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Sample records for tokyo-denrioku k-1 reactor

  1. USA abandons K1 - or does it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over the USA's Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) policy to distribute potassium iodide to emergency workers and institutionalised individuals in the event of a nuclear reactor accident but not to recommend the predistribution or stockpiling of potassium iodide for the general public is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Nucleoli in human early erythroblasts (K2, K1, K1/2 cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, K; Jirásková, I; Klamová, H

    2005-01-01

    Human early erythroid precursors classified according to the nuclear size were studied to provide information on nucleoli in these cells using simple cytochemical procedures for demonstration of RNA and proteins of silver-stained nucleolar organizers. K2 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 13 microm and K1 cells with nuclear diameter larger than 9 microm corresponding to proerythroblasts and macroblasts (large basophilic erythroblasts) mostly possessed large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres representing "active nucleoli". K1/2 cells with nuclear diameter smaller than 9 microm corresponding to small basophilic erythroblasts were usually characterized by the presence of micronucleoli representing "inactive nucleolar types". On the other hand, a few K1/2 cells contained large nucleoli with multiple fibrillar centres similar to those present in K2 cells and thus appeared as "microproerythroblasts". The nucleolar asynchrony expressed by the presence of large irregularly shaped nucleoli with multiple nucleoli (active nucleoli) and ring-shaped nucleoli (resting nucleoli) in one and the same nucleus of K2 or K1 cells was not exceptional and might reflect a larger resistance of these cells to negative factors influencing the erythropoiesis. The intranucleolar translocation of silver-stained nucleolus organized regions was noted in K2 cells and might indicate the premature aging of these cells without further differentiation. More studies, however, are required in this direction.

  3. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  5. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  6. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  7. The K-1 Active Dispenser for Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G.; Cochran, D.; Curtis, R.

    2002-01-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is building the K-1, the world's first fully reusable launch vehicle. The two-stage K- 1 is designed primarily to service the market for low-earth orbit (LEO) missions, due to Kistler's need to recover both stages. For customers requiring payload delivery to high-energy orbits, Kistler can outfit the payload with a K- 1 Active Dispenser (an expendable third stage). The K-1 second stage will deploy the Active Dispenser mated with its payload into a 200 km circular LEO parking orbit. From this orbit, the Active Dispenser would use its own propulsion to place its payload into the final desired drop-off orbit or earth-escape trajectory. This approach allows Kistler to combine the low-cost launch services offered by the reusable two-stage K-1 with the versatility of a restartable, expendable upper stage. Enhanced with an Active Dispenser, the K-1 will be capable of delivering 1,500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit or up to approximately 1,000 kg into a Mars rendezvous trajectory. The list price of a K-1 Active Dispenser launch is 25 million (plus the price of mission unique integration services) significantly less than the price of any launch vehicle service in the world with comparable capability.

  8. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  9. Multi-satellite ocean tide modelling - the K-1 constituent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    1997-01-01

    All major ocean tide constituents are aliased into signals with periods less than 90 days from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, except the K-1 constituent. The aliased K-1 has a period of 173 days. Consequently, it might be confounded with height variations caused by the semiannual cycle having a period......, where the presence of crossing tracks cannot separate K-1 from the semiannual signal from TOPEX/POSEIDON, the importance of including ERS-1 and GEOSAT observations was demonstrated. A comparison with 29 pelagic and coastal tide gauges in the Southern Ocean south of 50 degrees S gave 5.59 (M-2), 2.27 (S......-2) and 5.04 (K-1) cm RMS agreement for FES95.1 ocean tide model. The same comparison for the best empirical estimated constituents based on TOPEX/POSEIDON + ERS-1 + GEOSAT gave 4.32, 2.21, and 4.29 cm for M-2, S-2 and K-1, respectively....

  10. Mead features fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lalvin k1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eduardo Morales

    Full Length Research Paper. Mead features fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (lalvin k1-1116). Eduardo Marin MORALES1*, Valmir Eduardo ALCARDE2 and Dejanira de Franceschi de. ANGELIS1. 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A,.

  11. Space Access for Small Satellites on the K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faktor, L.

    Affordable access to space remains a major obstacle to realizing the increasing potential of small satellites systems. On a per kilogram basis, small launch vehicles are simply too expensive for the budgets of many small satellite programs. Opportunities for rideshare with larger payloads on larger launch vehicles are still rare, given the complications associated with coordinating delivery schedules and deployment orbits. Existing contractual mechanisms are also often inadequate to facilitate the launch of multiple payload customers on the same flight. Kistler Aerospace Corporation is committed to lowering the price and enhancing the availability of space access for small satellite programs through the fully-reusable K-1 launch vehicle. Kistler has been working with a number of entities, including Astrium Ltd., AeroAstro, and NASA, to develop innovative approaches to small satellite missions. The K-1 has been selected by NASA as a Flight Demonstration Vehicle for the Space Launch Initiative. NASA has purchased the flight results during the first four K-1 launches on the performance of 13 advanced launch vehicle technologies embedded in the K-1 vehicle. On K-1 flights #2-#4, opportunities exist for small satellites to rideshare to low-earth orbit for a low-launch price. Kistler's flight demonstration contract with NASA also includes options to fly Add-on Technology Experiment flights. Opportunities exist for rideshare payloads on these flights as well. Both commercial and government customers may take advantage of the rideshare pricing. Kistler is investigating the feasibility of flying dedicated, multiple small payload missions. Such a mission would launch multiple small payloads from a single customer or small payloads from different customers. The orbit would be selected to be compatible with the requirements of as many small payload customers as possible, and make use of reusable hardware, standard interfaces (such as the existing MPAS) and verification plans

  12. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  13. Loop quantum cosmology of k=1 FRW models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet; Vandersloot, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The closed, k=1, FRW model coupled to a massless scalar field is investigated in the framework of loop quantum cosmology using analytical and numerical methods. As in the k=0 case, the scalar field can be again used as emergent time to construct the physical Hilbert space and introduce Dirac observables. The resulting framework is then used to address a major challenge of quantum cosmology: resolving the big-bang singularity while retaining agreement with general relativity at large scales. It is shown that the framework fulfills this task. In particular, for states which are semiclassical at some late time, the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce and a recollapse occurs at the value of the scale factor predicted by classical general relativity. Thus, the ''difficulties'' pointed out by Green and Unruh in the k=1 case do not arise in a more systematic treatment. As in k=0 models, quantum dynamics is deterministic across the deep Planck regime. However, because it also retains the classical recollapse, in contrast to the k=0 case one is now led to a cyclic model. Finally, we clarify some issues raised by Laguna's recent work addressed to computational physicists

  14. The structures of bacteriophages K1E and K1-5 explain processive degradation of polysaccharide capsules and evolution of new host specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, Petr G; Battisti, Anthony J; Bowman, Valorie D; Stummeyer, Katharina; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Scholl, Dean; Molineux, Ian J

    2007-08-17

    External polysaccharides of many pathogenic bacteria form capsules protecting the bacteria from the animal immune system and phage infection. However, some bacteriophages can digest these capsules using glycosidases displayed on the phage particle. We have utilized cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structures of phages K1E and K1-5 and thereby establish the mechanism by which these phages attain and switch their host specificity. Using a specific glycosidase, both phages penetrate the capsule and infect the neuroinvasive human pathogen Escherichia coli K1. In addition to the K1-specific glycosidase, each K1-5 particle carries a second enzyme that allows it to infect E. coli K5, whose capsule is chemically different from that of K1. The enzymes are organized into a multiprotein complex attached via an adapter protein to the virus portal vertex, through which the DNA is ejected during infection. The structure of the complex suggests a mechanism for the apparent processivity of degradation that occurs as the phage drills through the polysaccharide capsule. The enzymes recognize the adapter protein by a conserved N-terminal sequence, providing a mechanism for phages to acquire different enzymes and thus to evolve new host specificities.

  15. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Zeng; Xiaolong He; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Hansen Xiao; Zelong Gong; Swapna Boddu; Lecheng Chen; Huiwen Tian; Huiwen Tian; Sheng-He Huang; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS) has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and men...

  16. Transcriptome of E. coli K1 bound to human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yi; Parthasarathy, Geetha; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Teng, Ching-Hao; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Binding to human brain microvascdular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is an essential step for E. coli K1 traversal of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we examined expression profiles of E. coli K1 strain RS218 during its binding to HBMEC. Comparison of HBMEC-bound E. coli K1 with collagen-bound E. coli revealed more than one hundred genes whose expression patterns were significantly changed in HBMEC-b...

  17. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  18. Different metabolic profiles of K1 serotype and non-serotype K1 and K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in oral infection mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Wang, Lin-Lin; Xue, Juan; Ma, Xiang-Bo; Zhao, Sheng; Rong, Rui-Xue; Li, Hong-Quan; Ding, Liang; Zheng, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Ying-Ying; Duan, Fei; Shen, Yue-Liang

    2014-10-01

    K1 or K2 serotype Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate caused clinical pyogenic liver abscess (KLA) infection is prevalent in many areas. It has been identified that K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae isolates caused KLA infection in mice by oral inoculation. In our study, K1 serotype K. pneumoniae isolate Kp1002 with hypermucoviscosity (HV)-positive phenotype caused KLA infection in C57BL/6 mice by oral inoculation. Simultaneously, non-serotype K1 and K2 isolate Kp1014 with HV-negative phenotype failed to cause KLA infection in the same manner. It seems that gastrointestinal tract translocation is the pathway by which K1 or K2 serotype K. pneumoniae caused KLA infection. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to further analyze metabolic profile changes in mice with KLA infection. Data showed that after Kp1002 or Kp1014 oral inoculation, serum Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels significantly changed in mice. Some PC and LPC molecules showed changes both in the Kp1002 KLA group and the Kp1014 no-KLA group compared with the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC significantly changed in the Kp1002 KLA group compared with the control group, but showed no change between the Kp1014 no-KLA group and the control group. The level of 18:1/18:2-PC might have been particularly affected by KLA infection caused by K1 serotype K. pneumoniae Kp1002. It may be a potential biomarker for KLA infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin (k1-3) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; van Veen-Hof, Ingrid; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Proost, Johannes; de Leij, Lou F.M.H.; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we determined short-term pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin [angiostatin((k1-3))] in rats after i.v. injection of radiolabelled protein. Since In gamma-camera studies, no tumor specific angiostatin((k1-3)) accumulation was observed,

  20. Involvement of S6K1 in mitochondria function and structure in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisoo; Tran, Quangdon; Mun, Kisun; Masuda, Kouhei; Kwon, So Hee; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Thomas, George; Park, Jongsun

    2016-12-01

    The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells. Interestingly, S6K1-stably depleted HeLa cells showed phenotypical changes in mitochondria morphology. This observation was further confirmed by detailed image analysis of mitochondria shape. Corresponding molecular changes were also observed in these cells, such as the induction of mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1). Oxygen consumption is elevated in S6K1-depeleted HeLa cells and FL5.12 cells. In addition, S6K1 depletion leads to enhancement of ATP production in cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, the relative ratio of mitochondrial ATP to cytoplasmic ATP is actually decreased in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells compared to control cells. Lastly, induction of mitophagy was found in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells with corresponding changes of mitochondria shape on electron microscope analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that S6K1 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria morphology and function in HeLa cells. This study will provide novel insights into S6K1 function in mitochondria-mediated cellular signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and meningitis. However, the interaction between the neonatal gut barrier, probiotics and E. coli K1 is still not elucidated. The present study aims to investigate how LBS exerts its protective effects on neonatal gut barrier during E. coli K1 infection. The beneficial effects of LBS were explored in vitro and in vivo using human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and rat model of neonatal E. coli K1 infection, respectively. Our results showed that stimulation with E. coli K1 was able to cause intestinal barrier dysfunction, which were reflected by E. coli K1-induced intestinal damage and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, reduction of mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA and tight junction proteins expression, as well as increase in intestinal permeability, all these changes facilitate E. coli K1 intestinal translocation. However, these changes were alleviated when HT-29 cells were treated with LBS before E. coli K1 infection. Furthermore, we found that LBS-treated neonatal rats (without E. coli K1 infection have showed higher production of mucin, ZO-1, IgA, Ki67 in intestinal mucosa as well as lower intestinal permeability than that of non-treated rats, indicating that LBS could accelerate the development of neonatal intestinal defense. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancement of the neonatal intestinal defense to fight against E. coli K1 translocation could be the potential mechanism to elucidate how LBS confers a protective effect against neonatal E

  2. Contribution of vitamin K1 to the electron spin polarization in spinach photosystem I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustandi, R.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Feezel, L.L.; Michalski, T.J.; Norris, J.R.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Biggins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The electron spin polarized (ESP) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal observed in spinach photosystem I (PSI) particles was examined in preparations depleted of vitamin K1 by solvent extraction and following biological reconstitution by the quinone. The ESP EPR signal was not detected in the solvent-extracted PSI sample but was restored upon reconstitution with either protonated or deuterated vitamin K1 under conditions that also restored electron transfer to the terminal PSI acceptors. Reconstitution using deuterated vitamin K1 resulted in a line narrowing of the ESP EPR signal, supporting the conclusion that the ESP EPR signals in the reconstituted samples arise from a radical pair consisting of the oxidized PSI primary donor, P700+, and reduced vitamin K1

  3. 17 CFR 201.550 - Summary suspensions pursuant to Exchange Act Section 12(k)(1)(A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... termination of suspension. Any person adversely affected by a suspension pursuant to Section 12(k)(1)(A) of... the public interest or for the protection of investors may file a sworn petition with the Secretary...

  4. DNA adenine methylation modulates pathogenicity of Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tai Fang

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the view that DNA adenine methylation plays an important role in modulating the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae genotype K1. The incomplete attenuation indicates the existence of other regulatory factors.

  5. Vitamin K1 attenuates bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kun; Sun, Quan; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin K1 is used as a liver protection drug for cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in China, but the mechanism of vitamin K1's action in liver fibrosis is unclear. In this study, a model of liver fibrosis was achieved via bile duct ligation in rats. The rats were then injected with vitamin K1, and the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and the fibrotic grade score, collagen content, the expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were measured on day 28 after ligation. The levels of the biochemical parameters, fibrotic score and collagen content were significantly reduced by treatment with vitamin K1 in bile duct-ligated rats. In addition, α-SMA and CK19 expression was significantly reduced by vitamin K1 treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggested that vitamin K1 may attenuate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation in bile duct-ligated rats.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae K1 and K2 isolates in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Sohei; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tomoo; Aoki, Kotaro; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-20

    Although severe infections caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, such as K1 isolates belonging to sequence type (ST) 23, have been a significant problem in Asian countries, epidemiology of these isolates in Japan remains unclear. We performed a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of K. pneumoniae K1 and K2 isolates in Japan. Of the 259K. pneumoniae isolates collected, 14 and 16 isolates were identified as capsular genotypes K1 and K2, respectively. All K1 isolates were ST23 or its closely related clones and showed high genetic similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the DiversiLab system (DL). K2 isolates, belonging to ST14, ST25, ST65, ST86, and ST110, were more genetically diverse than K1 isolates. Isolates belonging to a specific ST showed identical virulence gene profiles with a few exceptions. PFGE and DL results using K1 and K2 isolates were generally in agreement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Effects of Parenteral K1 Administration in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Patients Versus Controls. A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Carrillo-Linares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE is a rare disease caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. Vitamin K1 is involved in the posttranslational carboxylation of some proteins related to inhibition of the calcification process. Our aim was to investigate, in patients affected by PXE, baseline levels of vitamin K1-dependent proteins and -metabolites and whether parenteral administration of phytomenadione was effective in modulating their levels.MethodsWe included eight PXE patients with typical clinical symptoms (skin, retina, and vascular calcification and two ABCC6 causative mutations; 13 clinically unaffected first-degree patients’ relatives (9 carrying one ABCC6 mutation and 4 non-carriers. We assessed urinary vitamin K1 metabolites and serum Glu- and Gla-OC, Gas6 and undercaboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II, at baseline and after 1 and 6 weeks after a single intramuscular injection of 10 mg vitamin K1.ResultsComparison of PXE patients, heterozygous, and non-carriers revealed differences in baseline levels of serum MK-4 and of urinary vitamin K metabolites. The response to phytomenadione administration on vitamin K-dependent proteins was similar in all groups.ConclusionThe physiological axis between vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent proteins is preserved; however, differences in the concentration of vitamin K metabolites and of MK-4 suggest that vitamin K1 metabolism/catabolism could be altered in PXE patients.

  8. Final report on COOMET Vickers PTB/VNIIFTRI key comparison (COOMET.M.H-K1.b and COOMET.M.H-K1.c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, E.; Herrmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a COOMET key comparison on Vickers hardness scales of two National Metrology Institutes—PTB and VNIIFTRI. The pilot laboratory was PTB, which was the linking institute with the key comparison reference values of CCM.H-K1. In the key comparison two sets of hardness reference blocks for the Vickers hardness scales HV1 and HV30, each consisting of three hardness reference blocks with the hardness levels 240 HV, 540 HV and 840 HV, are used. The same hardness reference blocks were used previously in the key comparison CCM.H-K1. The measurement results and uncertainty assessments, announced by VNIIFTRI, are in good agreement with the key comparison reference values of CCM.H-K1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. The dynamics of ammonium ions in K1-x(NH4)xCl mixed crystals by the neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, L.S.; Natkanets, I.; Shuvalov, L.A.; Dolbinina, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The study of vibrational spectrum of the K 1-x (NH 4 ) x Cl mixed crystals in a dynamically disordered cubic α-phase at 10 K is carried out by means of inelastic incoherent neutron scattering on the NERA-PR time-of-flight spectrometer set at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). It is shown that low-energy modes of ammonium ions with the energies 19-23 and 62-63 cm -1 at 10 K are observed only within the disordered cubic α-phase and are absent in the ordered cubic δ-phase of NH 4 Cl. The energies of local translation and libration modes of ammonium ions are determined in the α- and δ-phases of the K 1-x (NH 4 ) x Cl mixed crystals

  10. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In-Hyun; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector

  11. The Capsule Supports Survival but Not Traversal of Escherichia coli K1 across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jill A.; Wass, Carol; Stins, Monique F.; Kim, Kwang Sik

    1999-01-01

    The vast majority of cases of gram-negative meningitis in neonates are caused by K1-encapsulated Escherichia coli. The role of the K1 capsule in the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis was examined with an in vivo model of experimental hematogenous E. coli K1 meningitis and an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Bacteremia was induced in neonatal rats with the E. coli K1 strain C5 (O18:K1) or its K1− derivative, C5ME. Subsequently, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained for c...

  12. B→K1l+l- decays in a family non-universal Z' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Hua, Juan; Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2011-01-01

    The implications of the family non-universal Z' model in the B→K 1 (1270,1400)l + l - (l=e,μ,τ) decays are explored, where the mass eigenstates K 1 (1270, 1400) are the mixtures of 1 P 1 and 3 P 1 states with the mixing angle θ. In this work, considering the Z' boson and setting the mixing angle θ=(-34±13) , we analyze the branching ratio, the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, the normalized forward-backward asymmetry and lepton polarization asymmetries of each decay mode. We find that all observables of B→K 1 (1270)μ + μ - are sensitive to the Z' contribution. Moreover, the observables of B→K 1 (1400)μ + μ - have a relatively strong θ-dependence; thus, the Z' contribution will be buried by the uncertainty of the mixing angle θ. Furthermore, the zero crossing position in the FBA spectrum of B→K 1 (1270)μ + μ - at low dilepton mass will move to the positive direction with Z' contribution. For the tau modes, the effects of Z' are not remarkable due to the small phase space. These results could be tested in the running LHC-b experiment and super-B factory. (orig.)

  13. S6K1 Is Required for Increasing Skeletal Muscle Force during Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabita, Manuela; Baraldo, Martina; Solagna, Francesca; Ceelen, Judith Johanna Maria; Sartori, Roberta; Nolte, Hendrik; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Kruger, Marcus; Pende, Mario; Blaauw, Bert

    2016-10-04

    Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force aggravates age-related sarcopenia and numerous pathologies, such as cancer and diabetes. The AKT-mTORC1 pathway plays a major role in stimulating adult muscle growth; however, the functional role of its downstream mediators in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous inhibition of mTOR signaling to both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is sufficient to reduce AKT-induced muscle growth and render it insensitive to the mTORC1-inhibitor rapamycin. Surprisingly, lack of mTOR signaling to 4E-BP1 only, or deletion of S6K1 alone, is not sufficient to reduce muscle hypertrophy or alter its sensitivity to rapamycin. However, we report that, while not required for muscle growth, S6K1 is essential for maintaining muscle structure and force production. Hypertrophy in the absence of S6K1 is characterized by compromised ribosome biogenesis and the formation of p62-positive protein aggregates. These findings identify S6K1 as a crucial player for maintaining muscle function during hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metaphase chromosome and nucleoid differences between CHO-K1 and its radiosensitive derivative xrs-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Stephens, J.; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1992-05-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line xrs-5 is a radiation-sensitive mutant isolated from CHO-K1 cells. The radiation sensitivity is associated with a defect in DNA double-strand break rejoining. Chromatin structure also appears altered in xrs-5 cells compared to the parental CHO-K1 cells. Metaphase chromosomes from xrs-5 are more condensed in appearance than CHO-K1 chromosomes. The overcondensed look is not the result of colcemid sensitivity. Electron microscopy studies suggest that xrs-5 metaphase chromosomes have larger loops of chromatin extending out from the chromosome core. There are also differences between CHO-K1 and xrs-5 cells in the size and fluorescence pattern of ethidium bromide-stained nucleoid preparations. These results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between CHO-K1 and xrs-5 in either the organization of the supercoiled loops of DNA attached to the nuclear matrix or in the nature of the proteins that attach the DNA to the matrix. These alterations in chromosome structure may underlie, in part, the radiation sensitivity of xrs-5 cells

  15. Metaphase chromosome and nucleoid differences between CHO-K1 and its radiosensitive derivative xrs-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Stephens, J.; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line xrs-5 is a radiation-sensitive mutant isolated from CHO-K1 cells. The radiosensitivity is associated with a defect in DNA double-strand break rejoining. Chromatin structure also appears altered in xrs-5 cells compared with the parental CHO-K1 cells. Metaphase chromosomes form xrs-5 are more condensed in appearance than CHO-K1 chromosomes. The overcondensed look is not the result of colcemid sensitivity. Electron microscopy studies suggest that xrs-5 metaphase chromosomes have larger loops of chromatin extending out from the chromosome core. There are also differences between CHO-K1 and xrs-5 cells in the size and fluorescence pattern of ethidium bromide-stained nucleoid preparations. These results suggest that there is a fundamental difference between CHO-K1 and xrs-5 in either the organization of the supercoiled loops of DNA attached to the nuclear matrix or in the nature of the proteins that attach the DNA to the matrix. These alterations in chromosome structure may underlie, in part the radiation sensitivity of xrs-5 cells. (Author)

  16. First measurement of the decoupling parameter for the K = 1 band of {sup 156}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Tobias; Beller, Jacob; Gayer, Udo; Pietralla, Norbert; Ries, Philipp; Ries, Christopher; Werner, Volker; Zweidinger, Markus [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, Vera [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Isaak, Johann; Loeher, Bastian [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheck, Marcus [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); School of Engineering, UWS Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Tornow, Werner; Weller, Henry R. [Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In a deformed nucleus the nuclear states are combinations of an intrinsic motion and a rotational motion of the core. In this scenario the Coriolis force changes the projection of the angular momentum on the symmetry axis and admixes different K values. The effects of the Coriolis interactions have been observed experimentally for K = 1/2 bands. The recent observation of the first excited rotational state of the isovector low-lying J{sup π}{sub K} = 1{sup +}{sub 1} scissors mode in a (γ,γ{sup '}) experiment inaugurates a case to study the Coriolis decoupling for K = 1 bands. In the talk, the theoretical description provided by Bohr and Mottelson is presented, and their adaption to the particular case is explained alongside the ongoing analysis and open questions.

  17. Autonomous safety and reliability features of the K-1 avionics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.; Kohrs, D.; Bailey, R.; Lai, G. [Kistler Aerospace Corp., Kirkland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the K-1, a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages return to the launch site using parachutes and airbags. Initial flight operations will occur from Woomera, Australia. K-1 guidance is performed autonomously. Each stage of the K- 1 employs a triplex, fault tolerant avionics architecture, including three fault tolerant computers and three radiation hardened Embedded GPS/INS units with a hardware voter. The K-1 has an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system on each stage residing in the three vehicle computers based on similar systems in commercial aircraft. During first-stage ascent, the IVHM system performs an Instantaneous Impact Prediction (IIP) calculation 25 times per second, initiating an abort in the event the vehicle is outside a predetermined safety corridor for at least three consecutive calculations. In this event, commands are issued to terminate thrust, separate the stages, dump all propellant in the first-stage, and initiate a normal landing sequence. The second-stage flight computer calculates its ability to reach orbit along its state vector, initiating an abort sequence similar to the first stage if it cannot. On a nominal mission, following separation, the second-stage also performs calculations to assure its impact point is within a safety corridor. The K-1's guidance and control design is being tested through simulation with hardware-in-the-loop at Draper Laboratory. Kistler's verification strategy assures reliable and safe operation of the K-1. (author)

  18. Hydrogen peroxide mediates Rac1 activation of S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee; Kwon, Hyoung-Keun; Park, Jong Woo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Paek, Se Jin; Choi, Wahn Soo; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Hoi Young; Cho, Eun-Jung; Lee, Hyang Woo; Han, Jeung-Whan

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) mediates mitogen activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) which plays an important role in cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we investigated a possible role of H 2 O 2 as a molecular linker in Rac1 activation of S6K1. Overexpression of recombinant catalase in NIH-3T3 cells led to the drastic inhibition of H 2 O 2 production by PDGF, which was accompanied by a decrease in S6K1 activity. Similarly, PDGF activation of S6K1 was significantly inhibited by transient transfection or stable transfection of the cells with a dominant-negative Rac1 (Rac1N17), while overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1V12) in the cells led to an increase in basal activity of S6K1. In addition, stable transfection of Rat2 cells with Rac1N17 dramatically attenuated the H 2 O 2 production by PDGF as compared with that in the control cells. In contrast, Rat2 cells stably transfected with Rac1V12 produced high level of H 2 O 2 in the absence of PDGF, comparable to that in the control cells stimulated with PDGF. More importantly, elimination of H 2 O 2 produced in Rat2 cells overexpressing Rac1V12 inhibited the Rac1V12 activation of S6K1, indicating the possible role of H 2 O 2 as a mediator in the activation of S6K1 by Rac1. However, H 2 O 2 could be also produced via other pathway, which is independent of Rac1 or PI3K, because in Rat2 cells stably transfected with Rac1N17, H 2 O 2 could be produced by arsenite, which has been shown to be a stimulator of H 2 O 2 production. Taken together, these results suggest that H 2 O 2 plays a pivotal role as a mediator in Rac1 activation of S6K1

  19. 76 FR 7847 - Glenn A. Baxter, Application To Renew License for Amateur Radio Service Station K1MAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Renew License for Amateur Radio Service Station K1MAN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Service Station K1MAN filed by Glenn A. Baxter should be granted. DATES: The document was mailed to the... Amateur Radio Station K1MAN should be granted. As discussed below, the record before us indicates that...

  20. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most of...

  1. K-1 Teachers' Visual Arts Beliefs and Their Role in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Schanz, Blythe Annette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the visual arts beliefs and practices of eight K-1 teachers in four schools and in two different school districts in a southern state. Using a phenomenological framework (Creswell, 2007; Leedy & Ormrod, 2005), the research revealed the teachers' understandings of beliefs and how…

  2. [Changes of biological behavioral of E. coli K1 after ppk1 gene deletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Pan, Jiayun; Luo, Su; Yang, Zhenghui; Huang, Mufang; Cao, Hong

    2014-06-01

    To study the changes in biological behaviors of meningitis E. coli K1 strain E44 after deletion of polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene and explore the role of ppk1 in the pathogenesis of E. coli K1-induced meningitis. The wild-type strain E. coli K1 and ppk1 deletion mutant were exposed to heat at 56 degrees celsius; for 6 min, and their survival rates were determined. The adhesion and invasion of the bacteria to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were observed using electron microscopy and quantitative tests. HBMECs were co-incubated with wild-type strain or ppk1 deletion mutant, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. The survival rate of the ppk1 deletion mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild-type strain after heat exposure. The ppk1 deletion mutant also showed lowered cell adhesion and invasion abilities and weakened ability to induce cytoskeleton rearrangement in HBMECs. ppk1 gene is important for E.coli K1 for heat resistance, cell adhesion and invasion, and for inducing cytoskeletal rearrangement in HBMECs.

  3. Vitamin K1 levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates in Arkhangelsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Kiseleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal course of biochemical processes needs adequate dietary intake of vitamins involved in the body’s metabolic reactions. The basis for the pathogenesis of neonatal hemorrhagic disease is deficiency of vitamin K, the level of which in the North-Western Region of Russia was estimated for the first time.Objective: to measure umbilical cord blood vitamin K1 levels in newborn infants.Methods. Forty full-term newborns were examined. Vitamin K1 levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Results. The mean umbilical blood cord level of vitamin K1 was very low and amounted to 0.05 (<0.03; 0.15 µg/l. This study revealed no relationship between the level of the above trace element and neonatal sex (p=0,854, maternal age (p=0,913, abortions (p=0,568, threatened abortion (p=0,109, smoking (p=0,923.Conclusion. The umbilical cord blood concentration of vitamin K1 in the newborns was found to be very low, which increases the risk of hemorrhagic disease and requires exogenous replenishment of the above vitamin after birth. 

  4. Absence of micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells cultivated in platelet lysate enriched medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Adami, Valentina; Albiero, Elena; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) represents an effective substitute of fetal bovine serum (FBS) for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) cultivation. Compared to FBS, PL favors MSC proliferation significantly shortening the population doubling time and avoiding the risks related to the use of animal derivatives. Growth factors contained in the platelets are released upon platelet disruption following freezing/thawing cycles or as we have recently described by using ultrasound. We have investigated whether the increased cell proliferation achieved by using PL could induce mitotic stress and whether the potential formation of free radicals during PL production by ultrasound could cause chromosomal instability in mammalian cells. We have applied an image analysis assisted high content screening (HCS) in vitro micronucleus assay in the Chinese Hamster Ovarian K1 (CHO-K1) rodent mammalian cell line. PL was produced by sonication; for the micronucleus assay, CHO-K1 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of PL. Cytokinesis was blocked by cytochalasin B, nuclei were stained with bisbenzimide and images were acquired and analyzed automatically using an HCS system, both with a 20× and a 10× objective. Our results suggest that growth stimulus induced by the use of PL did not significantly increase micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells compared to negative control. Micronucleus testing in conjunction with HCS could represent a valid tool to evaluate the safety of ancillary materials used in the production of cell-based medicinal products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. MAP3K1-related gonadal dysgenesis: Six new cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Alaniz, Veronica I; Mohnach, Lauren; Barseghyan, Hayk; Vilain, Eric; Ostrer, Harry; Quint, Elisabeth H; Chen, Ming; Keegan, Catherine E

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of disorders of sex development (DSD) has resulted in the discovery of multiple sex-determining genes. MAP3K1 encodes a signal transduction regulator in the sex determination pathway and is emerging as one of the more common genes responsible for 46,XY DSD presenting as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation, and genetic analysis were performed in six individuals from four unrelated families with 46,XY DSD. All six individuals were found to have likely pathogenic MAP3K1 variants. Three of these individuals presented with complete gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by bilateral streak gonads with typical internal and external female genitalia, while the other three presented with partial gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by incomplete testicular development, resulting in clitoral hypertrophy with otherwise typical female external genitalia. Testing for MAP3K1 variants should be considered in patients with 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, particularly in families with multiple members affected with 46,XY DSD. Identification of a MAP3K1 variant should prompt an evaluation for DSD in female siblings of the proband. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1... Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first year depreciation deduction. (a) Scope and definitions—(1) Scope. This section provides the rules for determining the 30-percent additional first year depreciation...

  7. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  8. S6K1 is involved in polyploidization through its phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongchu; Yu, Huiying; Lin, Di; Sun, Yinghui; Liu, Liping; Liu, Yage; Dai, Bing; Chen, Wei; Cao, Jianping

    2009-04-01

    Studies on polyploidization of megakaryocytes have been hampered by the lack of synchronized polyploid megakaryocytes. In this study, a relatively synchronized polyploid cell model was successfully established by employing Dami cells treated with nocodazole. In nocodazole-induced cells, cyclin B expression oscillated normally as in diploid cells and polyploid megakaryocytes. By using the nocodazole-induced Dami cell model, we found that 4E-BP1 and Thr421/Ser424 of ribosomal S6 kinase 1(S6K1) were phosphorylated mostly at M-phase in cytoplasm and oscillated in nocodazole-induced polyploid Dami cells, concomitant with increased expression of p27 and cyclin D3. However, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 on Thr421/Ser424 was significantly decreased in differentiated Dami cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), concomitant with increased expression of cyclin D1 and p21 and cyclin D3. Overexpression of the kinase dead form of S6K1 containing the mutation Lys 100 --> Gln in PMA-induced Dami cells increased ploidy whereas overexpression of rapamycin-resistant form of S6K1 containing the mutations Thr421 --> Glu and Ser424 --> Asp significantly dephosphorylated 4E-BP1 and reduced expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, p21 and p27, and slightly decreased the ploidy of PMA-induced Dami cells, compared with treatment with PMA alone. Moreover, overexpression of rapamycin-resistant form of S6K1 significantly reversed polyploidization of nocodazole-induced Dami cells. Furthermore, MAP (a novel compound synthesized recently) partly blocked the phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr421/Ser424 and decreased the expression of p27 and polyploidization in nocodazole-induced Dami cells. Taken together, these data suggested that S6K1/4E-BP1 pathway may play an important role in polyploidization of megakaryocytes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most....... Homologs of most human glycosylation-associated genes are present in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 of these homologs are not expressed under exponential growth conditions. Many important viral entry genes are also present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance...... property of CHO cell lines. We discuss how the availability of this genome sequence may facilitate genome-scale science for the optimization of biopharmaceutical protein production....

  10. On the Difference Equation xn+1=xnxn-k/(xn-k+1a+bxnxn-k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the difference equation xn+1=xnxn-k/xn-k+1(a+bxnxn-k,n∈ℕ0, where k∈ℕ, the parameters a, b and initial values x-i, i=0,k̅ are real numbers, can be solved in closed form considerably extending the results in the literature. By using obtained formulae, we investigate asymptotic behavior of well-defined solutions of the equation.

  11. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  12. Interaction of Escherichia coli K1 and K5 with Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Matin, Abdul; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-01-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However, the ability of Acanthamoeba interacting with host bacterial pathogens has gained particular attention. Here, to understand the interactions of Escherichia coli K1 and E. coli K5 strains with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts, association assay, invasion assay, survival assay, and the measurement of bacterial numbers from cysts were performed, and nonpathogenic E. ...

  13. Growth study of radio-mutant saccharomyce cerevisiae K 1,5 on irradiated molases media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siagian, E.G.; Lina, M.R.; Sisiana.

    1988-01-01

    The application of the radiopasteurization method for alcoholic fermentation of molases media have been studied which compared to heat pasteurization. The molases samples were obtained from sugar industry in Cirebon, Yogyakarta, and Lawang, used as a samples for gamma irradiation, doses of 3 kGy, 6 kGy and heat pasteurization 80 Celcius centigrade for 30 minutes, which compared to untreated molases. Innculum yeast was S. Cerevisiae K 1.5 which was resulted by irradiation mutation. The results showed that gamma irradiation dose of 3 kGy have pasteurization effect better than 6 kGy and heat pasteurization 80 Celcius centigrade, 30 minutes. Total cells count of microflora per gram samples (% survivors) on molasses media which has been heat pasteurized, decreased to be 70%, 10% for irradiated molasses 3 kGy; and 1% for molasses irradiated 6 kGy, but it did not have significant effect on the growth capacity of S. cerevisiae K 1.5 on that molasses media. Microflora isolated from molasses samples obtained from Cirebon, Yogyakarta, and Lawang, generally from Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., and Rhizopus oligosporus, although was detected but not grows well on molasses media. The growth of S. cerevisiae K 1.5 on fermentation media suplemented with trace elements nitrogen and phosphor resulted difference on fermentation rate i.e.: in irradiated molasses 3 kGy and 6 kGy showed a higher rate, which compared to heat pasteurization and controle. In the environment condition study on molasses media shows the yeast S. cerevisiae K 1.5 have optimal growth at the pH 5.5, specific growth rate 0.3-0.5 per hour, the saturation constant 0.5 - 0.60 g/l, temperature 30 +/- 2 Celcius centigrade with sugar : nitrogen : phosphor ratio = 100 : 5 : 1. The nitrogen and phosphor sources are ammonium sulphate and sodium hidrogen phosphate respectively. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Final report on RMO Vickers key comparison COOMET M.H-K1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, E.; Menelao, F.; Herrmann, K.; Aslanyan, A.; Pivovarov, V.; Galat, E.; Dovzhenko, Y.; Zhamanbalin, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a COOMET key comparison on Vickers hardness scales involving five National Metrology Institutes: PTB (Germany), BelGIM (Belarus), NSC IM (Ukraine), KazInMetr (Kazakhstan) and VNIIFTRI (Russia). The pilot laboratory was VNIIFTRI, and PTB acted as the linking institute to key comparisons CCM.H-K1.b and CCM.H-K1.c conducted for the Vickers hardness scales HV1 and HV30, respectively. The comparison was also conducted for the HV5 Vickers hardness scale, since this scale is most frequently used in practice in Russia and CIS countries that work according to GOST standards. In the key comparison, two sets of hardness reference blocks for the Vickers hardness scales HV1, HV5 and HV30 consisting each of three hardness reference blocks with hardness levels of 450 HV and 750 HV were used. The measurement results and uncertainty assessments for HV1 and HV30 hardness scales, as announced by BelGIM, NSC IM, KazInMetr and VNIIFTRI, are in good agreement with the key comparison reference values of CCM.H-K1.b and CCM.H-K1.c. The comparison results for the HV5 hardness scale are viewed as additional information, since up to today no CCM key comparisons on this scale have yet been carried out. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  16. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of S6K1 in Cashmere Goats (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Manlin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 (GenBank accession GU144017 and its 3′ noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus. Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3′ noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling in fetal fibroblasts.

  17. [Role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Long; Zhang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Taking Rumex K-1 leaves as test materials, this paper studied the role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway in photoprotection under different light intensities. Under low light intensity (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), and after treated with salicylhydroxamic acid to inhibit the AOX pathway, the leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, linear electron transport rate of photosynthesis, and photosynthetic O2 evolution rate all decreased significantly while the non-Q(B) reducing reaction center had a significant increase, indicating that under low light, the photoinhibition was aggravated while the scavenging enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased, which avoided the over-accumulation of ROS and partially alleviated the photoinhibition of Rumex K-1 leaves. Under high light intensity (800 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)), the inhibition of AOX pathway caused more severe photoinhibition, and the increased activities of ROS scavenging enzymes were insufficient to prevent the over-accumulation of ROS. This study demonstrated that AOX pathway played an important role in the photoprotection in Rumex K-1 leaves under both high and low light intensities, and the role of AOX pathway in photoprotection under high light could be irreplaceable by the other photoprotection pathways in chloroplast.

  18. Piezoelectricity in K1−xNaxNbO3: First-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Zhang Rui; Lv Tian-Quan; Zheng Li-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric properties of K 1−x Na x NbO 3 are studied by using first-principles calculations within virtual crystal approximation. To understand the critical factors for the high piezoelectric response in K 1−x Na x NbO 3 , the total energy, piezoelectric coefficient, elastic property, density of state, Born effective charge, and energy barrier on polarization rotation paths are systematically investigated. The morphotropic phase boundary in K 1−x Na x NbO 3 is predicted to occur at x = 0.521, which is in good agreement with the available experimental data. At the morphotropic phase boundary, the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient d 33 of orthorhombic K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 reaches a maximum value. The rotated maximum of is found to be along the 50° direction away from the spontaneous polarization (close to the [001] direction). The moderate bulk and shear modulus are conducive to improving the piezoelectric response. By analyzing the energy barrier on polarization rotation paths, it is found that the polarization rotation of orthorhombic K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 becomes easier compared with orthorhombic KNbO 3 , which proves that the high piezoelectric response is attributed to the flattening of the free energy at compositions close to the morphotropic phase boundary. (paper)

  19. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  20. Genomic Comparison of Escherichia coli K1 Strains Isolated from the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Meningitis †

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yufeng; Xie, Yi; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a major cause of enteric/diarrheal diseases, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. E. coli K1 is the leading gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis, but the microbial basis of E. coli K1 meningitis is incompletely understood. Here we employed comparative genomic hybridization to investigate 11 strains of E. coli K1 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis. These 11 strains cover the majority of common O serotypes in E. coli K1 iso...

  1. The K1 capsule is the critical determinant in the development of Escherichia coli meningitis in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, K S; Itabashi, H; Gemski, P; Sadoff, J; Warren, R L; Cross, A S

    1992-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli strains possessing the K1 capsule are predominant among isolates from neonatal E. coli meningitis and most of these K1 isolates are associated with a limited number of 0 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) types, the basis of this association of K1 and certain 0 antigens with neonatal E. coli meningitis is not clear. The present study examined in experimental E. coli bacteremia and meningitis in newborn and adult rats whether or not the K1 capsule and/or O-LPS antigen are criti...

  2. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  3. New Bounds of Ostrowski–Gruss Type Inequality for (k + 1 Points on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present three new bounds of the Ostrowski--Gr\\"uss type inequality for points $x_0,x_1,x_2,\\cdots,x_k$ on time scales. Our results generalize result of Ng\\^o and Liu, and extend results of Ujevi\\'c to time scales with $(k+1$ points. We apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum calculus to obtain many new interesting inequalities. An example is also considered. The estimates obtained in this paper will be very useful in numerical integration especially for the continuous case.

  4. Novel short chain chloroquine analogues retain activity against chloroquine resistant K1 Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Paul A; Raynes, Kaylene J; Bray, Patrick G; Park, B Kevin; O'Neill, Paul M; Ward, Stephen A

    2002-11-07

    A series of short chain chloroquine (CQ) derivatives have been synthesized in one step from readily available starting materials. The diethylamine function of CQ is replaced by shorter alkylamine groups (4-9) containing secondary or tertiary terminal nitrogens. Some of these derivatives are significantly more potent than CQ against a CQ resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. We conclude that the ability to accumulate at higher concentrations within the food vacuole of the parasite is an important parameter that dictates their potency against CQ sensitive and the chloroquine resistant K1 P. falciparum.

  5. Complete lift of a structure satisfying FK−(−K+1F=0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovejoy S. Das

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of f-structure manifold on a differentiable manifold was initiated and developed by Yano [1], Ishihara and Yano [2], Goldberg [3] and among others. The horizontal and complete lifts from a differentiable manifold Mn of class C∞ to its cotangent bundles have been studied by Yano and Patterson [4,5]. Yano and Ishihara [6] have studied lifts of an f-structure in the tangent and cotangent bundles. The purpose of this paper is to obtain integrability conditions of a structure satisfying FK−(−K+1F=0 and FW−(−W+1F≠0 for 1

  6. The effect of formula versus breast feeding and exogenous vitamin K1 supplementation on circulating levels of vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenbirk, K.; Peters, M.; Bouman, P.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of breast or formula feeding together with that of a single supplementation of vitamin K1 at birth, on the vitamin K1 level and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors were studied in 65 breast and 15 formula fed infants. All breast fed newborns without supplementation (n = 25) had very

  7. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Genova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18 × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17 × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21 ´ 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  8. Comparative study of cyanotoxins affecting cytoskeletal and chromatin structures in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gácsi, Mariann; Antal, Otilia; Vasas, Gábor; Máthé, Csaba; Borbély, György; Saker, Martin L; Gyori, János; Farkas, Anna; Vehovszky, Agnes; Bánfalvi, Gáspár

    2009-06-01

    In this study we compared the effects of the two frequently occuring and most dangerous cyanobacterial toxins on the cellular organization of microfilaments, microtubules and on the chromatin structure in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. These compounds are the widely known microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) classified as the highest-priority cyanotoxin. Toxic effects were tested in a concentration and time dependent manner. The hepatotoxic MC-LR did not cause significant cytotoxicity on CHO-K1 cells under 20 microM, but caused apoptotic changes at higher concentrations. Apoptotic shrinkage was associated with the shortening and loss of actin filaments and with a concentration dependent depolymerization of microtubules. No necrosis was observed over the concentration range (1-50 microM MC-LR) tested. Cylindrospermopsin did cause apoptosis at low concentrations (1-2 microM) and over short exposure periods (12h). Necrosis was observed at higher concentrations (5-10 microM) and following longer exposure periods (24 or 48h). Cyanotoxins also affected the chromatin structure. The condensation process was inhibited by MC-LR at a later stage and manifested as broken elongated prechromosomes. CYN inhibited chromatin condensation at the early fibrillary stage leading to blurred fluorescent images of apoptotic bodies and preventing the formation of metaphase chromosomes. Cylindrospermopsin exhibited a more pronounced toxic effect causing cytoskeletal and nuclear changes as well as apoptotic and necrotic alterations.

  9. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry Kurt

    2017-01-01

    To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2) along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  10. Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Kurt Schwalfenberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the evidence for the use of vitamin K supplementation in clinical conditions such as osteoporosis, vascular calcification, arthritis, cancer, renal calculi, diabetes, and warfarin therapy. Quality of Evidence. PubMed was searched for articles on vitamin K (K1 and K2 along with books and conference proceedings and health conditions listed above. Level I and II evidence supports the use of vitamins K1 and K2 in osteoporosis and Level II evidence supports vitamin K2 in prevention of coronary calcification and cardiovascular disease. Evidence is insufficient for use in diabetes, arthritis, renal calculi, and cancer. Main Message. Vitamin K2 may be a useful adjunct for the treatment of osteoporosis, along with vitamin D and calcium, rivaling bisphosphonate therapy without toxicity. It may also significantly reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular health by reducing vascular calcification. Vitamin K2 appears promising in the areas of diabetes, cancer, and osteoarthritis. Vitamin K use in warfarin therapy is safe and may improve INR control, although a dosage adjustment is required. Conclusion. Vitamin K supplementation may be useful for a number of chronic conditions that are afflicting North Americans as the population ages. Supplementation may be required for bone and cardiovascular health.

  11. Loop quantum cosmology of the k=1 FRW: A tale of two bounces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh

    2011-01-01

    We consider the k=1 Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model within loop quantum cosmology, paying special attention to the existence of an ambiguity in the quantization process. In spatially nonflat anisotropic models such as Bianchi II and IX, the standard method of defining the curvature through closed holonomies is not admissible. Instead, one has to implement the quantum constraints by approximating the connection via open holonomies. In the case of flat k=0 FRW and Bianchi I models, these two quantization methods coincide, but in the case of the closed k=1 FRW model they might yield different quantum theories. In this manuscript we explore these two quantizations and the different effective descriptions they provide of the bouncing cyclic universe. In particular, as we show in detail, the most dramatic difference is that in the theory defined by the new quantization method, there is not one, but two different bounces through which the cyclic universe alternates. We show that for a 'large' universe, these two bounces are very similar and, therefore, practically indistinguishable, approaching the dynamics of the 'curvature-based' quantum theory.

  12. 75 FR 10018 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1041 and Related Schedules D, J, and K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... 1041 and Related Schedules D, J, and K-1 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1041 and related Schedules D, J, and K-1, U.S. Income...), Accumulation Distribution for Certain Complex Trusts (Schedule J), and Beneficiary's Share of Income...

  13. 78 FR 23981 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1041 and Related Schedules D, J, and K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... 1041 and Related Schedules D, J, and K-1 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION..., the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1041 and related Schedules D, J, and K-1, U.S. Income... Losses (Schedule D), Accumulation Distribution for Certain Complex Trusts (Schedule J), and Beneficiary's...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6050K-1 - Returns relating to sales or exchanges of certain partnership interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., 30 days after the partnership is notified of the exchange as defined in paragraph (e) of this section...). (2) Notification after Form 1065 is filed. If a partnership is notified of an exchange (as defined in... certain partnership interests. 1.6050K-1 Section 1.6050K-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  15. Thermodynamic studies on the ferroelectric phase transition in neutron irradiated (LixK1-x)2SO4 crystals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Ammar, E.A.; Denton, M.M.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic studies of (Li x K 1-x ) 2 SO 4 , LKS, mixed crystals have been made in the concentration range (x=0.1,0.2,...,x=0.5). The thermal behavior has been investigated by differential thermal analysis, DTA, and differential scanning calorimeter, DSC, in the vicinity of high temperature phases. Also, the effect of the mixed neutron field of fast and thermal neutrons (10% of the reactor neutron pile is fast neutrons) on the thermal properties of mixed crystals was studied. The results showed a change in the transition temperature Tc, as well as the value of specific heat Cp at transition temperature, due to the change of stoichiometric ratio and radiation doses. The change of enthalpy and entropy of mixed crystals have been estimated numerically. The obtained small values of ΔS/R is characteristic of incommensurate phase transition as previously confirmed by the results of neutron diffraction technique. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Kirill V; Kristiansen, Per Eugen; Straume, Daniel; Jensen, Marianne S; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2017-01-01

    Enterocin K1 (EntK1), enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97), and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium , including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB - both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3-4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP , a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH) reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing) growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s) and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  17. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2005-01-01

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-α. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-κB were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis

  18. Directivity of the radio emission from the K1 dwarf star AB Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy; White, Stephen M.; Nelson, Graam J.; Benz, Arnold O.

    1994-01-01

    We present measurements of the spectrum and polarization of the flaring radio emission from the K1 dwarf star AB Doradus, together with previously reported single frequency measurements (with no polarization information) on 3 other days. On all 4 days spanning a 6 month period, the emission was strong and, when folded with the stellar rotation period, showed similar time variations with two prominant peaks at phase 0.35 and 0.75. These peaks coincide in longitude with two large starspots identified from the stellar optical light curve and have half-powe widths as small as 0.1 rotations and no larger than 0.2 rotations. The modulated emission shows no measurable circular polarization, and its two peaks have different turnover frequencies.

  19. Cell survival and chromosomal aberrations in CHO-K1 cells irradiated by carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czub, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Banas, D. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Blaszczyk, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Buraczewska, I. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Gorak, U. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Lankoff, A.; Lisowska, H. [Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Lukaszek, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Main School of Fire Service, ul. Slowackiego 52/54, 01-629 Warsaw (Poland); Szeflinski, Z. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: szef@fuw.edu.pl; Wojcik, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells were exposed to high LET {sup 12}C-beam (LET: 830 keV/{mu}m) in the dose range of 0-6 Gy and to {sup 60}Co irradiation and the RBE value was obtained. Effects of {sup 12}C-beam exposure on cell survival and chromosomal aberrations were calculated. The chromosomal aberration data were fitted with linear equation. The distribution of aberration in cells was examined with a standard u-test and used to evaluate the data according to Poisson probabilities. The variance to the mean ratio {sigma}{sup 2}/Y and the dispersion index (u) were determined. Overdispersion was significant (p<0.05) when the value of u exceeded 1.96.

  20. G+K 1Σ+/sub g/ double-minimum excited state of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, R.M.; Weinhold, F.

    1977-01-01

    We have obtained a Born--Oppenheimer potential curve for the previously uncharacterized third 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of H 2 , using a correlated 20-term wavefunction of generalized James--Coolidge type. We find this potential curve to have a double-minimum character, with the inner (Rydberg-like) and outer (''ionic'') wells having minima at about 1.99 and 3.30 bohr, respectively, and an intervening maximum at 2.76 bohr. Unlike the extensively studied E+F double-minimum state, the outer well here appears to be the deeper, by some 450 cm -1 in our calculation. The inner and outer minima can apparently be associated with spectral lines that in experimental tables have previously been attributed to distinct G and K electronic states. The appropriate spectroscopic term symbol of this combined state is accordingly G+K 1 Σ + /sub g/ (1ssigma3dsigma+2pπ 2 )

  1. Mask compensation for process flare in 193nm very low k1 lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonkyu; Lee, Taehyeong; Oh, Sangjin; Kang, Chunsoo; Kim, Jungchan; Choi, Jaeseung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Do, Munhoe; Su, Irene; Song, Hua; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Fan, Yongfa; Wang, Anthony C.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Boone, Robert; Lucas, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Traditional rule-based and model-based OPC methods only simulate in a very local area (generally less than 1um) to identify and correct for systematic optical or process problems. Despite this limitation, however, these methods have been very successful for many technology generations and have been a major reason for the industry being able to tremendously push down lithographic K1. This is also enabled by overall good across-exposure field lithographic process control which has been able to minimize longer range effects across the field. Now, however, the situation has now become more complex. The lithographic single exposure resolution limit with 1.35NA tools remains about 80nm pitch but the final wafer dimensions and final wafer pitches required in advanced technologies continue to scale down. This is putting severe strain on lithographic process and OPC CD control. Therefore, formerly less important 2nd order effects are now starting to have significant CD control impact if not corrected for. In this paper, we provide examples and discussion of how optical and chemical flare related effects are becoming more problematic, especially at the boundaries of large, dense memory arrays. We then introduce a practical correction method for these systematic effects which reuses some of the recent long range effect correcting OPC techniques developed for EUV pattern correction (such as EUV flare). We next provide analysis of the benefits of these OPC methods for chemical flare issues in 193nm lithography very low K1 lithography. Finally, we summarize our work and briefly mention possible future extensions.

  2. Treatment of a long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning cohort with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jianhai; Peng, Xiaobo; Luo, Yuan; Sun, Yawei; Lin, Guodong; Wang, Yongan; Qiu, Zewu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there are few guidelines for the use of vitamin K1 in the maintenance treatment of long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide (LAAR) poisonings. We explored factors in the treatment of LAAR poisoning during the maintenance period in order to suggest feasible treatment models. Data from 24 cases of anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in our hospital were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. The patients’ sex, age, coagulation function, total time from poisoning to treatment with vitamin K1 (prehospital time), vitamin K1 sustained treatment time (VKSTT), anticoagulant rodenticide category, and specific poison dosage were collected. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between vitamin K1 dosage and other factors during the maintenance period. Only VKSTT (partial regression coefficient −1.133, 0.59, P = 0.035) had an obvious influence on the therapeutic dose of vitamin K1 required during the maintenance period. After an initial pulse therapy, the bleeding and coagulation functions were stabilized, and the patients were subsequently treated with vitamin K1 during the maintenance period. Over time, the maintenance dose of vitamin K1 (10–120 mg/d, intravenous drip) was gradually decreased and was not related to toxicant concentration. PMID:28002326

  3. Plasminogen fragments K 1-3 and K 5 bind to different sites in fibrin fragment DD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenko, T V; Kapustianenko, L G; Yatsenko, T A; Yusova, O I; Rybachuk, V N

    2016-01-01

    Specific plasminogen-binding sites of fibrin molecule are located in Аα148-160 regions of C-terminal domains. Plasminogen interaction with these sites initiates the activation process of proenzyme and subsequent fibrin lysis. In this study we investigated the binding of plasminogen fragments K 1-3 and K 5 with fibrin fragment DD and their effect on Glu-plasminogen interaction with DD. It was shown that the level of Glu-plasminogen binding to fibrin fragment DD is decreased by 50-60% in the presence of K 1-3 and K 5. Fragments K 1-3 and K 5 have high affinity to fibrin fragment DD (Kd is 0.02 for K 1-3 and 0.054 μМ for K 5). K 5 interaction is independent and K 1-3 is partly dependent on C-terminal lysine residues. K 1-3 interacts with complex of fragment DD-immobilized K 5 as well as K 5 with complex of fragment DD-immobilized K 1-3. The plasminogen fragments do not displace each other from binding sites located in fibrin fragment DD, but can compete for the interaction. The results indicate that fibrin fragment DD contains different binding sites for plasminogen kringle fragments K 1-3 and K 5, which can be located close to each other. The role of amino acid residues of fibrin molecule Аα148-160 region in interaction with fragments K 1-3 and K 5 is discussed.

  4. Curcumin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the activation of the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Huang, Kaipeng; Lan, Tian; Xie, Xi; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2013-01-30

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol from the golden spice Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric, has been recently discovered to have renoprotective effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that the sphingosine kinase 1-sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1-S1P) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of DN. This study aims to investigate whether the renoprotective effects of curcumin on DN are associated with its inhibitory effects on the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway. Our results demonstrated that the expression and activity of SphK1 and the production of S1P were significantly down-regulated by curcumin in diabetic rat kidneys and glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) exposed to high glucose (HG). Simultaneously, SphK1-S1P-mediated fibronectin (FN) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) overproduction were inhibited. In addition, curcumin dose dependently reduced SphK1 expression and activity in GMCs transfected with SphK(WT) and significantly suppressed the increase in SphK1-mediated FN levels. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1), and c-Jun small interference RNA (c-Jun-siRNA) reversed the HG-induced up-regulation of SphK1. These findings suggested that down-regulation of the SphK1-S1P pathway is probably a novel mechanism by which curcumin improves the progression of DN. Inhibiting AP-1 activation is one of the therapeutic targets of curcumin to modulate the SphK1-S1P signaling pathway, thereby preventing diabetic renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO or adipocyte-specific (AdKO deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO at ambient (23 °C temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE. Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C temperature, high fat diet (HFD-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature. Furthermore, it is not known whether IP6K1 regulates AMPK mediated EE in cells, which do not express UCP1. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, food intake, EE, QRT-PCR, histology, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, fatty acid metabolism assays, and immunoblot studies were conducted in IP6K1-KO and WT mice or cells. Results: Global IP6K1 deletion mediated enhancement in EE is impaired albeit not abolished at 30 °C. As a result, IP6K1-KO mice are protected from DIO, insulin resistance, and fatty liver even at 30 °C. Like AdKO, IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced adipose tissue browning. However, unlike AdKO mice, thermoneutrality only partly abolishes browning in IP6K1-KO mice. Cold (5 °C exposure enhances carbohydrate expenditure, whereas 23 °C and 30 °C promote fat oxidation in HFD-KO mice. Furthermore, IP6K1 deletion diminishes cellular fat accumulation via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Global deletion of IP6K1 ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance irrespective of the environmental temperature conditions, which strengthens its validity as an anti-obesity target. Keywords: IP6K, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy expenditure, β-oxidation

  7. Influence of some bacterial and host factors on colonization and invasiveness of Escherichia coli K1 in neonatal rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wullenweber, M; Beutin, L; Zimmermann, S; Jonas, C

    1993-01-01

    Of 209 healthy infants examined, 44 (21.1%) carried Escherichia coli K1 in their feces. Of these 44 isolates, 36 (81.8%) were attributed to 10 different known clonal groups of E. coli K1 and 4 isolates represented unknown types. The influence of mannose-resistant (MR) adhesins, aerobactin production, and resistance to serum on colonization and invasiveness of E. coli K1 in orally infected inbred LEW baby rats was investigated. Strains expressing MR adhesins had significantly higher colonizati...

  8. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  9. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  10. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  11. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  12. The {P,Q,k+1}-Reflexive Solution to System of Matrix Equations AX=C, XB=D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zhou Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Let P∈Cm×m and Q∈Cn×n be Hermitian and {k+1}-potent matrices; that is, Pk+1=P=P⁎ and Qk+1=Q=Q⁎, where ·⁎ stands for the conjugate transpose of a matrix. A matrix X∈Cm×n is called {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive (antireflexive if PXQ=X (PXQ=-X. In this paper, the system of matrix equations AX=C and XB=D subject to {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive and antireflexive constraints is studied by converting into two simpler cases: k=1 and k=2. We give the solvability conditions and the general solution to this system; in addition, the least squares solution is derived; finally, the associated optimal approximation problem for a given matrix is considered.

  13. No effect of Vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Charles, Peder

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin K functions as a co-factor in the post-translational carboxylation of several bone proteins, including osteocalcin. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin K(1) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in a perimenopausal...... Danish population. DESIGN: The study was performed within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS), including a population-based cohort of 2,016 perimenopausal women. During the study approximately 50% of the women received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Associations between vitamin K(1......) intake and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5-years of follow-up (cross-sectional design). Moreover, associations between vitamin K(1) intake and 5-year and 10-year changes in BMD were studied (follow-up design). Finally, fracture risk was assessed in relation to vitamin K(1) intake (nested case...

  14. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  15. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  16. Expression of LRP1 by human osteoblasts: a mechanism for the delivery of lipoproteins and vitamin K1 to bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha; Toedter, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental data show the importance of dietary lipids and lipophilic vitamins, such as vitamin K1, for bone formation. The molecular mechanism of how they enter the osteoblast is unknown. Here we describe the expression of the multifunctional LRP1 by human osteoblasts...... in vitro and in vivo. We provide evidence that LRP1 plays an important role in the uptake of postprandial lipoproteins and vitamin K1 by human osteoblasts....

  17. Minor abnormalities of testis development in mice lacking the gene encoding the MAPK signalling component, MAP3K1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Warr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the Y chromosome is a dominant male determinant, causing the bipotential gonad to develop as a testis. Recently, cases of familial and spontaneous 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD have been attributed to mutations in the human gene encoding mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, MAP3K1, a component of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal transduction pathway. In individuals harbouring heterozygous mutations in MAP3K1, dysregulation of MAPK signalling was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines, suggesting a causal role for these mutations in disrupting XY sexual development. Mice lacking the cognate gene, Map3k1, are viable and exhibit the eyes open at birth (EOB phenotype on a mixed genetic background, but on the C57BL/6J genetic background most mice die at around 14.5 dpc due to a failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. However, no systematic examination of sexual development in Map3k1-deficient mice has been described, an omission that is especially relevant in the case of C57BL/6J, a genetic background that is sensitized to disruptions to testis determination. Here, we report that on a mixed genetic background mice lacking Map3k1 are fertile and exhibit no overt abnormalities of testis development. On C57BL/6J, significant non-viability is observed with very few animals surviving to adulthood. However, an examination of development in Map3k1-deficient XY embryos on this genetic background revealed no significant defects in testis determination, although minor abnormalities were observed, including an increase in gonadal length. Based on these observations, we conclude that MAP3K1 is not required for mouse testis determination. We discuss the significance of these data for the functional interpretation of sex-reversing MAP3K1 mutations in humans.

  18. Quantitative analysis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in soy bean oils by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, F; Stancher, B

    1985-07-19

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in soy bean oils is described. Resolution of vitamin K1 from interfering peaks of the matrix was obtained after enzymatic digestion, extraction and liquid-solid chromatography on alumina. An isocratic reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection was used in the final stage. The quantitation was carried out by the standard addition method, and the recovery of the whole procedure was 88.2%.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong He; Qing Zeng; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Zhijie Zeng; Weijun Yang; Jiawen Qiu; Lei Du; Swapna Boddu; Tongwei Wu; Danxian Cai; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal...

  20. Introduction of a carbon paste electrode based on nickel carbide for investigation of interaction between warfarin and vitamin K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Maryam; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Taherpour, Avat Arman; Boochani, Arash; Akhtar, Arsalan

    2017-05-30

    In this paper a novel electrochemical sensor based on nickel carbide (Ni 3 C) nanoparticles as a new modifier was constructed. Ni 3 C nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-principles study. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies confirmed the electrode modification. Afterwards, the new electrode for the first time was used for interaction study between vitamin K1 and warfarin as an anticoagulant drug by differential pulse voltammetry. The adduct formation between the drug and vitamin K1 was improved by decreasing in anodic peak current of warfarin in the presence of different amounts of vitamin K1. The binding constant between warfarin and vitamin K1 was obtained by voltammetric and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The molecular modeling method was also performed to explore the structural features and binding mechanism of warfarin to vitamin K1. The different aspects of modeling of vitamin K1 and warfarin and their adduct structures confirmed the adduct formation by hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  2. Electromagnetic mass splittings of π, a1, K, K1(1400), and K* (892)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, D.; Li, B.A.; Yan, M.

    1997-01-01

    To one-loop order and O(α EM ), the electromagnetic mass splittings of π, a 1 , K, K 1 (1400), and K * (892) are calculated in the framework of U(3) L xU(3) R chiral field theory. The logarithmic divergences emerging in the Feynman integrations of the mesonic loops are factorized by using an intrinsic parameter g of this theory. No other additional parameters or counterterms are introduced to absorb the mesonic loop divergences. When f π , m ρ , and m a are taken as inputs, the parameter g will be determined and all the physical results are finite and fixed. Dashen's theorem is satisfied in the chiral SU(3) limit of this theory and a rather large violation of the theorem is revealed at the order of m s or m K 2 . Mass ratios of light quarks have been determined. A relation for electromagnetic corrections to masses of axial-vector mesons is obtained. It could be regarded as a generalization of Dashen's theorem. Comparing with data, it is found that the nonelectromagnetic mass difference of K * is in agreement with the estimation of Schechter, Subbaraman, and Weigel. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Rapid selection of a pyrethroid metabolic enzyme CYP9K1 by operational malaria control activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Grigoraki, Linda; Morgan, John; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Fuseini, Godwin; Segura, Luis; Niemczura de Carvalho, Julie; Nguema, Raul; Weetman, David; Slotman, Michel A; Hemingway, Janet

    2018-05-01

    Since 2004, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets (LLINs) have reduced the malaria parasite prevalence in children on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, from 45% to 12%. After target site-based (knockdown resistance; kdr ) pyrethroid resistance was detected in 2004 in Anopheles coluzzii (formerly known as the M form of the Anopheles gambiae complex), the carbamate bendiocarb was introduced. Subsequent analysis showed that kdr alone was not operationally significant, so pyrethroid-based IRS was successfully reintroduced in 2012. In 2007 and 2014-2015, mass distribution of new pyrethroid LLINs was undertaken to increase the net coverage levels. The combined selection pressure of IRS and LLINs resulted in an increase in the frequency of pyrethroid resistance in 2015. In addition to a significant increase in kd r frequency, an additional metabolic pyrethroid resistance mechanism had been selected. Increased metabolism of the pyrethroid deltamethrin was linked with up-regulation of the cytochrome P450 CYP9K1. The increase in resistance prompted a reversion to bendiocarb IRS in 2016 to avoid a resurgence of malaria, in line with the national Malaria Control Program plan. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  5. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  6. The Leaderless Bacteriocin Enterocin K1 Is Highly Potent against Enterococcus faecium: A Study on Structure, Target Spectrum and Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Ovchinnikov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin K1 (EntK1, enterocin EJ97 (EntEJ97, and LsbB are three sequence related leaderless bacteriocins. Yet LsbB kills only lactococci while EntK1 and EntEJ97 target wider spectra with EntK1 being particularly active against Enterococcus faecium, including nosocomial multidrug resistant isolates. NMR study of EntK1 showed that it had a structure very similar to LsbB – both having an amphiphilic N-terminal α-helix and an unstructured C-terminus. The α-helix in EntK1 is, however, about 3–4 residues longer than that of LsbB. Enterococcal mutants highly resistant to EntEJ97 and EntK1 were found to have mutations within rseP, a gene encoding a stress response membrane-bound Zn-dependent protease. Heterologous expression of the enterococcal rseP rendered resistant cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae sensitive to EntK1 and EntEJ97, suggesting that RseP likely serves as the receptor for EntK1 and EntEJ97. It was also shown that the conserved proteolytic active site in E. faecalis RseP is partly required for EntK1 and EntEJ97 activity, since alanine substitutions of its conserved residues (HExxH reduced the sensitivity of the clones to the bacteriocins. RseP is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. As expected, the growth of resistant mutants with mutations within rseP was severely affected when they were exposed to higher (stressing growth temperatures, e.g., at 45°C, at which wild type cells still grew well. These findings allow us to design a hurdle strategy with a combination of the bacteriocin(s and higher temperature that effectively kills bacteriocin sensitive bacteria and prevents the development of resistant cells.

  7. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  8. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  10. A recombinant Sal k 1 isoform as an alternative to the polymorphic allergen from Salsola kali pollen for allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Salvador; Boissy, Patrice; Monsalve, Rafael I; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Fernández, Javier; Colás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Barderas, Rodrigo; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Amaranthaceae pollen allergy has increased due to the desertification occurring in many countries. In some regions of Spain, Salsola kali is the main cause of pollinosis, at almost the same level as olive and grass pollen. Sal k 1 - the sensitization marker of S. kali pollinosis - is used in clinical diagnosis, but is purified at a low yield from pollen. We aimed to produce a recombinant (r)Sal k 1 able to span the structural and immunological properties of the natural isoforms from pollen, and validate its potential use for diagnosis. Specific cDNA was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pET41b vector and used to transform BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells. Immunoblotting, ELISA, basophil activation and skin-prick tests were used to validate the recombinant protein against Sal k 1 isolated from pollen. Sera and blood cells from S. kali pollen-sensitized patients and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were used. rSal k 1 was produced in bacteria with a yield of 7.5 mg/l of cell culture. The protein was purified to homogeneity and structural and immunologically validated against the natural form. rSal k 1 exhibited a higher IgE cross-reactivity with plant-derived food extracts such as peanut, almond or tomato than with pollen sources such as Platanus acerifolia and Oleaceae members. rSal k 1 expressed in bacteria retains intact structural and immunological properties in comparison to the pollen-derived allergen. It spans the immunological properties of most of the isoforms found in pollen, and it might substitute natural Sal k 1 in clinical diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Finding the optimal dose of vitamin K1 to treat vitamin K deficiency and to avoid anaphylactoid reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yan-Ni; Ping, Na-Na; Li, Bo; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Yan-Bing; Cao, Lei; Ren, Jian-Kang; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin K1 injection induces severe dose-related anaphylactoid reactions and overdose for the treatment of vitamin K deficiency. We aimed to find an optimal and small dose of vitamin K1 injection to treat vitamin K deficiency and avoid anaphylactoid reactions in animal. Rats were administered a vitamin K-deficient diet and gentamicin to establish vitamin K deficiency model. Behaviour tests were performed in beagle dogs to observe anaphylactoid reactions. The results showed an increased protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) levels, a prolonging of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and a decrease in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor (F) II, VII, IX and X activities in the model group. In vitamin K1 0.01 mg/kg group, the liver vitamin K1 levels increased fivefold and the liver vitamin K2 levels increased to the normal amount. Coagulation markers PT, APTT, FVII and FIX activities returned to normal. Both in the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg vitamin K1 groups, coagulation functions completely returned to normal. Moreover, the amount of liver vitamin K1 was 40 (0.1 mg/kg) or 100 (1.0 mg/kg) times as in normal. Vitamin K2 was about 4 (0.1 mg/kg) or 5 (1.0 mg/kg) times as the normal amount. There was no obvious anaphylactoid symptom in dogs with the dose of 0.03 mg/kg, which is equivalent to the dose of 0.01 mg/kg in rats. These results demonstrated that a small dose of vitamin K1 is effective to improve vitamin K deficiency and to prevent anaphylactoid reactions, simultaneously. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in Irish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-05-01

    Low phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in older adults. Phylloquinone intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels were assessed in ninety-seven apparently healthy, free-living Irish women aged 50-75 years. Phylloquinone intakes were estimated using a detailed dietary history, which measured habitual food intakes from a typical 14 d period, and recently published food composition data for phylloquinone. Fasting serum ucOC was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. The median daily intake of phylloquinone in the group from all sources was 108.8 microg and from food sources only was 106.6 microg, indicating that approximately 99 % of the phylloquinone came from food. Vegetables and vegetable dishes contributed 67 % of the total phylloquinone intake, but further analysis showed that broccoli, cabbage and lettuce were the primary sources, making a total contribution of 44 %. Twenty per cent of the women had a phylloquinone intake below the UK recommendation of 1 microg/kg body weight per day and 34 % failed to meet the US Adequate Intake value of 90 microg/day. Mean serum ucOC levels in the women were 6.2 (SD 1.7) ng/ml and were predicted by phylloquinone intake (beta -2.20, generated from log-transformed phylloquinone intake data; P=0.04). On the basis of comparisons with both UK recommendations and US Adequate Intakes for phylloquinone, the habitual intakes of phylloquinone in a high proportion of Irish postmenopausal women may not be adequate.

  13. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  14. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  15. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  16. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  17. Multiplex assessment of serum cytokine and chemokine levels in idiopathic morphea and vitamin K1-induced morphea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lori Ann; Webster, Guy F; Piera-Velazquez, Sonsoles; Jimenez, Sergio A

    2017-05-01

    The levels of 63 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured in the serum of four patients with idiopathic morphea and of one patient with vitamin K 1 -induced morphea employing a multiplex assay to identify the role of inflammatory/immunologic events in their pathogenesis. Full-thickness skin biopsies of affected skin were analyzed by histopathology. Luminex assays for 63 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were performed in the sera from four patients with idiopathic morphea and in two different samples of serum obtained in two separate occasions from one patient with vitamin K 1 -induced morphea. The serum values of numerous inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IFNβ were markedly increased in the serum of patients with idiopathic morphea, whereas, these values were normal in the serum of the patient with vitamin K 1 -induced morphea. In contrast, serum eotaxin levels were greater than threefold higher in the patient with vitamin K 1 -induced morphea compared to patients with idiopathic morphea. The results demonstrated remarkable increases in the levels of numerous cytokines and chemokines in the serum samples of all patients with idiopathic morphea indicative of a prominent role of inflammatory/immunologic events in its pathogenesis. The results also showed statistically significant differences between idiopathic morphea and vitamin K 1 -induced morphea suggesting that their development involves different pathogenetic mechanisms.

  18. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  19. Swift adsorptive removal of Congo red from aqueous solution by K1.33Mn8O16 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junshu; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Jinshu; Li, Zhifei

    2013-08-01

    A swift and efficient approach to converting organic dye effluents into fresh water could be of substantial benefit. In this study, we presented facile hydrothermal synthesis of K1.33Mn8O16 nanowires in ammonium fluoride (NH4F) aqueous solution. The crystallization process of K1.33Mn8O16 nanowires was investigated. The as-obtained K1.33Mn8O16 nanowires were used for swift adsorptive removal of Congo red from aqueous solution without adjusting pH value at room temperature. Adsorption kinetic experimental data are well described by pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, and the adsorption isotherm fits Langmuir isotherm model. The present investigation provides an efficient approach to designing and fabricating manganese-based nanomaterials for environmental remediation.

  20. Aerobic growth of Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1(T): emended descriptions of A. pushchinoensis and the genus Anoxybacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Cleland, David; Tang, Jane

    2003-01-01

    In this work, corrections are made to the descriptions of the species Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis corrig. and the genus ANOXYBACILLUS: Experiments to determine the relationship of A. pushchinoensis K1(T) to oxygen showed that it was capable of aerobic growth, but preferred to grow anaerobically. During aerobic growth, the redox indicator resazurin was reduced as a result of hydrogen gas production. The facultatively anaerobic nature of K1(T) was ascertained by cultivation in aerobic liquid medium, where growth began at the bottom of the tube. The anaerobic nature of K1(T) was also indicated by a negative catalase reaction. This work is submitted to correct the description of the species A. pushchinoensis from obligate anaerobe to aerotolerant anaerobe and to emend the description of the genus Anoxybacillus from obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes to aerotolerant anaerobes or facultative anaerobes.

  1. Expression and fast preparation of biologically active recombinant human coagulation factor VII in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W; Li, C Q; Xiao, X P; Lin, F Z

    2013-12-16

    Human coagulation factor VII (FVII) plays an important role in the blood coagulation process and exists in micro amounts in human plasma; therefore, any attempt at the large-scale production of FVII in significant quantities is challenging. The purpose of this study was to express and obtain biologically active recombinant FVII (rFVII) from Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells. The full-length FVII cDNA was isolated from a HepG2 cell line and then subcloned in pcDNA3.1 to construct an expression vector, pcDNA-FVII. CHO-K1 cells were transfected with 1 µg pcDNA-FVII. The cell line that stably expressed secretory FVII was screened using 900 µg/mL G418. The FVII copy number in CHO-K1 cells was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The rFVII was purified in ligand affinity chromatography medium. The purified protein was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. The biological activity of the purified FVII protein was determined by a prothrombin time assay. Three cell lines that permanently expressed rFVII were screened. The qPCR results demonstrated that each CHO-K1 cell harbored two FVII DNA copies. The SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the purified protein was about 50 kDa. The purity of the target protein was 95%. The prothrombin time assay indicated that the FVII-specific activity of rFVII was 2573 ± 75 IU/mg. This method enabled the fast preparation of high-purity rFVII from CHO-K1 cells, and the purified protein had good biological activity.

  2. Prolonged activation of S6K1 does not suppress IRS or PI-3 kinase signaling during muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Matthew G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myogenesis in C2C12 cells requires the activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways. Since mTOR signaling can feedback through S6K1 to inhibit the activation of PI3K, the aim of this work was to assess whether feedback from S6K1 played a role in myogenesis and determine whether siRNA mediated knockdown of S6K1 would lead to an increased rate of myotube formation. Results S6K1 activity increased in a linear fashion following plating and was more than 3-fold higher after Day 3 of differentiation (subconfluent = 11.09 ± 3.05, Day 3 = 29.34 ± 3.58. IRS-1 levels tended to increase upon serum withdrawal but decreased approximately 2-fold (subconfluent = 0.88 ± 0.10, Day 3 = 0.42 ± 0.06 3 days following differentiation whereas IRS-2 protein remained stable. IRS-1 associated p85 was significantly reduced upon serum withdrawal (subconfluent = 0.86 ± 0.07, Day 0 = 0.31 ± 0.05, remaining low through day 1. IRS-2 associated p85 decreased following serum withdrawal (subconfluent = 0.96 ± 0.05, Day 1 = 0.56 ± 0.08 and remained suppressed up to Day 3 following differentiation (0.56 ± 0.05. Phospho-tyrosine associated p85 increased significantly from subconfluent to Day 0 and remained elevated throughout differentiation. siRNA directed against S6K1 and S6K2 did not result in changes in IRS-1 levels after either 48 or 96 hrs. Furthermore, neither 48 nor 96 hrs of S6K1 knockdown caused a change in myotube formation. Conclusions Even though S6K1 activity increases throughout muscle cell differentiation and IRS-1 levels decrease over this period, siRNA suggests that S6K1 is not mediating the decrease in IRS-1. The decrease in IRS-1/2 associated p85 together with the increase in phospho-tyrosine associated p85 suggests that PI3K associates primarily with scaffolds other than IRS-1/2 during muscle cell differentiation.

  3. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  5. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. The Р60-S6K1 isoform of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 is a product of alternative mRNA translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zaiets

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 is a well-known downstream effector of mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 participating primarily in the regulation of cell growth and metabolism. Deregulation of mTOR/S6K1 signaling can promote numerous human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders. As existing data suggest, the S6K1 gene encodes several protein isoforms, including p85-S6K1, p70-S6K1, and p60-S6K1. The two of these isoforms, p85-S6K1 and p70-S6K1, were extensively studied to date. The origin and functional significance of the p60-S6K1 isoform remains a mystery, however, it was suggested that the isoform could be a product of alternative S6K1 mRNA translation. Herein we report the generation of HEK-293 cells exclusively expressing p60-S6K1 as a result of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated inactivation of p85/p70-S6K1 translation. Moreover, the generated modified cells displayed the elevated level of p60-S6K1 expression compared to that in wild-type HEK-293 cells. Our data confirm an assumption that p60-S6K1 is alternatively translated, most probably, from the common for both p70- and p85-S6K1 mRNA transcript and reveal a link between p60-S6K1 expression and such cellular processes as cell proliferation and motility. In addition, our findings indicate that the p60-S6K1 isoform of S6K1 may undergo a mode of regulation distinct from p70- and p85-S6K1 due to the absence of mTOR-regulated p60-S6K1 phosphorylation at T389 that is important for S6K1 activation.

  10. CL-L1 and CL-K1 and other complement associated pattern recognition molecules in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Thiel, Steffen; Jensen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the involvement of collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and other pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) of the lectin pathway of the complement system in a cross-sectional cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients...

  11. Measurement of plasma vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinones-4 and -7) using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J; van der Molen, Jan C; van Faassen, Martijn; Navis, Gerjan; de Borst, Martin H; Muskiet, Frits A J; de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kema, Ido P

    BACKGROUND: Given the growing interest in the health benefits of vitamin K, there is great need for development of new high-throughput methods for quantitative determination of vitamin K in plasma. We describe a simple and rapid method for measurement of plasma vitamin K1 (phylloquinone [PK]) and K2

  12. Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orachorn Boonla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.

  13. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  14. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  17. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  18. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  19. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  20. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  3. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  6. S6K1 and 4E-BP1 are independent regulated and control cellular growth in bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nawroth

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation and mutation status of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways have been linked to tumorigenesis in various tumors including urothelial carcinoma (UC. However, anti-tumor therapy with small molecule inhibitors against mTOR turned out to be less successful than expected. We characterized the molecular mechanism of this pathway in urothelial carcinoma by interfering with different molecular components using small chemical inhibitors and siRNA technology and analyzed effects on the molecular activation status, cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. In a majority of tested cell lines constitutive activation of the PI3K was observed. Manipulation of mTOR or Akt expression or activity only regulated phosphorylation of S6K1 but not 4E-BP1. Instead, we provide evidence for an alternative mTOR independent but PI3K dependent regulation of 4E-BP1. Only the simultaneous inhibition of both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 suppressed cell growth efficiently. Crosstalk between PI3K and the MAPK signaling pathway is mediated via PI3K and indirect by S6K1 activity. Inhibition of MEK1/2 results in activation of Akt but not mTOR/S6K1 or 4E-BP1. Our data suggest that 4E-BP1 is a potential new target molecule and stratification marker for anti cancer therapy in UC and support the consideration of a multi-targeting approach against PI3K, mTORC1/2 and MAPK.

  7. The accuracy of k1-standardized INAA applied to a gold-lined well-type detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The k 1 -method for standardization in INAA specifically tackles the problem of the interpretation of gamma-ray spectra as obtained with highly efficient detectors, as opposed to the k 0 -method. Results obtained from three NIST reference materials, measured after neutron activation with a gold-lined well-type detector, are presented. It is concluded that the accuracy of the method is better than 1%. (author)

  8. Electrical and microstructural properties of CaTiO3-doped K1/2Na1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KNN) and CaTiO3- modified K1/2Na1/2NbO3 (CTO-KNN) systems, were investigated. Discs doped with 0 to 0.55% mol of CaTiO3 (CTO) were sintered at 1125°C for 2 h. Although minority phases were found in doped samples, CaTiO3 was not ...

  9. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. ► Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. ► Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. ► Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  10. [Isolation of a carbapenem-resistant K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain and the study of resistance mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xuan; Lü, Jianxin

    2014-12-16

    To study the virulence and mechanism of carbapenem resistance of a clinical isolate of carbapenem-resistant K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain. Identification of isolate was carried out with VITEK-2 compact system. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-test; Metallo β-lactamases and carbapenemases screening were conducted by imipenem-EDTA double disc synergy test and modified Hodge test, respectively.Specific polymerehse chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were preformed to detect the virulence genes including K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, K57, magA, rmpA, wcaG and a series of β-lactamase resistence genes. Conjunction experiment was also performed. The plasmids of transconjugants were submitted to PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) method. Molecular typing was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that the Klebsiella pneumonia strain was resistant to most of the antibiotics used in clinic. Phynotype confirmary rest revealed the production of carbapanemases, while Metallo β-lactamases were negative; PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed the isolate was positive for blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1 and virulence genes K1, magA, rmpA, wcaG simultaneously; blaKPC-2 was transferred from donor to Escherichia EC600 by conjunction experiment, while no virulence genes were found in the transconjugants. PBRT revealed that Frep plasmid was found in transconjugants. MLST analysis revealed that this strain belonged to ST23. K1 serotype Klebsiella pneumonia strain carries virulence genes and carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC-2, noteworthily the carbapenem resistance genes can be transferred through horizontal transmission on plasmids.

  11. Phylogenetische und funktionelle Analysen zur Kapsel O-Acetyltransferase NeuO von Escherichia coli K1

    OpenAIRE

    Mordhorst, Ines Louise

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli ist ein Kommensale des menschlichen und tierischen Gastrointestinaltraktes. Einige E. coli-Stämme sind in der Lage, extraintestinale Erkrankungen beim Menschen wie Harnwegsinfekte, Neugeborenen-Meningitis und Sepsis, sowie beim Tier aviäre Coliseptikämien, hervorzurufen. Ein wichtiger Virulenzfaktor des Bakteriums ist dabei die aus α-2,8-verknüpften Sialinsäuremonomeren aufgebaute K1-Kapsel, die phasenvariabel mit einer hohen Frequenz O-acetyliert werden kann. Im Jahr 20...

  12. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  13. Cytotoxic activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 against human oral tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, H; Ishihara, M; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K1, K2 and K3 were compared for their cytotoxic activity, radical generation and O2- scavenging activity. Among these compounds, vitamin K3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSG), human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF). Vitamin K3 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells, but not in HSC-2 or HSG cells. The cytotoxic activity of vitamins K2 and K1 was one and two orders lower, respectively, than K3. Vitamin K2, but not vitamin K3, showed tumor-specific cytotoxic action. ESR spectroscopy showed that only vitamin K3 produced radical(s) under alkaline condition and most potently enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate and scavenged O2- (generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction system); vitamin K2 was much less active whereas vitamin K1 was inactive. These data suggest that the cytotoxic activity of vitamin K3 is generated by radical-mediated oxidation mechanism and that this vitamin has two opposing actions (that is, antioxidant and prooxidant), depending on the experimental conditions.

  14. Viral factor TAV recruits TOR/S6K1 signalling to activate reinitiation after long ORF translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Kappei; Geldreich, Angèle; Caranta, Carole; Robaglia, Christophe; Keller, Mario; Ryabova, Lyubov A

    2011-01-01

    The protein kinase TOR (target-of-rapamycin) upregulates translation initiation in eukaryotes, but initiation restart after long ORF translation is restricted by largely unknown pathways. The plant viral reinitiation factor transactivator–viroplasmin (TAV) exceptionally promotes reinitiation through a mechanism involving retention on 80S and reuse of eIF3 and the host factor reinitiation-supporting protein (RISP) to regenerate reinitiation-competent ribosomal complexes. Here, we show that TAV function in reinitiation depends on physical association with TOR, with TAV–TOR binding being critical for both translation reinitiation and viral fitness. Consistently, TOR-deficient plants are resistant to viral infection. TAV triggers TOR hyperactivation and S6K1 phosphorylation in planta. When activated, TOR binds polyribosomes concomitantly with polysomal accumulation of eIF3 and RISP—a novel and specific target of TOR/S6K1—in a TAV-dependent manner, with RISP being phosphorylated. TAV mutants defective in TOR binding fail to recruit TOR, thereby abolishing RISP phosphorylation in polysomes and reinitiation. Thus, activation of reinitiation after long ORF translation is more complex than previously appreciated, with TOR/S6K1 upregulation being the key event in the formation of reinitiation-competent ribosomal complexes. PMID:21343906

  15. Near-Full Genome Characterisation of Two Natural Intergenotypic 2k/1b Recombinant Hepatitis C Virus Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Demetriou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Few natural intergenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV recombinants have been characterised, and only RF1_2k/1b has demonstrated widespread transmission. The near-full length genome sequences for two cases of 2k/1b recombinants (CYHCV037 and CYHCV093 sampled in Cyprus were obtained using strain-specific RT-PCR amplification and sequencing protocols. Sequence analysis confirmed their similarity with the original RF1_2k/1b strain from St. Petersburg, N687. These two isolates significantly contribute to the sequence data available on this recombinant and confirm its increasing spread among individuals from Eastern Europe, and its association with transmission through intravenous drug use. Phylogenetic analyses reveal clustering of the sequence 3′ to the recombination point, not seen in the topology of the 5′ sequences, implying a more complicated evolutionary history than that held to date. The increasing cases of HCV recombinant strains underline the requirement of their contribution to the standardised rules of HCV classification and nomenclature, molecular epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  16. A tale of tails: Sialidase is key to success in a model of phage therapy against K1-capsulated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, J.J.; Vimr, E.R.; Molineux, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies treating mice infected with Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7 observed that phages requiring the K1 capsule for infection (K1-dep) were superior to capsule-independent (K1-ind) phages. We show that three K1-ind phages all have low fitness when grown on cells in serum whereas fitnesses of four K1-dep phages were high. The difference is serum-specific, as fitnesses in broth overlapped. Sialidase activity was associated with all K1-dep virions tested but no K1-ind virions, a phenotype supported by sequence analyses. Adding endosialidase to cells infected with K1-ind phage increased fitness in serum by enhancing productive infection after adsorption. We propose that virion sialidase activity is the primary determinant of high fitness on cells grown in serum, and thus in a mammalian host. Although the benefit of sialidase is specific to K1-capsulated bacteria, this study may provide a scientific rationale for selecting phages for therapeutic use in many systemic infections.

  17. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Sano, Tamotsu; Ueda, Sabuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the liquid surface disturbance in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A horizontal flow suppressing mechanism mainly comprising vertical members is suspended near the free liquid surface of coolants in the upper plenum. The horizontal flow of coolants near the free liquid surface is reduced by the suppressing mechanism to effectively reduce the surface disturbance. The reduction in the liquid surface disturbance further prevails to the entire surface region with no particular vertical variations to the free liquid surface to remarkably improve the preventive performance for the liquid surface disturbance. Accordingly, it is also possible to attain the advantageous effects such as prevention for the thermal fatigue in reactor vessel walls, reactor upper mechanisms, etc. and prevention of burning damage to the reactor core due to the reduction of envolved Ar gas. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollion, H.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components [fr

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, I.; Gutscher, E.

    1980-01-01

    The core contains a critical mass of UN or U 2 N 3 in the form of a noncritical solution with melted Sn being kept below a N atmosphere. The lining of the reactor core consists of graphite. If fission progresses part of the melted metal solution is removed and cleaned from fission products. The reactor temperatures lie in the range of 300 to 2000 0 C. (Examples and tables). (RW) [de

  4. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  5. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  6. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  7. A preliminary assessment of vitamin K1 intakes and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels in 11-13 year old Irish girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aoife; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Máiréad

    2006-11-01

    Low vitamin K1 intakes have been associated with low bone mineral density in women and reduced bone turnover in girls. No European data exist on the relationship between vitamin K1 and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), an indicator of K1 status in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to assess intakes of vitamin K1 in relation to serum ucOC status in Irish girls. A detailed dietary history method, which measured habitual intakes from a typical 14-day period, was used to estimate vitamin K1 intakes in 18 girls aged 11-13 years. Recently compiled and validated food composition data for vitamin K1 were used to determine vitamin K1 intakes. An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure ucOC in fasting serum samples. The mean (+/- SD) intake of vitamin K1 in the girls was 72.4 microg/day (SD 34.4). Vegetables (particularly broccoli, composite dishes, and lettuce) contributed 53% of total vitamin K1 intakes. Thirty-Seven percent of the girls failed to meet the current U.S. adequate intake for adolescents of 60 microg/day vitamin K1. Serum ucOC levels were inversely related to body weight-adjusted vitamin K1 intakes, controlling for energy intake (partial correlation r = -0.538; p = 0.026). The data indicate that large-scale studies to examine relationships between vitamin K1 (and green vegetable) intakes and bone growth and development in adolescents are warranted.

  8. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  9. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Misuzu; Yokoyama, Fumi; Kita, Yuko; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Uchida, Naohito; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that various K vitamins, specifically vitamins K2 and K3, possess antitumor activity on various types of rodent- and human-derived neoplastic cell lines. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on PLC/PRF/5 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the mechanisms of antitumor actions of these vitamins in vitro and in vivo. Although vitamin K1 did not inhibit proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells at a 90-microM concentration (the highest tested), vitamins K2 and K3 suppressed proliferation of the cells at concentrations of 90 and 9 microM, respectively. By flow cytometric analysis, it was shown that not only vitamin K1, but also vitamin K2 did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest on PLC/PRF/5 cells. In contrast, vitamin K3 induced G1 arrest, but not apoptosis on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Subsequent in vivo study using subcutaneous HCC-bearing athymic nude mice demonstrated that both vitamins K2 and K3 markedly suppressed the growth of HCC tumors to similar extent. Protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), but not p16INK4a Cdk inhibitor in the tumor was significantly reduced by vitamin K2 or K3 treatment, indicating that vitamins K2 and K3 may induce G1 arrest of cell cycle on PLC/PRF/5 cells in vivo. Taken collectively, vitamins K2 and K3 were able to induce potent antitumor effects on HCC in vitro and in vivo, at least in part, by inducing G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The results indicate that vitamins K2 and K3 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with HCC.

  11. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi [Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)], e-mail: fwip5138@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 {mu}g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of {gamma} radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  12. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by 60 Co γ-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 μg/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of γ radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  13. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO₂ Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Blanca; López-Huerta, Francisco; Vega, Rosario; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Salceda, Emilio; Herrera-May, Agustín L; Soto, Enrique

    2016-07-26

    Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO₂ thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO₂ films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO₂ films' thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290-310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO₂ thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO₂ thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO₂ thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO₂ films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO₂ thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO₂ thin films in biomedical science.

  14. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cervantes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm. Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science.

  15. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Blanca; López-Huerta, Francisco; Vega, Rosario; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Salceda, Emilio; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science. PMID:28773740

  16. Path representation of su-hat (2){sub k} states I: Operators and particles for k=1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy-Poirier, Joel, E-mail: jlamypoirier@perimeterinstitute.c [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Mathieu, Pierre, E-mail: pmathieu@phy.ulaval.c [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2011-04-11

    This is the first of two articles devoted to the analysis of the path description of the states in su-hat (2){sub k} WZW models, a representation well suited for constructive derivations of the fermionic characters. In this first article, the cases k=1,2 are treated in detail, emphasizing a different description in each case (operators vs particles). For k=1, we first prove, as a side result, the equivalence of two known path representations for the finitized su-hat (2){sub 1} states by displaying an explicit bijection. An immediate offshoot is the gain of a new and simple weighting for the (Kyoto) path representation that generalizes to level k. The bijection also suggests two operator constructions for the su-hat (2){sub 1} paths, a local and a nonlocal one, both interrelated. These are formal operators that map a path to another path, so that any path can be obtained by successive applications of these operators on a simple reference (ground-state) path. The nonlocal operator description is the starting point for a direct and elementary derivation of the su-hat (2){sub 1} spinon character. The second part presents an extensive study of the su-hat (2){sub 2} paths from their particle point of view, where the particles are defined as the path building blocks. The resulting generating functions appear to provide new (at least superficially) fermionic forms of the characters. In particular, a nice relationship between the sum of the j=0,1 characters at k=2 and the two ones at k=1 is unraveled.

  17. On the studies of thermodynamics properties of fast neutron irradiated (LixK1-x)2SO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, A. M.; Kassem, M. E.; Gomaa, N. G.; Mahmoud, S. A.

    The effect of fast neutron irradiation on the thermodynamic properties of (LixK1-x)2SO4, (x = 0.1, 0.2,˙˙˙˙˙˙˙˙0.5) has been studied. The measurements were carried out in the vicinity of phase transition. The study reveals that as the lithium content decreases the first high temperature phase Tc = 705 K disappears, while the second one is shifted to lower temperature. It is observed also that the specific heat, Cp, decreases sharply with neutron integrated fluence φ and increases once more. Both entropy and enthalpy changes increase with the increase of neutron integrated fluence.

  18. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buermann, L.; Oborin, A.V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V.S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60 Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  19. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  20. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  1. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  4. Identification and quantitation of vitamins K1 and K3 in cosmetic products for facial skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orsi, D; Giannini, G; Gagliardi, L; Carpani, I; Tonelli, D

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of vitamins K1 and K3 in facial anti-rash creams. The procedure is based on an ultrasonic extraction of the cosmetic sample with dimethylacetamide, in the presence of an internal standard, followed by HPLC separation. HPLC was performed using a C18 column and spectrophotometric detection at 333 nm. A linear gradient elution was carried out starting with 50% acetonitrile-methanol (75:25 v/v) and water up to 100% acetonitrile-methanol for 5 min. Linearity was established over the concentration range from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml for vitamin K1 and from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/ml for vitamin K3, with LOD values of 100 ng and 20 ng injected, respectively. The accuracy was verified by spiking experiments on model cosmetic samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of commercial samples of creams.

  5. Effects of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Uptake Kinetics and Cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille C. Hanot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs show great promise for multiple applications in biomedicine. While a number of studies have examined their safety profile, the toxicity of these particles on reproductive organs remains uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of starch-coated, aminated, and PEGylated SPIONs on a cell line derived from Chinese Hamster ovaries (CHO-K1 cells. We evaluated the effect of particle diameter (50 and 100 nm and polyethylene glycol (PEG chain length (2k, 5k and 20k Da on the cytotoxicity of SPIONs by investigating cell viability using the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and sulforhodamine B (SRB assays. The kinetics and extent of SPION uptake by CHO-K1 cells was also studied, as well as the resulting generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. Cell toxicity profiles of SPIONs correlated strongly with their cellular uptake kinetics, which was strongly dependent on surface properties of the particles. PEGylation caused a decrease in both uptake and cytotoxicity compared to aminated SPIONs. Interestingly, 2k Da PEG-modifed SPIONs displayed the lowest cellular uptake and cytotoxicity among all studied particles. These results emphasize the importance of surface coatings when engineering nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  6. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Jun; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Fujimoto, Zui; Momma, Mitsuru; Kuno, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Tsunemi

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon A. pernix K1 was cloned, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.1, c = 196.2 Å, and diffracted to beyond 2.15 Å resolution at 100 K. Hyperthermophilic archaeal tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified by Cibacron Blue affinity chromatography following heat treatment at 363 K. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies were obtained under optimized crystallization conditions in the presence of 1.5 M ammonium sulfate using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.1, c = 196.2 Å, and diffracted to beyond 2.15 Å resolution at 100 K

  7. Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are independently and synergistically associated with a risk for hip fracture in an elderly population: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbergsen, Anne C; Watne, Leiv O; Wyller, Torgeir B; Frihagen, Frede; Strømsøe, Knut; Bøhmer, Thomas; Mowe, Morten

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hip fractures in Oslo is among the highest in the world. Vitamin D, as well as vitamin K, may play an important role in bone metabolism. We examined if vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, and whether the possible synergistic effect of these two micronutrients is mediated through bone turnover markers. Blood was drawn for vitamin K1, 25(OH)D, and the bone turnover marker osteocalcin upon admission for hip fracture and in healthy controls. Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D were independently associated with a risk of hip fracture. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) per ng/ml increase in vitamin K1 was 0.07 (0.02-0.32), and that per nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was 0.96 (0.95-0.98). There was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and vitamin K1 (p vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D (rho = 0.18, p = 0.01; rho = 0.20, p = 0.01, respectively). Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are lower in hip fracture patients compared with controls. Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are independently and synergistically associated with the risk of hip fracture when adjusting for confounders. Intervention studies should include both vitamins. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Absence of the kinase S6k1 mimics the effect of chronic endurance exercise on glucose tolerance and muscle oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Binsch

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: In high-fat fed mice, loss of S6K1 mimics endurance exercise training by reducing mitochondrial ROS production and upregulating oxidative utilization of ketone bodies. Pharmacological targeting of S6K1 may improve the outcome of exercise-based interventions in obesity and diabetes.

  9. EPR studies of the vitamin K 1 semiquinone radical anion. Comparison to the electron acceptor A 1 in green plant photosystem I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnauer, Marion C.; Brown, James W.; Gast, P.; Feezel, Laura L.

    Suggestions that the electron acceptor, A 1, in Photosystem I is a quinone have come from both optical and epr experiments. Vitamin K 1 (phylloquinone) is present in the PSI complex with a stoichiometry of two molecules per reaction center. In order to determine if A 1 can be identified with vitamin K 1, X-band and Q-band epr properties of the vitamin K 1 radical anion in frozen alcohol solutions are examined. The results are compared to the epr properties that have been observed for the reduced A 1 acceptor in vivo. The g-values obtained for the vitamin K 1 radical anion are consistent with identifying A 1 with vitamin K 1.

  10. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  11. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  12. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  14. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sekine, Katsuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the thickness of a reactor container and reduce the height and the height and plate thickness of a roof slab without using mechanical vibration stoppers. Constitution: Earthquake proofness is improved by filling fluids such as liquid metal between a reactor container and a secondary container and connecting the outer surface of the reactor container with the inner surface of the secondary container by means of bellows. That is, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, horizontal loads can be supported by the secondary container without providing mechanical vibration stoppers to the reactor container and the wall thickness can be reduced thereby enabling to simplify thermal insulation structure for the reduction of thermal stresses. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, verical loads can be transmitted to the secondary container thereby enabling to reduce the wall thickness in the same manner as for the horizontal load. By the effect of transferring the point of action of the container load applied to the roof slab to the outer circumferential portion, the intended purpose can be attained and, in addition, the radiation dose rate at the upper surface of the roof slab can be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  17. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  18. Semi-synthesis of a HGF/SF kringle one (K1) domain scaffold generates a potent in vivo MET receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Claire; Bérénice Leclercq; Mougel, Alexandra; Adriaenssens, Eric; Paquet, Charlotte; Raibaut, Laurent; Ollivier, Nathalie; Drobecq, Hervé; Marcoux, Julien; Cianférani, Sarah; Tulasne, David; de Jonge, Hugo; Melnyk, Oleg; Vicogne, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The development of MET receptor agonists is an important goal in regenerative medicine, but is limited by the complexity and incomplete understanding of its interaction with HGF/SF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor). NK1 is a natural occurring agonist comprising the N-terminal (N) and the first kringle (K1) domains of HGF/SF. In the presence of heparin, NK1 can self-associate into a "head to tail" dimer which is considered as the minimal structural module able to trigger MET dimerization and activation whereas isolated K1 and N domains showed a weak or a complete lack of agonistic activity respectively. Starting from these structural and biological observations, we investigated whether it was possible to recapitulate the biological properties of NK1 using a new molecular architecture of isolated N or K1 domains. Therefore, we engineered multivalent N or K1 scaffolds by combining synthetic and homogeneous site-specifically biotinylated N and K1 domains (NB and K1B) and streptavidin (S). NB alone or in complex failed to activate MET signaling and to trigger cellular phenotypes. Importantly and to the contrary of K1B alone, the semi-synthetic K1B/S complex mimicked NK1 MET agonist activity in cell scattering, morphogenesis and survival phenotypic assays. Impressively, K1B/S complex stimulated in vivo angiogenesis and, when injected in mice, protected the liver against fulminant hepatitis in a MET dependent manner whereas NK1 and HGF were substantially less potent. These data reveal that without N domain, proper multimerization of K1 domain is a promising strategy for the rational design of powerful MET agonists.

  19. Design, irradiation, and post-irradiation examination of the UC and (U,Pu)C fuel rods of the test groups Mol-11/K1 and Mol-11/K2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, D.; Elbel, H.; Steiner, H.

    1976-06-01

    The test groups K1 and K2 of the irradiation experiment Mol-11 are reported. Design, irradiation, and post-irradiation examination of the fuel rods irradiated are described. Mol-11/K1 consisted of one fuel rod with UC of 94% T.D. and helium bonding. This test group was intended to prove the high power irradiation capsule in pile. Mol-11/K2 consists of three fuel rods in total. One of these is presently still in the reactor. In this test group mixed carbide fuel of 83% T.D. and 15% Pu content under helium bonding is irradiated. The fuel rod K2-2 was provided with a capillary tube for the continuous measurement of fission gas pressure built up. 1.4988 stainless steel was chosen as cladding material. The final burnup lies between 35 and 70 MWd/kg M. Post-irradiation examination of the two test groups covers a theoretical analysis of the irradiation behaviour. (orig./GSCH) [de

  20. New about research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorenkov, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The multi-purpose research reactor MAPLE (Canada) and concept of new reactor MAPLE-CNF as will substitute the known Canadian research reactor NRU are described. New reactor will be used as contributor for investigations into materials, neutron beams and further developments for the CANDU type reactor. The Budapest research reactor (BRR) and its application after the last reconstruction are considered also [ru

  1. Luminescent properties of the potassium zinc phosphates of composition K1-xTlxZn(PO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abiad, A.; Mesnaoui, M.; Maazaz, M.; Parent, C.; Le Flem, G.

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline and glassy K 1-x Tl x Zn(PO 3 ) 3 polyphosphates have been synthesized and characterized. UV-visible spectroscopy was systematically used in order to analyze the optical properties of Tl + ions both in crystalline and glassy forms with the similar compositions. The investigated polyphosphates can be considered as a model system since the spectroscopic properties of Tl + ions in the glasses could be deduced by comparison with those in crystals. From structural point of view, in the crystalline forms the thallium ions are six-fold coordinated in a dissymmetrical oxygenated sites. Three luminescences (α, A X , A T ) have been then observed and were attributed to the isolated Tl + ions. In the glassy forms, an additional luminescence (D) has been detected in the low-energy range and was assigned to the Tl + pairs formation. The relationship between the Tl + site symmetry and its optical properties is discussed in the context of the Fukuda's model

  2. A Repetitive Control Scheme Aimed at Compensating the 6k + 1 Harmonics for a Three-Phase Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Zhaoxu; Su, Mei; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    these disadvantages, many repetitive controllers with reduced delay time have been proposed, which can selectively compensate the odd harmonics or 6k±1 harmonics with delay time reduced to T0/2 and T0/3,repectively. To further study in this area, this paper proposes an improved repetitive scheme implemented...... in stationary reference frame, which only compensates the 6k+1 harmonics (e.g. -5, +7, -11, +13) in three-phase systems and reduces the time delay to T0/6 . So compared with the earlier reduced delay time repetitive controllers, the robustness and transient performance is further improved, the waste of control...... effort is reduced, and the possibility of amplifying and even injecting any harmonic noises into system is avoided to the greatest extent. Moreover, the proposed repetitive scheme is used in the control of a three-phase hybrid active power filter. The experimental results validate the effectiveness...

  3. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  4. The Composition of Comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) and the Distribution of Primary Volatile Abundances Among Comets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Nathan X.; Gibb, Erika L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 503 Benton Hall, One University Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Bonev, Boncho P.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Paganini, Lucas, E-mail: nxrq67@mail.umsl.edu [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Stop 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    On 2014 May 22 and 24 we characterized the volatile composition of the dynamically new Oort cloud comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) using the long-slit, high resolution ( λ /Δ λ  ≈ 25,000) near-infrared echelle spectrograph (NIRSPEC) at the 10 m Keck II telescope on Maunakea, Hawaii. We detected fluorescent emission from six primary volatiles (H{sub 2}O, HCN, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and CO). Upper limits were derived for C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}CO. We report rotational temperatures, production rates, and mixing ratios (relative to water). Compared with median abundance ratios for primary volatiles in other sampled Oort cloud comets, trace gas abundance ratios in C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) for CO and HCN are consistent, but CH{sub 3}OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are enriched while H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, and possibly C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are depleted. When placed in context with comets observed in the near-infrared to date, the data suggest a continuous distribution of abundances of some organic volatiles (HCN, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}) among the comet population. The level of “enrichment” or “depletion” in a given comet does not necessarily correlate across all molecules sampled, suggesting that chemical diversity among comets may be more complex than the simple organics-enriched, organics-normal, and organics-depleted framework.

  5. Internalization of Rat FSH and LH/CG Receptors by rec-eCG in CHO-K1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ju; Seong, Hun-Ki; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Munkhzaya, Byambaragchaa; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2017-06-01

    Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a unique molecule that elicits the response characteristics of both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in other species. Previous studies from this laboratory had demonstrated that recombinant eCG (rec-eCG) from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells exhibited both FSH- and LH-like activity in rat granulosa and Leydig cells. In this study, we analyzed receptor internalization through rec-eCGs, wild type eCG (eCGβ/α) and mutant eCG (eCGβ/αΔ56) with an N-linked oligosaccharide at Asn 56 of the α-subunit. Both the rec-eCGs were obtained from CHO-K1 cells. The agonist activation of receptors was analyzed by measuring stimulation time and concentrations of rec-eCGs. Internalization values in the stably selected rat follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (rFSHR) and rat luteinizing/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (rLH/CGR) were highest at 50 min after stimulation with 10 ng of rec-eCGβ/α. The dose-dependent response was highest when 10 ng of rec-eCGβ/α was used. The deglycosylated eCGβ/αΔ56 mutant did not enhance the agonist-stimulated internalization. We concluded that the state of activation of rFSHR and rLH/CGR could be modulated through agonist-stimulated internalization. Our results suggested that the eLH/CGRs are mostly internalized within 60 min by agonist-stimulation by rec-eCG. We also suggested that the lack of responsiveness of the deglycosylated eCGβ/ αΔ56 was likely because the site of glycosylation played a pivotal role in agonist-stimulated internalization in cells expressing rFSHR and rLH/CGR.

  6. Active site of Zn2+-dependent sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Suk Han

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gro1PDH, EC 1.1.1.261 is key to the formation of the enantiomeric configuration of the glycerophosphate backbone (sn-glycerol-1-phosphate of archaeal ether lipids. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol-1-phosphate. To date, no information about the active site and catalytic mechanism of this enzyme has been reported. Using the sequence and structural information for glycerol dehydrogenase, we constructed six mutants (D144N, D144A, D191N, H271A, H287A and D191N/H271A of Gro1PDH from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and examined their characteristics to clarify the active site of this enzyme. The enzyme was found to be a zinc-dependent metalloenzyme, containing one zinc ion for every monomer protein that was essential for activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of D144 increased the activity of the enzyme. Mutants D144N and D144A exhibited low affinity for the substrates and higher activity than the wild type, but their affinity for the zinc ion was the same as that of the wild type. Mutants D191N, H271A and H287A had a low affinity for the zinc ion and a low activity compared with the wild type. The double mutation, D191N/ H271A, had no enzyme activity and bound no zinc. From these results, it was clarified that residues D191, H271 and H287 participate in the catalytic activity of the enzyme by binding the zinc ion, and that D144 has an effect on substrate binding. The structure of the active site of Gro1PDH from A. pernix K1 seems to be similar to that of glycerol dehydrogenase, despite the differences in substrate specificity and biological role.

  7. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2016-05-15

    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  8. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons.

  9. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E; Hankir, Mohammed K; Pedroni, Silvia M A; Voshol, Peter J; Gordon, Matthew W; Choudhury, Agharul I; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J

    2015-04-21

    Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Parker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182 in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss.

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the channel stability and the reactor core stability in a spontaneous circulation state of coolants. Constitution: A reactor core stabilizing device comprising a differential pressure automatic ON-OFF valve is disposed between each of a plurality of jet pumps arranged on a pump deck. The stabilizing device comprises a piston exerted with a pressure on the lower side of the pump deck by way of a pipeway and a valve for flowing coolants through the bypass opening disposed to the pump deck by the opening and closure of the valve ON-OFF. In a case where the jet pumps are stopped, since the differential pressure between the upper and the lower sides of the pump deck is removed, the valve lowers gravitationally into an opened state, whereby the coolants flow through the bypass opening to increase the spontaneous circulation amount thereby improve the stability. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  19. A combination of low serum concentrations of vitamins K1 and D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures in elderly Norwegians: a NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnes, T E; Lofthus, C M; Meyer, H E; Søgaard, A J; Tell, G S; Apalset, E M; Gjesdal, C; Grimnes, G; Schei, B; Blomhoff, R; Samuelsen, S O; Holvik, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the risk of incident hip fractures according to serum concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in elderly Norwegians during long-term follow-up. The results showed that the combination of low concentrations of both vitamin D and K1 provides a significant risk factor for hip fractures. This case-cohort study aims to investigate the associations between serum vitamin K1 and hip fracture and the possible effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on this association. The source cohort was 21,774 men and women aged 65 to 79 years who attended Norwegian community-based health studies during 1994-2001. Hip fractures were identified through hospital registers during median follow-up of 8.2 years. Vitamins were determined in serum obtained at baseline in all hip fracture cases (n = 1090) and in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1318). Cox proportional hazards regression with quartiles of serum vitamin K1 as explanatory variable was performed. Analyses were further performed with the following four groups as explanatory variable: I: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, II: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D vitamin K1 D ≥ 50 nmol/l, and IV: vitamin K1 D vitamin K1 and the risk of hip fracture. Further, a 50 % higher risk of hip fracture was observed in subjects with both low vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D compared with subjects with high vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D (HR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, and serum α-tocopherol. No increased risk was observed in the groups low in one vitamin only. Combination of low concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures.

  20. The type III secretion system is involved in the invasion and intracellular survival of Escherichia coli K1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yufeng; Xie, Yi; Perace, Donna; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Jie; Tao, Jing; Guo, Xiaokui; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems have been documented in many Gram-negative bacteria, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We have previously shown the existence of a putative type III secretion system in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strains, referred to as E. coli type III secretion 2 (ETT2). The sequence of ETT2 in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain EC10 (O7:K1) revealed that ETT2 comprises the epr, epa and eiv genes, but bears mutations, deletions and insertions. We constructed the E...

  1. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 interaction with Ecgp96 controls Escherichia coli K1 invasion of brain endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Chen, Shuang; Turcatel, Gianluca; Arditi, Moshe; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) with its receptor, Ecgp96 (a homologue of Hsp90β) is critical for the pathogenesis of E. coli K1 meningitis. Since Hsp90 chaperones Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we examined the role of TLRs in E. coli K1 infection. Herein, we show that newborn TLR2−/− mice are resistant to E. coli K1 meningitis, while TLR4−/− mice succumb to infection sooner. In vitro, OmpA+ E. coli infection selectively upregulates Ecgp96 and TLR2 in human brain microvascular...

  2. Inhibition of Apoptosis by Escherichia coli K1 Is Accompanied by Increased Expression of BclXL and Blockade of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Selvaraj, Suresh K.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 survival in the blood is a critical step for the onset of meningitis in neonates. Therefore, the circulating bacteria are impelled to avoid host defense mechanisms by finding a niche to survive and multiply. Our recent studies have shown that E. coli K1 enters and survives in both monocytes and macrophages in the newborn rat model of meningitis as well as in macrophage cell lines. Here we demonstrate that E. coli K1 not only extends the survival of human and murine infecte...

  3. Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Controls Pathogen Load and Brain Damage by Enhancing Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 in Neonatal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Rahul; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Goth, Kerstin A.; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis in humans. In this study, we sought to determine the pathophysiologic relevance of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) in experimental E. coli K1 meningitis. By using a newborn mouse model of meningitis, we demonstrate that E. coli infection triggered the expression of iNOS in the brains of mice. Additionally, iNOS−/− mice were resistant to E. coli K1 infection, displaying normal brain histology, no bacteremia, no disruption of the blood...

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Between a PWR's reactor pressure vessel made of steel and the biological shield made of concrete there is a gap. This gap is filled up with a heat insulation facting the reactor pressure vessel, for example with insulating concrete segments jacketed with sheet steel and with an additional layer. This layer serves for smooth absorption of compressive forces originating in radial direction from the reactor pressure vessel. It consists of cylinder-segment shaped bricks made of on situ concrete, for instance. The bricks have cooling agent ports in one or several rows which run parallel to the wall of the pressure vessel and in alignment with superposed bricks. Between the layer of bricks and the biological shield or rather the heat insulation, there are joints which are filled, however, with injected mortar. That guarantees a smooth series of connected components resistant tom compression. Besides, a slip foil can be set between the heat insulation and the joining joint filled with mortar for the reduction of the friction at thermal expansions. (TK) [de

  5. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  6. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. MLR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, E.P.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Nasonov, V.A.; Smimov, A.M.; Taliev, A.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Kousin, V.V.; Lantsov, M.N.; Radchenko, V.P.; Sharapov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Material Testing Loop Reactor (MLR) development was commenced in 1991 with the aim of updating and widening Russia's experimental base to validate the selected directions of further progress of the nuclear power industry in Russia and to enhance its reliability and safety. The MLR reactor is the pool-type one. As coolant it applies light water and as side reflector beryllium. The direction of water circulation in the core is upward. The core comprises 30 FA arranged as hexagonal lattice with the 90-95 mm pitch. The central materials channel and six loop channels are sited in the core. The reflector includes up to 11 loop channels. The reactor power is 100 MW. The average power density of the core is 0.4 MW/I (maximal value 1.0 MW/l). The maximum neutron flux density is 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the core (E>0.1 MeV), and 5.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector (E<0.625 eV). In 1995 due to the lack of funding the MLR designing was suspended. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  10. Reactor core in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)

  11. Transient behaviour study program of research reactors fuel elements at the Hydra Pulse Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostionov, V.E.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Malankin, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    Program on behavior study of research reactor Fuel Elements (FE) under transient regimes initiated by excessive reactivity insertion is being presented. Program would be realized at HYDRA pulse reactor at Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' (RRC 'K1'). HYDRA uses aqueous solution of uranyl sulfate (UO 2 SO 4 ) as a fuel. Up to 30 MJ of energy can be released inside the core during the single pulse, effective power pulse width varying from 2 to 10 ms. Reactor facility allows to investigate behaviour of FE consisting of different types of fuel composition, being developed according to Russian RERTR. First part of program is aimed at transient behaviour studying of FE MR, IRT-3M, WWR-M5 types containing meats based on dioxide uranium in aluminum matrix. Mentioned FEs use 90% and 36% enriched uranium. (author)

  12. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  13. Biosynthesis of the polysialic acid capsule of Escherichia coli K1: factors influencing cessation of capsule expression at 150C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    Initial experiments were designed to determine if increases in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) that usually occur in cells grown at 15 0 C were related to defects in membrane-associated sialyltransferase (ST) activity at 15 0 C. An E. coli K1 hybrid strain that did not increase UFA levels after growth at 15 0 C due to a mutant fabF gene was constructed. Isogenic strains with and without the fabF defect produced capsule at 33 0 C but not at 15 0 C. Membranous ST complexes isolated from both strains grown at 33 0 C transfered [ 14 C]-sialic acid (NeuNAC) from CMP-[ 14 C]-NeuNAc to endogeneous acceptors and to exogenous sialyl oligomers. Membranes from 15 0 C grown cells of the fabF + strain catalyzed incorporation of [ 14 C]NeuNAc from CMP-[ 14 C]-NeuNAc to exogenous sialyl oligomers, but required 2-4 h incubation at 33 0 C for endogenous incorporation. Membranes from the fabF mutant strain grown at 15 0 C did not incorporate [ 14 C]NeuNAc from CMP-[ 14 C]-NeuNAc under these conditions. We concluded that membrane-associated ST activity is not interrupted by low temperature increases in UFA content. Acapsular mutants derived from E. coli K1 that were defective in NeuNAc catabolism (NeuNAc aldolase) and activation or polymerization were used to examine the effects of growth at 15 0 C on NeuNAc synthesis and initiation of polysialic acid capsule synthesis. These strains accumulated high internal NeuNAc internal NeuNAc at 37 0 C, but NeuNAc was undetectable after growth at 15 0 C. Intracellular NeuNAc levels increased within 10 min. after shift from 15 0 C to 37 0 C even in the presence of rifampicin (100 g ml -1 ) or chloramphenicol (100 g ml -1 ). Extracts from these strains grown at 15 0 C and 37 0 C lacked NeuNAc synthase activity in 15 0 C assays, but were active in 37 0 C assays. We conclude that NeuNAc synthase is present but nonfunctional at 15 0 C

  14. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  15. The Escherichia coli argW-dsdCXA genetic island is highly variable, and E. coli K1 strains commonly possess two copies of dsdCXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Rebecca L; Welch, Rodney A

    2006-11-01

    The genome sequences of Escherichia coli pathotypes reveal extensive genetic variability in the argW-dsdCXA island. Interestingly, the archetype E. coli K1 neonatal meningitis strain, strain RS218, has two copies of the dsdCXA genes for d-serine utilization at the argW and leuX islands. Because the human brain contains d-serine, an epidemiological study emphasizing K1 isolates surveyed the dsdCXA copy number and function. Forty of 41 (97.5%) independent E. coli K1 isolates could utilize d-serine. Southern blot hybridization revealed physical variability within the argW-dsdC region, even among 22 E. coli O18:K1:H7 isolates. In addition, 30 of 41 K1 strains, including 21 of 22 O18:K1:H7 isolates, had two dsdCXA loci. Mutational analysis indicated that each of the dsdA genes is functional in a rifampin-resistant mutant of RS218, mutant E44. The high percentage of K1 strains that can use d-serine is in striking contrast to our previous observation that only 4 of 74 (5%) isolates in the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) collection have this activity. The genome sequence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates indicates that the csrRAKB genes for sucrose utilization are often substituted for dsdC and a portion of dsdX present at the argW-dsdCXA island of extraintestinal isolates. Among DEC isolates there is a reciprocal pattern of sucrose fermentation versus d-serine utilization. The ability to use d-serine is a trait strongly selected for among E. coli K1 strains, which have the ability to infect a wide range of extraintestinal sites. Conversely, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes appear to have substituted sucrose for d-serine as a potential nutrient.

  16. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  17. RIA Analysis of Unprotected TRIGA Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Altaf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An RIA (reactivity initiated accident analysis has been carried out for the TRIGA Mark II research reactor considering both step and ramp reactivity ranges within 0.5 % dk/k (< $1 to 2.0 % dk/k (>$2. The insertion time was set at 10 s. Based on the fact that a reactor becomes unprotected if scram does not work at the event of danger, to define unprotected conditions, the time to actuate scram (trip was taken as close to total simulation time. In this long duration of scram inactivity, it is obtained from the present analysis that the reactor remained safe to up to 1.8 % dk/k ($2.57 for step reactivity and 1.99 % dk/k ($2.84 for ramp reactivity. In addition to negative temperature coefficient of reativity, probably the longer time of reactivity insertion keeps TRIGA safe even at larger magnitudes of reactivity during unprotected reactor transients. Coupled point kinetics, neutronics, and thermal hydraulics code EUREKA-2/R has been utilized for this work. It appears that EUREKA-2/RR predicts the sequence of unprotected transient scenario of TRIGA core with good approximation and the results will definitely be helpful for the reactor operators.

  18. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  19. Surface antigens contribute differently to the pathophysiological features in serotype K1 and K2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Chiu, Sheng-Kung; Lin, Chii-Lan; Huang, Li-Yueh; Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Chang, Jen-Chang; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, Leung-Kei

    2016-01-01

    The virulence role of surface antigens in a single serotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain have been studied, but little is known about whether their contribution will vary with serotype. To investigate the role of K and O antigen in hyper-virulent strains, we constructed O and K antigen deficient mutants from serotype K1 STL43 and K2 TSGH strains from patients with liver abscess, and characterized their virulence in according to the abscess formation and resistance to neutrophil phagocytosis, serum, and bacterial clearance in liver. Both of K1 and K2-antigen mutants lost their wildtype resistance to neutrophil phagocytosis and hepatic clearance, and failed to cause abscess formation. K2-antigen mutant became serum susceptible while K1-antigen mutant maintained its resistance to serum killing. The amount of glucuronic acid, indicating the amount of capsular polysaccharide (CPS, K antigen), was inversed proportional to the rate of phagocytosis. O-antigen mutant of serotype K1 strains had significantly more amount of CPS, and more resistant to neutrophil phagocytosis than its wildtype counterpart. O-antigen mutants of serotype K1 and K2 strains lost their wildtype serum resistance, and kept resistant to neutrophil phagocytosis. While both mutants lacked the same O1 antigen, O-antigen mutant of serotype K1 became susceptible to liver clearance and cause mild abscess formation, but its serotype K2 counterpart maintained these wildtype virulence. We conclude that the contribution of surface antigens to virulence of K. pneumoniae strains varies with serotypes.

  20. TOR and S6K1 promote translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs via phosphorylation of eIF3h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Dimitrova, Maria; Mancera-Martínez, Eder; Geldreich, Angèle; Keller, Mario; Ryabova, Lyubov A

    2013-04-17

    Mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR) triggers S6 kinase (S6K) activation to phosphorylate targets linked to translation in response to energy, nutrients, and hormones. Pathways of TOR activation in plants remain unknown. Here, we uncover the role of the phytohormone auxin in TOR signalling activation and reinitiation after upstream open reading frame (uORF) translation, which in plants is dependent on translation initiation factor eIF3h. We show that auxin triggers TOR activation followed by S6K1 phosphorylation at T449 and efficient loading of uORF-mRNAs onto polysomes in a manner sensitive to the TOR inhibitor Torin-1. Torin-1 mediates recruitment of inactive S6K1 to polysomes, while auxin triggers S6K1 dissociation and recruitment of activated TOR instead. A putative target of TOR/S6K1-eIF3h-is phosphorylated and detected in polysomes in response to auxin. In TOR-deficient plants, polysomes were prebound by inactive S6K1, and loading of uORF-mRNAs and eIF3h was impaired. Transient expression of eIF3h-S178D in plant protoplasts specifically upregulates uORF-mRNA translation. We propose that TOR functions in polysomes to maintain the active S6K1 (and thus eIF3h) phosphorylation status that is critical for translation reinitiation.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    The support grid for the fuel rods of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor has a regular hexagonal contour and contains a large number of unit cells arranged honeycomb fashion. The totality of these cells make up a hexagonal shape. The grid contains a number of strips of material, and there is a window in each of three sidewalls staggered by one sidewall. The other sidewalls have embossed protrusions, thus generating a guide lining or guide bead. The windows reduce the rigidity of the areas in the middle between the ends of the cells. (DG) [de

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  3. Fabrication and Piezoelectric Properties of Textured (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hajime; Saitoh, Masahiro; Hiruma, Yuji; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2010-09-01

    Textured (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (BKT) ceramics were prepared by a reactive templated grain growth (RTGG) method to improve their piezoelectric properties. Also, a hot-pressing (HP) method was modified on the basis of RTGG method to obtain dense ceramics and promote the grain orientation. The textured BKT ceramics prepared by the RTGG and HP methods exhibited a relatively high orientation factor F of 0.82 and a high density ratio of 95-99%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the textured HP-BKT indicated a textured and poreless microstructure. In addition, the resistivity of the textured HP-BKT was 1.73×1013 Ω·cm. The piezoelectric strain constant d33 determined by means of resonance and antiresonance method was 125 pC/N for the direction parallel to the sheet-stacking direction of the RTGG process. From the measurement of field-induced stain, the normalized d33* (=Smax/Emax) at 80 kV/cm were 127 and 238 pm/V on the randomly oriented and textured samples (F=0.82) for the (∥) direction, respectively.

  4. Bioprocess optimization for production of thermoalkali-stable protease from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satbir; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-10-02

    Cost-effective production of proteases, which are robust enough to function under harsh process conditions, is always sought after due to their wide industrial application spectra. Solid-state production of enzymes using agro-industrial wastes as substrates is an environment-friendly approach, and it has several advantages such as high productivity, cost-effectiveness, being less labor-intensive, and less effluent production, among others. In the current study, different agro-wastes were employed for thermoalkali-stable protease production from Bacillus subtilis K-1 under solid-state fermentation. Agricultural residues such as cotton seed cake supported maximum protease production (728 U ml(-1)), which was followed by gram husk (714 U ml(-1)), mustard cake (680 U ml(-1)), and soybean meal (653 U ml(-1)). Plackett-Burman design of experiment showed that peptone, moisture content, temperature, phosphates, and inoculum size were the significant variables that influenced the protease production. Furthermore, statistical optimization of three variables, namely peptone, moisture content, and incubation temperature, by response surface methodology resulted in 40% enhanced protease production as compared to that under unoptimized conditions (from initial 728 to 1020 U ml(-1)). Thus, solid-state fermentation coupled with design of experiment tools represents a cost-effective strategy for production of industrial enzymes.

  5. Effect of medium replenishment or composition on [3H] thymidine incorporation in uv-irradiated CHO-K1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C.N.; Miller, J.H.

    1985-03-01

    Because culture medium contains uv-absorbing material, it is usually removed just before uv-irradiation of tissue culture monolayers. However, medium removal and replenishment with fresh medium alone (sham-irradiation) causes up to a 10-fold reduction in the rate of [ 3 H]TdR incorporation in CHO-K1 cells which persists for several hours. This reduction, which is much smaller ( 3 H]TdR pulse-label in conditioned (spent) and in fresh medium; TdR in the former is converted by cells to thymine. When responses of uv-irradiated cells are normalized to responses of corresponding sham-irradiated cultures, considerable variation is observed in replicate experiments because fresh medium appears to induce transient metabolic imbalances in irradiated cells which are not readily controlled. This problem can, in part, be circumvented by replenishing treated cultures with the original spent medium; however, the presence of CdR in the growth medium still causes an anomalous 2-3-fold greater uv-induced reduction in [ 3 H]TdR incorporation than is observed in the absence of CdR. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. TRIM45, a novel human RBCC/TRIM protein, inhibits transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuequn; Li Yongqing; Qi Xinzhu; Yuan Wuzhou; Ai Jianping; Zhu Chuanbing; Cao Lei; Yang Hong; Liu Fang; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2004-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis, and apoptosis. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of the human tripartite motif-containing protein 45 (TRIM45), a novel member of the TRIM family, from a human embryonic heart cDNA library. TRIM45 has a predicted 580 amino acid open reading frame, encoding a putative 64-kDa protein. The N-terminal region harbors a RING finger, two B-boxes, and a predicted α-helical coiled-coil domain, which together form the RBCC/TRIM motif found in a large family of proteins, whereas the C-terminal region contains a filamin-type immunoglobulin (IG-FLMN) domain. Northern blot analysis indicates that TRIM45 is expressed in a variety of human adult and embryonic tissues. In the cell, TRIM45 protein is expressed both in cytoplasm and in cell nucleus. Overexpression of TRIM45 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of ElK-1 and AP-1. These results suggest that TRIM45 may act as a new transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

  7. RNA polymerase activity in PtK1 micronuclei containing individual chromosomes: an in vitro and in situ study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, B.; Gregoire, M.; Frackowiak, S.; Hernandez-Verdun, D.; Bouteille, M.

    1987-01-01

    Micronuclei have been induced by colchicine in rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) PtK1 cells. The synthesis of RNA was investigated both in isolated micronuclei by quantifying RNA polymerase activities at different ionic strengths with or without inhibitors, and in micronucleated cells by radioautography after [ 3 H]uridine pulse labeling. In vitro transcription shows that isolated micronuclei are able to take up [ 3 H]UTP. The rate curves of incorporation are close to those of isolated diploid nuclei, though the level of incorporation was relatively lower (65-70%) than control nuclei. This indicates that micronuclei react to the ionic environment and to inhibitors in the same manner as described for many species of isolated diploid nuclei. The labelling distributions plotted from radioautographs show that micronuclei were able to efficiently incorporate the hot precursor. Furthermore, for short pulses there is no homogeneity in the labelling density among the different micronuclei and there is no correlation between the labelling intensity and the size of micronuclei. After 60-min pulse time, there is an enhanced uptake of [ 3 H]uridine and all the micronuclei exhibit considerable labelling, although less than control cells. Thus, the micronuclei exhibit some characteristic RNA transcriptional activity in situ as well as after isolation. This material should be a particular interesting model with which to study the physiological activity and the role of each individual interphasic chromosome

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  9. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-01-01

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.)

  10. Reactor monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tamotsu.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors a reactor so that each of the operations for the relocation of fuel assemblies and the withdrawal and the insertion of control rods upon exchange of fuel assemblies and control rods in the reactor. That is, when an operator conducts relocating operation by way of a fuel assembly operation section, the device of the present invention judges whether the operation indication is adequate or not, based on the information of control rod arrangement in a control rod memory section. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to a fuel assembly relocating device. Further, when the operator conducts control rod operation by way of a control rod operation section, the device of the present invention judges in the control rod withdrawal judging section, as to whether the operation indication given by the operator is adequate or not by comparing it with fuel assembly arrangement information. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to control rod drives. With such procedures, increase of nuclear heating upon occurrence of erroneous operation can be prevented. (I.S.)

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  12. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  15. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  16. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  17. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  18. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  19. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  20. Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented

  1. The CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two main research reactors, specifically designed, PEGASE reactor and Laue-Langevin high flux reactor, are presented. The PEGASE reactor was designed at the end of the 50s for the study of the gas cooled reactor fuel element behaviour under irradiation; the HFR reactor, was designed in the late 60s to serve as a high yield and high level neutron source. Historical backgrounds, core and fuel characteristics and design, flux characteristics, etc., are presented. 5 figs

  2. Atomic reactor thermal engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ryong

    1983-02-01

    This book starts the introduction of atomic reactor thermal engineering including atomic reaction, chemical reaction, nuclear reaction neutron energy and soon. It explains heat transfer, heat production in the atomic reactor, heat transfer of fuel element in atomic reactor, heat transfer and flow of cooler, thermal design of atomic reactor, design of thermodynamics of atomic reactor and various. This deals with the basic knowledge of thermal engineering for atomic reactor.

  3. Vitamin K1 versus vitamin K3 for prevention of subclinical vitamin deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, D; Deorari, A K; Saxena, R; Paul, V K; Agarwal, R; Biswas, A; Meena, A

    2007-11-01

    To compare efficacy of intramuscular phytomenadione (fat soluble vitamin K or vitamin K1) with menadione (water soluble vitamin K or vitamin K3) in prevention of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. A doubleblind randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital. Healthy term neonates were randomized to receive 1 mg of either phytomenadione (Group I, n = 85) or menadione (Group II, n = 85) intramuscularly within 2 hours of birth. PIVKA-II, a sensitive and specific marker of vitamin K deficiency was measured by ELISA method (Diagnostica Stago, France). Plasma level > 2 ng/mL was labeled as detectable PIVKA-II. Birth weight (2914 +/- 318 vs 2958 +/- 312 g), gestation (38.4 +/- 1.2 vs 38.4 +/- 1.0 wk) and other baseline variables were comparable between the two groups. 48.2% (41/85) neonates in Group I and 44.7%(38/85) neonates in Group II had detectable PIVKAII levels ([Relative Risk (95% confidence interval): 1.1 (0.8-1.5); P = 0.76]). Median PIVKA-II levels in Group I and Group II were 1.99 ng/mL and 1.97 ng/mL respectively (P = 0.26). At 72 +/- 12 h of age, mean packed cell volume and mean serum bilirubin levels were comparable in the two groups. Comparable PIVKAII detection rate and PIVKAII levels in neonates receiving phytomenadione or menadione indicate their similar efficacy in prevention of vitamin K deficiency. However, high PIVKAII detection rate observed with both preparations indicates recent vitamin K deficiency and may be due to either inadequate dose of vitamin K or persistence of PIVKAII of fetal origin.

  4. Inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity in CHO K1 cells by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdina, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    The aminothiol 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065) is the active thiol of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). WR-1065 is an effective radiation protector and antimutagenic agent when it is administered 30 min prior to radiation exposure to Chinese hamster ovary Kl cells at a concentration of 4 mM. Under these exposure conditions, topoisomerase (topo) I and II activities and associated protein contents were measured in the K1 cell line using the DNA relaxation assay, the P4 unknotting assay, and immunoblotting, respectively. WR-1065 was ineffective in modifying topo I activity, but it did reduce topo IIa activity by an average of 50 percent. The magnitude of topo IIa protein content, however, was not affected by these exposure conditions. Cell cycle effects were monitored by the method of flow cytometry. Exposure of cells to 4 mM WR-1065 for a period of up to 6 h resulted in a buildup of cells in the G2 compartment. However, in contrast to topo II inhibitors used in chemotherapy, WR-1065 is an effective radioprotector agent capable of protecting against both radiation-induced cell lethality and mutagenesis. One of several mechanisms of radiation protection attributed to aminothiol compounds such as WR-1065 has been their ability to affect endogenous enzymatic reactions involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and cell cycle progression. These results are consistent with such a proposed mechanism and demonstrate in particular a modifying effect by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol on type II topoisomerase, which is involved in DNA synthesis

  5. Observations of CO2 in Comets C/2012 S1 ISON and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; Kelley, Michael; DiSanti, Michael; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Lisse, Carey; Chanover, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    Comets have undergone very little thermal evolution in their lifetimes, resulting in a primitive composition. This primitive composition makes observations of comets very important tools for understanding the origin of the Solar System. The ices H2O, CO2, and CO are the primary ices present in cometary nuclei, and constraining their abundances has tremendous implications for the formation and evolutionary history of comets. Of these ices, H2O and CO can be observed from the ground, while CO2 cannot. A potentially effective tracer for CO2 in comets that is accessible from the ground is atomic oxygen. However, the relationship between these ices and atomic oxygen is only understood at a qualitative level. We propose to use Spitzer observations in IRAC's 4.5 micron band pass to observe the CO2 v3 band at 4.26 microns in comets C/2012 S1 ISON and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS. These observations will be coordinated with observations of atomic oxygen obtained at Apache Point Observatory and McDonald Observatory and observations of H2O and CO at Keck and IRTF. These observations of H2O, CO2, and atomic oxygen in a cometary coma will increase our understanding of the link between these primary ices and atomic oxygen. With a complete understanding of the relationship between atomic oxygen and the primary ices on the nucleus, observations of atomic oxygen can serve as a powerful proxy for the production of CO2. In addition, ISON is the target of an extensive observing campaign led by NASA, and the proposed Spitzer observations fill a vital niche as the only observatory that can observe CO2 during both the near-perihelion time frame and significantly (months) after perihelion. Understanding the evolution of the CO2 abundance over the apparition is a key piece to understanding how the volatile compostion of the comet changes over the apparition.

  6. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantification of human collectin 11 (CL-11, CL-K1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, L.; Henriksen, M.L.; Brandt, J.; Palarasah, Y.; Waters, A.; Beales, P.L.; Holmskov, U.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Nielsen, C.; Skjodt, K.; Hansen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collectin 11 (CL-11), also referred to as collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1), is a pattern recognition molecule that belongs to the collectin group of proteins involved in innate immunity. It interacts with glycoconjugates on pathogen surfaces and has been found in complex with mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 1 (MASP-1) and/or MASP-3 in circulation. Mutation in the CL-11 gene was recently associated with the developmental syndrome 3MC. In the present study, we established and thoroughly validated a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on two different monoclonal antibodies. The assay is highly sensitive, specific and shows excellent quantitative characteristics such as reproducibility, dilution linearity and recovery (97.7–104%). The working range is 0.15–34 ng/ml. The CL-11 concentration in two CL-11-deficient individuals affected by the 3MC syndrome was determined to be below 2.1 ng/ml. We measured the mean serum CL-11 concentration to 284 ng/ml in 100 Danish blood donors, with a 95% confidence interval of 269–299 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in the CL-11 concentration measured in matched serum and plasma samples. Storage of samples and repeated freezing and thawing to a certain extent did not influence the ELISA. This ELISA offers a convenient and reliable method for studying CL-11 levels in relation to a variety of human diseases and syndromes. PMID:22301270

  7. Inhibition of topoisomerase II{alpha} activity in CHO K1 cells by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grdina, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation and Cellular Oncology; Constantinou, A. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Specialized Cancer Center; Shigematsu, N.; Murley, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The aminothiol 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065) is the active thiol of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). WR-1065 is an effective radiation protector and antimutagenic agent when it is administered 30 min prior to radiation exposure to Chinese hamster ovary Kl cells at a concentration of 4 mM. Under these exposure conditions, topoisomerase (topo) I and II activities and associated protein contents were measured in the K1 cell line using the DNA relaxation assay, the P4 unknotting assay, and immunoblotting, respectively. WR-1065 was ineffective in modifying topo I activity, but it did reduce topo IIa activity by an average of 50 percent. The magnitude of topo IIa protein content, however, was not affected by these exposure conditions. Cell cycle effects were monitored by the method of flow cytometry. Exposure of cells to 4 mM WR-1065 for a period of up to 6 h resulted in a buildup of cells in the G2 compartment. However, in contrast to topo II inhibitors used in chemotherapy, WR-1065 is an effective radioprotector agent capable of protecting against both radiation-induced cell lethality and mutagenesis. One of several mechanisms of radiation protection attributed to aminothiol compounds such as WR-1065 has been their ability to affect endogenous enzymatic reactions involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and cell cycle progression. These results are consistent with such a proposed mechanism and demonstrate in particular a modifying effect by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol on type II topoisomerase, which is involved in DNA synthesis.

  8. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Noise analysis role in reactor safety, Spectral analysis (PSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Velickovic, Lj.

    1967-11-01

    Spectral power density of a zero power reactor is frequency dependent and related to transfer function of the reactor and to spectral density of the input disturbance. Measurement of spectral power density of a critical system is used to obtain the ratio (β/l), β is the effective yield of delayed neutrons, and l is the effective mean neutron lifetime. When reactor is subcritical, if the effective yie ald of delayed neutrons, the effective mean neutron lifetime are known, the shutdown margin can be determined by relation α = (1 - k (1- β0)/l, k is the effective multiplication factor. Output neutron spectrum at the RB reactor in Vinca was measured for a few reactor core configurations and for a few levels of heavy water at subcritical state. Measured values were satisfactory when the reactor was critical, but the reactor noise of subcritical system was covered by the white noise of the detector and electronic equipment. The Ra-Be source was under the reactor vessel when measurements of subcritical system were done. More efficient detector or external random stimulus for increasing the intensity of neutron fluctuations would be needed to obtain results for subcritical system

  10. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    The people of Ontario have begun to receive the benefits of a low cost, assured supply of electrical energy from CANDU nuclear stations. This indigenous energy source also has excellent safety characteristics. Safety has been one of the central themes of the CANDU development program from its very beginning. A great deal of work has been done to establish that public risks are small. However, safety design criteria are now undergoing extensive review, with a real prospect of more stringent requirements being applied in the future. Considering the newness of the technology it is not surprising that a consensus does not yet exist; this makes it imperative to discuss the issues. It is time to examine the policies and practice of reactor safety management in Canada to decide whether or not further restrictions are justified in the light of current knowledge

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Weber, R.; Bauer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The refuelling of a PWR power reactor of about 1,200 MWe is performed by a transport pipe in the containment leading from an external to an internal fuel pit. A wagon to transport the fuel elements can go from a vertical loading position to an also vertical deloading position in the inner fuel pit via guide rollers. The necessary horizontal movement is effected by means of a cable line through the transport pipe which is inclined at least 10 0 . Gravity thus helps in the movement to the deloading position. The cable line with winch is fastened outside the containment. Swivelling devices tip the wagon from the horizontal to the vertical position or vice versa. Loading and deloading are done laterally. (TK/LH) [de

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  13. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    In the system described the fuel elements are arranged vertically in groups and are supported in such a manner as to tend to tilt them towards the center of the respective group, the fuel elements being urged laterally into abutment with one another. The elements have interlocking bearing pads, whereby lateral movement of adjacent elements is resisted; this improves the stability of the reactor core during refuelling operations. Fuel elements may comprise clusters of parallel fuel pins enclosed in a wrapper of hexagonal cross section, with bearing pads in the form of spline-like ribs located on each side of the wrapper and extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuel element, being interlockable with ribs on pads of adjacent fuel elements. The arrangement is applicable to a reactor core in which fuel elements and control rod guide tubes are arranged in modules each of which comprises a cluster of at least three fuel elements, one of which is rigidly supported whilst the others are resiliently tilted towards the center of the cluster so as to lean on the rigidly supported element. It is also applicable to modules comprising a cluster of six fuel elements, each resiliently tilted towards a central void to form a circular arch. The modules may include additional fuel elements located outside the clusters and also resiliently tilted towards the central voids, the latter being used to accommodate control rod guide tubes. The need for separate structural members to act as leaning posts is thus avoided. Such structural members are liable to irradiation embrittlement, that could lead to core failure. (U.K.)

  15. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Cross, Sally H; Jackson, Ian J; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel; Morse, Susan; Nicholson, George; Coghill, Emma; Bowl, Michael R; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss. © 2015. Published by The Company of

  16. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  17. Dimerization of nitrophorin 4 at low pH and comparison to the K1A mutant of nitrophorin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Shokhireva, Tatiana K; Amoia, Angela M; Garrett, Sarah A; Goren, Allena M; Korte, Stephanie R; Zhang, Hongjun; Weichsel, Andrzej; Montfort, William R; Walker, F Ann

    2015-01-20

    Nitrophorin 4, one of the four NO-carrying heme proteins from the salivary glands of Rhodnius prolixus, forms a homodimer at pH 5.0 with a Kd of ∼8 μM. This dimer begins to dissociate at pH 5.5 and is completely dissociated to monomer at pH 7.3, even at 3.7 mM. The dimer is significantly stabilized by binding NO to the heme and at pH 7.3 would require dilution to well below 0.2 mM to completely dissociate the NP4-NO homodimer. The primary techniques used for investigating the homodimer and the monomer-dimer equilibrium were size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography at pH 5.0 and (1)H{(15)N} heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy as a function of pH and concentration. Preparation of site-directed mutants of NP4 (A1K, D30A, D30N, V36A/D129A/L130A, K38A, R39A, K125A, K125E, D132A, L133V, and K38Q/R39Q/K125Q) showed that the N-terminus, D30, D129, D132, at least one heme propionate, and, by association, likely also E32 and D35 are involved in the dimerization. The "closed loop" form of the A-B and G-H flexible loops of monomeric NP4, which predominates in crystal structures of the monomeric protein reported at pH 5.6 but not at pH 7.5 and which involves all of the residues listed above except D132, is required for dimer formation. Wild-type NP1 does not form a homodimer, but NP1(K1A) and native N-terminal NP1 form dimers in the presence of NO. The homodimer of NP1, however, is considerably less stable than that of NP4 in the absence of NO. This suggests that additional aspartate or glutamate residues present in the C-terminal region of NP4, but not NP1, are also involved in stabilizing the dimer.

  18. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  19. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  20. Fcγ receptor I alpha chain (CD64) expression in macrophages is critical for the onset of meningitis by Escherichia coli K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Selvaraj, Suresh K; Wooster, David G; Babu, M Madan; Schreiber, Alan D; Verbeek, J Sjef; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-11-18

    Neonatal meningitis due to Escherichia coli K1 is a serious illness with unchanged morbidity and mortality rates for the last few decades. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of meningitis contributes to this poor outcome. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in newborn mice renders the animals resistant to E. coli K1 induced meningitis. The entry of E. coli K1 into macrophages requires the interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 with the alpha chain of Fcγ receptor I (FcγRIa, CD64) for which IgG opsonization is not necessary. Overexpression of full-length but not C-terminal truncated FcγRIa in COS-1 cells permits E. coli K1 to enter the cells. Moreover, OmpA binding to FcγRIa prevents the recruitment of the γ-chain and induces a different pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of macrophage proteins compared to IgG2a induced phosphorylation. Of note, FcγRIa(-/-) mice are resistant to E. coli infection due to accelerated clearance of bacteria from circulation, which in turn was the result of increased expression of CR3 on macrophages. Reintroduction of human FcγRIa in mouse FcγRIa(-/-) macrophages in vitro increased bacterial survival by suppressing the expression of CR3. Adoptive transfer of wild type macrophages into FcγRIa(-/-) mice restored susceptibility to E. coli infection. Together, these results show that the interaction of FcγRI alpha chain with OmpA plays a key role in the development of neonatal meningitis by E. coli K1.

  1. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majuntongrensh1@126.com; Zhuang, Wen-Fang, E-mail: wenfangzhuangmd@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  2. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  3. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  5. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  6. Reactor safety method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachon, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature

  7. Analysis of vitamin K-1 in fruits and vegetables using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method to study vitamin K-1 in fruits and vegetables. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography tandem mass...... spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode with deuterium-labeled vitamin K1 as an internal standard. The precision was estimated as the pooled estimate of three replicates performed on three different days for spinach, peas, apples, banana, and beetroot...

  8. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Suppresses Meningitic E. coli K1 Penetration across Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro and Protects Neonatal Rats against Experimental Hematogenous Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-He Huang; Lina He; Yanhong Zhou; Chun-Hua Wu; Ambrose Jong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prophylactic efficacy of probiotics in neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by E. coli K1. The potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on meningitic E. coli K1 infection was examined by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with E44 (a CSF isolate from a newborn baby with E. coli meningitis), and (ii) the neonatal rat model of E. coli sepsis and meningitis. The in vitro studies demonstrated that LGG blocked E44 adhesion, invasio...

  9. Physics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This course gives an introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics. The first chapter explains the most important parameters and concepts in nuclear reactor physics such as fission, cross sections and the effective multiplication factor. Further on, in the second chapter, the flux distributions in a stationary reactor are derived from the diffusion equation. Reactor kinetics, reactor control and reactor dynamics (feedback effects) are described in the following three chapters. The course concludes with a short description of the different types of existing and future reactors. (author)

  10. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  11. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  12. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutomi, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Moroo; Sawai, Yuichi; Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon composited with reinforcing metals is used for a divertor cooling substrate having an effect as a cooling tube to provide a silicon base composite material having increased electric resistance and toughness. The blending ratio of reinforcing materials in the form of granules, whiskers or long fibers is controlled in order to control heat conductivity, electric resistivity and mechanical performances. The divertor cooling substrate comprising the silicon base composite material is integrated with a plasma facing material. The production method therefor includes ordinary metal matrix composite forming methods such as powder metallurgy, melting penetration method, high pressure solidification casting method, centrifugal casting method and vacuum casting method. Since the cooling plate is constituted with the light metal and highly electric resistant metal base composite material, sharing force due to eddy current can be reduced, and radiation exposure can be minimized. Accordingly, a cooling structure for a thermonuclear reactor effective for the improvement of environmental problems caused by waste disposal can be attained. (N.H.)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, L.; Tautz, J.; Ulrych, G.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent complements the arrangement of non-return valves to prevent loss of cooling water on fracture of external tubes in the main coolant circuit (according to PS 24 24 427.7) by ensuring that the easily movable valves only operate in case of a fault, but do not flutter in operation, because the direction of flow is not the same at each location where they are installed. The remedy for this undesirable effect consists of allocating 1 non-return valve unit with 5 to 10 valves to each (of several) ducts for the cooling water intake. These units are installed in the annular space between the reactor vessel and the pressure vessel below the inlet of the ducts. Due to flow guidance surfaces in the same space, the incoming cooling water is deflected downwards and as the guiding surfaces are closed at the sides, must pass parallel to the valves of the non-return valve unit. On fracture of the external cooling water inlet pipe concerned, all valves of this unit close due to reversal of flow on the outlet side. (TK) [de

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  16. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  17. Selective kainate receptor (GluK1) ligands structurally based upon1H-Cyclopentapyrimidin-2,4(1H,3H)-dione: synthesis, molecular modeling, and pharmacological and biostructural characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venskutonyte, Raminta; Butini, Stefania; Coccone, Salvatore Sanna

    2011-01-01

    The physiological function of kainate receptors (GluK1- GluK5) in the central nervous system is not fully understood yet. With the aim of developing potent and selective GluK1 ligands, we have synthesized a series of new thiophene-based GluK1 agonists (6a-c) and antagonists (7a-d). Pharmacologica...

  18. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  19. A Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Killer Strain Secreting the X Factor Related to Killer Activity and Inhibition of S. cerevisiae K1, K2 and K28 Killer Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvydas, Vytautas; Bružauskaitė, Ieva; Gedminienė, Genovaitė; Šiekštelė, Rimantas

    2016-09-01

    It was determined that Kx strains secrete an X factor which can inhibit all known Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer toxins (K1, K2, K28) and some toxins of other yeast species-the phenomenon not yet described in the scientific literature. It was shown that Kx type yeast strains posess a killer phenotype producing small but clear lysis zones not only on the sensitive strain α'1 but also on the lawn of S. cerevisiae K1, K2 and K28 type killer strains at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C. The pH at which killer/antikiller effect of Kx strain reaches its maximum is about 5.0-5.2. The Kx yeast were identified as to belong to S. cerevisiae species. Another newly identified S. cerevisiae killer strain N1 has killer activity but shows no antikilller properties against standard K1, K2 and K28 killer toxins. The genetic basis for Kx killer/antikiller phenotype was associated with the presence of M-dsRNA which is bigger than M-dsRNA of standard S. cerevisiae K1, K2, K28 type killer strains. Killer and antikiller features should be encoded by dsRNA. The phenomenon of antikiller (inhibition) properties was observed against some killer toxins of other yeast species. The molecular weight of newly identified killer toxins which produces Kx type strains might be about 45 kDa.

  20. Development of a Colloidal Gold-Based Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotypes K1 and K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, L Kristopher; Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chen, Te-Li; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS) containing anti-Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide polyclonal antibodies was developed to specifically detect K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2. Capsular polysaccharide K1 and K2 antigens were first used to produce polyclonal anti-K1 and anti-K2 antibodies. Reference strains with different serotypes, nontypeable K. pneumoniae strains, and other bacterial species were then used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these test strips. The detection limit was found to be 10 5 CFU, and the ICSs were stable for 6 months when stored at room temperature. No false-positive or false-negative results were observed, and equivalent results were obtained compared to those of more conventional test methods, such as PCR or serum agglutination. In conclusion, the ICS developed here requires no technical expertise and allows for the specific, rapid, and simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae serotypes K1 and K2. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. The collectins CL-L1, CL-K1 and CL-P1, and their roles in complement and innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Soren W K; Ohtani, Katsuki; Roy, Nitai

    2016-01-01

    as CL-LK) and its activation of the lectin pathway via MASPs, drew new attention in the complement biology, which was further strengthened by the observed interactions between CL-P1 and CRP-C1q-factor H or properdin. Deficiency of either CL-K1 or MASP-3 has been demonstrated in 3MC syndrome patients...

  2. Biophysical characterization of inwardly rectifying potassium currents (I(K1) I(K,ACh), I(K,Ca)) using sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation action potential waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Chuyi; Skibsbye, Lasse; Yuan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although several physiological, pathophysiological and regulatory properties of classical inward rectifier K+ current I(K1), G-protein coupled inwardly-rectifying K+ current I(K,ACh) and the small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ current I(K,Ca) have been identified, quantitative biophysical details...

  3. Analysis of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus of Porphyromonas gingivalis and development of a K1-specific polymerase chain reaction-based serotyping assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, J.; Crielaard, W.; Winkelhoff A.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative obligate anaerobe that is strongly associated with severe periodontitis. Previous reports showed an association of P. gingivalis capsular polysaccharide with virulence. The K1 capsular polysaccharide was found to be more

  4. Protective activity of a novel resveratrol analogue, HS-1793, against DNA damage in 137Cs-irradiated CHO-K1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Ho; Jo, Young Rae; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Chang Geun; Oh, Su Jung; Jeong, Soo Kyung; Jo, Wol Soon; Lee, Ki Won

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol has received considerable attention as a polyphenol with anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Radiation is an important component of therapy for a wide range of malignant conditions. However, it causes damage to normal cells and, hence, can result in adverse side effects. This study was conducted to examine whether HS-1793, a novel resveratrol analogue free from the restriction of metabolic instability and the high dose requirement of resveratrol, induces a protective effect against radiation-induced DNA damage. HS-1793 effectively scavenged free radicals and inhibited radiation-induced plasmid DNA strand breaks in an in vitro assay. HS-1793 significantly decreased reactive oxygen species and cellular DNA damage in 2 Gy-irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. In addition, HS-1793 dose-dependently reduced the levels of phosphorylated H2AX in irradiated CHO-K1 cells. These results indicate that HS-1793 has chemical radioprotective activity. Glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in irradiated CHO-K1 cells increased significantly following HS-1793 treatment. The enhanced biological anti-oxidant activity and chemical radioprotective activity of HS-1793 maintained survival of irradiated CHO-K1 cells in a clonogenic assay. Therefore, HS-1793 may be of value as a radioprotector to protect healthy tissue surrounding tumor cells during radiotherapy to obtain better tumor control with a higher dose. (author)

  5. A simple and sensitive method for determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma: application for an in vivo pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Sivak, Olena; Darlington, Jerald W; Wasan, Kishor M

    2014-03-01

    To develop and to validate a simple but sensitive method for determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma. The sample treatment included protein precipitation by cold acetonitrile, evaporation, reconstitution with methanol and filtration. The chromatography conditions included Xterra RP18 3.5 µm 4.6 × 100 mm column at ambient temperature and mobile phase consisting of methanol/water (93/7, v/v) at 0.5 mL/min flow rate. Vitamin D3 and probucol were detected at 265 nm and vitamin K1 at 239 nm. Rats were administered intravenously by 0.1 mg/kg of vitamin D3 or K1 and the blood samples were withdrawn pre-administration and at pre-determined time points post-administration. The pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a non-compartmental approach. The calibration curves in rat plasma were linear up to 5000 ng/mL for both vitamins. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 20 ng/mL for vitamin D3 and 40 ng/mL for K1. Inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy were below 15%. The pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin D3 following intravenous administration were: AUC0-∞ = 11323 ± 1081 h × ng/mL, Vd = 218 ± 80 mL/kg, CL = 8.9 ± 0.8 mL/h/kg, t1/2 = 16.8 ± 5 h; and of vitamin K1: AUC0-∞ = 2495 ± 297 h × ng/mL, Vd = 60 ±24 mL/kg, CL = 40.5 ± 5.1 mL/h/kg, t1/2 = 1.1 ±0.5 h. The developed HPLC-UV assay is a simple and sensitive method for the determination of vitamins D3 and K1 in rat plasma. A higher dose of vitamin K1 should be used in future studies for accurate estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters. The data show the suitability of the assay for pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

  6. Essential role for SphK1/S1P signaling to regulate hypoxia-inducible factor 2α expression and activity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquerel, P; Gstalder, C; Müller, D; Laurent, J; Brizuela, L; Sabbadini, R A; Malavaud, B; Pyronnet, S; Martineau, Y; Ader, I; Cuvillier, O

    2016-03-14

    The sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) signaling pathway has been reported to modulate the expression of the canonical transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-1α in multiple cell lineages. HIF-2α is also frequently overexpressed in solid tumors but its role has been mostly studied in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. In this study, the role of SphK1/S1P signaling with regard to HIF-2α was investigated in various cancer cell models including ccRCC cells. Under hypoxic conditions or in ccRCC lacking a functional von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and expressing high levels of HIF-2α, SphK1 activity controls HIF-2α expression and transcriptional activity through a phospholipase D (PLD)-driven mechanism. SphK1 silencing promotes a VHL-independent HIF-2α loss of expression and activity and reduces cell proliferation in ccRCC. Importantly, downregulation of SphK1 is associated with impaired Akt and mTOR signaling in ccRCC. Taking advantage of a monoclonal antibody neutralizing extracellular S1P, we show that inhibition of S1P extracellular signaling blocks HIF-2α accumulation in ccRCC cell lines, an effect mimicked when the S1P transporter Spns2 or the S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) is silenced. Here, we report the first evidence that the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway regulates the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible HIF-2α in diverse cancer cell lineages notably ccRCC, where HIF-2α has been established as a driver of a more aggressive disease. These findings demonstrate that SphK1/S1P signaling may act as a canonical regulator of HIF-2α expression in ccRCC, giving support to its inhibition as a therapeutic strategy that could contribute to reduce HIF-2 activity in ccRCC.

  7. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  8. Nuclear reactor instrumentation at research reactor renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Pellionisz, P.

    1981-10-01

    The paper overviews the state-of-the-art of research reactor renewals. As a case study the instrumentation reconstruction of the Finnish 250 kW TRIGA reactor is described, with particular emphasis on the nuclear control instrumentation and equipment which has been developed and manufactured by the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. Beside the presentation of the nuclear instrument family developed primarily for research reactor reconstructions, the quality assurance policy conducted during the manufacturing process is also discussed. (author)

  9. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  10. Guide to power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    The IAEA's major first scientific publication is the Directory of Power Reactors now in operation or under construction in various parts of the world. The purpose of the directory is to present important details of various power projects in such a way as to provide a source of easy reference for anyone interested in the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, either at the technical or management level. Six pages have been devoted to each reactor the first of which contains general information, reactor physics data and information about the core. The second and third contain sketches of the fuel element or of the fuel element assembly, and of the horizontal and vertical sections of the reactor. On the fourth page information is grouped under the following heads: fuel element, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel and over-all dimensions, and fluid flow. The fifth page shows a simplified flow diagram, while the sixth provides information on reflector and shielding, containment and turbo generator. Some information has also been given, when available, on cost estimates and operating staff requirements. Remarks and a bibliography constitute the last part of the description of each reactor. Reactor projects included in this directory are pressurized light water cooled power reactors. Boiling light water cooled power reactors, heavy water cooled power reactors, gas cooled power reactors, organic cooled power reactors liquid metal cooled power reactors and liquid metal cooled power reactors

  11. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  12. Effects of inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short (2 h and prolonged (18 h inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate (PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. METHODS: L6 myotubes were treated simultaneously with either PA and myriocin (SPT inhibitor or PA and Ski II (SphK1inhibitor for different time periods (2 h and 18 h. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake was measured using radioactive isotope. Expression of insulin signaling proteins was determined using Western blot analyses. Intracellular sphingolipids content [sphinganine (SFA, ceramide (CER, sphingosine (SFO, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P] were estimated by HPLC. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both short and prolonged time of inhibition of SPT by myriocin was sufficient to prevent ceramide accumulation and simultaneously reverse palmitate induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, prolonged inhibition of SphK1 intensified the effect of PA on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and attenuated further the activity of insulin signaling proteins (pGSK3β/GSK3β ratio in L6 myotubes. These effects were related to the accumulation of sphingosine in palmitate treated myotubes. CONCLUSION: Myriocin is more effective in restoration of palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myocytes, despite of the time of SPT inhibition, comparing to SKII (a specific SphK1 inhibitor. Observed changes in insulin signaling proteins were related to the content of specific sphingolipids, namely to the reduction of ceramide. Interestingly, inactivation of SphK1 augmented the effect of PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes, which was associated with further inhibition of insulin stimulated PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation, glucose uptake and the accumulation of sphingosine.

  13. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  14. Reactor core of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)

  15. Reactor core for LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Bando, Masaru; Watari, Yoshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the power distribution fluctuations and obtain flat and stable power distribution throughout the operation period in an LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: In the inner reactor core region and the outer reactor core region surrounding the same, the thickness of the inner region is made smaller than the axial height of the reactor core region and the radial width thereof is made smaller than that of the reactor core region and the volume thereof is made to 30 - 50 % for the reactor core region. Further, the amount of the fuel material per unit volume in the inner region is made to 70 - 90 % of that in the outer region. The difference in the neutron infinite multiplication factor between the inner region and the outer region is substantially constant irrespective of the burnup degree and the power distribution fluctuation can be reduced to about 2/3, by which the effect of thermal striping to the reactor core upper mechanisms can be moderated. Further, the maximum linear power during operation can be reduced by 3 %, by which the thermal margin in the reactor core is increased and the reactor core fuels can be saved by 3 %. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Tokamak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features

  17. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  18. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  19. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone-4) supplementation improves bone formation in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2013-09-01

    Several reports suggest that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in improving bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 supplementation on the biochemical markers of bone turnover and morphological microstructure of the bones by using an obese mouse model. Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 10% fat normal diet group or a 45% kcal high-fat diet group, with or without 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K1 (Normal diet + K1, high-fat diet + K1) and 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K2 (Normal diet + K2, high-fat diet + K2) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in the high-fat diet + K2 group than in the high-fat diet group. Serum OPG level of the high-fat diet group, high-fat diet + K1 group, and high-fat diet + K2 group was 2.31 ± 0.31 ng/ml, 2.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, and 2.90 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Serum level of RANKL in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the high-fat diet + K1 group and high-fat diet + K2 group (p<0.05). Vitamin K supplementation seems to tend to prevent bone loss in high-fat diet induced obese state. These findings suggest that vitamin K supplementation reversed the high fat diet induced bone deterioration by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities and prevent bone loss in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

  20. Inhibition of the SphK1/S1P signaling pathway by melatonin in mice with liver fibrosis and human hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Bárbara; Sánchez, Diana I; Crespo, Irene; San-Miguel, Beatriz; Álvarez, Marcelino; Tuñón, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2017-03-01

    The sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) system is involved in different pathological processes, including fibrogenesis. Melatonin abrogates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and attenuates different profibrogenic pathways in animal models of fibrosis, but it is unknown if protection associates with its inhibitory effect on the SphK1/S1P axis. Mice in treatment groups received carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) 5 μL g -1 body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 or 6 weeks. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg kg -1  day -1 i.p, beginning 2 weeks after the start of CCl 4 administration. At both 4 and 6 weeks following CCl 4 treatment, liver mRNA levels, protein concentration and immunohistochemical labelling for SphK1 increased significantly. S1P production, and expression of S1P receptor (S1PR)1, S1PR3 and acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) were significantly elevated. However, there was a decreased expression of S1PR2 and S1P lyase (S1PL). Melatonin attenuated liver fibrosis, as shown by a significant inhibition of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and collagen (Col) Ι. Furthermore, melatonin inhibited S1P production, lowered expression of SphK1, S1PR1, SP1R3, and ASMase, and increased expression of S1PL. Melatonin induced a reversal of activated human HSCs cell line LX2, as evidenced by a reduction in α-SMA, TGF-β, and Col I expression. Melatonin-treated cells also exhibited an inhibition of the SphK1/S1P axis. Antifibrogenic effect of SphK1 inhibition was confirmed by treatment of LX2 cells with PF543. Abrogation of the lipid signaling pathway by the indole reveals novel molecular pathways that may account for the protective effect of melatonin in liver fibrogenesis. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):272-282, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  2. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  3. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  4. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  5. Control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, E.B.; Bernath, L.; Facha, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided with several hydraulically-supported spherical bodies having a high neutron absorption cross section, which fall by gravity into the core region of the reactor when the flow of supporting fluid is shut off. (auth)

  6. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  7. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Guidebook to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    A general introduction to reactor physics and theory is followed by descriptions of commercial nuclear reactor types. Future directions for nuclear power are also discussed. The technical level of the material is suitable for laymen

  9. continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the small and large intestines as plug flow reactor (PFR) ... from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of the modeled reactors.

  10. Reactor physics aspects of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1980-01-01

    These four lectures are being given at the Winter Course on Nuclear Physics at Trieste during 1978 February. They constitute part of the third week's lectures in Part II: Reactor Theory and Power Reactors. A physical description of CANDU reactors is given, followed by an overview of CANDU characteristics and some of the design options. Basic lattice physics is discussed in terms of zero energy lattice experiments, irradiation effects and analytical methods. Start-up and commissioning experiments in CANDU reactors are reviewed, and some of the more interesting aspects of operation discussed - fuel management, flux mapping and control of the power distribution. Finally, some of the characteristics of advanced fuel cycles that have been proposed for CANDU reactors are summarized. (author)

  11. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  12. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D; Takac, S; Markovic, H; Raisic, N; Zdravkovic, Z; Radanovic, Lj [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1959-03-15

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  13. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  14. PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor is the only research reactor in Malaysia. This 1 MW TRIGA Mk II reactor first reached criticality on 28 June 1982 and is located at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency premise in Bangi, Malaysia. This reactor has been mainly utilised for research, training and education and isotope production. Over the years several systems have been refurbished or modernised to overcome ageing and obsolescence problems. Major achievements and milestones will also be elaborated in this paper. (author)

  15. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  16. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  17. Mirror fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.; Carlson, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters

  18. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  19. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  20. Refuelling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, J.; Webb, J.; White, W.P.; McLaren, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor refuelling machine is described which can be left in the reactor vault to reduce the off-load refuelling time for the reactor. The system comprises a gripper device rangeable within a tubular chute, the gripper device being movable by a pantograph. (U.K.)

  1. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  2. Ulysse, mentor reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquin, B.; Rio, I.; Safieh, J.

    1997-01-01

    On July 23, 1961, the ULYSSE reactor began its first power rise. Designed at that time to train nuclear engineering students and reactor operators, this reactor still remains an indispensable tool for nuclear teaching and a choice instrument for scientists. (author)

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  4. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  5. Cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus alterations in CHO-K1 cell line after Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake venom treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Tamieti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are toxic to a variety of cell types. However, the intracellular damages and the cell death fate induced by venom are unclear. In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. The cells CHO-K1 were incubated with C. d. terrificus venom (10, 50 and 100g/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and structural alterations of actin filaments, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus were assessed using specific fluorescent probes and agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation. Significant structural changes were observed in all analyzed structures. DNA fragmentation was detected suggesting that, at the concentrations used, the venom induced apoptosis.

  6. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5-K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igolkina, A A; Porozov, Yu B; Chizhevskaya, E P; Andronov, E E

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae , were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands) the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces) was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years) and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein-protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5-NF-K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae . A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  7. EVITA-a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized phase II trial of vitamin K1 cream as prophylaxis for cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, R-D; Lorenzen, S; Trojan, J; Ocvirk, J; Ettrich, T J; Al-Batran, S-E; Schulz, H; Homann, N; Feustel, H-P; Schatz, M; Kripp, M; Schulte, N; Tetyusheva, M; Heeger, S; Vlassak, S; Merx, K

    2018-04-01

    Acne-like skin rash is a frequently occurring adverse event associated with drugs against the epidermal growth factor receptor. This randomized vehicle-controlled study investigated the addition of vitamin K1 cream to doxycycline in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Patients receiving first-line cetuximab + FOLFIRI were randomly assigned to prophylactic treatment with doxycylin and vitamin K1 cream or doxycycline and the vehicle. The primary end point of the study was the incidence of grade ≥ 2 skin rash (NCI CTCAE version 4.02) during 8 weeks of skin treatment. Secondary end points comprised skin rash according to a more thorough tripartite skin toxicity score (WoMo), quality of life, efficacy, and compliance. The study had 80% power to show a 20% reduction of the incidence of grade ≥ 2 skin rash. A total of 126 patients were analyzed. The incidence of skin rash grade ≥ 2 was comparable between the arms. Likewise, no difference was seen in the WoMo score with respect to the percentage of skin affected. However, starting in week 5 and increasing over time patients treated with vitamin K1 cream had less severe rash and fewer fissures. Quality of life as well as efficacy and compliance with study medication and anticancer treatment was comparable in both arms. The primary end point of decreasing grade ≥ 2 skin rash was not met. However, using vitamin K1 cream as part of prophylactic treatment decreased the severity of acne-like skin rash according to WoMo, an alternative and more thorough skin toxicity scoring tool.

  8. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 Axis That Links Obesity, Chronic Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Katsuta, Eriko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Hait, Nitai C; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Yuza, Kizuki; Nakajima, Masato; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2018-04-01

    Although obesity with associated inflammation is now recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer and distant metastases, the functional basis for these connections remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in breast cancer patients and in animal breast cancer models, obesity is a sufficient cause for increased expression of the bioactive sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which mediates cancer pathogenesis. A high-fat diet was sufficient to upregulate expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that produces S1P, along with its receptor S1PR1 in syngeneic and spontaneous breast tumors. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis with FTY720/fingolimod attenuated key proinflammatory cytokines, macrophage infiltration, and tumor progression induced by obesity. S1P produced in the lung premetastatic niche by tumor-induced SphK1 increased macrophage recruitment into the lung and induced IL6 and signaling pathways important for lung metastatic colonization. Conversely, FTY720 suppressed IL6, macrophage infiltration, and S1P-mediated signaling pathways in the lung induced by a high-fat diet, and it dramatically reduced formation of metastatic foci. In tumor-bearing mice, FTY720 similarly reduced obesity-related inflammation, S1P signaling, and pulmonary metastasis, thereby prolonging survival. Taken together, our results establish a critical role for circulating S1P produced by tumors and the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis in obesity-related inflammation, formation of lung metastatic niches, and breast cancer metastasis, with potential implications for prevention and treatment. Significance: These findings offer a preclinical proof of concept that signaling by a sphingolipid may be an effective target to prevent obesity-related breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res; 78(7); 1713-25. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Inhibition of p70S6K1 Activation by Pdcd4 Overcomes the Resistance to an IGF-1R/IR Inhibitor in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Li; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single-agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed because of resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906-resistant and -sensitive colorectal cancer cells, we found that the Pdcd4 level directly correlates with cell chemosensitivity to OSI-906. In addition, tumors derived from Pdcd4 knockdown cells resist the growth inhibitory effect of OSI-906 in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model. Moreover, Pdcd4 enhances the antiproliferative effect of OSI-906 in resistant cells through suppression of p70S6K1 activation. Knockdown of p70S6K1, but not p70S6K2, significantly increases the chemosensitivity of OSI-906 in cultured colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of OSI-906 and PF-4708671, a p70S6K1 inhibitor, efficiently suppresses the growth of OSI-906-resistant colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, activation of p70S6K1 that is inhibited by Pdcd4 is essential for resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in colon tumor cells, and the combinational treatment of OSI-906 and PF-4708671 results in enhanced antiproliferation effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel venue to overcome the resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in treating colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5–K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Igolkina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein–protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5–NF–K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  11. Comparison of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 effects on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztopçu, Pinar; Kabadere, Selda; Mercangoz, Ayşe; Uyar, Ruhi

    2004-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is characterized as highly invasive and rapidly growing astrocytomas, and scientists have sought for efficient treatment against malignant gliomas for a long time. Therefore, we compared the respond of rat glioma (C6) and glioblastoma multiforme cells derived from two patients to vitamins K1, K2 and K3. The cells were exposed to 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microM of vitamins K1 and K2, and 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 microM of vitamin K3 for 24 hours in an incubator atmosphere of 5% CO2, 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Vitamin K1 showed no growth effect on all the glioma cells examined. Vitamin K2 did not cause any change in number of C6, however induced growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner on glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values of vitamin K2 were 960 microM and 970 microM for glioblastoma multiforme, respectively. Vitamin K3 had also growth inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner on both C6 and glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values were 41 microM, 24 microM and 23 microM for vitamin K3, respectively. We concluded that vitamin K3 is more effective than vitamin K2 for inhibition of cancer cell growth, and might have an alternative value as an anticancer drug against glioblastoma multiforme.

  12. Application of extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by endophytic Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan (Ficus benghalensis) in microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyati V; Keharia, Hareshkumar

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan tree secreted mixture of surfactins, iturins and fengycins with high degree of heterogeneity. The extracellular extract consisting of mixture of these cyclic lipopeptides exhibited very good emulsification activity as well as excellent emulsion stability. The culture accumulated maximum surfactant up to 48 h of growth during batch fermentation in Luria broth. The emulsion of hexane, heptane and octane prepared using 48-h-old culture supernatant of B. subtilis K1 remained stable up to 2 days while emulsion of four stroke engine oil remained stable for more than a year. The critical micelle concentration of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted by acid precipitation from 48-h-old fermentation broth of B. subtilis K1 was found to be 20.5 μg/mL. The biosurfactant activity was found to be stable at 100 °C for 2 h, over a pH range of 6-12 h and over an NaCl concentration up to 10 % (w/v). The application of biosurfactant on laboratory scale sand pack column saturated with four stroke engine oil resulted in ~43 % enhanced oil recovery, suggesting its suitability in microbially enhanced oil recovery.

  13. SphK1 mediates hepatic inflammation in a mouse model of NASH induced by high saturated fat feeding and initiates proinflammatory signaling in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Sutter, Alton; Harland, Michael D; Law, Brittany A; Ross, Jessica S; Lewin, David; Palanisamy, Arun; Russo, Sarah B; Chavin, Kenneth D; Cowart, L Ashley

    2015-12-01

    Steatohepatitis occurs in up to 20% of patients with fatty liver disease and leads to its primary disease outcomes, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mechanisms that mediate this inflammation are of major interest. We previously showed that overload of saturated fatty acids, such as that which occurs with metabolic syndrome, induced sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an enzyme that generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). While data suggest beneficial roles for S1P in some contexts, we hypothesized that it may promote hepatic inflammation in the context of obesity. Consistent with this, we observed 2-fold elevation of this enzyme in livers from humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and also in mice with high saturated fat feeding, which recapitulated the human disease. Mice exhibited activation of NFκB, elevated cytokine production, and immune cell infiltration. Importantly, SphK1-null mice were protected from these outcomes. Studies in cultured cells demonstrated saturated fatty acid induction of SphK1 message, protein, and activity, and also a requirement of the enzyme for NFκB signaling and increased mRNA encoding TNFα and MCP1. Moreover, saturated fat-induced NFκB signaling and elevation of TNFα and MCP1 mRNA in HepG2 cells was blocked by targeted knockdown of S1P receptor 1, supporting a role for this lipid signaling pathway in inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  14. Interactions of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 (RS218) and Its Derivatives Lacking Genomic Islands with Phagocytic Acanthamoeba castellanii and Nonphagocytic Brain Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Farzana Abubakar; Yousuf, Zuhair; Iqbal, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Hafsa; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Here we determined the role of various genomic islands in E. coli K1 interactions with phagocytic A. castellanii and nonphagocytic brain microvascular endothelial cells. The findings revealed that the genomic islands deletion mutants of RS218 related to toxins (peptide toxin, α-hemolysin), adhesins (P fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, nonfimbrial adhesins, Hek, and hemagglutinin), protein secretion system (T1SS for hemolysin), invasins (IbeA, CNF1), metabolism (D-serine catabolism, dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and glyoxylate metabolism) showed reduced interactions with both A. castellanii and brain microvascular endothelial cells. Interestingly, the deletion of RS218-derived genomic island 21 containing adhesins (P fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, nonfimbrial adhesins, Hek, and hemagglutinin), protein secretion system (T1SS for hemolysin), invasins (CNF1), metabolism (D-serine catabolism) abolished E. coli K1-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity in a CNF1-independent manner. Therefore, the characterization of these genomic islands should reveal mechanisms of evolutionary gain for E. coli K1 pathogenicity. PMID:24818136

  15. Interactions of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 (RS218 and Its Derivatives Lacking Genomic Islands with Phagocytic Acanthamoeba castellanii and Nonphagocytic Brain Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Abubakar Yousuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we determined the role of various genomic islands in E. coli K1 interactions with phagocytic A. castellanii and nonphagocytic brain microvascular endothelial cells. The findings revealed that the genomic islands deletion mutants of RS218 related to toxins (peptide toxin, α-hemolysin, adhesins (P fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, nonfimbrial adhesins, Hek, and hemagglutinin, protein secretion system (T1SS for hemolysin, invasins (IbeA, CNF1, metabolism (D-serine catabolism, dihydroxyacetone, glycerol, and glyoxylate metabolism showed reduced interactions with both A. castellanii and brain microvascular endothelial cells. Interestingly, the deletion of RS218-derived genomic island 21 containing adhesins (P fimbriae, F17-like fimbriae, nonfimbrial adhesins, Hek, and hemagglutinin, protein secretion system (T1SS for hemolysin, invasins (CNF1, metabolism (D-serine catabolism abolished E. coli K1-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity in a CNF1-independent manner. Therefore, the characterization of these genomic islands should reveal mechanisms of evolutionary gain for E. coli K1 pathogenicity.

  16. Estimation of reactor pool water temperature after shutdown in JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Sato, Mitsugu; Kakefuda, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    The reactor pool water temperature increasing by the decay heat was estimated by calculation. The reactor pool water temperature was calculated by increased enthalpy that was estimated by the reactor decay heat, the heat released from the reactor biological shielding concrete, reactor pool water surface, the heat conduction from the canal and the core inlet piping. These results of calculation were compared with the past measured data. As the results of estimation, after the JRR-3M shutdown, the calculated reactor pool temperature first increased sharply. This is because the decay heat was the major contribution. And then, rate of increased reactor pool temperature decreased. This is because the ratio of heat released from reactor biological shielding concrete and core inlet piping to the decay heat increased. Besides, the calculated reactor pool water temperature agreed with the past measured data in consequence of correcting the decay heat and the released heat. The corrected coefficient k 1 of decay heat was 0.74 - 0.80. And the corrected coefficient k 2 of heat released from the reactor biological shielding concrete was 3.5 - 4.5. (author)

  17. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)

  18. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  19. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  20. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  1. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  2. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO 2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPR TM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1 TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENA TM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENA TM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  3. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  4. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  5. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  6. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogen, Ayumi; Ozawa, Michihiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the working efficiency of a nuclear reactor by reflecting the control rod history effect on thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation. Constitution: An incore power distribution calculation section reads the incore neutron fluxes detected by neutron detectors disposed in the reactor to calculate the incore power distribution. A burnup degree distribution calculation section calculates the burnup degree distribution in the reactor based on the thus calculated incore power distribution. A control rod history date store device supplied with the burnup degree distribution renews the stored control rod history data based on the present control rod pattern and the burnup degree distribution. Then, thermal variants of the nuclear reactor are calculated based on the thus renewed control rod history data. Since the control rod history effect is reflected on the thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation, the working efficiency of the nuclear reactor can be improved significantly. (Seki, T.)

  7. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Labrie, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  8. Fission reactors and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1981-12-01

    The American-designed boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor dominate the designs currently in use and under construction worldwide. As in all energy systems, materials problems have appeared during service; these include stress-corrosion of stainless steel pipes and heat exchangers and questions regarding crack behavior in pressure vessels. To obtain the maximum potential energy from our limited uranium supplies is is essential to develop the fast breeder reactor. The materials in these reactors are subjected to higher temperatures and neutron fluxes but lower pressures than in the water reactors. The performance required of the fuel elements is more arduous in the breeder than in water reactors. Extensive materials programs are in progress in test reactors and in large test rigs to ensure that materials will be available to meet these conditions

  9. Generation and characterization of polyclonal antibodies specific to N-terminal extension of p85 isoform of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p85 S6K1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinska L. O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Generation of polyclonal antibodies specific to the ribosomal protein S6 kinase isoform – p85S6K1 and directed to the N-terminal (1–23 aa extension of p85S6K1. Methods. Animal immunization with synthetic (1–23 aa peptide, ELISA, Western blot, Immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent analysis. Results. Polyclonal antibodies have been generated, which specifically recognize only p85 but not p70 isoform of S6K1 in western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analysis. Conclusions. The obtained antibodies can be recommended for studies on the p85S6K1 and other S6K1 isoforms possessing the N-terminal extension – the identification of binding protein partners, analysis of subcellular localization under different physiological conditions, elucidation of the signal transduction pathways involving different S6K1 isoforms.

  10. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  11. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Ruben Calabrese

    1999-01-01

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  12. Siting of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop criteria for siting and the site-related design basis for research reactors. The concepts presented in this document are intended as recommendations for new reactors and are not suggested for backfitting purposes for facilities already in existence. In siting research reactors serious consideration is given to minimizing the effects of the site on the reactor and the reactor on the site and the potential impact of the reactor on the environment. In this document guidance is first provided on the evaluation of the radiological impact of the installation under normal reactor operation and accident conditions. A classification of research reactors in groups is then proposed, together with a different approach for each group, to take into account the relevant safety problems associated with facilities of different characteristics. Guidance is also provided for both extreme natural events and for man-induced external events which could affect the safe operation of the reactor. Extreme natural events include earthquakes, flooding for river or coastal sites and extreme meteorological phenomena. The feasibility of emergency planning is finally considered for each group of reactors

  13. Reactor core for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hisao; Kasai, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Tsugio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    In a gas-sealed assembly for a FBR type reactor, two or more kinds of assemblies having different eigen frequency and a structure for suppressing oscillation of liquid surface are disposed in a reactor core. Coolant introduction channels for introducing coolants from inside and outside are disposed in the inside of structural members of an upper shielding member to form a shielding member-cooling structure in the reactor core. A structure for promoting heat conduction between a sealed gas in the assembly and coolants at the inner side or the outside of the assembly is disposed in the reactor core. A material which generates heat by neutron irradiation is disposed in the assembly to heat the sealed gases positively by radiation heat from the heat generation member also upon occurrence of power elevation-type event to cause temperature expansion. Namely, the coolants flown out from or into the gas sealed-assemblies cause differential fluctuation on the liquid surface, and the change of the capacity of a gas region is also different on every gas-sealed assemblies thereby enabling to suppress fluctuation of the reactor power. Pressure loss is increased by a baffle plate or the like to lower the liquid surface of the sodium coolants or decrease the elevating speed thereof thereby suppressing fluctuation of the reactor power. (N.H.)

  14. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  15. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  16. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Aryl- and alkyl-phosphorus-containing flame retardants induced mitochondrial impairment and cell death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chao; Li, Na; Yuan, Shengwu; Ji, Xiaoya; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) are increasingly in demand worldwide as replacements for brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but insufficient available toxicological information on PFRs makes assessing their health risks challenging. Mitochondria are important targets of various environmental pollutants, and mitochondrial dysfunction may lead to many common diseases. In the present study, mitochondria impairment-related endpoints were measured by a high content screening (HCS) assay for 11 selected non-halogen PFRs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells. A cluster analysis was used to categorize these PFRs into three groups according to their structural characteristics and results from the HCS assay. Two groups, containing long-chain alkyl-PFRs and all aryl-PFRs, were found to cause mitochondrial impairment but showed different mechanisms of toxicity. Due to the high correlation between cell death and mitochondrial impairment, two PFRs with different structures, trihexyl phosphate (THP) and cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), were selected and compared with chlorpyrifos (CPF) to elucidate their mechanism of inducing cell death. THP (an alkyl-PFR) was found to utilize a similar pathway as CPF to induce apoptosis. However, cell death induced by CDP (an aryl-PFR) was different from classical necrosis based on experiments to discriminate among the different modes of cell death. These results confirm that mitochondria might be important targets for some PFRs and that differently structured PFRs could function via distinct mechanisms of toxicity. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial impairment induced by PFRs was observed in CHO-k1 cells. • THP (an alkyl-PFR) induced a caspase-mediated apoptosis in CHO-k1 cells. • The cell death induced by CDP (an aryl-PFR) was not traditional apoptosis or necrosis.

  18. Studying the biochemical function of the pea receptor-like kinases sym10, sym37 and k1, required for the legume-rhizobia symbiosis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Dolgikh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rhizobial Nod factors (NFs, the key regulators of legume-rhizobia symbiosis, act in low concentrations and their biological activity depends on structural features, that suggests the presence of specific receptors in plants. Putative receptors, LysM-receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs, were found in model legumes L. japonicus and M. truncatula. However, binding capacity with NFs was only studied for L. japonicus LysM-RLKs. In pea a few candidates for NF receptors like Sym10, Sym37 and K1 were found. Analysis of mutants revealed the importance of these proteins for symbiosis development. However, the biochemical function of these receptors has not been studied. Materials and methods. Sequences encoding extracellular domains (ECDs of LysM-RLKs Sym10, Sym37, and K1 were cloned in the pRSETa vector. Constructs were introduced in E. coli strain C41 to produce proteins with His6 residues on either the amino or carboxyl terminus. Protein purification was carried out using metal chelate affinity chromatography. The binding capacity with ligand was evaluated using ProteonXPR36 biosensor. Results. To study binding capacity with NFs, we have developed approaches for the synthesis of LysM-RLK Sym10, Sym37 and K1 in soluble form in heterologous system. The high level of protein synthesis was achieved at +28 °C using 0,5 mM IPTG in 2-16 hours. Analysis of binding capacity of ECDs with NFs revealed the low affinity using the surface plasmon resonance. Conclusion. The possibility of recombinant receptor synthesis in soluble state in E. coli at high level was demonstrated. Analysis of binding capacity with NFs showed the potential interaction, but with low affinity.

  19. TNP [N2-(m-Trifluorobenzyl, N6-(p-nitrobenzylpurine] ameliorates diet induced obesity and insulin resistance via inhibition of the IP6K1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbani Ghoshal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D lead to various life-threatening diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, asthma, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, extensive research is ongoing to identify novel pathways that can be targeted in obesity/T2D. Deletion of the inositol pyrophosphate (5-IP7 biosynthetic enzyme, inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 (IP6K1, protects mice from high fat diet (HFD induced obesity (DIO and insulin resistance. Yet, whether this pathway is a valid pharmacologic target in obesity/T2D is not known. Here, we demonstrate that TNP [N2-(m-Trifluorobenzyl, N6-(p-nitrobenzylpurine], a pan-IP6K inhibitor, has strong anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in DIO mice. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, ITT, food intake, energy expenditure, QRT-PCR, ELISA, histology, and immunoblot studies were conducted in short (2.5-week- and long (10-week-term TNP treated DIO C57/BL6 WT and IP6K1-KO mice, under various diet and temperature conditions. Results: TNP, when injected at the onset of HFD-feeding, decelerates initiation of DIO and insulin resistance. Moreover, TNP facilitates weight loss and restores metabolic parameters, when given to DIO mice. However, TNP does not reduce weight gain in HFD-fed IP6K1-KO mice. TNP specifically enhances insulin sensitivity in DIO mice via Akt activation. TNP decelerates weight gain primarily by enhancing thermogenic energy expenditure in the adipose tissue. Accordingly, TNP's effect on body weight is partly abolished whereas its impact on glucose homeostasis is preserved at thermoneutral temperature. Conclusion: Pharmacologic inhibition of the inositol pyrophosphate pathway has strong therapeutic potential in obesity, T2D, and other metabolic diseases. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: IP6K, Inositol pyrophosphate, Obesity, Energy expenditure, Diabetes, Akt

  20. Effects of γ (60Co) and β (90Sr) radiations in Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1): induction of micronuclei and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Daniella

    2003-01-01

    Among various types of ionising radiation, the beta emitter radionuclides are involved in many sectors of human activity, such as nuclear medicine, nuclear industries and biomedicine, with a consequent increased risk of accidental, occupational or therapeutic exposure. Despite their recognized importance, there is little information about the effect of beta particles at the cellular level when compared to other types of ionizing radiation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 90 Sr, a pure, highly energetic beta source, on CHO-K1 cells and to compare them with data obtained with 60 Co. CHO-K1 cells irradiated with different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 Gy) of 60 Co (0.34 Gy.min -1 ) and 90 Sr (0.23 Gy.min -1 ) were processed for analysis of clonogenic death, induction of micronuclei (MN) and necrotic and apoptotic death. The survival curves obtained for both types of radiation were better fitted by the linear-quadratic model and were similar. However, the cytogenetic results showed that both the proportion of micronucleated cells and the magnitude of radioinduced lesions demonstrated by the analysis of MN distribution were significantly higher in cells irradiated with 60 Co than in cells irradiated with 90 Sr, whereas 90 Sr was more damaging than 60 Co in terms of cell death induction. Necrosis was the major type of death observed in CHO-K1 cells. The data obtained suggest that the low incidence of micronucleated cells after exposure to 90 Sr may be a consequence of selective elimination of severely damaged cells from the population by the necrotic process at a higher rate than observed with 60 Co exposure. The data obtained also demonstrated the need to use several parameters for a better estimate of cellular sensitivity to the action of genotoxic agents, which would be important in terms of radiobiology, oncology and therapeutics. (author)

  1. Comparative genome analysis of novel Podoviruses lytic for hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae of K1, K2, and K57 capsular types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Ekaterina V; Myakinina, Vera P; Kislichkina, Angelina A; Krasilnikova, Valentina M; Verevkin, Vladimir V; Mochalov, Vladimir V; Lev, Anastasia I; Fursova, Nadezhda K; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V

    2018-01-02

    Hypermucoviscous (HV) strains of capsular types K1, K2 and K57 are the most virulent representatives of the Klebsiella pneumoniae species. Eight novel bacteriophages lytic for HV K. pneumoniae were isolated and characterized. Three bacteriophages, KpV41, KpV475, and KpV71 were found to have a lytic activity against mainly K. pneumoniae of capsular type K1. Two phages, KpV74, and KpV763 were lytic for K2 capsular type K. pneumoniae, and the phage KpV767 was specific to K57-type K. pneumoniae only. Two more phages, KpV766, and KpV48 had no capsular specificity. The phage genomes consist of a linear double-stranded DNA of 40,395-44,623bp including direct terminal repeats of 180-246 bp. The G + C contents are 52.3-54.2 % that is slightly lower than that of genomes of K. pneumoniae strains being used for phage propagation. According to the genome structures, sequence similarity and phylogenetic data, the phages are classified within the genus Kp32virus and Kp34virus of subfamily Autographivirinae, family Podoviridae. In the phage genomes, genes encoding proteins with putative motifs of polysaccharide depolymerase were identified. Depolymerase genes of phages KpV71 and KpV74 lytic for hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae of K1 and K2 capsular type, respectively, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant gene products were purified. The specificity and polysaccharide-degrading activity of the recombinant depolymerases were demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TNP [N2-(m-Trifluorobenzyl), N6-(p-nitrobenzyl)purine] ameliorates diet induced obesity and insulin resistance via inhibition of the IP6K1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Sarbani; Zhu, Qingzhang; Asteian, Alice; Lin, Hua; Xu, Haifei; Ernst, Glen; Barrow, James C; Xu, Baoji; Cameron, Michael D; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2016-10-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) lead to various life-threatening diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, asthma, and neurodegeneration. Therefore, extensive research is ongoing to identify novel pathways that can be targeted in obesity/T2D. Deletion of the inositol pyrophosphate (5-IP7) biosynthetic enzyme, inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 (IP6K1), protects mice from high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance. Yet, whether this pathway is a valid pharmacologic target in obesity/T2D is not known. Here, we demonstrate that TNP [N2-(m-Trifluorobenzyl), N6-(p-nitrobenzyl)purine], a pan-IP6K inhibitor, has strong anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in DIO mice. Q-NMR, GTT, ITT, food intake, energy expenditure, QRT-PCR, ELISA, histology, and immunoblot studies were conducted in short (2.5-week)- and long (10-week)-term TNP treated DIO C57/BL6 WT and IP6K1-KO mice, under various diet and temperature conditions. TNP, when injected at the onset of HFD-feeding, decelerates initiation of DIO and insulin resistance. Moreover, TNP facilitates weight loss and restores metabolic parameters, when given to DIO mice. However, TNP does not reduce weight gain in HFD-fed IP6K1-KO mice. TNP specifically enhances insulin sensitivity in DIO mice via Akt activation. TNP decelerates weight gain primarily by enhancing thermogenic energy expenditure in the adipose tissue. Accordingly, TNP's effect on body weight is partly abolished whereas its impact on glucose homeostasis is preserved at thermoneutral temperature. Pharmacologic inhibition of the inositol pyrophosphate pathway has strong therapeutic potential in obesity, T2D, and other metabolic diseases.

  3. Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Reigosa, M. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), Calle 526 y Camino Gral. Belgrano (entre 10 y 11), La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Arnal, P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Fernandez Lorenzo de Mele, M., E-mail: mmele@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles (NPs) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using neutral red (NR), mitochondrial activity (by MTT assay), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) formation, and cell cycle kinetics techniques. Results showed a dose-related cytotoxic effect evidenced after 24 h by changes in lysosomal and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Interestingly, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of perinuclear vesicles in CHO-K1 cells after treatment with both NPs during 24 h but no NP was detected in the nuclei. Genotoxic effects were shown by MN frequencies which significantly increased at 0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2} and 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SCE frequencies were higher for cells treated with 1-5 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2}. The absence of metaphases evidenced cytotoxicity for higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}. No SCE induction was achieved after treatment with 1-25 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on.

  4. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a dynamic adhesive molecule that enhances uptake of carbon nanotubes by CHO-K1 Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Seishiro, E-mail: seishiro@nies.go.jp [Environmental Nanotoxicology Project, RCER, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko [Environmental Nanotoxicology Project, RCER, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kanno, Sanae [Department of Legal Medicine, St. Marianna School of Medicine (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), a highly promising nanomaterial, is similar to that of asbestos because both types of particles have a fibrous shape and are biopersistent. Here, we investigated the characteristics of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), a membrane receptor expressed on macrophages that recognizes environmental or unopsonized particles, and we assessed whether and how MARCO was involved in cellular uptake of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). MARCO-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells took up polystyrene beads irrespective of the particle size (20 nm–1 μm). In the culture of MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells dendritic structures were observed on the bottom of culture dishes, and the edges of these dendritic structures were continually renewed as the cell body migrated along the dendritic structures. MWCNTs were first tethered to the dendritic structures and then taken up by the cell body. MWCNTs appeared to be taken up via membrane ruffling like macropinocytosis, rather than phagocytosis. The cytotoxic EC{sub 50} value of MWCNTs in MARCO-transfected CHO-K1 cells was calculated to be 6.1 μg/mL and transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that the toxicity of MWCNTs may be due to the incomplete inclusion of MWCNTs by the membrane structure. -- Highlights: ►Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tethered to MARCO in vitro. ►CNTs were taken up rapidly into the cell body via MARCO by membrane ruffling. ►The incomplete inclusion of CNTs by membranes caused cytotoxicity.

  5. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60 Co γ radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 μg/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400μ/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 Gγ. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the α coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 μg/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data obtained in vitro showed a

  6. Stimulation of {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine uptake in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by tyrosine esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikano, Naoto [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)], E-mail: sikano@ipu.ac.jp; Ogura, Masato; Sagara, Jun-ichi; Nakajima, Syuichi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Baba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Iwamura, Yukio; Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Center for Medical Sciences and Center for Humanities and Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawai, Keiichi [Division of Health Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Introduction: Transport of the amino acid analog {sup 123}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine, which is used in clinical SPECT imaging, occurs mainly via L-type amino acid transporter type 1 (LAT1; an amino acid exchanger). As LAT1 is highly expressed in actively proliferating tumors, we made a preliminary investigation of the effects of amino acid esters on enhancement of {sup 125}I-3-iodo-{alpha}-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) uptake via LAT1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Methods: Because the sequence of the CHO-K1 LAT1 gene is not available, we confirmed LAT1 expression through IMT (18.5 kBq) uptake mechanisms using specific inhibitors. L-Gly, L-Ser, L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Met, L-Tyr, D-Tyr, L-Val and L-Lys ethyl/methyl esters were tested in combination with IMT. Time-course studies over a 3-h period were conducted, and the concentration dependence of L-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters (0.001 to 10 mM) in combination with IMT was also examined. For a proof of de-esterification of L- and D-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters in the cells (by enzymatic attack or other cause), the concentration of L- and D-Tyr was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography of the esters in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and cell homogenates at 37 deg. C or under ice-cold conditions. Results: Inhibition tests suggested that LAT1 is involved in IMT uptake by CHO-K1 cells. Co-administration of 1 mM of L-Tyr ethyl or methyl ester with IMT produced the greatest enhancement. The de-esterification reaction was stereo selective and temperature dependent in the homogenate. De-esterification kinetics were very fast in the homogenate and very slow in the phosphate buffer. Conclusions: The L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters were the most effective enhancers of IMT uptake into CHO-K1 cells and acted by trans-stimulation of the amino acid exchange function of LAT1. This result suggests that de-esterification in the cells may be caused by enzymatic attack. We will use IMT and L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters to examine

  7. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  8. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 111}In for the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, 92 - Sevres (France); Verdeau, E.; Amiot, M.N. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 111}In to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 14 MBq. This provides a new result for France in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that enables them to maintain their degrees of equivalence for this radionuclide. The key comparison reference value has been re-evaluated and the comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111, now contains five valid results. (authors)

  9. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. TRIGA reactor main systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  11. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  12. Upgradation of Apsara reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammen, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Bhatnagar, A.; Sasidharan, K.; Raina, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Apsara is a 1 MW swimming pool type research reactor using high enriched uranium as fuel with light water as coolant and moderator. The reactor is in operation for more than five decades and has been extensively used for basic research, radioisotope production, neutron radiography, detector testing, shielding experiments etc. In view of its long service period, it is planned to carry out refurbishment of the reactor to extend its useful life. During refurbishment, it is also planned to upgrade the reactor to a 2 MW reactor to improve its utilization and to upgrade the structure, system and components in line with the current safety standards. This paper gives a brief account of the design features and safety aspects of the upgraded Apsara reactor. (author)

  13. 维生素 K1、酚磺乙胺与氨甲苯酸在输液中的配伍稳定性考察%Compatible stability of vitamin K1, etamsylate and aminomethylbenzoic acid in infussion solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武超; 程钢; 许杜娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究维生素K1、酚磺乙胺、氨甲苯酸与0.9%氯化钠或5%葡萄糖注射液配伍后在避光或光照条件下的稳定性。方法采用高效液相色谱法测定维生素K1、酚磺乙胺、氨甲苯酸与输液配伍后避光或光照条件下12 h内药物的含量,并观测配伍溶液的外观、pH值的变化。结果时间、光条件和输液种类均未对配伍溶液的外观性状和pH产生明显影响。在避光条件下,配伍溶液中三种药物含量均无明显变化;而光照条件下,酚磺乙胺和氨甲苯酸含量无变化,维生素K1含量显著下降。结论避光条件下,维生素K1、酚磺乙胺、氨甲苯酸在12 h内配伍稳定。%Objective To explore compatible and light stability of hemostatics in 0.9%sodium chloride infusion and 5%glucose infu-sion,which contained vitamin K 1 ,ethamsylate and aminomethylbenzoic acid .Methods An HPLC method was applied to measure con-centration of vitamin K 1 ,etamsylate and aminomethylbenzoic acid in twelve hours .The change of the appearance and pH in compatible solutions was observed .Results The appearance and pH of the compatible solutions showed no significant change under the different conditions of time ,light and infusion .Under the dark condition ,the appearance and contents of the three drugs in the solution had no obvious change .Under the condition of lighting ,the contents of etamsylate and aminomethylbenzoic acid did not change ,but the contents of vitamin K1 fell.Conclusions Under the dark condition ,the three kinds of hemostatics are stable in twelve hours .

  14. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  15. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core wherein is established a reator coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate said reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits are provided within which said set point is located and it is desired to operate said reactor charactrized in that said reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in said core as said reactor coolant temperature approaches said first band limits thereby to maintain said reactor coolant temperature near said set point and within said first band limits

  16. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  17. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shojiro; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Takano, Hideki

    1982-09-01

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  18. Power reactors operational diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of reactor operational diagnostics is presented and the fundamental trends of research are determined. The possible sources of power reactor malfunctions, the methods of defect detection, the data evaluation and the analysis of the results are discussed in detail. In view of scarcity of a theoretical basis and of insufficient in-core instrumentation, operational diagnostics cannot be as yet incorporated in a computer-aided reactor control system. (author)

  19. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Pressurised water reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnie, S.; Lamonby, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is described with respect to the procedure for a unit start-up. The systems details and numerical data are for a four loop PWR station of the design proposed for Sizewell-'B', United Kingdom. A description is given of: the initial conditions, filling the reactor coolant system (RCS), heat-up and pressurisation of the RCS, secondary system preparations, reactor start-up, and reactivity control at power. (UK)

  1. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  2. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  3. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  4. The Dragon reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The concept on which the Dragon Reactor Experiment was based was evolved at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in 1956, and in February of that year a High Temperature Gas- cooled Reactor Project Group was set up to study the feasibility of a helium-cooled reactor with a graphite or beryllium moderator, and with the emphasis on the thorium fuel cycle [af

  5. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  6. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  7. Integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics

  8. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  9. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  11. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  12. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  13. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  14. Reactor feedwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikabe, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: In order to prevent thermal stresses of a core of PWR type reactor, described has been a method for feeding heated recirculating water to the core in the case of the reactor start-up or shut-down. Constitution: A recirculating water is degassed, cleaned up and heated in the steam condensers, and then feeds the water to the reactor, characterized in that heaters are provided in the bypasses of the turbine, so that heated water is constantly supplied to the reactor. (Nakamura, S.)

  15. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  17. Trench reactor: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.; Sankoorikal, J.T.; Schmidt, R.S.; Lofshult, J.; Ramin, T.; Sokmen, N.; Lin, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent fast, sodium-cooled reactor designs reflect new conditions. In nuclear energy these conditions are (a) emphasis on maintainability and operability, (b) design for more transparent safety, and (c) a surplus of uranium and enrichment availability that eases concerns about light water reactor fueling costs. In utility practice the demand is for less capital exposure, short construction time, smaller new unit sizes, and low capital cost. The PRISM, SAFR, and integral fast reactor (IFR) concepts are responses to these conditions. Fast reactors will not soon be deployed commercially, so more radical designs can be considered. The trench reactor is the product of such thinking. Its concepts are intended as contributions to the literature, which may be picked up by one of the existing programs or used in a new experimental project. The trench reactor is a thin-slab, pool-type reactor operated at very low power density and- for sodium-modest temperature. The thin slab is repeated in the sodium tank and the reactor core. The low power density permits a longer than conventional core height and a large-diameter fuel pin. Control is by borated steel slabs that can be lowered between the core and lateral sodium reflector. Shutdown is by semaphore slabs that can be swung into place just outside the control slabs. The paper presents major characteristics of the trench reactor that have been changed since the last report

  18. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A.

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  19. Advanced CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Finlay, R.B.; Olmstead, R.A.

    1988-12-01

    AECL has undertaken the design and development of a series of advanced CANDU reactors in the 700-1150 MW(e) size range. These advanced reactor designs are the product of ongoing generic research and development programs on CANDU technology and design studies for advanced CANDU reactors. The prime objective is to create a series of advanced CANDU reactors which are cost competitive with coal-fired plants in the market for large electricity generating stations. Specific plant designs in the advanced CANDU series will be ready for project commitment in the early 1990s and will be capable of further development to remain competitive well into the next century

  20. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  1. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  2. RA Reactor; Reaktor RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation. [Serbo-Croat] Pored osnovnih karakeristika reaktora RA, organizacije rada i finansijskih pokazatelja, razmatra se stanje opreme reaktora nakon 18 godina rada, pitanja dozvole za rad sa 80% obogacenim gorivom, problem skladistenja isluzenog goriva u bazenu zgrade reaktora i potreba za obnavljanjem komponenti opreme, pre svega elektronske.

  3. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  4. Multi purpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.K.; Sasidharan, K.; Sengupta, Samiran; Singh, Tej

    2006-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor

  5. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

  6. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Tamotsu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns an FBR type reactor in which transuranium elements are eliminated by nuclear conversion. There are loaded reactor core fuels being charged with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium, and blanket fuels mainly comprising depleted uranium. Further, liquid sodium is used as coolants. As transuranium elements, isotope elements of neptunium, americium and curium contained in wastes taken out from light water reactors or the composition thereof are used. The reactor core comprises a region with a greater mixing ratio and a region with a less mixing ratio of the transuranium elements. The mixing ratio of the transuranium elements is made greater for the fuels in the reactor core region at the boundary with the blanket of great neutron leakage. With such a constitution, since the positive reactivity value at the reactor core central portion is small in the Na void reactivity distribution in the reactor core, the positive reactivity is small upon Na boiling in the reactor core central region upon occurrence of imaginable accident, to attain reactor safety. (I.N.)

  7. Farewell to a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanborg, P.

    1976-01-01

    Denmark's second reactor, DR 2, whose first criticality took place the night of 18/19 December 1958 was shut down for the last time on 31 October 1975. It was a light-water moderrated and cooled reactor of swimming-pool type with a thermal power of 5 MW, using 90% enriched uranium. The operation is described. The reactor and auxiliary equipment are now being put 'in store' - all fuel elements sent for reprocessing, the reactor tank and cooling circuits emptied, and a lead shielding placed over the tank opening. The rest of the equipment will remain in place. (B.P.)

  8. Indian advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development of nuclear energy, a number of important issues like safety, waste management, economics etc. are to be addressed. To do this, a number of advanced reactor designs as well as fuel cycle technologies are being pursued worldwide. The advanced reactors being developed in India are the AHWR and the CHTR. Both the reactors use thorium based fuel and have many passive features. This paper describes the Indian advanced reactors and gives a brief account of the international initiatives for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. (author)

  9. K1M4 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  10. K1A5 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  11. K1S3 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  12. K1V4 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  13. K1B7 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  14. Structure of a putative trans-editing enzyme for prolyl-tRNA synthetase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 at 1.7 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Kazutaka; Kato-Murayama, Miyuki; Katsura, Kazushige; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Yamaguchi-Hirafuji, Machiko; Kawazoe, Masahito; Akasaka, Ryogo; Hanawa-Suetsugu, Kyoko; Hori-Takemoto, Chie; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the APE2540 protein from A. pernix K1 has been determined by the multiple anomalous dispersion method at 1.7 Å resolution. The structure includes two monomers in the asymmetric unit and shares structural similarity with the YbaK protein or cysteinyl-tRNA Pro deacylase from H. influenzae. The crystal structure of APE2540, the putative trans-editing enzyme ProX from Aeropyrum pernix K1, was determined in a high-throughput manner. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.4, b = 58.9, c = 53.6 Å, β = 106.8°. The structure was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method at 1.7 Å and refined to an R factor of 16.8% (R free = 20.5%). The crystal structure includes two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer consists of eight β-strands and seven α-helices. A structure-homology search revealed similarity between the trans-editing enzyme YbaK (or cysteinyl-tRNA Pro deacylase) from Haemophilus influenzae (HI1434; 22% sequence identity) and putative ProX proteins from Caulobacter crescentus (16%) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (21%)

  15. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: rodolfo.montez.jr@gmail.com, E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  16. Anti-listerial activity of a polymeric film coated with hybrid coatings doped with Enterocin 416K1 for use as bioactive food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseppi, Ramona; Pilati, Francesco; Marini, Michele; Toselli, Maurizio; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Guerrieri, Elisa; Messi, Patrizia; Sabia, Carla; Manicardi, Giuliano; Anacarso, Immacolata; Bondi, Moreno

    2008-04-30

    In this study, Enterocin 416K1, a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus casseliflavus IM 416K1, was entrapped in an organic-inorganic hybrid coating applied to a LDPE (low-density polyethylene) film for its potential use in the active food packaging field. The antibacterial activity of the coated film was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 10888 by qualitative modified agar diffusion assay, quantitative determination in listeria saline solution suspension and direct contact with artificially contaminated food samples (frankfurters and fresh cheeses) stored at room and refrigeration temperatures. All investigations demonstrated that enterocin-activated coatings have a good anti-listeria activity. Qualitative tests showed a clear zone of inhibition in the indicator lawn in contact with and around the coated film. During the quantitative antibacterial evaluation the L. monocytogenes viable counts decreased to 1.5 log units compared to the control. The inhibitory capability was confirmed also in food-contact assays. In all food samples packed with coated films we observed a significant decrease in L. monocytogenes viable counts in the first 24 h compared to the control. This difference was generally maintained up to the seventh day and then decreased, with the exception of the cheese samples stored at refrigeration temperature.

  17. S6K1 in the central nervous system regulates energy expenditure via MC4R/CRH pathways in response to deprivation of an essential amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tingting; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Guo, Feifan

    2012-10-01

    It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS), especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. We have previously shown that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is critical for stimulating fat loss in response to dietary leucine deprivation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the CNS regulation of leucine deprivation-stimulated fat loss are, however, still largely unknown. Here, we used intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral vectors to identify a novel role for hypothalamic p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), a major downstream effector of the kinase mammalian target of rapamycin, in leucine deprivation stimulation of energy expenditure. Furthermore, we show that the effect of hypothalamic S6K1 is mediated by modulation of Crh expression in a melanocortin-4 receptor-dependent manner. Taken together, our studies provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of energy expenditure by the CNS and the importance of cross-talk between nutritional control and regulation of endocrine signals.

  18. Amino acid-dependent signaling via S6K1 and MYC is essential for regulation of rDNA transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Kusnadi, Eric P.; Ogden, Allison J.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Bammert, Lukas; Kutay, Ulrike; Hung, Sandy; Sanij, Elaine; Hannan, Ross D.; Hannan, Katherine M.; Pearson, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is a consistent feature of malignant transformation that can be targeted to treat cancer. Understanding how rDNA transcription is coupled to the availability of growth factors and nutrients will provide insight into how ribosome biogenesis is maintained in a tumour environment characterised by limiting nutrients. We demonstrate that modulation of rDNA transcription initiation, elongation and rRNA processing is an immediate, co-regulated response to altered amino acid abundance, dependent on both mTORC1 activation of S6K1 and MYC activity. Growth factors regulate rDNA transcription initiation while amino acids modulate growth factor-dependent rDNA transcription by primarily regulating S6K1-dependent rDNA transcription elongation and processing. Thus, we show for the first time amino acids regulate rRNA synthesis by a distinct, post-initiation mechanism, providing a novel model for integrated control of ribosome biogenesis that has implications for understanding how this process is dysregulated in cancer. PMID:27385002

  19. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Zaetta, A.; Johner, J.; Mathoniere, G.

    2000-01-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  20. RB Research nuclear reactor RB reactor, Annual report for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    2000-12-01

    Report on RB reactor operation during 2000 contains 3 parts. Part one contains a brief description of reactor operation and reactor components, relevant dosimetry data and radiation protection issues, personnel and financial data. Part two is devoted to maintenance of the reactor components, namely, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, absorption rods and heavy water level-meters, maintenance of electronic, mechanical, electrical and auxiliary equipment. Part three contains data concerned with reactor operation and utilization with a comprehensive list of publications resulting from experiments done at the RB reactor. It contains data about reactor operation during previous 14 years, i.e. from 1986 - 2000

  1. FFTF reactor assembly system technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelsdorf, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the FFTF reactor and plant together with descriptions of core components, core internals, core system, primary and secondary control rod system, reactor instrumentation, reactor vessel and closure head, and supporting test programs

  2. Reactor building for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidlen, F.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the improvement of the design of a liner, supported by a latticed steel girder structure and destined for guaranteeing a gastight closure for the plant compartments in the reactor building of a pressurized water reactor. It is intended to provide the steel girder structure on their top side with grates, being suited for walking upon, and to hang on their lower side diaphragms in modular construction as a liner. At the edges they may be sealed with bellows in order to avoid thermal stresses. The steel girder structure may at the same time serve as supports for parts of the steam pipe. (RW) [de

  3. Revitalization of reactor usage through reactor sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to renew interest in using the University Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) for educational and training purposes outside the Nuclear Engineering Sciences (NES) and Environmental Engineering Sciences (EES) Departments at the University of Florida and for research by others outside the NES Department. The availability of the UFTR made possible through a US Department of Energy (DOE) Reactor Sharing Grant provided the mechanism to pursue generation of renewed interest at all levels both within the University of Florida and from other educational and corporate institutions

  4. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement is proposed concerning the easier disengagement of the coupling at the reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor transporting a pressurized coolant. According to the invention the disengaging coupling consists of two parts separated by screws. At least one of the screws contains a propellent charge ananged within a bore and provided with a speed-dependent ignition device in such a way that by separation of the screws at overspeeds the coupling is disengaged. The sub-claims are concerned with the kind of ignition ot the propellent charge. (UWI) [de

  5. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  6. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  7. The heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.

    1976-01-01

    This is a survey of the development so far of this reactor line which is in operation all over the world in various types (e.g. BHWR, PHWR). MZFR and the CANDU-type reactors are discussed in more detail. (UA) [de

  8. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To flatten the radial power distribution in the reactor core thereby improve the thermal performance of the reactor core by making the moderator-fuel ratio of fuel assemblies different depending on their position in the reactor core. Constitution : The volume of fuels disposed in the peripheral area of the reactor core is decreased by the increase of the volume of moderators in fuel assemblies disposed in the peripheral area of the reactor core to thereby make the moderator-fuel volume greater in the peripheral area than that in the central area. The moderator-fuel ratio adjustment is attained by making the number of water rods greater, decreasing the diameter of fuel pellets or decreasing the number of fuel pins in fuel assemblies disposed at the peripheral area of the reactor core as compared with fuel assemblies disposed at the central area of the reactor core. In this way, the infinite multiplication factors of fuels can be increased to thereby improve the reactor core performance. (Aizawa, K.)

  9. Osiris reactor descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    OSIRIS is a swimming pool reactor of 70 MW thermal power. Its main purpose is the irradiation of reactor materials in high neutron flux. A description is given of the air conditioning, ventilation, and radioactive gas removal system. (R.L.)

  10. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  11. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  12. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of two main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  13. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakilian, M.

    1977-05-01

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  15. A nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.E.; Broden, P.; Lundin, N.

    1979-12-01

    The invention consists of shock absorbing support beams fastened to the underside of the reactor tank lid of a BWR type reactor, whose purpose is to provide support to the steam separator and dryer unit against accelerations due to earthquakes, without causing undue thermal stresses in the unit due to differential expansion. (J.I.W.)

  16. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  17. Thermal reactor strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This statement sets down briefly the CEGB's views on the requirement for nuclear power and outlines current progress in the implementation of the CEGB's thermal reactor strategy. The programme is traced historically, together with statements of Government policy. The place of Magnox, AGR, SGHWR, PWR and fast breeder reactors is discussed. Advantages and problems associated with the various types are outlined. (U.K.)

  18. Supercritical Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Latge, C.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the 6 concepts selected for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. SCWR is a new concept, it is an attempt to optimize boiling water reactors by using the main advantages of supercritical water: only liquid phase and a high calorific capacity. The SCWR requires very high temperatures (over 375 C degrees) and very high pressures (over 22.1 MPa) to operate which allows a high conversion yield (44% instead of 33% for a PWR). Low volumes of coolant are necessary which makes the neutron spectrum shift towards higher energies and it is then possible to consider fast reactors operating with supercritical water. The main drawbacks of supercritical water is the necessity to use very high pressures which has important constraints on the reactor design, its physical properties (density, calorific capacity) that vary strongly with temperatures and pressures and its very high corrosiveness. The feasibility of the concept is not yet assured in terms of adequate materials that resist to corrosion, reactor stability, reactor safety, and reactor behaviour in accidental situations. (A.C.)

  19. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  20. Fusion reactors - types - problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitter, K.H.

    1979-07-01

    A short account is given of the principles of fusion reactions and of the expected advantages of fusion reactors. Descriptions are presented of various Tokamak experimental devices being developed in a number of countries and of some mirror machines. The technical obstacles to be overcome before a fusion reactor could be self-supporting are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Reactor cost driving items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Assuming that the design solutions presently perceived for NET can be extrapolated for use in a power reactor, and using costing experience with present day fusion experiments and with fission power plants, the major components of the cost of a tokamak fusion power reactor are described. The analysis shows the emphasis worth placing on various areas of plant design to reduce costs

  2. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  3. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  4. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  5. Reactor dynamics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.; Lefvert, T.; Stankiewiez, J.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter deals with the work done in reactor dynamics within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations by three groups in Belgium, Poland, Sweden and Italy. Discretization methods in diffusion theory, collision probability methods in time-dependent neutron transport and singular perturbation method are represented in this paper

  6. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  7. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1988-05-01

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R 0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R 0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Iris reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E.; Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E.; Cinotti, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  9. The secure heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pind, C.

    1987-01-01

    The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories

  10. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  11. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  12. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  13. Reactor feedwater device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress soluble radioactive corrosion products in a feedwater device. Method: In a light water cooled nuclear reactor, an iron injection system is connected to feedwater pipeways and the iron concentration in the feedwater or reactor coolant is adjusted between twice and ten times of the nickel concentration. When the nickel/iron ratio in the reactor coolant or feedwater goes nearer to 1/2, iron ions are injected together with iron particles to the reactor coolant to suppress the leaching of stainless steels, decrease the nickel in water and increase the iron concentration. As a result, it is possible to suppress the intrusion of nickel as one of parent nuclide of radioactive nuclides. Further, since the iron particles intruded into the reactor constitute nuclei for capturing the radioactive nuclides to reduce the soluble radioactive corrosion products, the radioactive nuclides deposited uniformly to the inside of the pipeways in each of the coolant circuits can be reduced. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Research reactor DHRUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeraraghaven, N.

    1990-01-01

    DHRUVA, a 100 MWt research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, attained first criticality during August, 1985. The reactor is fuelled with natural uranium and is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. Maximum thermal neutron flux obtained in the reactor is 1.8 X 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec. Some of the salient design features of the reactor are discussed in this paper. Some important features of the reactor coolant system, regulation and protection systems and experimental facilities are presented. A short account of the engineered safety features is provided. Some of the problems that were faced during commissioning and the initial phase of power operation are also dealt upon

  15. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent misoperation in a control system for the adjustment of core coolant flow rate, and the increase in the neutron flux density caused from the misoperation in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a reactor power control system adapted to control the reactor power by the adjustment of core flow rate, average neutron flux signals of a reactor core, entire core flow rate signals and operation state signals for coolant recycling system are inputted to a microcomputer. The outputs from the computer are sent to a recycling MG set speed controller to control the reactor core flow rate. The computer calculates the change ratio with time in the average neutron flux signals, correlation between the average neutron flux signals and the entire core flow rate signals, change ratio with time in the operation state signals for the coolant recycling system and the like and judges the abnormality in the coolant recycling system based on the calculated results. (Ikeda, J.)

  16. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  17. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  19. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  20. The CAREM reactor and present currents in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    INVAP has been working on the CAREM project since 1983. It concerns a very low power reactor for electrical energy generation. The design of the reactor and the basic criteria used were described in 1984. Since then, a series of designs have been presented for reactors which are similar to CAREM regarding the solutions presented to reduce the chance of major nuclear accidents. These designs have been grouped under different names: Advanced Reactors, Second Generation Reactors, Inherently Safe Reactors, or even, Revolutionary Reactors. Every reactor fabrication firm has, at least, one project which can be placed in this category. Presently, there are two main currents of Reactor Design; Evolutionary and Revolutionary. The present work discusses characteristics of these two types of reactors, some revolutionary designs and common criteria to both types. After, these criteria are compared with CAREM reactor design. (Author) [es

  1. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya; Asaoka, Takumi; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Hiroshi; Akino, Fujiyoshi

    1977-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1976 are described. Works of the division concern mainly the development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  2. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1977 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committee on Reactor Physics. (Author)

  3. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Research activities conducted in Reactor Engineering Division in fiscal 1975 are summarized in this report. Works in the division are closely related to the development of multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering research of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Many achievements are described concerning nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  4. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1983 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  5. Multi-purpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Multi-Purpose-Reactor (MPR), is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. Its main feature is plant safety and reliability. Its power is 22MW t h, cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium. It has platetype fuel elements (MTR type, approx. 20%. enriched uranium) clad in aluminium. Its cobalt (Co 60 ) production capacity is 50000 Ci/yr, 200 Ci/gr. The distribution of the reactor core and associated control and safety systems is essentially based on the following design criteria: - upwards cooling flow, to waive the need for cooling flow inversion in case the reactor is cooled by natural convection if confronted with a loss of pumping power, and in order to establish a superior heat transfer potential (a higher coolant saturation temperature); - easy access to the reactor core from top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power, in order to facilitate actual implementation of experiments. Consequently, mechanisms associated to control and safety rods s,re located underneath the reactor tank; - free access of reactor personnel to top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power. This aids in the training of personnel and the actual carrying out of experiments, hence: - a vast water column was placed over the core to act as radiation shielding; - the core's external area is cooled by a downwards flow which leads to a decay tank beyond the pool (for N 16 to decay); - a small downwards flow was directed to stream downwards from above the reactor core in order to drag along any possibly active element; and - a stagnant hot layer system was placed at top of pool level so as to minimize the upwards coolant flow rising towards pool level

  6. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80%. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59% and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high re-circulating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)]. By contrast, the fusion-fission reactor design is not penalized by re-circulating power and uses relatively near-term fusion technology being developed for the fusion power program. New results are presented on the Th- 233 U and the U- 239 Pu fuel cycles. The purpose of this hybrid is fuel production, with projected costs at $55/g of Pu or $127/g of 233 U. Blanket and cooling system designs, including an emergency cooling system, by General Atomic Company, lead us to the opinion that the reactor can meet expected safety standards for licensing. The smallest mirror reactor having only a shield between the plasma and the coil is the 4.2-m long fusion engineering research facility (FERF) designed for material irradiation. The smallest mirror reactor having both a blanket and shield is the 7.5-m long experimental power reactor (EPR), which has both a fusion and a fusion-fission version. (author)

  7. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    1970-04-01

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  8. Reactor scram device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Arashida, Genji; Itooka, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a control rod attaching structure in a reactor scram device of an FBR type reactor, an anti-rising mechanism proposed so far against external upward force upon occurrence of earthquakes relies on the engagement of a mechanical structure but temperature condition is not taken into consideration. Then, in the present invention, a material having curie temperature characteristics and which exhibits ferromagnetism only under low temperature condition and a magnet device are disposed to one of a movable control rod and a portion secured to the reactor. Alternatively, a bimetal member or a shape memory alloy which actuates to fix to the mating member only under low temperature condition is secured. The fixing device is adapted to operate so as to secure the control rods when the low temperature state is caused depending on the temperature condition. With such a constitution, when the control rods are separated from a driving device, they are prevented from rising even if they undergo external upward force due to earthquakes and so on, which can improve the reactor safety. (N.H.)

  9. Two structure types based on Si6O15 rings: synthesis and structural and spectroscopic characterisation of Cs1.86K1.14DySi6O15 and Cs1.6K1.4SmSi6O15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Maria; Goeckeritz, Martin; Kolitsch, Uwe; Lenz, Christoph; Giester, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The silicate Cs 1.86 K 1.14 DySi 6 O 15 represents a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework structure type based on roughly circular Si 6 O 15 rings and isolated DyO 6 octahedra. The silicate Cs 1.6 K 1.4 SmSi 6 O 15 has a layered atomic arrangement built from corrugated Si 6 O 15 layers containing four-, six- and eight-membered rings. The layers are connected by isolated SmO 6 octahedra to form a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework. This structure shows a close structural relationship to β-K 3 NdSi 6 O 15 and a less close one to dehydrated elpidite (Na 2 ZrSi 6 O 15 ). In both structures, Cs/K atoms occupy large voids. The silicates were obtained through high-temperature flux syntheses. Their crystal structures have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Cs 1.86 K 1.14 DySi 6 O 15 crystallises in R32 (no. 155) with a = 13.896(2), c = 35.623(7) Aa and V = 5957.2(17) Aa 3 , whereas Cs 1.6 K 1.4 SmSi 6 O 15 crystallises in Cmca (no. 64) with a = 14.474(3), b = 14.718(3), c = 15.231(3) Aa and V = 3244.7(11) Aa 3 . The Dy 3+ and Sm 3+ cations present in the silicates cause PL emission bands in the visible yellow-to-orange spectral range. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Fourth Generation Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns over energy resources availability, climate changes and energy supply security suggest an important role for nuclear energy in future energy supplies. So far nuclear energy evolved through three generations and is still evolving into new generation that is now being extensively studied. Nuclear Power Plants are producing 16% of the world's electricity. Today the world is moving towards hydrogen economy. Nuclear technologies can provide energy to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen and to production of synthetic fuel from coal gasification. The introduction of breeder reactors would turn nuclear energy from depletable energy supply into an unlimited supply. From the early beginnings of nuclear energy in the 1940s to the present, three generations of nuclear power reactors have been developed: First generation reactors: introduced during the period 1950-1970. Second generation: includes commercial power reactors built during 1970-1990 (PWR, BWR, Candu, Russian RBMK and VVER). Third generation: started being deployed in the 1990s and is composed of Advanced LWR (ALWR), Advanced BWR (ABWR) and Passive AP600 to be deployed in 2010-2030. Future advances of the nuclear technology designs can broaden opportunities for use of nuclear energy. The fourth generation reactors are expected to be deployed by 2030 in time to replace ageing reactors built in the 1970s and 1980s. The new reactors are to be designed with a view of the following objectives: economic competitiveness, enhanced safety, minimal radioactive waste production, proliferation resistance. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States with the IAEA and OECD's NEA as permanent observers. China and Russia are expected to join the GIF initiative. The following six systems

  11. Corrosion cracking of 03N18K1M3TYu and 02N12Kh5M3 maraging steels in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, V.N.; Chumalo, G.V.; Vereshchagin, A.N.; Melekhov, R.K.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigate the electrochemical behavior in 0.5% NaCl solution and 42% MgCl/sub 2/ solution and the tendency toward corrosion cracking was determined in boiling 0.5% chloride solution of the cobalt-containing maraging steels in the title. Weld specimens and specimens of the base metal of 03N18K1M3TYu steel were tested in 3% NaCl solution for resistance to corrosion cracking. Additional investigations were made of specimens of that steel with previously created fatigue cracks of the base metal and the weld specimens in 3% NaCl solutions, since that steel is a promising material for structures operating in sea water and low concentration chloride solutions.

  12. Study of ammonia dynamics in mixed crystals K1-x(NH4)xHal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) by the inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natkanets, I.; Smirnov, L.S.; Solov'ev, A.I.; )

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of the dynamics of ammonium ion in the disordered α-phase of mixed crystals K 1-x (NH 4 ) x Hal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) is carried out by the inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) method. IINS spectra are measured in the 2-200 meV energy range and the 10-300 K temperature range by the time-of-flight method. The generalized densities of phonon states are defined in the single-phonon approximation. It is found out that the libration mode of ammonium ion has the weak concentration dependence. Resonant modes are observed at low temperature for all concentration range of the existence of the disordered α-phase. The broadening of resonant modes at the expensive of the jump rotation diffusion of ammonium ions takes place at temperature above 10 K [ru

  13. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 109Cd for the PTB, Germany and the NIST, USA in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cd-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Janssen, H.; Kossert, K.; Lucas, L.; Karam, L.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) each submitted one sample of known activity of 109 Cd to the International Reference System (SIR). The PTB result replaces their previous measurement of 1994 and the NIST result updates their 1986 CCRI(II) comparison result. The values of the activity submitted were about 15 MBq and 42 MBq. The new key comparison results have replaced the earlier values in the matrix of degrees of equivalence that now contains six results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cd-109, to which the remaining eleven results from the CCRI(II)-K2.Cd-109 held in 1986 are still linked. (authors)

  14. COMPARISON OF TWO TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOLS FROM CHO-K1 CELLS FOR RT-PCR: CUT-OFF COST FOR RESEARCHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasila Packeer Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Various methods have been described to extract RNA from adherent mammalian cells. RNA isolation in conjunction with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is a valuable tool used to study gene expression profiling. This approach is now being used in mammalian cell bioprocessing to help understand and improve the system. The objective of this study was to compare and determine the most suitable RNA extraction method for CHO-K1 cells in a setting where a relatively large amount of samples was involved. Total RNA was extracted using Total RNA purification kit (without DNase treatment; Norgen, Canada and RNeasy mini kit (with DNase treatment; Qiagen, USA respectively. The extracted RNA was then reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was subjected to PCR-amplifying 18S. Yield from RNeasy kit was significantly higher (0.316 ± 0.033 µg/µl; p=0.004 than Total RNA purification kit (0.177 ± 0.0243 µg/µl. However, RNA purity for both methods was close to 2.0 and there was no significant difference between the methods. Total RNA purification kit is less expensive than RNeasy kit. Since there is no DNase treatment step in the former, extraction time for RNA is shorter. When the extracted RNA was subjected to RT-PCR, both methods were able to show detection of 18S at 219 bp.   Therefore, this study demonstrates that both protocols are suitable for RNA extraction for CHO-K1 cells. RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen is recommended if higher yields is the primary concern and Total RNA Purification kit (Norgen is recommended if time and cost are concerned. ABSTRAK: Pelbagai kaedah telah digunakan untuk mengekstrak RNA daripada sel mamalia lekat.  Pemencilan RNA dengan menggunakan reaksi rantai polimerase transkripsi berbalik (RT-PCR merupakan kaedah penting yang digunakan dalam mengkaji pernyataan gen berprofil.  Pendekatan ini kini digunakan dalam pemprosesan bio sel mamalia untuk memahami dan menambah baik sistem.  Tujuan kajian dijalankan

  15. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993). The major Department's programs promoted in the year are the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor, the design activities of advanced reactor system and development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the engineering applications including TRU incineration. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on the nuclear data and group constants, the developments of theoretical methods and codes, the reactor physics experiments and their analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project were also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  16. Reactor engineering department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1989 (April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990). One of major Department's programs is the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor and the design activities of advanced reactor system. Development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the nuclear engineering including is also TRU incineration promoted. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on nuclear data and group constants, theoretical methods and code development, on reactor physics experiments and analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics, technology assessment of nuclear energy and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  17. Meningitic Escherichia coli K1 penetration and neutrophil transmigration across the blood-brain barrier are modulated by alpha7 nicotinic receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chi

    Full Text Available Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, an essential regulator of inflammation, is abundantly expressed in hippocampal neurons, which are vulnerable to bacterial meningitis. However, it is unknown whether α7 nAChR contributes to the regulation of these events. In this report, an aggravating role of α7 nAChR in host defense against meningitic E. coli infection was demonstrated by using α7-deficient (α7(-/- mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC and animal model systems. As shown in our in vitro and in vivo studies, E. coli K1 invasion and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB were significantly reduced in α7(-/- BMEC and α7(-/- mice. Stimulation by nicotine was abolished in the α7(-/- cells and animals. The same blocking effect was achieved by methyllycaconitine (α7 antagonist. The tight junction molecules occludin and ZO-1 were significantly reduced in the brain cortex of wildtype mice infected with E. coli and treated with nicotine, compared to α7(-/- cells and animals. Decreased neuronal injury in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was observed in α7(-/- mice with meningitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES and adhesion molecules (CD44 and ICAM-1 were significantly reduced in the cerebrospinal fluids of the α7(-/- mice with E. coli meningitis. Furthermore, α7 nAChR is the major calcium channel for nicotine- and E. coli K1-increased intracellular calcium concentrations of mouse BMEC. Taken together, our data suggest that α7 nAChR plays a detrimental role in the host defense against meningitic infection by modulation of pathogen invasion, PMN recruitment, calcium signaling and neuronal inflammation.

  18. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H; Prager, Eric M; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P; Apland, James P; Braga, Maria F M

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2×LD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Amylolytic Enzymes Acquired from L-Lactic Acid Producing Enterococcus faecium K-1 and Improvement of Direct Lactic Acid Production from Cassava Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unban, Kridsada; Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Takata, Goro; Uechi, Keiko; Lee, Wen-Chien; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2017-09-01

    An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium isolate K-1 was isolated from the wastewater of a cassava starch manufacturing factory and identified as Entercoccus faecium based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. An extracellular α-amylase was purified to homogeneity and the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was approximately 112 kDa with optimal pH value and temperature measured of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. It was stable at a pH range of 6.0-7.0, but was markedly sensitive to high temperatures and low pH conditions, even at a pH value of 5. Ba 2+ , Al 3+ , and Co 2+ activated enzyme activity. This bacterium was capable of producing 99.2% high optically pure L-lactic acid of 4.3 and 8.2 g/L under uncontrolled and controlled pH at 6.5 conditions, respectively, in the MRS broth containing 10 g/L cassava starch as the sole carbon source when cultivated at 37 °C for 48 h. A control pH condition of 6.5 improved and stabilized the yield of L-lactic acid production directly from starch even at a high concentration of starch at up to 150 g/L. This paper is the first report describing the properties of purified α-amylase from E. faecium. Additionally, pullulanase and cyclodextrinase activities were also firstly recorded from E. faecium K-1.

  20. Reactor safety protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Tsuguo.

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of neutron detectors are disposed around a reactor core and detection signals from optional two neutron detectors are inputted into a ratio calculation device. If the ratio between both of the neutron flux level signals exceeds a predetermined value, a reactor trip signal is generated from an alarm setting device. Further, detection signals from all of the neutron detection devices are inputted into an average calculation device and the reactor trip signal is generated also in a case where the average value exceeds a predetermined set value. That is, when the reactor core power is increased locally, the detection signal from the neutron detector nearer to the point of power increase is greater than the increase rate for the entire reactor core power, while the detection signal from the neutron detector remote from the point of power increase is smaller. Thus, the local power increase ratio in the FBR reactor core can be detected efficiently by calculating the ratio for the neutron flux level signals from two neutron detectors, thereby enabling to exactly recognize the local power increase rate in the reactor core. (N.H.)