientists, who not only are often proven wrong by time but also cannot agree on the truth. At the same time, there are fundamental facts about the human condition that nuclear communicators ignore - to the detriment of their message. Fact: thinking is a learned skill, not an instinct. Fact: language is a learned skill, not an instinct. For humans to follow the positive nuclear argument they must both think and also understand language. But thinking is not the brain's first choice of operation. Fact: the pre-frontal lobe of the brain is the seat of mankind's primitive emotions, including the instinct of fear and the instinct for life. The pre-frontal lobe dominates the way man thinks and speaks. Therefore, nuclear communicators have to learn the skill of mapping their messages to the pre-frontal human reality. This presentation provides practical points for that learning and message mapping exercise. (author)

  17. Impaired Wnt Signaling in the Prefrontal Cortex of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Jonas; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Wnt pathway is involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival, and alterations in Wnt signaling have previously been reported both in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to evaluate Wnt signaling pathway interplay integrity across......, in addition to downstream effects associated with disease progression and cognitive decline. This study is the first that comprehensively evaluates Wnt signaling pathway in the prefrontal cortical lobe structures of AD brains, in relation to age-related coordinated Wnt signaling changes. Our findings further...

  18. Preserved speech abilities and compensation following prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Corbetta, M; Schatz, J; Raichle, M E; Petersen, S E

    1996-02-06

    Lesions to left frontal cortex in humans produce speech production impairments (nonfluent aphasia). These impairments vary from subject to subject and performance on certain speech production tasks can be relatively preserved in some patients. A possible explanation for preservation of function under these circumstances is that areas outside left prefrontal cortex are used to compensate for the injured brain area. We report here a direct demonstration of preserved language function in a stroke patient (LF1) apparently due to the activation of a compensatory brain pathway. We used functional brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) as a basis for this study.

  19. Neuroanatomical Substrates of Executive Functions: Beyond Prefrontal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Mungas, Dan; Patel, Nihar; Elofson, Jonathan; Dutt, Shubir; Wynn, Matthew; Watson, Christa L.; Stephens, Melanie; Walsh, Christine M.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are often considered lynchpin “frontal lobe tasks”, despite accumulating evidence that a broad network of anterior and posterior brain structures supports them. Using a latent variable modeling approach, we assessed whether prefrontal grey matter volumes independently predict executive function performance when statistically differentiated from global atrophy and individual non-frontal lobar volume contributions. We further examined whether fronto-parietal white matter microstructure underlies and independently contributes to executive functions. We developed a latent variable model to decompose lobar grey matter volumes into a global grey matter factor and specific lobar volumes (i.e. prefrontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) that were independent of global grey matter. We then added mean fractional anisotropy (FA) for the superior longitudinal fasciculus (dorsal portion), corpus callosum, and cingulum bundle (dorsal portion) to models that included grey matter volumes related to cognitive variables in previous analyses. Results suggested that the 2-factor model (shifting/inhibition, updating/working memory) plus an information processing speed factor best explained our executive function data in a sample of 202 community dwelling older adults, and was selected as the base measurement model for further analyses. Global grey matter was related to the executive function and speed variables in all four lobar models, but independent contributions of the frontal lobes were not significant. In contrast, when assessing the effect of white matter microstructure, cingulum FA made significant independent contributions to all three executive function and speed variables and corpus callosum FA was independently related to shifting/inhibition and speed. Findings from the current study indicate that while prefrontal grey matter volumes are significantly associated with cognitive neuroscience measures of shifting/inhibition and working memory in healthy

  20. Towards prediction of soil erodibility using hyperspectral information: a case study in a semi-arid region of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali

    2018-01-01

    and develop Spectrotransfer Function (STF) using spectral reflectance information and Pedotransfer Function (PTF) to predict the K-factor, respectively. The derived STF was compared with developed PTF using measurable soil properties by Ostovari et al. (2016) and the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE......Soil Visible–Near-Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy has become an applicable and interesting technique to evaluate a number of soil properties because it is a fast, cost-effective, and non-invasive measurement technique. The main objective of the study to predict soil erodibility (K-factor), soil...... organic matter (SOM), and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3) in calcareous soils of semi-arid regions located in south of Iran using spectral reflectance information in the Vis-NIR range. The K-factor was measured in 40 erosion plots under natural rainfall and the spectral reflectance of soil samples...

  1. Effects of in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin on EROD activity and antioxidant defenses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Pendimethalin, an herbicide active substance frequently used in terrestrial systems, has detected in European aquatic ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of pesticides in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin, the detoxification process and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in 120 adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four nominal exposure conditions were tested: control (C), 500 ng L(-1) (P500), 800 ng L(-1) (P800) and the commercial formulation Prowl(®) at 500 ng L(-1) (Pw500). Fish samples were made after a 28 day exposure period (D28) and after a fifteen day recovery period in clean fresh water (D43). At D28, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was not activated in liver in spite of the pendimethalin uptake in fish. At D43, EROD activity in fish exposed to the commercial product was lower than in control fish, which may be explained by the high presence of herbicide in fish (613±163 ng g bile(-1)). Furthermore, antioxidant defense responses were set up by trout in gills and liver following chronic exposure to 800 ng L(-1) of pendimethalin concentration. While the glutathione content (GSH) decreased in gills, it increased in liver associated with higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These disturbances could lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in the vital organs in fish. After fifteen days in clean water, while the SOD activity was restored, the GSH content and GPx activity were still significantly disturbed in fish exposed to pendimethalin in comparison with control. These significant differences between treatments in antioxidant defenses parameters measured, attesting to the irreversibility of the effects. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Connections underlying the synthesis of cognition, memory, and emotion in primate prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, H

    2000-07-15

    Distinct domains of the prefrontal cortex in primates have a set of connections suggesting that they have different roles in cognition, memory, and emotion. Caudal lateral prefrontal areas (areas 8 and 46) receive projections from cortices representing early stages in visual or auditory processing, and from intraparietal and posterior cingulate areas associated with oculomotor guidance and attentional processes. Cortical input to areas 46 and 8 is complemented by projections from the thalamic multiform and parvicellular sectors of the mediodorsal nucleus associated with oculomotor functions and working memory. In contrast, caudal orbitofrontal areas receive diverse input from cortices representing late stages of processing within every unimodal sensory cortical system. In addition, orbitofrontal and caudal medial (limbic) prefrontal cortices receive robust projections from the amygdala, associated with emotional memory, and from medial temporal and thalamic structures associated with long-term memory. Prefrontal cortices are linked with motor control structures related to their specific roles in central executive functions. Caudal lateral prefrontal areas project to brainstem oculomotor structures, and are connected with premotor cortices effecting head, limb and body movements. In contrast, medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal limbic cortices project to hypothalamic visceromotor centers for the expression of emotions. Lateral, orbitofrontal, and medial prefrontal cortices are robustly interconnected, suggesting that they participate in concert in central executive functions. Prefrontal limbic cortices issue widespread projections through their deep layers and terminate in the upper layers of lateral (eulaminate) cortices, suggesting a predominant role in feedback communication. In contrast, when lateral prefrontal cortices communicate with limbic areas they issue projections from their upper layers and their axons terminate in the deep layers, suggesting a role in

  3. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification.

  4. Increased Cortical Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Precedes Incomplete Extinction of Conditioned Fear and Increased Hippocampal Excitatory Tone in a Mouse Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brandy L; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Charlton, Jennifer L; Kohler, Robert J; Galloway, Matthew P; Perrine, Shane A; Conti, Alana C

    2016-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) contributes to development of affective disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Psychiatric symptoms typically emerge in a tardive fashion post-TBI, with negative effects on recovery. Patients with PTSD, as well as rodent models of PTSD, demonstrate structural and functional changes in brain regions mediating fear learning, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HC). These changes may reflect loss of top-down control by which PFC normally exhibits inhibitory influence over AMYG reactivity to fearful stimuli, with HC contribution. Considering the susceptibility of these regions to injury, we examined fear conditioning (FC) in the delayed post-injury period, using a mouse model of mTBI. Mice with mTBI displayed enhanced acquisition and delayed extinction of FC. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo, we examined PFC, AMYG, and HC levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate as surrogate measures of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission, respectively. Eight days post-injury, GABA was increased in PFC, with no significant changes in AMYG. In animals receiving FC and mTBI, glutamate trended toward an increase and the GABA/glutamate ratio decreased in ventral HC at 25 days post-injury, whereas GABA decreased and GABA/glutamate decreased in dorsal HC. These neurochemical changes are consistent with early TBI-induced PFC hypoactivation facilitating the fear learning circuit and exacerbating behavioral fear responses. The latent emergence of overall increased excitatory tone in the HC, despite distinct plasticity in dorsal and ventral HC fields, may be associated with disordered memory function, manifested as incomplete extinction and enhanced FC recall.

  5. Who Do You Love, Your Mother or Your Horse? An Event-Related Brain Potential Analysis of Tone Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2004-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, word meaning is partially determined by lexical tone (Wang, 1973). Previous studies suggest that lexical tone is processed as linguistic information and not as pure tonal information (Gandour, 1998; Van Lanker & Fromkin, 1973). The current study explored the online processing of lexical tones. Event-related potentials were…

  6. Directional hippocampal-prefrontal interactions during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Bai, Wenwen; Xia, Mi; Tian, Xin

    2018-02-15

    Working memory refers to a system that is essential for performing complex cognitive tasks such as reasoning, comprehension and learning. Evidence shows that hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) play important roles in working memory. The HPC-PFC interaction via theta-band oscillatory synchronization is critical for successful execution of working memory. However, whether one brain region is leading or lagging relative to another is still unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from rat ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and while the rats performed a Y-maze working memory task. We then applied instantaneous amplitudes cross-correlation method to calculate the time lag between PFC and vHPC to explore the functional dynamics of the HPC-PFC interaction. Our results showed a strong lead from vHPC to mPFC preceded an animal's correct choice during the working memory task. These findings suggest the vHPC-leading interaction contributes to the successful execution of working memory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411233-11$15.00/0.

  8. Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.

  9. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, Matti M; Eronen, Markku; Toivonen, Kari; Toivonen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri; Naukkarinen, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    In a double-blind, controlled study, we examined the therapeutic effects of high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on schizophrenia symptoms. A total of 22 chronic hospitalized schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to 2 weeks (10 sessions) of real or sham rTMS. rTMS was given with the following parameters: 20 trains of 5-second 10-Hz stimulation at 100 percent motor threshold, 30 seconds apart. Effects on positive and negative symptoms, self-reported symptoms, rough neuropsychological functioning, and hormones were assessed. Although there was a significant improvement in both groups in most of the symptom measures, no real differences were found between the groups. A decrease of more than 20 percent in the total PANSS score was found in 7 control subjects but only 1 subject from the real rTMS group. There was no change in hormone levels or neuropsychological functioning, measured by the MMSE, in either group. Left prefrontal rTMS (with the used parameters) seems to produce a significant nonspecific effect of the treatment procedure but no therapeutic effect in the most chronic and severely ill schizophrenia patients.

  11. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, adding value to autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J; Burgess, Neil

    2016-06-24

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been consistently implicated in autobiographical memory recall and decision making. Its function in decision making tasks is believed to relate to value representation, but its function in autobiographical memory recall is not yet clear. We hypothesised that the mPFC represents the subjective value of elements during autobiographical memory retrieval. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an autobiographical memory recall task, we found that the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was parametrically modulated by the affective values of items in participants' memories when they were recalling and evaluating these items. An unrelated modulation by the participant's familiarity with the items was also observed. During retrieval of the event, the BOLD signal in the same region was modulated by the personal significance and emotional intensity of the memory, which was correlated with the values of the items within them. These results support the idea that vmPFC processes self-relevant information, and suggest that it is involved in representing the personal emotional values of the elements comprising autobiographical memories.

  12. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders H. Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women. Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN. DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients.

  13. Inequality signals in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex inform social preference models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; Burke, Christopher J; Fausch, Christoph; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N

    2018-05-01

    Humans typically display inequality aversion in social situations, which manifests itself as a preference for fairer distributions of resources. However, people differ in the degree to which they dislike being worse off [disadvantageous inequality (DI) aversion] or better off [advantageous inequality (AI) aversion] than others. Competing models explain such behavior by focusing on aversion to payoff differences, maximization of total payoff or reciprocity. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we asked which of these theories could better explain dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity while participants accepted or punished fair vs unfair monetary transfers in an anonymous norm compliance task. We found that while all participants exhibited DI aversion, there were substantial differences in preferences for AI, which were strongly predicted by dlPFC activation. Model comparisons revealed that both punishment behavior and prefrontal activity were best explained by a model that allowed for AI seeking rather than imposing aversion. Moreover, enhancing this model by taking into account behavioral response times, as a proxy for choice difficulty, further improved model fits. Our data provide evidence that the dlPFC encodes subjective values of payoff inequality and that this representation is richer than envisaged by standard models of social preferences.

  14. Method of forming half-tone test images in the IR spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebova, L.N.; Gridin, A.S.; Denisov, V.N.; Dmitriev, I.Yu.; Mochalov, I.V.; Chebotarev, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Test charts in the form of half-tone IR images, including not only an image of the interference-producing background (the underlying earth's surface and clouds), but also the observation objects, are required for conducting bench tests on the noise immunity of modern optoelectronic equipment designed to solve observation problems under background-interference conditions. The simulation of extended half-tone IR images containing the high spatial frequencies of background formations having an appreciable dynamic range of reproducible radiances is a complex problem in technical and processing aspects. The use of phosphorus as visible-to-IR converters for the creation of IR-background simulators is shown to be possible in principle in this paper. 2 refs., 3 figs

  15. Role of T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone of skeletal muscle resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanBavel, Ed; Sorop, Oana; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    T-type calcium channels may be involved in the maintenance of myogenic tone. We tested their role in isolated rat cremaster arterioles obtained after CO(2) anesthesia and decapitation. Total RNA was analyzed by RT-PCR and Southern blotting for calcium channel expression. We observed expression...... of voltage-operated calcium (Ca(V)) channels Ca(V)3.1 (T-type), Ca(V)3.2 (T-type), and Ca(V)1.2 (L-type) in cremaster arterioles (n = 3 rats). Amplification products were observed only in the presence of reverse transcriptase and cDNA. Concentration-response curves of the relatively specific L-type blocker......); K(+) -5.4 +/- 0.3 (n = 4); all log(IC(50)) P maintenance of myogenic tone in rat cremaster muscle arterioles....

  16. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  17. Improved Separation of Tone and Broadband Noise Components from Open Rotor Acoustic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Sree

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “open rotor” refers to unducted counter-rotating dual rotors or propellers used for propulsion. The noise generated by an open rotor is very complicated and requires special techniques for its analysis. The determination of its tone and broadband components is vital for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes. The data analysis technique developed by Sree for processing raw acoustic data of open rotors has been modified to yield much better results of tone and broadband separation particularly for the case when the two rotor speeds are approximately the same. The modified algorithm is found to eliminate most or all of the “spikes” previously observed in the broadband spectra computed from the original algorithm. A full description of the modified algorithm and examples of improved results from its application are presented in this paper.

  18. Cortical pitch representations of complex tones in musicians and non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    Musicians typically show enhanced pitch-discrimination ability compared to non-musicians, consistent with the fact that musicians are more sensitive to some acoustic features critical for both speech and music processing. However, it is still unclear which mechanisms underlie this perceptual...... enhancement. In a previous behavioral study, musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance for both resolved and unresolved complex tones suggesting an enhanced neural representation of pitch at central stages of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to clarify whether musicians show...... (i) differential neural activation in response to complex tones as compared to non-musicians and/or (ii) finer fundamental frequency (F0) representation in the auditory cortex. Assuming that the right auditory cortex is specialized in processing fine spectral changes, we hypothesized that an enhanced...

  19. Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. A. Esquef

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.

  20. The Effect of Modeling Qualities, Tones and Gages in Ceramic Supply Chains' Master Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel MUNDI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the cen-tralized master planning of ceramic SC is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC. Finally, the effect of modeling qualities, tones and gages in master planning is assessed.