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Sample records for tof-e recoil spectrometry

  1. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hult, M.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Zaring, C.; Oestling, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1993-12-31

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Multivariate techniques of analysis for ToF-E recoil spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J.; Bouanani, M.E.; Persson, L.; Hult, M.; Jonsson, P.; Johnston, P.N. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan, (Sweden), Department of Nuclear Physics; Andersson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Ostling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, (Sweden), Department of Electronics; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.; Walker, B.R.; Stannard, W.B. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Multivariate statistical methods are being developed by the Australian -Swedish Recoil Spectrometry Collaboration for quantitative analysis of the wealth of information in Time of Flight (ToF) and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry. An overview is presented of progress made in the use of multivariate techniques for energy calibration, separation of mass-overlapped signals and simulation of ToF-E data. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginter, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities

  4. Development and calibration of large volume proton-recoil counters for neutron spectrometry in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Birch, R.

    1988-08-01

    A transportable neutron spectrometry system of high sensitivity, based on four cylindrical proton-recoil proportional counters, has been developed for the high-resolution measurement of neutron spectra in the working environment at dose-equivalent rates in the range 5-50 μSv h -1 . The system uses modern compact electronics to provide simultaneous data acquisition with a single multichannel analyser. This report describes in detail the research and development undertaken to produce a set of four cylindrical counters to cover the neutron energy-range from about 50 keV to 2 MeV. Counter studies were made to optimize the type and size of anode wire, the gas fillings and manufacturing procedure. The counters were calibrated at the National Physical Laboratory using monoenergetic neutrons, incident side-on and end-on, to provide measured response functions, energy and fluence calibrations. The system will generally be used together with a set of multispheres, to measure the dose-equivalent below 50 keV, and an α-recoil proportional counter to extend the spectral measurement up to 15 MeV. (author)

  5. Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry of GaAs structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, M.

    1994-01-01

    Mass and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry (RS) using heavy ions at energies of about 0.2Α-0.8Α MeV has attracted much interest recently due to its potential for separately and unambiguously generating information on isotopic depth distributions. The principal advantages of mass and energy dispersive RS are that both light and heavy elements can be separately studied simultaneously and problems caused by chemical matrix effects are avoided since the technique is based on high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering. In order to elucidate reactions taking place in various GaAs structures, Time of flight-Energy (ToF-E) RS was developed to allow Ga and As to be studied separately down to depths of about 500-800 nm with a depth resolution of about 16 nm at the surface. This was shown in a study of an Al x Ga 1-x As quantum-well structure. The benefits of using ToF-E RS on GaAs structures were further demonstrated in studies of Co/GaAs and CoSi 2 /GaAs reactions, as well as in a study of the composition of MOCVD grown Al x Ga 1-x As. Most recoil measurements employed 127 I at energies of about 50-90 MeV as projectiles. The recoil detector telescope consisted of a silicon energy detector and two carbon foil time pick-off detectors separated by a variable flight length of 213.5-961 mm. The reactions taking place between various thin films and GaAs were also studied using complementary techniques such as XRD, XPS and SEM. Co was found to react extensively with GaAs, already at about 300 degrees C, making it unsuitable as a contact material. Thin films of Co and Si were found to react extensively with each other and to form CoSi 2 at 500 degrees C and above. CoSi 2 , a low resistivity silicide, turned out to be stable on GaAs, at least up to 700 degrees C. Considerable grain growth could cause problems, however, in the use of CoSi 2 -contacts. 112 refs, figs, tabs

  6. Material analysis using combined elastic recoil detection and Rutherford/enhanced Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, J.H.; Barbour, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Three complimentary ion beam techniques will be combined in the analysis of oxide and nitride based materials, in particular BN/SiC and La 0.85 Sr 0.15 CoO 3 . These materials can be synthesized over composition ranges which vary the physical and electrical properties, and therefore an accurate measure of the composition profiles is critical for controlling these properties. Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) revealed the composition of light elements from H to 0, and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) gave the composition of heavier elements (e.g., Si, Sr, Co and La). Enhanced Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (FRBS) complimented these techniques by utilizing enhanced cross-sections, greater than Rutherford, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for analysis of mid-range elements 0, C, and N. ERD with 24 MeV Si ions gave profiles for H, B, and N in thin films, and 30 MeV Si was able to profile 0 in the top portion of heavier samples. Although 2.8 MeV He RBS worked well for heavier elements, ERBS utilized He ions at 3.5 MeV for N analysis and 8.7 MeV for 0 analysis, because at these energies the cross sections are 2 and 22 times Rutherford, respectively. Also, the depth of analysis was greater with ERBS because of the increased incident energy

  7. Adsorption of Hydrogen and Potassium on GaAs(110) Studied by Time-of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayone, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    We study the adsorption of H and K on a GaAs(ll0) surface by Time-of-Flight Ion-Scattering (ISS) and Direct Recoiling (DRS) Spectrometry. The method for cleaning and preparation of the surface consists on cycles of grazing bombardment with 20 keV Ar+ combined with annealing. Since this is the first time that this method is applied to a semiconductor surface, the crystallographic structure of the grazing ion bombarded surface is first characterized by ISS and DRS. The variations of the projectile scattered intensity as a function of the incident and azimuthal angles are interpreted in terms of calculated shadowing and focusing effects. The crystallographic structure of the GaAs(ll0) surface prepared by this method presents the surface relaxation observed for cleaved surfaces. The adsorption of H on GaAs(ll0) is studied as a function of the H 2 exposure and the surface temperature.The behavior of the intensity of projectiles scattered from the first two As and Ga layers is consistent with a process of unrelaxation towards the ideal surface termination upon H adsorption. We have determined that for exposures of 1000 L and 2000 L the AsI-GaI splitting corresponding to the unrelaxed surface is reduced to ΔZ = (0.0 n 0.08) A, as it should be expected for the bulk terminated surface. In addition, the fraction of the surface remaining relaxed as in the clean surface decreases strongly with the H 2 exposure. The H atoms adsorbed on the surface can be detected as recoils produced in quasi-single collisions allowing the study of the adsorption kinetics. The variations of the H recoil intensity with the exposure show that the sticking coefficient changes strongly with the H coverage since the beginning the adsorption. Above ∼ 500 L, the adsorption kinetics deviates from the initial behavior and the sticking coefficient becomes almost constant and small. The simultaneous measurements of the H coverage (with DRS) and the changes in the atomic structure (with ISS) as a

  8. Conception of a New Recoil Proton Telescope for Real-Time Neutron Spectrometry in Proton-Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Rodolphe; Arbor, Nicolas; el Bitar, Ziad; Higueret, Stéphane; Husson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Neutrons are the main type of secondary particles emitted in proton-therapy. Because of the risk of secondary cancer and other late occurring effects, the neutron dose should be included in the out-of-field dose calculations. A neutron spectrometer has to be used to take into account the energy dependence of the neutron radiological weighting factor. Due to its high dependence on various parameters of the irradiation (beam, accelerator, patient), the neutron spectrum should be measured independently for each treatment. The current reference method for the measurement of the neutron energy, the Bonner Sphere System, consists of several homogeneous polyethylene spheres with increasing diameters equipped with a proportional counter. It provides a highresolution reconstruction of the neutron spectrum but requires a time-consuming work of signal deconvolution. New neutron spectrometers are being developed, but the main experimental limitation remains the high neutron flux in proton therapy treatment rooms. A new model of a real-time neutron spectrometer, based on a Recoil Proton Telescope technology, has been developed at the IPHC. It enables a real-time high-rate reconstruction of the neutron spectrum from the measurement of the recoil proton trajectory and energy. A new fast-readout microelectronic integrated sensor, called FastPixN, has been developed for this specific purpose. A first prototype, able to detect neutrons between 5 and 20 MeV, has already been validated for metrology with the AMANDE facility at Cadarache. The geometry of the new Recoil Proton Telescope has been optimized via extensive Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainty sources have been carefully studied in order to improve simultaneously efficiency and energy resolution, and solutions have been found to suppress the various expected backgrounds. We are currently upgrading the prototype for secondary neutron detection in proton therapy applications.

  9. A remotely controlled, semi-automatic target system for Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analyses of polymeric membrane samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attayek, P.J.; Meyer, E.S.; Lin, L.; Rich, G.C.; Clegg, T.B.; Coronell, O.

    2012-01-01

    A new target system for Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis is described which enables remotely controlled, semi-automatic analysis of multiple organic polymer samples without exceeding damaging incident beam fluences. Control of fluence at a given beam current is achieved using two stepper motors to move a thin aluminum disk loaded with polymer samples both radially and azimuthally across the beam. Flexible beam spot locations and sample irradiation times are remotely controlled in two steps via two custom LabVIEW™ programs. In the first step, a digital image of the target disk is converted into precise radial and azimuthal coordinates for each mounted polymer sample. In the second step, the motors implement the user-directed sample irradiation and fluence. Schematics of the target system hardware, a block diagram of interactions between the target system components, a description of routine procedures, and illustrative data taken with a 2 MeV 4 He 2+ analysis beam are provided.

  10. Time of flight assisted ΔE - E method for enhanced isotope separation capabilities in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbaumer, S.; Bergmaier, A.; Seiler, D.; Dollinger, G.

    2017-09-01

    The time of flight energy (TOF-E) setup installed at the scattering chamber of the Q3D magnetic spectrograph to perform heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis at the 14 MV Munich Tandem Accelerator has recently been upgraded. Now, the energy detector of the TOF-E setup is additionally capable of performing ΔE - E measurements for high energy recoil ions obtained from e.g. a 170 MeV 127 I projectile beam. Time of flight information is simultaneously acquired with the ΔE - E data for each detected ion. The combination of the TOF-E and the ΔE - E data gives the opportunity to set effective filter conditions to select for both, the elemental and the mass of the detected ion. As an example a boron doped carbon layer is analyzed and 10B and 11B is separated with the help of the combination of both methods.

  11. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  12. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  13. Lukewarm lithium recoil interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Eric; Cassella, Kayleigh; Estey, Brian; Feng, Yanying; Lai, Chen; Holger, Müller

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate recoil-sensitive atom interferometry with laser-cooled lithium-7 at 50 times the recoil temperature. The large bandwidth of 160-ns beam-splitter pulses drives conjugate interferometers simultaneously with nearly equal contrast. Two-photon Raman transitions spectrally resolve the outputs, which thermally expand too quickly to be spatially resolved. Two images captured during a single exposure of a camera with slow readout detects both output ports. Optical pumping to a magnetically insensitive state using the well-resolved D1 line suppresses magnetic dephasing and extends coherence time. Sensitivity comparable to interferometers utilizing large momentum transfer pulses is attainable at interrogation times on the order of 10 ms due to lithium's high recoil frequency and the increased available atom number. Vibration noise is mitigated at this time scale and is converted to amplitude noise in our detection scheme, isolating the recoil frequency from what is conventionally phase noise. These techniques relax requirements for cooling in recoil-sensitive interferometry, broadening the choice of species to particles that remain difficult to trap and cool, like electrons.

  14. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  15. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  16. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    .... The sonic RArefaction waVE low recoil guN (RAVEN) is a novel invention to dramatically reduce the gas momentum contribution to recoil with absolutely no reduction in me ballistic efficiency of launch...

  17. Force optimized recoil control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, P. E.; Radkiewicz, R. J.; Gartner, R. F.

    1982-05-01

    Reduction of the recoil force of high rate of fire automatic guns was proven effective. This system will allow consideration of more powerful guns for use in both helicopter and armored personnel carrier applications. By substituting the large shock loads of firing guns with a nearly constant force, both vibration and fatigue problems that prevent mounting of powerful automatic guns is eliminated.

  18. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaize, S.; Ailloud, J.; Mariani, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    We have studied fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry through the recoil protons they produce in hydrogenated samples. In spectrometric, we used nuclear emulsions, in dosimetric, we used polyethylene coated with zinc sulphide and placed before a photomultiplier. (author) [fr

  19. A review of recoil ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.D.; Cocke, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A review of recoil ion physics is presented. A brief history on the subject is introduced. The production of low velocity highly-charged recoil ions by fast heavy ion beams is discussed. Experiments which utilize the LEHQ beams to measure charge exchange cross sections and energy gain spectroscopy are discussed

  20. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  1. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  2. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  3. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    A principal challenge faced by the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Benet Laboratories in the design of armaments for lightweight future fighting vehicles with lethality overmatch is mitigating the deleterious effects of large caliber cannon recoil...

  4. Neutron recoils in the DRIFT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Ohnuki, T.; Rykoff, E.S.; Martoff, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks (DRIFT) project is an endeavor to build and operate a low pressure negative ion TPC to search for weakly interacting massive particles thought to make up the dark matter in our Galaxy. This paper will focus on a neutron exposure of a small DRIFT prototype, a Monte Carlo to simulate these events, and the derivation of the range and ionization as a function of energy for Sulfur and Carbon recoils in CS 2 gas

  5. The ANTARES recoil time-of-flight spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.W.; Russell, G.J. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian National Tandem for Applied Research (ANTARES), is a 8MV FN tandem particle accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Research on the accelerator is divided between two groups, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and lon Beam Analysis (IBA). The IBA group carries out a range of research projects from nuclear physics to materials characterisation. The major IBA project on the accelerator is a recoil time-of-flight spectrometer which consists of two electrostatic time pulse generators and an ion-implanted surface barrier detector. The spectrometer is ideally suited to the profiling of layered multi-element materials, and has been used to characterise materials such as metal-germanides, optoelectronics, superconductors and catalytic converters. This paper will describe the time-of-flight system as well as some recent materials characterisation results. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  7. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J., E-mail: jrenner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Shuman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Álvarez, V. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Borges, F.I.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Cárcel, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Castel, J.; Cebrián, S. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cervera, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Conde, C.A.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); and others

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  8. Histopathological correlates of early arterial recoil following directional coronary atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangas, G; Peters-Veluthamaningal, C; Cocke, T P; Vidhun, R; Duvvuri, S; Marmur, J D; Sharma, S K

    1998-07-01

    Elastic recoil has been implicated in the pathophysiology of restenosis after conventional balloon angioplasty alone. Directional atherectomy may attenuate arterial recoil by removing the internal elastic lamina and medial smooth muscle cells and altering the vessel wall architecture. This study sought to evaluate early recoil after directional atherectomy and its relation with excision of deep arterial wall structures. We prospectively evaluated the correlation of the histopathologic evidence of media or adventitia as assessed in the atheroma retrieved during the procedure with the early changes in minimal lumen diameter after directional atherectomy followed by adjunct balloon dilatation in 50 consecutive cases. Recoil was assessed by routinely performed 1- and 15-min postprocedure angiograms, and patients were divided into two groups according to the absence (group I, n = 26) or presence (group II, n = 24) of recoil. The mean changes in minimal luminal diameter between 1 and 15 min was +0.22 mm in group I and -0.14 mm in group II. The absence of recoil was strongly associated with evidence of media tissue in the pathologic analysis as compared with cases with recoil (42 vs. 18%, respectively; p = 0.02). Similarly, retrieval of adventitia was seen exclusively in the group without recoil (15 vs. 0%; p = 0.06). Vessels that underwent recoil had significantly larger reference and immediate postprocedure minimal luminal diameters (3.62 +/- 0.57 and 3.02 +/- 0.45 mm, respectively) as compared with arteries with no recoil (3.28 +/- 0.35 and 2.75 +/- 0. 43 mm, respectively; p elastic recoil, correlated with excision of deep wall structures during directional atherectomy. Arteries that showed recoil were larger, possibly due to thicker muscular layer and/or larger plaque burden as compared with arteries that did not recoil. Thus, optimal tissue debulking during directional atherectomy appears to attenuate recoil, providing an additional insight into the mechanism of

  9. Recoil corrections in antikaon-deuteron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the non-relativistic effective field theory approach for K−d scattering, it is demonstrated that a systematic perturbative expansion of the recoil corrections in the parameter ξ = MK/mN is possible in spite of the fact that K−d scattering at low energies is inherently non-perturbative due to the large values of the K̄N scattering lengths. The first order correction to the K−d scattering length due to single insertion of the retardation term in the multiple-scattering series is calculated. The recoil effect turns out to be reasonably small even at the physical value of MK/mN ≃ 0:5.

  10. Experiments with recoil ions and other considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocke, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some opportunities in collisions physics with slow, multiply charged ions are addressed. A distinction between inner and outer shell collisions is drawn. The applicability of recoil ion sources to outer shell collision systems is discussed, with emphasis on the quality of the beam desired. An example of an inner shell collision is discussed, and the usefulness of not pushing the collision energy too low is pointed out. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Heavy quark symmetry at large recoil: The case of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.

    1992-02-01

    We analyze the large recoil behaviour of heavy baryon transition form factors in semi-leptonic decays. We use a generalized Brodsky-Lepage hard scattering formalism where diquarks are considered as quasi-elementary constituents of baryons. In the limit of infinitely heavy quark masses the large recoil form factors exhibit a new model-independent heavy quark symmetry which is reminiscent but not identical to the Isgur-Wise symmetry at low recoil. (orig.)

  13. Recoil mixing in high-fluence ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmark, U.; Hofer, W.O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of recoil mixing on the collection and depth distribution of implanted projectiles during high-fluence irradiation of a random solid is investigated by model calculations based on a previously published transport theoretical approach to the general problem of recoil mixing. The most pronounced effects are observed in the maximum implantable amount of projectiles and in the critical fluence for saturation. Both values are significantly increased by recoil mixing. (Auth.)

  14. Molecular sieves analysis by elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, H.; Azzouz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The opportunity of water determination in zeolites via hydrogen detection using the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) was investigated. The radiation effect upon the desorption rate of hydrogen in miscellaneous types of zeolites, e.g. Y-Faujasite, ZSM-5, SK, etc. and in a natural clay, e.g. an Algerian bentonite was discussed. Quantitative measurements were carried out in order to determine the amount and distribution shape of hydrogen in each material. Various explanations dealing with hydration and constitution water in such a crystalline framework were proposed. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical values

  15. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d((pol-e),e(prime)(pol-n)p) reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  16. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  17. ZZ RECOIL/B, Heavy Charged Particle Recoil Spectra Library for Radiation Damage Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Amburgey, J.D.; Greene, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Format: GAM-II group structure; Number of groups: 104 neutron and Recoil-energy groups; Nuclides: Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, B-10, Cu, B-11, Zr, N, Nb, Li-6, Mo, Li-7, Ta (Data for Ta-181,Ta-182), O, Origin: ENDF/B-IV cross-section data. A heavy charged-particle recoil data base (primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra) and an analysis program have been created to assist experimentalists in studying, evaluating, and correlating radiation-damage effects in different neutron environments. Since experimentally obtained controlled thermo-nuclear-reactor-type neutron spectra are not presently available, the data base can be extremely useful in relating currently obtainable radiation damage to that which is anticipated in future fusion devices. However, the usefulness of the data base is not restricted to just CTR needs. Most of the elements of interest to the radiation-damage community and all neutron reactions of any significance for these elements have been processed, using available ENDF/B-IV cross-section data, and are included in the data base. Calculated data such as primary recoil spectra, displacement rates, and gas-production rates, obtained with the data base, for different radiation environments are presented and compared with previous calculations. Primary neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV have been considered. The elements included in the data base are listed in Table I. All neutron reactions of significance for these elements (i.e., elastic, inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,sigma), (n,gamma), etc.,) which have cross sections available from ENDF/B-IV have been processed and placed in the data base. Table I - Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, 10 B, Cu, 11 B, Zr, N, Nb, 6 Li, Mo, 7 Li, Ta (Data for Ta 181 ,Ta 182 ), O. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron

  18. Recoil 18F-chemistry in fluoroalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, K.D. van der.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the study of the chemical reactions of recoil 18 F-atoms in gaseous fluoromethanes and fluoroethanes. A brief survey of the organic hot atom chemistry is given in Chapter I. Chapter II deals with the experimental procedures used in this investigation. The irradiation facilities, the vapour phase radio-chromatography and the identification, including the synthesis of some fluorocarbons, are described in detail. Chapter III consists of a study on the applicability of perfluoropropene, C 3 F 6 , as scavenger for thermal 18 F-atoms and radicals. Chapters IV, V, VI and VII deal with 18 F-recoil chemistry in gaseous fluoroethanes, using H 2 S as scavenger. Chapter VIII is a short discussion on the hot 18 F-atom based production of 18 F-labeled organic compounds via decay of the intermediate 18 Ne. A target system is proposed for production of this isotope in high energy and ultra high flux particle beams, which possibly would become available in fast breeders and fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  19. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P.; Walker, S. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H.; Hult, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  2. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed at the. 15. °. S beam-line of the Pelletron at TIFR. The RMS consists of a quadrupole doublet just after the target chamber followed by an 'electrostatic deflector', a magnetic dipole and a second electrostatic deflector. The recoils produced in the.

  4. Searching for the Recoiling Black Hole in BCG2261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Kayhan

    2017-09-01

    We propose a 100 ksec observation of the core of BCG 2261 to test for the presence of a recoiling SMBH. Binary SMBHs are thought to scour out cores in the host galaxy before coalescence of the black holes, which can lead to large recoils. Despite the importance of the connection between binary BHs, strong gravity, and galaxy evolution, it has never been conclusively observed. Without confirmation, we don't know if binary SMBHs can create stellar cores achieve high recoil velocities. We can produce the first direct observational proof of a recoiling SMBH in BCG 2261, the strongest candidate to date to host a recoiling SMBH and an extreme stellar core. With a detection, we will finally have definitive observational evidence connecting core formation, gravitational waves, and binary BHs.

  5. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. C.; Wang, J.

    2012-10-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment.

  6. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z C; Wang, J

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment. (paper)

  7. RITA, a promising Monte Carlo code for recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalvo, A.; Rosa, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code previously set up to simulate ion penetration in amorphous solids has been extended to handle with recoil phenomena. Preliminary results are compared with existing experimental data. (author)

  8. Design of the SUPERB Recoil Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Zachary; Carpenter, Lisa; Amthor, Matt

    2013-10-01

    The reaccelerator ReA12 upgrade planned at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL) at Michigan State University will produce higher energy rare isotope beams close to the neutron and proton drip lines. We present one option for the recoil separator which aims to take full advantage of the new capabilities of ReA12 in studying rare isotopes. The Separator for Unique Products of Experiments with Radioactive Beams (SUPERB), patterned after the second half of the Super Separator-Spectrometer (S3) currently under construction at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL). This design includes both electric and magnetic dipoles and this will allow physical separation by mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) with a maximum solid angle of 26 msr and a maximum magnetic rigidity of 1.44 Tm. This design also allows for flexibility of optical modes. Both large acceptance and unit magnification modes will be presented. Also, a fully magnetic configuration is considered that would eliminate the expected electric rigidity limit of 10 MV and increase the maximum magnetic rigidity to 1.92 Tm. We will present optical designs and simulations of SUBERB developed in the code COSY Infinity including a first order system and a higher order Monte Carlo calculation simulating 100Sn production. This research was funded by the NSF REU program, grant PHY-1165694 with additional support from the DoD ASSURE program.

  9. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Ying-Ying

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}{{h}}) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{hZ}},{{Z}}\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, {m}{{recoil}}p, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events better than the original recoil mass variable m recoil. Consequently, the {m}{{recoil}}p variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the {m}{{recoil}}p variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies. JG is Supported by an International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program between the Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers of China (ONACPR) and DESY. YYL is Supported by Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPFS) and the Collaborative Research Fund (CRF) (HUKST4/CRF/13G)

  10. RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during the coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary imparts a velocity 'kick' to the system that can displace the hole from the center of its host. Here, we study the trajectories and observability of MBHs recoiling in three (one major, two minor) gas-rich galaxy merger remnants that were previously simulated at high resolution, and in which the pairing of the MBHs had been shown to be successful. We run new simulations of MBHs recoiling in the major merger remnant with Mach numbers in the range 1≤M≤6 and use simulation data to construct a semi-analytical model for the orbital evolution of MBHs in gas-rich systems. We show the following. (1) In major merger remnants the energy deposited by the moving hole into the rotationally supported, turbulent medium makes a negligible contribution to the thermodynamics of the gas. This contribution becomes significant in minor merger remnants, potentially allowing for an electromagnetic signature of MBH recoil. (2) In major merger remnants, the combination of both deeper central potential well and drag from high-density gas confines even MBHs with kick velocities as high as 1200 km s -1 within 1 kpc from the host's center. (3) Kinematically offset nuclei may be observable for timescales of a few Myr in major merger remnants in the case of recoil velocities in the range 700-1000 km s -1 . (4) In minor merger remnants the effect of gas drag is weaker, and MBHs with recoil speeds in the range 300-600 km s -1 will wander through the host halo for longer timescales. When accounting for the probability distribution of kick velocities, however, we find that the likelihood of observing recoiling MBHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers is very low even in the best-case scenario.

  11. Indirect recoil implantation following nuclear reactions: Theory and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A general treatment of indirect recoil implantation following nuclear reactions is given for the first time. This method allows implantation into any substrate of a wide range of species produced by nuclear reactions either in a thin sacrificial target or from a solid target. It is demonstrated that this can be done whilst avoiding primary beam damage to the substrate. Two cases are considered, the general one in which non-elastic nuclear reactions produce the recoil species of interest and secondly the special case of elastic recoils. In both cases a number of novel features of the process not previously described are outlined. For example, by controlling the angular acceptance of the substrate for recoil products the method can be tailored to give well controlled implantation profiles very similar to direct implantation (i.e., approximately Gaussian in range) or more extensive depth distributions whose profiles are simply determined by the centre of mass angular distribution of the reaction product. The flux of particles available for implantation is approximately 10 -4 smaller than from direct implantation facilities, but is comparable to the useful implantation dose achieved by the established technique of direct elastic recoil implantation. The radiation damage is little more than that associated with the indirect implant itself in contrast to direct elastic recoil implantation where the potential damage produced often mediates against the use of that technique. The main advantage of this relatively new method over the conventional methods is the wider range of species which can be implanted with minimum damage to the substrate. These include elements which cannot be conveniently produced from ion sources as well as exotic species which cannot be produced other than by nuclear reactions; radioactive species are good examples of both cases. (orig.)

  12. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.S.; Davies, J.A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S.G.; Zelenitsky, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209 Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ≤100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  13. Recoil studies of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, H

    2002-01-01

    A review is given on the recoil studies of photonuclear reactions on complex nuclei at intermediate energies. Recoils of 167 radionuclides formed in the photonuclear reactions of sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup 9 sup 3 Nb, sup n sup a sup t Ag, sup n sup a sup t Ta, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au, induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E sub 0) from 600 to 1100 MeV, have been investigated by the thick-target thick-catcher method. The recoil velocity from the first step and the mean kinetic energy of the residual nuclei in the second step were deduced based on the two-step vector velocity model and discussed by comparing with the reported results on proton-induced reactions. Recoils of sup 2 sup 4 Na produced from sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup n sup a sup t Ag, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au are of special interest from a viewpoint of a change in the production mechanism with respect to target mass. Reaction yields of 58 and 63 radionuclides produce...

  14. An Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Lorentz Force and Rail Recoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    needle deflected when electricity from a crude battery was turned on and off [1]. Less than 20 years later, Hans Christian Oersted independently...Marshall and Woods [16] rebut Witalis’s work by 2 combining theory with empirical observations from the Canberra railgun. They conclude recoil

  15. Proton recoil detector of fusion neutrons using natural diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, R. J.; Barnes, Cris W.; Han, S. S.; Staples, P. A.; Wagner, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Diamond, with its high radiation damage resistance, is an attractive alternative to silicon for neutron measurements in next step fusion experiments. A 200-μm-thick type IIa natural diamond with Ti/Au contacts was tested at the LAMPF-WNR facility by time-of-flight neutron energy identification. The crystal, having a carrier lifetime of up to 1 ns, was arranged in a low-energy-resolution, high-sensitivity proton recoil telescope consisting of a polyethylene radiator and a low-energy-proton Teflon filter. This arrangement is similar to the triton burnup monitor of Croft et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1418 (1993)], where a silicon photodiode was used as a recoil proton detector. The observed sensitivity for 14 MeV neutrons (DT) is (1.25±0.15)×10-3 counts/neutron. However, a high contribution of neutron-induced events in the diamond, mainly carbon (A=12) recoils, was observed. A one-dimensional calculation for the detector response to carbon recoil and proton deposition is compared to the measurements. Poor energy resolution of the diamond detector precludes pulse height discrimination between direct 2.5 MeV neutrons events and proton events corresponding to 14 MeV neutrons. Therefore, an overall DT/DD neutron sensitivity ratio of only ˜6.5 is achieved. This value is much lower than the ratio of 540 reported by Croft et al. in their silicon (A=28) monitor.

  16. Recoil after severing reveals stress fiber contraction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Matthew R; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2009-07-22

    Stress fibers are cellular contractile actomyosin machines central to wound healing, shear stress response, and other processes. Contraction mechanisms have been difficult to establish because stress fibers in cultured cells typically exert isometric tension and present little kinetic activity. In a recent study, living cell stress fibers were severed with laser nanoscissors and recoiled several mum over approximately 5 s. We developed a quantitative model of stress fibers based on known components and available structural information suggesting periodic sarcomeric organization similar to striated muscle. The model was applied to the severing assay and compared to the observed recoil. We conclude that the sarcomere force-length relation is similar to that of muscle with two distinct regions on the ascending limb and that substantial external drag forces act on the recoiling fiber corresponding to effective cytosolic viscosity approximately 10(4) times that of water. This may originate from both nonspecific and specific interactions. The model predicts highly nonuniform contraction with caps of collapsed sarcomeres growing at the severed ends. A directly measurable signature of external drag is that cap length and recoil distance increase at intermediate times as t(1/2). The severing data is consistent with this prediction.

  17. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  18. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  19. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  20. Recoil detection of the lightest neutralino in MSSM singlet extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, Vernon; Lewis, Ian; McCaskey, Mat; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Yencho, Brian; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the correlated predictions of singlet extended MSSM models for direct detection and the cosmological relic density of the lightest neutralino. To illustrate the general effects of the singlet, we take heavy sleptons and squarks. We apply CERN LEP (g-2) μ , and perturbativity constraints. We find that the WMAP upper bound on the cold dark matter density limits much of the parameter space to regions where the lightest neutralino can be discovered in recoil experiments. The results for the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model and U(1) ' -extended minimal supersymmetric standard model are typically similar to the MSSM since their light neutralinos have similar compositions and masses. In the nearly minimal supersymmetric standard model the neutralino is often very light and its recoil detection is within the reach of the CDMS II experiment. In general, most points in the parameter spaces of the singlet models we consider are accessible to the WARP experiment

  1. Recoil mass spectrometers in low-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    By the ion-optical standards of modern spectrometers in nuclear physics the recoil mass spectrometer is a rather inelegant device. Satisfactory correction of the dominant second-order aberrations have expanded the useful mass range and solid angle of the new spectrometers but not without real loss of mass-resolving power. The new spectrometers will involve compromises between resolution and efficiency. Despite their ion-optical inelegance, existing recoil mass spectrometers have opened important new approaches in low-energy nuclear physics, and the new spectrometers promise similar developments. The authors considered a very limited sample of the potential applications of these instruments. Many new applications will follow the development of the new, higher efficiency spectrometers

  2. First detection of radon progeny recoil tracks by MIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.; Guillaudin, O.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Descombes, T.; Fourel, C.; Muraz, J.-F.; Lebreton, L.; Maire, D.; Colas, P.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Busto, J.; Fouchez, D.; Brunner, J.; Tao, C.

    2017-06-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a μ-TPC project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection strategy is based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of nuclear recoil energy and 3D direction from the WIMP elastic scattering on target nuclei. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of NRs produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  3. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T.R.H.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I.F.; Short, R.; Johnston, P.N. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Black Hole Mergers and Recoils in Low-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Kelley, Luke; Koss, Michael; Satyapal, Shobita

    2018-01-01

    Mergers between massive black holes (BHs) in the intermediate-mass range are one of the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) detectable with LISA. These highly energetic GW events could be observed out to very high redshift, in the epoch where massive BH seeds are thought to form. Despite recent progress, however, much is still not known about the low-mass BH population even in the local Universe. The rates of BH binary formation, inspiral, and merger are also highly uncertain across the BH mass scale. To address these pressing issues in advance of LISA, cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and semi-analytic modeling are being used to model the formation and evolution of BH binaries, and the GW signals they produce. Efforts are also underway to understand the electromagnetic (EM) signatures of the BH binary population. These have proven largely elusive thus far, but an increasing population of BH pairs has been found, and advances in the coming years will provide important comparisons for models of GW sources. Moreover, asymmetry in the GW emission from BH mergers imparts a recoil kick to the merged BH, which in extreme cases can eject the BH from its host galaxy. This creates additional uncertainty in the BH merger rate, but the remnant recoiling BH could be observed as an offset quasar. Identifications of such objects would provide another EM signature of BH mergers that would help pave the way for LISA. We will review model predictions of the BH inspiral and merger rate across the mass scale. We will also describe how the EM signatures of active, merging BHs can be used to constrain theoretical merger rates. Finally, we will discuss the predicted observability of recoiling BHs and ongoing efforts to identify and confirm candidate recoils.

  5. The recoil proton polarization in πp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for π + p and π - p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P 3 East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10 7 π - 's/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10 7 π + 's/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs

  6. D-particle Recoil Space Times and "Glueball" Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the properties of matter in a D-dimensional anti-de-Sitter-type space time induced dynamically by the recoil of a very heavy D(irichlet)-particle defect embedded in it. The particular form of the recoil geometry, which from a world-sheet view point follows from logarithmic conformal field theory deformations of the pertinent sigma-models, results in the presence of both infrared and ultraviolet (spatial) cut-offs. These are crucial in ensuring the presence of mass gaps in scalar matter propagating in the D-particle recoil space time. The analogy of this problem with the Liouville-string approach to QCD, suggested earlier by John Ellis and one of the present authors, prompts us to identify the resulting scalar masses with those obtained in the supergravity approach based on the Maldacena's conjecture, but without the imposition of any supersymmetry in our case. Within reasonable numerical uncertainties, we observe that agreement is obtained between the two approaches for a particular value of the ra...

  7. Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komossa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes (SMBHs may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single SMBH, after binary coalescence in a galaxy merger, can receive kick velocities up to several 1000 km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. Long-lived oscillations of the SMBHs in galaxy cores, and in rare cases even SMBH ejections from their host galaxies, are the consequence. Observationally, accreting recoiling SMBHs would appear as quasars spatially and/or kinematically offset from their host galaxies. The presence of the “kicks” has a wide range of astrophysical implications which only now are beginning to be explored, including consequences for black hole and galaxy assembly at the epoch of structure formation, black hole feeding, and unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Here, we review the observational signatures of recoiling SMBHs and the properties of the first candidates which have emerged, including follow-up studies of the candidate recoiling SMBH of SDSSJ092712.65+294344.0.

  8. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  9. An Evaluation of Magneto Rheological Dampers for Controlling Gun Recoil Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling recoil dynamics is examined, using a recoil demonstrator that includes a single-shot 50 caliber BMG rifle action and a MR damper. The demonstrator is selected such that it can adequately represent the velocities that commonly occur in weapons with a recoil system, and can be used for collecting data for analyzing the effects of MR dampers on recoil dynamics. The MR damper is designed so that it can work effectively at the large velocities commonly occurring in gun recoil, and also be easily adjusted to reasonably optimize the damper performance for the recoil demonstrator. The test results show that it is indeed possible to design and use MR dampers for recoil applications, which subject the damper to relative velocities far larger than the applications that such dampers have commonly been used for (i.e., vehicle applications. Further, the results indicate that the recoil force increases and the recoil stroke decreases nonlinearly with an increase in the damping force. Also of significance is the fact that the adjustability of MR dampers can be used in a closed-loop system such that the large recoil forces that commonly occur upon firing the gun are avoided and, simultaneously, the recoil stroke is reduced. This study points to the need for several areas of research including establishing the performance capabilities for MR dampers for gun recoil applications in an exact manner, and the potential use of such dampers for a fire out of battery recoil system.

  10. An Evaluation of Magneto Rheological Dampers for Controlling Gun Recoil Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ahmadian; James C. Poynor

    2001-01-01

    The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling recoil dynamics is examined, using a recoil demonstrator that includes a single-shot 50 caliber BMG rifle action and a MR damper. The demonstrator is selected such that it can adequately represent the velocities that commonly occur in weapons with a recoil system, and can be used for collecting data for analyzing the effects of MR dampers on recoil dynamics. The MR damper is designed so that it can work effectively at the large ve...

  11. Recoil generated radiotracers in studies of molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes many of the contributions that the recoil technique of generating excited radiotracer atoms in the presence of a thermal environment is making to the field of chemical dynamics. Specific topics discussed critically include characterization of the generation and behavior of excited molecules including fragmentation kinetics and energy transfer, measurement of thermal and hot kinetic parameters, and studies of reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry as a function of reaction energy. Distinctive features that provide unique approaches to dynamical problems are evaluated in detail and the complementarity with more conventional techniques is addressed. Prospects for future applications are also presented

  12. Restrictions for asymmetry and polarizations of recoil in muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J

    1975-01-01

    Using the helicity formalism, muon capture by targets of spin-zero is discussed. Owing to the definite neutrino helicity, three independent observables define a complete experiment. The precise relation between asymmetry alpha and longitudinal polarization P/sub L/ of recoil, alpha =1+2jP/sub L/, comes only from rotational invariance. When time- reversal invariance is inserted, there is an additional restriction between the average polarization P/sub av/ and the longitudinal polarization P/sub L/. (7 refs).

  13. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Desmin modulates lung elastic recoil and airway responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shardonofsky, Felix R; Capetanaki, Yassemi; Boriek, Aladin M

    2006-05-01

    Desmin is a structural protein that is expressed in smooth muscle cells of both airways and alveolar ducts. Therefore, desmin could be well situated to participate in passive and contractile force transmission in the lung. We hypothesized that desmin modulates lung compliance, lung recoil pressure, and airway contractile response. To test this hypothesis, respiratory system complex impedance (Zin,rs) at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and quasi-static pressure-volume data were obtained in desmin-null and wild-type mice at baseline and during methacholine administration. Airways and lung tissue properties were partitioned by fitting Zin,rs to a constant-phase model. Relative to controls, desmin-null mice showed 1) lower values for lung stiffness and recoil pressure at baseline and induced airway constriction, 2) greater negative PEEP dependence of H and airway resistance under baseline conditions and cholinergic stimulation, and 3) airway hyporesponsiveness. These results demonstrate that desmin is a load-bearing protein that stiffens the airways and consequently the lung and modulates airway contractile response.

  15. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced Λ(1116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAleer, Simeon B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p → e' + K+ + Λ(1116) for events where Λ(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel Λ(1116) → p + π-. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q2 range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV2 and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the Λ(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the Λ(1116) as a function of both cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ and W.

  16. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, J A; Hilsabeck, T J; Wink, C W; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C; Gatu Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2016-11-01

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (T i ), yield (Y n ), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ∼20 ps and energy resolution of ∼100 keV for total neutron yields above ∼10 16 . At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ∼20 ps.

  17. Automation of the helium jet transport system for nuclear recoil products; Automacao do sistema de transporte de nucleos de recuo por jato de helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Pedrosa, Paulo S

    1996-09-01

    A computer code and an interface hardware to automate the acquisition data and the sample changer in a helium jet transport system of recoil nucleus was developed for an IBM or compatible personal microcomputer. The software works with a Spectrum-ACE/ADCAM ORTEC`s multichannel analysers and the interface card uses the 03EFh port to command the sample changer. This system allows to measure, by gamma spectrometry, radionuclides with half-lives of order of seconds produced from nuclear reactions. (author) 3 refs.

  18. Chemical fate of a recoil atom as a function of the lattice conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeling, M.T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers the fate of a recoil atom receiving a recoil as a result of a nuclear reaction, completely rupturing the bonds between the atom and its ligands, in the case of KMnO 4 - and KBrO 3 -crystal lattices. (Auth.)

  19. Exact calculations of nuclear-recoil energies from prompt gamma decays resulting from neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, J.H.

    1981-07-20

    The results of an accurate determination of the recoil spectrum from (n, ..gamma..) reactions in molybdenum are presented. The recoil spectrum has been calculated from nuclear level structure data and measured branching ratios. Angular correlations between successive gammas have been accounted for using the standard theoretical techniques of Racah algebra and the density matrix formalism.

  20. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  1. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harinder J; Wereley, Norman M

    2014-01-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events. (paper)

  2. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.

  3. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  4. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  5. Fractional momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reaction: measurement of recoil range distributions in 20Ne + 159Tb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Singh, D.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The recoil range distribution (RRD) of several residues have been measured for the system 20 Ne + 159 Tb at 165 MeV beam energy by collecting the recoiling residues in the Al-catcher foils of varying thickness

  6. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  7. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  8. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  9. Recoil labelling of fluorine-18 labelled chlorofluoromethanes and tetrafluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    18 F recoil labelling of trichlorofluoro-, dichlorodifluoro-, chlorotrifluoro- and tetrafluoromethane has been investigated. Mixtures of an appropriate substrate (0.3-2%) in neon were bombared with 14 MeV deuterons ( 20 Ne(d, α) 18 F reaction). All the above compounds were labelled in high activities by this technique. When tetrachloromethane was the substrate the major product was 18 F-trichlorofluoromethane (approximately 95% of total gaseous activity). 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane was the major product (approximately 60 and approximately 70% respectively) when either trichlorofluoromethane or dichlorodifluoromethane was the substrate. The use of chlorotrifluoromethane as substrate produced 18 F-dichlorodifluoromethane and 18 F-tetrafluoromethane in significant amounts in addition to 18 F-chlorotrifluoromethane (approximately 40%). Bombardment of mixtures of tetrafluoromethane in neon produced 18 F-tetrafluoromethane (approximately 80%) together with other 18 F-labelled gaseous products. The targetry and irradiation conditions are described. the volatile products were analysed by radio-gas chromatography. (author)

  10. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  11. Scintillation yield and time dependence from electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott, W. H.; Coakley, K. J.; Gastler, D.; Kearns, E.; McKinsey, D. N.; Nikkel, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    We have performed measurements of scintillation light in liquid neon, observing a signal yield in our detector as high as (3.5 ± 0.4) photoelectrons/keV. We measure pulse shape discrimination efficiency between electronic and nuclear recoils in liquid neon from 50 to 300 keV nuclear recoil energy. We also measure the Leff parameter in liquid neon between 30 and 370 keV nuclear recoil energy, observing an average Leff=0.24 above 50 keV. We observe a dependence of the scintillation time distribution and signal yield on the pressure and temperature of the liquid neon.

  12. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  13. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  14. On the doubly differential recoil-ion longitudinal momentum distributions from electron DDCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.; Richard, P.; Wang, Y.D.; Lin, C.D.

    1996-05-01

    Ionization is one of the most important reactions in ion-atom collisions. The doubly differential cross sections (DDCS), in energy and angle, for electron emission can provide a detailed understanding of the ionization dynamics. A general formulation for constructing the doubly differential recoil ion longitudinal momentum distribution from the measured electron DDCS is presented. This method allows one to obtain longitudinal recoil momenta without the use of a cold jet target. The complementary nature of the electron spectroscopy and the recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy is discussed. The authors use the energy and angular distributions of the electron DDCS in ionization of molecular hydrogen bombarded by bare carbon ions of energy 30 MeV. From these data they have derived the doubly differential electron and recoil ion longitudinal momentum distributions. The single differential distributions are also derived. In each case data are compared to CDW-EIS calculations.

  15. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  16. Recoil effects in the hyperfine structure of QED bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.; Gregorio, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors give a general discussion of the derivation from field theory of a formalism for the perturbative solution of the relativistic two-body problem. The lowest-order expression for the four-point function is given in terms of a two-particle three-dimensional propagator in a static potential. It is obtained by fixing the loop energy in the four-dimensional formalism at a point which is independent of the loop momentum and is symmetric in the two particle variables. This method avoids awkward positive- and negative-energy projectors, with their attendant energy square roots, and allows one to recover the Dirac equation straightforwardly in the nonrecoil limit. The perturbations appear as a variety of four-dimensional kernels which are rearranged and regrouped into convenient sets. In particular, they are transformed from the Coulomb to the Feynman gauge, which greatly simplifies the expressions that must be evaluated. Although the approach is particularly convenient for the precision analysis of QED bound states, it is not limited to such applications. The authors use it to give the first unified treatment of all presently known recoil corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure and also to verify the corresponding contributions through order α 2 lnαE/sub F/ in positronium. The required integrals are evaluated analytically

  17. The evolution of heavy ion recoil and fragment separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nole, J.

    1991-01-01

    Research in heavy ion nuclear science is evolving towards more extensive use of reaction recoil and fragment separators. The emphasis has been on the development of devices which promptly separate reaction products according to A or A/q at or very near zero degrees. Probably the most important performance criterion for such devices is the degree to which weak reaction products are separated from the beam and other abundant species. Another important design consideration is the optimization for the beam and reaction product energy or rigidity and the related dominant reaction mechanisms. Separator configuration and size requirements vary rapidly as the research emphasis changes from fission fragments, to slow fusion products (light beam on heavy target), to fast fusion products (heavy on light), to deep ineslastic, and finally to fragmentation products at 50 to 500 MeV per nucleon. Examples of on-going and new research programs with such devices around the world will be discussed along with plans for nearly-completed and recently-designed facilities at several heavy ion labs

  18. First Measurement of Beam-Recoil Observables Cx and Cz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Bradford; R.A. Schumacher; G. Adams; M.J. Amaryan; P. Ambrozewicz; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J.P. Ball; N.A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B.L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A.S. Biselli; B.E. Bonner; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W.J. Briscoe; W.K. Brooks; S. B¨ultmann; V.D. Burkert; C. Butuceanu; J.R. Calarco; S.L. Careccia; D.S. Carman; B. Carnahan; S. Chen; P.L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; P. Coltharp; D. Cords; † P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; V. Crede; J.P. Cummings; R. De Masi; E. De Sanctis; R. De Vita; P.V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; K.V. Dharmawardane; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G.E. Dodge; J. Donnelly; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O.P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; ; K.S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; G. Feldman; R.J. Feuerbach; T.A. Forest; H. Funsten; M. Garcon; G. Gavalian; ; G.P. Gilfoyle; K.L. Giovanetti; F.X. Girod; J.T. Goetz; A. Gonenc; R.W. Gothe; K.A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; R.S. Hakobyan; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F.W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C.E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D.G. Ireland; B.S. Ishkhanov; E.L. Isupov; M.M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H.S. Jo; K. Joo; H.G. Juengst; N. Kalantarians; J.D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; K.Y. Kim; K. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F.J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L.H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S.E. Kuhn; S.V. Kuleshov; J. Lachniet; J.M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A.C.S. Lima; K. Livingston; H.Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; J.J. Manak; C. Marchand; N. Markov; S. McAleer; B. McKinnon; J.W.C. McNabb; B.A. Mecking; M.D. Mestayer; C.A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; K. Moriya; S.A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G.S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; J. Napolitano; R. Nasseripour; N. Natasha; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B.B. Niczyporuk; M.R. Niroula; R.A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G.V. O’Rielly; M. Osipenko; A.I. Ostrovidov; K. Park; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S.A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B.M. Preedom; J.W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L.M. Qin; B.P. Quinn; B.A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B.G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P.D. Rubin; F. Sabatie; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; J.P. Santoro; ; V. Sapunenko; V.S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y.G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; N.V. Shvedunov; S. Simionatto; A.V. Skabelin; E.S. Smith; L.C. Smith; D.I. Sober; D. Sokhan; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S.S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; P. Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D.J. Tedeschi; U. Thoma; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; L. Todor; C. Tur; M. Ungaro; M.F. Vineyard; A.V. Vlassov; K. Wang; D.P. Watts; L.B. Weinstein; H. Weller; D.P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M.H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; and Z.W. Zhao

    2007-03-01

    Spin transfer from circularly polarized real photons to recoiling hyperons has been measured for the reactions $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Lambda$ and $\\vec\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\vec\\Sigma^0$. The data were obtained using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies $W$ between 1.6 and 2.53 GeV, and for $-0.85<\\cos\\theta_{K^+}^{c.m.}< +0.95$. For the $\\Lambda$, the polarization transfer coefficient along the photon momentum axis, $C_z$, was found to be near unity for a wide range of energy and kaon production angles. The associated transverse polarization coefficient, $C_x$, is smaller than $C_z$ by a roughly constant difference of unity. Most significantly, the {\\it total} $\\Lambda$ polarization vector, including the induced polarization $P$, has magnitude consistent with unity at all measured energies and production angles when the beam is fully polarized. For the $\\Sigma^0$ this simple phenomenology does not hold. All existing hadrodynamic models are in poor agreement with these results.

  19. Retaining Black Holes with Very Large Recoil Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2007-10-01

    Recent numerical simulations of binary black hole mergers show the possibility of producing very large recoil velocities (>3000 km s-1). Kicks of this magnitude should be sufficient to eject the final black hole from virtually any galactic potential. This result has been seen as a potential contradiction to observations of supermassive black holes residing in the centers of most galaxies in the local universe. Using an extremely simplified merger tree model, we show that, even in the limit of very large ejection probability, after a small number of merger generations there should still be an appreciable fraction (>50%) of galaxies with supermassive black holes today. We go on to argue that the inclusion of more realistic physics ingredients in the merger model should systematically increase this retention fraction, helping to resolve a potential conflict between theory and observation. Finally, we develop a more realistic Monte Carlo model to confirm the qualitative arguments and to estimate occupation fractions as a function of the central galactic velocity dispersion.

  20. Stereochemical consequences of recoil halogen atom substitution. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Rack, E.P.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The stereochemical consequencs of recoil 38 Cl-for-X (X = Br, Cl, F) atom substitutions in (2S, 3R)-dl- and (2S, 3S)-dl-bromofluorobutanes (BFB's) and in (2S, 3R)-dl- and (2S, 3S)-dl-chlorofluorobutanes (CFB's) were investigated in the gas phase as a function of kinetic energy moderator concentration. Results from exothermic 38 Cl-for-Br substitutions in the BFB stereoisomers revealed that the reaction stereochemistry changed from predominant retention configuration to predominant inversion of configuration with increasing kinetic energy moderator concentration. An inspection of individual yields revealed that the channel for inversion product formation was insensitive to moderator concentration, while the channel for retention product formation decreased in importance as the moderator concentration was increased. In contrast, results from thermoneutral 38 Cl-for-Cl and endothermic 38 Cl-for-F substitutions in the CFB stereoisomers revealed that reaction stereochemistry for both cases was insensitive to changes in the moderator concentration. An inspection of the individual product yields from both reactions revealed that the channels for retention and inversion product formation exhibited the same dependence on moderator concentration. Both channels decreased in importance as the moderator concentration was increased. (orig.)

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on January 27 in 1986. An energy resolution, wall effects of response functions, n · γ discrimination methods and other fundamental properties of recoil proton counters are discussed for a new development of an application of this counter. (author)

  2. Investigation on modeling and controability of a magnetorheological gun recoil damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongsheng; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jiong; Qian, Suxiang; Li, Yancheng

    2009-07-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluid as a new smart material has done well in the vibration and impact control engineering fields because of its good electromechanical coupling characteristics, preferable dynamic performance and higher sensitivity. And success of MRF has been apparent in many engineering applied fields, such as semi-active suspension, civil engineering, etc. So far, little research has been done about MR damper applied into the weapon system. Its primary purpose of this study is to identify its dynamic performance and controability of the artillery recoil mechanism equipped with MR damper. Firstly, based on the traditional artillery recoil mechanism, a recoil dynamic model is developed in order to obtain an ideal rule between recoil force and its stroke. Then, its effects of recoil resistance on the stability and firing accuracy of artillery are explored. Because MR gun recoil damper under high impact load shows a typical nonlinear character and there exists a shear-thinning phenomenon, to establish an accurate dynamic model has been a seeking aim of its design and application for MR damper under high impact load. Secondly, in this paper, considering its actual bearing load, an inertia factor was introduced to Herschel-Bulkley model, and some factor's effect on damping force are simulated and analyzed by using numerical simulation, including its dynamic performance under different flow coefficients and input currents. Finally, both of tests with the fixed current and different On-Off control algorithms have been done to confirm its controability of MR gun recoil damper under high impact load. Experimental results show its dynamic performances of the large-scale single-ended MR gun recoil damper can be changed by altering the applied currents and it has a good controllability.

  3. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-15

    the RD (Recoil Detector) with an unpolarized target at this position. This detector consists of the Silicon Strip Detector, the SFT (Scintillating Fiber Tracker), the Photon Detector and is surrounded by a 1T superconducting magnet. It provides several space points for tracking and thus momentum reconstruction. The energy deposition in the various detectors is used to achieve particle identification. The main part of the thesis work was the implementation of the SFT and the RD readout system. Before the installation of the RD a series of test runs were carried out to proof the concept of the detector, to measure the internal alignment and to prepare the installation. These test runs for the SFT are described and major results are shown. Furthermore a preliminary analysis of the latest data 06d/06d0 was carried out to show the performance of the installed Recoil Detector in combination with the HERMES forward spectrometer. (orig.)

  4. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-01

    (Recoil Detector) with an unpolarized target at this position. This detector consists of the Silicon Strip Detector, the SFT (Scintillating Fiber Tracker), the Photon Detector and is surrounded by a 1T superconducting magnet. It provides several space points for tracking and thus momentum reconstruction. The energy deposition in the various detectors is used to achieve particle identification. The main part of the thesis work was the implementation of the SFT and the RD readout system. Before the installation of the RD a series of test runs were carried out to proof the concept of the detector, to measure the internal alignment and to prepare the installation. These test runs for the SFT are described and major results are shown. Furthermore a preliminary analysis of the latest data 06d/06d0 was carried out to show the performance of the installed Recoil Detector in combination with the HERMES forward spectrometer. (orig.)

  5. A recoil detector for the measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at angles close to 90°

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Bechstedt, U.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Khoukaz, A.; Klehr, F.; Lehrach, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Ritman, J.; Sefzick, T.; Stockmanns, T.; Täschner, A.; Wuestner, P.; Xu, H.

    2014-10-01

    The design and construction of a recoil detector for the measurement of recoil protons of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at scattering angles close to are described. The performance of the recoil detector has been tested in the laboratory with radioactive sources and at COSY with proton beams by measuring proton-proton elastic scattering. The results of laboratory tests and commissioning with beam are presented. Excellent energy resolution and proper working performance of the recoil detector validate the conceptual design of the KOALA experiment at HESR to provide the cross section data needed to achieve a precise luminosity determination at the PANDA experiment.

  6. Improvement in pulmonary function and elastic recoil after lung-reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, F C; Rogers, R M; Keenan, R J; Slivka, W A; Gorcsan, J; Ferson, P F; Holbert, J M; Brown, M L; Landreneau, R J

    1996-04-25

    Pulmonary function may improve after surgical resection of the most severely affected lung tissue (lung-reduction surgery) in patients with diffuse emphysema. The basic mechanisms responsible for the improvement, however, are not known. We studied 20 patients with diffuse emphysema before and at least three months after either a unilateral or a bilateral lung-reduction procedure. Clinical benefit was assessed by measurement of the six-minute walking distance and the transitional-dyspnea index, which is a subjective rating of the change from base line in functional impairment and the threshold for effort- and task- dependent dyspnea. Pressure-volume relations in the lungs were measured with static expiratory esophageal-balloon techniques, and right ventricular systolic function was assessed by echocardiography. The patients had significant improvement in the transitional-dyspnea index after surgery (Pelastic recoil of the lung, improved (from 1.3+/-0.6 cm of water per liter before surgery to 1.8+/-0.8 after, Pelastic recoil had a greater increase in the distance walked in six minutes than the other four patients, in whom recoil did not increase (P=0.02). The improved lung recoil led to disproportionate decreases in residual volume as compared with total lung capacity (16 percent vs. 6 percent), but the decreases in both values were significant (Pelastic recoil of the lung in patients with diffuse emphysema, leading to short-term improvement in dyspnea and exercise tolerance.

  7. Test of a superheated superconducting granule detector with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a Superheated Superconducting Granule (SSG) detector development for neutrinos and dark matter. An aluminum SSG detector was exposed to a 70MeV neutron beam to test the detector sensitivity to nuclear recoils. The neutron scattering angels were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The proved sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils above 10keV is encouraging for possible applications of SSG as a dark matter detector. (orig.)

  8. Radiation Recoil Effects on the Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desiree

    The Yarkovsky effect is a radiation recoil force that results in a semimajor axis drift in the orbit that can cause Main Belt asteroids to be delivered to powerful resonances from which they could be transported to Earth-crossing orbits. This force depends on the spin state of the object, which is modified by the YORP effect, a variation of the Yarkovsky effect that results in a torque that changes the spin rate and the obliquity. Extensive analyses of the basic behavior of the YORP effect have been previously conducted in the context of the classical spin state evolution of rigid bodies (YORP cycle). However, the YORP effect has an extreme sensitivity to the topography of the asteroids and a minor change in the shape of an aggregate asteroid can stochastically change the YORP torques. Here we present the results of the first simulations that self-consistently model the YORP effect on the spin states of dynamically evolving aggregates. For these simulations we have developed several algorithms and combined them with two codes, TACO and pkdgrav. TACO is a thermophysical asteroid code that models the surface of an asteroid using a triangular facet representation and which can compute the YORP torques. The code pkdgrav is a cosmological N-body tree code modified to simulate the dynamical evolution of asteroids represented as aggregates of spheres using gravity and collisions. The continuous changes in the shape of an aggregate result in a different evolution of the YORP torques and therefore aggregates do not evolve through the YORP cycle as a rigid body would. Instead of having a spin evolution ruled by long periods of rotational acceleration and deceleration as predicted by the classical YORP cycle, the YORP effect is self-limiting and stochastic on aggregate asteroids. We provide a statistical description of the spin state evolution which lays out the foundation for new simulations of a coupled Yarkovsky/YORP evolution. Both self-limiting YORP and to a lesser

  9. [The mechanism of age-related change in lung elastic recoil pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Takahashi, K

    1992-02-01

    To investigate the mechanism of age-related change in lung elastic recoil, golden syrian hamsters were divided into three age groups (11-wk group, n = 20; 24-wk group, n = 25; 60-wk group, n = 15). Pressure-volume curves in isolated lungs, length-tension properties of alveolar wall, surface tensions by modified Wilhelmy balance, and collagen and elastin concentrations in the lung tissue were measured. Light and electron micrographs and morphometry were studied. Age-related change was not observed in lung elastic recoil in hamsters. However, old hamsters significantly increased a mean linear intercept and the elasticity constant of alveolar wall. On one hand, a surface tension was increased in old hamsters, associating with the decrease in the number of lamellar body of alveolar type 2 cells. These findings suggested that the reduction in lung elastic recoil which should be caused by both the increase in air space and the decrease in extensibility of alveolar wall would be compensated by the increase in surface tension in old hamsters, which may account for the no age-related change in elastic recoil in hamster lungs.

  10. Effect of elastase and ventilation on elastic recoil of excised dog lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, J K; Napier, J S; Taylor, J C; Rodarte, J R

    1979-03-01

    The effect of porcine pancreatic elastase and mechanical ventilation on tissue elastic recoil was examined in excised dog lung lobes. Lobes incubated for one hour with an elastase-buffer mixture showed a significant (P less than 0.001) left shift of the liquid-filled pressure-volume curve at all pressures measured (0 to 12 cm H2O) when compared to lobes treated with buffer only. These results suggest that the contribution of elastin to the elastic properties of lung tissue is greatest at mid-lung volumes, but that it also contributes to delimiting maximal lung volume. Elastase and buff-treated lobes were inflated cyclically with humidified air to a pressure of 20 cm H2O 6 times per min during a 16-hour period. This mechanical ventilation caused no further decrease of tissue elastic recoil. Ventilation did cause an unexpected increase in the elastic recoil of liquid-filled lobes that was significant at pressures of 4 cm H2O (P less than 0.025) or more (P less than 0.001). Elastase and buffer-treated lobes showed an almost identical rightward shift of the pressure-volume curve after ventilation when compared to the respective nonventilated control lobes. This increased recoil cannot be attributed to altered surface tension.

  11. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  12. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallows, Scott Mathew [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  13. Hybrid recoil mass analyzer at IUAC – First results using gas-filled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. — journal of. August 2010 physics pp. 317–331. Hybrid recoil mass analyzer at IUAC – First results using gas-filled mode and future plans. N MADHAVAN1,∗, S NATH1, .... with lighter projectiles by the choice of gas-filled mode operation of its first stage .... This slit system is designed and fabricated so that multiple slits for.

  14. Probing the structure of unstable nuclei through the recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.; Cao, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction experiments were carried-out for 8 He at 82,5 MeV/u in RIKEN and for 6 He at 65 MeV/u in Lanzhou. The very preliminary results for the distinguish of the reaction mechanism are presented and compared to the kinematics calculation. (authors)

  15. Water droplet spreading and recoiling upon contact with thick-compact maltodextrin agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Torres, Lesvia Sofía; Quintanilla-Carvajal, María Ximena; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F

    2011-11-01

    The food and pharmaceutical industries handle a number of compounds in the form of agglomerates which must be put into contact with water for rehydration purposes. In this work, liquid-solid interaction between water and maltodextrin thick-compact agglomerates was studied at different constituent particle sizes for two compression forces (75 and 225 MPa). Rapid droplet spreading was observed which was similar in radius to the expected one for ideal, flat surfaces. Contact angle determinations reported oscillations of this parameter throughout the experiments, being indicative of droplet recoiling on top of the agglomerate. Recoiling was more frequent in samples obtained at 225 MPa for agglomerate formation. Agglomerates obtained at 75 MPa exhibited more penetration of the water. Competition between dissolution of maltodextrin and penetration of the water was, probably, the main mechanism involved in droplet recoiling. Micrographs of the wetting marks were characterized by means of image analysis and the measurements suggested more symmetry of the wetting mark at higher compression force. Differences found in the evaluated parameters for agglomerates were mainly due to compaction force used. No significant effect of particle size in recoiling, penetration of water into the agglomerate, surface texture and symmetry was observed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Laser cooled targets and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for fundamental physics studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, JW; Wilschut, HW; Meyer, D; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution the plans for the TRI mu P facility (Trapped Radioactive Isotopes: microlaboratories for fundamental Physics) at KVI are outlined. The status of the development of a magneto optical trap as a target for ion-atom collisions and the subsequent detection of recoiling target

  17. Photon recoil momentum in a Bose–Einstein condensate of a dilute gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avetisyan, Yu. A.; Malyshev, V.A.; Trifonov, E. D.

    We develop a ‘minimal’ microscopic model to describe a two-pulse-Ramsey-interferometerbased scheme of measurement of the photon recoil momentum in a Bose–Einstein condensate of a dilute gas (Campbell et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 170403). We exploit the truncated coupled Maxwell–Schrödinger

  18. Measurement of light and charge yield of low-energy electronic recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, L. W.; Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Plante, G.; Weber, M.

    2017-11-01

    The dependence of the light and charge yield of liquid xenon on the applied electric field and recoil energy is important for dark matter detectors using liquid xenon time projections chambers. Few measurements have been made of this field dependence at recoil energies less than 10 keV. In this paper, we present results of such measurements using a specialized detector. Recoil energies are determined via the Compton coincidence technique at four drift fields relevant for liquid xenon dark matter detectors: 0.19, 0.48, 1.02, and 2.32 kV /cm . Mean recoil energies down to 1 keV were measured with unprecedented precision. We find that the charge and light yield are anticorrelated above ˜3 keV and that the field dependence becomes negligible below ˜6 keV . However, below 3 keV, we find a charge yield significantly higher than expectation and a reconstructed energy deviating from linearity.

  19. Controllability analysis and testing of a novel magnetorheological absorber for field gun recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qing; Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Zhaochun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of combined working coils of magnetorheological (MR) absorber on the shock mitigation performance and verify the controllability of MR absorber as applied in the recoil system of a field gun. A physical scale model of the field gun is established and a long-stroke MR recoil absorber with four-stage parallel electromagnetic coils is designed to apply separate current to each stage and generate variable magnetic field distribution in the annular flow channel. Based on dynamic analysis and firing stability conditions of the field gun, ideal recoil force-stroke profiles of MR absorber at different limiting firing angles are obtained. The experimental studies are carried out on an impact test rig under different combinations of current loading: conventional unified control mode, separate control mode and timing control mode. The fullness degree index (FDI) is defined as the quantitative evaluation criterion of the controllability of MR absorber during the whole recoil motion. The results show that the force-stroke profile of the novel MR absorber can approach the ideal curve within 25 degrees of the limiting firing angle through judicious exploitation of the adjustable rheological properties of MR fluid.

  20. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-15

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the {delta}{sup +} background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  1. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-15

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  2. Quantification of left ventricular torsion and diastolic recoil using cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes T Kowallick

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT offers quantification of myocardial deformation from routine cine images. However, data using CMR-FT to quantify left ventricular (LV torsion and diastolic recoil are not yet available. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of CMR-FT to quantify LV torsion and peak recoil rate using an optimal anatomical approach.Short-axis cine stacks were acquired at rest and during dobutamine stimulation (10 and 20 µg · kg(-1 · min(-1 in 10 healthy volunteers. Rotational displacement was analysed for all slices. A complete 3D-LV rotational model was developed using linear interpolation between adjacent slices. Torsion was defined as the difference between apical and basal rotation, divided by slice distance. Depending on the distance between the most apical (defined as 0% LV distance and basal (defined as 100% LV distance slices, four different models for the calculation of torsion were examined: Model-1 (25-75%, Model-2 (0-100%, Model-3 (25-100% and Model-4 (0-75%. Analysis included subendocardial, subepicardial and global torsion and recoil rate (mean of subendocardial and subepicardial values.Quantification of torsion and recoil rate was feasible in all subjects. There was no significant difference between the different models at rest. However, only Model-1 (25-75% discriminated between rest and stress (Global Torsion: 2.7 ± 1.5° cm(-1, 3.6 ± 2.0° cm(-1, 5.1 ± 2.2° cm(-1, p<0.01; Global Recoil Rate: -30.1 ± 11.1° cm(-1 s(-1,-46.9 ± 15.0° cm(-1 s(-1,-68.9 ± 32.3° cm(-1 s(-1, p<0.01; for rest, 10 and 20 µg · kg(-1 · min(-1 of dobutamine, respectively. Reproducibility was sufficient for all parameters as determined by Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficient of variation.CMR-FT based derivation of myocardial torsion and recoil rate is feasible and reproducible at rest and with dobutamine stress. Using an optimal

  3. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  4. Alpha Recoil Flux of Radon in Groundwater and its Experimental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, N.; Harvey, C. F.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater Radon (Rn222) activity is primarily controlled by alpha recoil process (radioactive decay), however, evaluating the rate and extent of this process, and its impact on porewater radioactivity, remains uncertain. Numerous factors contribute to this uncertainty, including the spatial distribution of parent radionuclides (e.g. U238, Th232 , Ra226 and Ra228) within native materials, differences in nuclide recoil length in host matrix and the physical structure of the rock strata (pore size distribution and porosity). Here, we experimentally measure Radon activities within porewater contributed through alpha recoil, and analyze its variations as a function of pore structure and parent nuclide distribution within host matrices, including Marcellus shale rock and Serrie-Copper Pegmatite. The shale cores originate from the Marcellus formation in Mckean, Pennsylvania collected at depths ranging from 1000-7000 feet, and the U-Th-rich Pegmatite is obtained from South Platte District, Colorado. Columns are packed with granulated rock of varying surface area (30,000-60,000 cm2/g) and subjected to low salinity sodium chloride solution in a close loop configuration. The activity of Radon (Rn222) and radium (Ra226) in the saline fluid is measured over time to determine recoil supply rates. Mineralogical and trace element data for rock specimens are characterized using XRD and XRF, and detailed geochemical profiles are constructed through total dissolution and analysis using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. Naturally occurring Radium nuclides and its daughters are quantified using a low-energy Germanium detector. The parent nuclide (U238 and Th232) distribution in the host rock is studied using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Our study elucidates the contribution of alpha recoil on the appearance and distribution of Radon (Rn222) within porewater of representative rock matrices. Further, we illustrate the effects of chemical and physical heterogeneity on the rate of this process

  5. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the Darkside-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludert, Erin Edkins

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a joint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, f 90, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the f90 distribution of nuclear recoils from Sc

  6. Doubly differential recoil-ion longitudinal momentum distributions from electron DDCS measurements in ion-atom ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Richard, P.; Lin, C.D. [J.R.M. Lab., Dept. of Physics, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Olson, R.E. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States); Gulyas, L. [Inst. of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), Debreccen (Hungary)

    1999-07-01

    We have used the energy and angular distribution of the low energy electron emission to derive the doubly differential final-state longitudinal momentum distributions of the recoil-ions in ion-atom ionization. The complementary nature of the electron spectroscopy and the recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy has been investigated using a formulation based on three body kinematics. The separation of the three-body and binary collision branches of recoil-ion distributions is a novel feature of the present technique. (orig.)

  7. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  8. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  9. Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Starting with polonium in 1898, α-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, α-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural α-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established α-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for α-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for α-spectroscopy, but also for α- and #betta#-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, α-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10 - 6 s; while it was 10 - 1 to 10 0 s for He-jets and 10 1 to 10 3 s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, α-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of α-decays followed by spontaneous fission

  10. Chemical reactions of recoil atoms and thermal atoms of tritium with haloid benzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simirskij, Yu.N.; Firsova, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiochemical yields have been determined for the products of substitution of hydrogen atoms and halides in Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes with tritium atoms obtained during thermal dissociation of T 2 and with recoil atoms T arising in nuclear reaction 6 Li(n, P)T. It is shown that in the series of Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes yields of the products of substitution of halides atoms with tritium grow, whereas those of hydrogen atom substitution change only little. The correlation nature of the yields of substitution products of halide atoms with tritium remains constant in a wide range of the initial kinetic energies of T atoms for the recoil atoms with E 0 =2.7 MeV and for the completely thermolized atoms during thermal dissociation of T 2

  11. Thin film analysis by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis using distributed recoil ranges of isotopic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thin foils (0.1 to 10 μm), metallic or polymeric, are frequently used in nuclear physics and chemistry experiments using ion beams from an accelerator. Very often it is important to know the major, minor and trace element composition of the foil. Several nuclear analytical techniques, namely RBS, ERDA, etc. are available for the near surface analysis. We have applied heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA) to explore the bulk composition of thin films. One of the difficulties in this method of thin film analysis is that the product nuclides from nuclear reaction come out of the sample surface due to high recoil energy. In thick sample, the recoiled nuclides are absorbed in the sample itself. This effect has been used to employ heavy ion activation for the analysis of thin films

  12. Impact of alpha-recoil damage on dissolution of thoriated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyal, Y.; Ewing, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Reaction of a seventeen-year old borosilicate glass containing 4 wt% ThO 2 with a bicarbonate-carbonate solution was investigated for times from a few minutes up to approximately one year. For the untreated glass, the initial 228-Th leach rate was enhanced relative to the initial 232-Th leach rate by 15--45%. This incongruent dissolution occurs due to the selective removal of radiogenic 228-Th nuclides from 228-Ra-recoil tracks, damaged regions in the aperiodic glass. Heating the glass at 650 C in air prior to leaching eliminates the 228-Th/232-Th fractionation. Similar enhanced dissolution of alpha-decay products may occur in nuclear waste glasses/groundwater systems; thus, actinide-containing glasses should be examined for alpha-recoil damage effects in order to insure satisfactory prediction of the long-term release of actinides from the nuclear waste glass

  13. Direct mass measurements of light neutron-rich nuclei using fast recoil spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive new mass measurement capabilities have evolved with the development of recoil spectrometers. In the Z = 3 to 9 neutron-rich region alone, 12 neutron-rich nuclei have been determined for the first time by the fast-recoil direct mass measurement method. A recent experiment using the TOFI spectrometer illustrates this technique. A systematic investigation of nuclei that lie along or near the neutron-drip line has provided a valuable first glimpse into the nuclear structure of such nuclei. No evidence for a large single-particle energy gap at N = 14 is observed; however, a change in the two-neutron separation model calculations, and is interpreted in terms of the smaller 1s/sub 1/2/ - 1s/sub 1/2/ interaction compared to that of the 0d/sub 5/2/ - 0d/sub 5/2/ neutron-neutron interaction. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Black hole as a point radiator and recoil effect on the brane world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri; Stojković, Dejan

    2002-10-07

    A small black hole attached to a brane in a higher-dimensional space emitting quanta into the bulk may leave the brane as a result of a recoil. We construct a field theory model in which such a black hole is described as a massive scalar particle with internal degrees of freedom. In this model, the probability of transition between the different internal levels is identical to the probability of thermal emission calculated for the Schwarzschild black hole. The discussed recoil effect implies that the thermal emission of the black holes, which might be created by interaction of high energy particles in colliders, could be terminated and the energy nonconservation can be observed in the brane experiments.

  15. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)

  16. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, G. E-mail: glaurent@ganil.fr; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A

    2003-05-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O{sup 6+} + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O{sup 4+} (1s{sup 2}nln{sup '}l{sup '}) populated after double electron-capture events.

  17. Taking account of the recoil effect under a light particle scattering on two heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresypkin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding from the Faddeev equations the derivation of the Bruekner formula describing a light particle scattering by a system of two fixed force centers is presented. Using the zero-range two-particle potential and assuming the ratio of the incident particle mass to the heavy particle mass to be a small perturbation parameter the correction to the Bruekner formula is obtained taking into account the heavy particle recoil

  18. Some aspects of the use of proton recoil proportional counters for fast neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-filled proton recoil proportional counters have been used extensively for the measurement of neutron spectra in degraded fission-spectrum environments. Some considerations relating to the use of these counters for personnel dosimetry are here described. High sensitivity and good accuracy in the determination of dose-equivalent can be obtained if relatively high pressure hydrogen-filled proportional counters are used as the active element in a dosimeter system

  19. Segmented detector for recoil neutrons in the p(gamma, n)pi sup + reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Korkmaz, E J; Hutcheon, D A; Feldman, G; Jordan, D; Kolb, N R; Pywell, R E; Retzlaff, G A; Sawatzky, B D; Skopik, D M; Vogt, J M; Cairns, E; Giesen, U; Holm, L; Opper, A K; Rozon, F M; Soukup, J

    1999-01-01

    A segmented neutron detector has been constructed and used for recoil neutron (6-13 MeV) measurements of the reaction gamma p->n pi sup + very close to threshold. BC-505 liquid scintillator was used to allow pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and photons. A measurement of the absolute efficiency of the detector was performed using stopped pions in the reaction pi sup - p->n gamma. Results of the efficiency calibration are compared to a Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  20. Segmented detector for recoil neutrons in the p(γ, n)π+ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, E.; O'Rielly, G.V.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Feldman, G.; Jordan, D.; Kolb, N.R.; Pywell, R.E.; Retzlaff, G.A.; Sawatzky, B.D.; Skopik, D.M.; Vogt, J.M.; Cairns, E.; Giesen, U.; Holm, L.; Opper, A.K.; Rozon, F.M.; Soukup, J.

    1999-01-01

    A segmented neutron detector has been constructed and used for recoil neutron (6-13 MeV) measurements of the reaction γp→nπ + very close to threshold. BC-505 liquid scintillator was used to allow pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and photons. A measurement of the absolute efficiency of the detector was performed using stopped pions in the reaction π - p→nγ. Results of the efficiency calibration are compared to a Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  1. An electronic system for pulse rise time discrimination with a proton recoil proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1969-10-01

    This report describes an electronic pulse counting system in current use on the Zero Energy Fast Reactor Zebra at A.E.E. Winfrith for neutron spectra analysis from 3Kev to 1Mev. The system uses a proton recoil proportional counter as detector and incorporates neutron-gamma separation by rise time discrimination. The collected data are stored in an Argus 500 computer for which a three dimensional display is provided. (author)

  2. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  3. Calculation of the QED correction to the recoil proton polarization by the electron structure function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, A.V.; Akushevich, I.; Merenkov, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil proton polarization for the quasielastic electron-proton scattering is represented as a contraction of the electron structure and the hard part of the polarization dependent contribution into cross-section. The calculation of the hard part with first order radiative correction is performed. The obtained representation includes the leading radiative corrections in all orders of perturbation theory and the main part of the second order next-to-leading ones

  4. Recoil velocity at second post-Newtonian order for spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kidder, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We compute the flux of linear momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes at second post-Newtonian (2PN) order for generic orbits. In particular we provide explicit expressions of three new types of terms, namely, next-to-leading order spin-orbit terms at 1.5 post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order, spin-orbit tail terms at 2PN order, and spin-spin terms at 2PN order. Restricting ourselves to quasicircular orbits, we integrate the linear-momentum flux over time to obtain the recoil velocity as function of orbital frequency. We find that in the so-called superkick configuration the higher-order spin corrections can increase the recoil velocity up to a factor ∼3 with respect to the leading-order PN prediction. Whereas the recoil velocity computed in PN theory within the adiabatic approximation can accurately describe the early inspiral phase, we find that its fast increase during the late inspiral and plunge, and the arbitrariness in determining until when it should be trusted, makes the PN predictions for the total recoil not very accurate and robust. Nevertheless, the linear-momentum flux at higher PN orders can be employed to build more reliable resummed expressions aimed at capturing the nonperturbative effects until merger. Furthermore, we provide expressions valid for generic orbits, and accurate at 2PN order, for the energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes. Specializing to quasicircular orbits we compute the spin-spin terms at 2PN order in the expression for the evolution of the orbital frequency and found agreement with Mikoczi, Vasuth, and Gergely. We also verified that in the limit of extreme mass ratio our expressions for the energy and angular momentum fluxes match the ones of Tagoshi, Shibata, Tanaka, and Sasaki obtained in the context of black hole perturbation theory.

  5. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blieck, J.

    2008-10-01

    87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  6. Design of SECAR a recoil mass separator for astrophysical capture reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G. P. A.; Couder, M.; Moran, M. T.; Smith, K.; Wiescher, M.; Schatz, H.; Hager, U.; Wrede, C.; Montes, F.; Perdikakis, G.; Wu, X.; Zeller, A.; Smith, M. S.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chipps, K. A.; Pain, S. D.; Blackmon, J.; Greife, U.; Rehm, K. E.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2018-01-01

    A recoil mass separator SECAR has been designed for the purpose of studying low-energy (p , γ) and (α , γ) reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams for masses up to about A = 65. Their reaction rates are of importance for our understanding of the energy production and nucleosynthesis during explosive hydrogen and helium burning. The radiative capture reactions take place in a windowless hydrogen or He gas target at the entrance of the separator, which consists of four Sections. The first Section selects the charge state of the recoils. The second and third Sections contain Wien Filters providing high mass resolving power to separate efficiently the intense beam from the few reaction products. In the following fourth Section, the reaction products are guided into a detector system capable of position, angle and time-of-flight measurements. In order to accept the complete kinematic cone of recoil particles including multiple scattering in the target in the center of mass energy range of 0.2 MeV to 3.0 MeV, the system must have a large polar angle acceptance of ± 25 mrad. This requires a careful minimization of higher order aberrations. The present system will be installed at the NSCL ReA3 accelerator and will be used with the much higher beam intensities of the FRIB facility when it becomes available.

  7. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  8. Properties enhancement and recoil loop characteristics for hot deformed nanocrystalline NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Hu, S. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Yu, H. Y.; Gao, X. X.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS followed by HD using melt spun ribbons as the starting materials. The microstructure of SPSed and HDed magnets were analyzed. The effects of process including temperature and compression ratio on the microstructure and properties were investigated. High magnetic properties were obtained in anisotropic HDed magnets. The combination of Zn and Dy additions was successfully employed to improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the SPSed magnets. Open recoil loops were found in these magnets with Nd-rich composition and without soft magnetic phase for the first time. The relationship between the recoil loops and microstructure for SPS and HD NdFeB magnets were investigated. The investigations showed that the magnetic properties of SPS+HDed magnets are related to the extent of the aggregation of Nd-rich phase, which was formed during HD due to existence of porosity in SPSed precursor. Large local demagnetization fields induced by the Nd-rich phase aggregation leads to the open loops and significantly reduced the coercivity. By reducing the recoil loop openness, the magnetic properties of HDed NdFeB magnets were successfully improved. (author)

  9. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-01

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  10. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  11. Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed

  12. Nuclear Recoil Calibrations in the LUX Detector Using Direct and Backscattered D-D Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Casey; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will discuss the latest calibration of the nuclear recoil (NR) response in liquid xenon (LXe), performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced via the Adelphi Technologies, Inc. DD108 D-D neutron generator. The calibration measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keVnr recoil energy with an absolute determination of deposited energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keVnr, both of which improve upon all previous measurements. I will then focus in depth on the extension of this calibration using a new technique for generating a beam of sub-300 keV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons via the backscatter of 2.45 MeV neutrons off a deuterium-based reflector. Current simulations work optimizing the technique, its advantages, and its impact on future research will be discussed, including the extension of the NR Qy calibration down to 0.14 keVnr, an independent NR Ly calibration, and an a priori estimate of the expected 8B solar neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering signal in the upcoming LUX-ZEPLIN experiment.

  13. Measurement of the W boson mass and width using a novel recoil model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetstein, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a direct measurement of the W boson mass (MW) and decay width (ΓW) in 1 fb-1 of W → ev collider data at D0 using a novel method to model the hadronic recoil. The mass is extracted from fits to the transverse mass MT, pT(e), and ET distributions. The width is extracted from fits to the tail of the MT distribution. The electron energy measurement is simulated using a parameterized model, and the recoil is modeled using a new technique by which Z recoils are chosen from a data library to match the pT and direction of each generated W boson. We measure the the W boson mass to be MW = 80.4035 ± 0.024(stat) ± 0.039(syst) from the MT, MW = 80.4165 ± 0.027(stat) ± 0.038(syst) from the pT(e), and MW = 80.4025 ± 0.023(stat) ± 0.043(syst) from the ET distributions. ΓW is measured to be ΓW = 2.025 ± 0.038(stat) ± 0.061(syst) GeV.

  14. Stability branching induced by collective atomic recoil in an optomechanical ring cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Hou

    2017-02-01

    In a ring cavity filled with an atomic condensate, self-bunching of atoms due to the cavity pump mode produce an inversion that re-emits into the cavity probe mode with an exponential gain, forming atomic recoil lasing. An optomechanical ring cavity is formed when one of the reflective mirrors is mounted on a mechanical vibrating beam. In this paper, we extend studies on the stability of linear optomechanical cavities to such ring cavities with two counter-propagating cavity modes, especially when the forward propagating pump mode is taken to its weak coupling limit. We find that when the atomic recoil is in action, stable states of the mechanical mode of the mirror converge into branch cuts, where the gain produced by the recoiling strikes balance with the multiple decay sources, such as cavity leakage in the optomechanical system. This balance is obtained when the propagation delay in the dispersive atomic medium matches in a periodic pattern to the frequencies and linewidths of the cavity mode and the collective bosonic mode of the atoms. We show an input-output hysteresis cycle between the atomic mode and the cavity mode to verify the multi-valuation of the stable states after branching at the weak coupling limit.

  15. Primary processes and ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.; Garmestani, K.; Boo, B.H.; Stewart, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry has permitted the elucidation of the chemistry of free atoms, and these include the polyvalent atoms of refractory group 14 elements, that is, carbon, silicon and germanium. Since no more than two bonds are formed normally in a single reactive collision of free atoms, the study on the chemistry of atoms like C, Si and Ge that require the formation of more than two bonds to saturate their chemical valence necessarily involves the study of reactive intermediates. By the studies on the chemistry of recoiling 31 Si atoms, the mechanistic conclusions reached are reported. The most important unanswered questions concerning the reaction of recoiling 31 Si atoms in the systems are shown, and progress has been made toward the answering. By using tetramethyl silane as a trapping agent for silicon ions, it has been established that the reaction of 31 Si ions contributes significantly to the formation of products in recoil systems. The studies by various researchers on this theme are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Quenching factor for low-energy nuclear recoils in a plastic scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, L.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Araújo, H. M.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; DeViveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Francis, V.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2012-06-01

    Plastic scintillators are widely used in industry, medicine, and scientific research, including nuclear and particle physics. Although one of their most common applications is in neutron detection, experimental data on their response to low-energy nuclear recoils are scarce. Here, the relative scintillation efficiency for neutron-induced nuclear recoils in a polystyrene-based plastic scintillator (UPS-923A) is presented, exploring recoil energies between 125 and 850 keV. Monte Carlo simulations, incorporating light collection efficiency and energy resolution effects, are used to generate neutron scattering spectra which are matched to observed distributions of scintillation signals to parameterize the energy-dependent quenching factor. At energies above 300 keV the dependence is reasonably described using the semiempirical formulation of Birks and a kB factor of (0.014±0.002) g MeV-1 cm-2 has been determined. Below that energy, the measured quenching factor falls more steeply than predicted by the Birks formalism.

  17. The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, Charlotte van

    2011-03-15

    The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)

  18. The Benefits of B ---> K* l+ l- Decays at Low Recoil

    CERN Document Server

    Bobeth, Christoph; van Dyk, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Using the heavy quark effective theory framework put forward by Grinstein and Pirjol we work out predictions for B -> K* l+ l-, l = (e, mu), decays for a softly recoiling K*, i.e., for large dilepton masses sqrt{q^2} of the order of the b-quark mass m_b. We work to lowest order in Lambda/Q, where Q = (m_b, sqrt{q^2}) and include the next-to-leading order corrections from the charm quark mass m_c and the strong coupling at O(m_c^2/Q^2, alpha_s). The leading Lambda/m_b corrections are parametrically suppressed. The improved Isgur-Wise form factor relations correlate the B -> K* l+ l- transversity amplitudes, which simplifies the description of the various decay observables and provides opportunities for the extraction of the electroweak short distance couplings. We propose new angular observables which have very small hadronic uncertainties. We exploit existing data on B -> K* l+ l- distributions and show that the low recoil region provides powerful additional information to the large recoil one. We find disjoi...

  19. Recent results from the chemistry of recoiling carbon and silicon atoms: The interplay between hot atom chemistry and gas kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.; Garmestani, K.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from the chemistry of recoiling carbon and silicon atoms illustrate the power of an experimental approach to the solution of complex mechanistic problems that combines the study of the reactions of recoiling atoms with conventional gas kinetic techniques. Included will be the reactions of 11 C atoms with anisole, addressing the question whether an aromatic pi-electron system can compete as a reactive site with carbon-hydrogen bonds

  20. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  1. Comparison of Acute Recoil between Bioabsorbable Poly-L-lactic Acid XINSORB Stent and Metallic Stent in Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhe Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate acute recoil of bioabsorbable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA stent. Background. As newly developed coronary stent, bioabsorbable PLLA stent still encountered concern of acute stent recoil. Methods. Sixteen minipigs were enrolled in our study. Eight PLLA XINSORB stents (Weite Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China and eight metallic stents (EXCEL, Jiwei Co., Ltd. China were implanted into coronary arteries. Upon quantitative coronary angiography analysis, acute absolute recoil was defined as the difference between mean diameter of inflated balloon (X and mean lumen diameter of stent immediately after deployment (Y, while acute percent recoil was defined as (X−Y/X and expressed as a percentage. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS was performed immediately after implantation and 24 hours later to compare cross-sectional area (CSA between two groups and detect stent malapposition or collapse. Results. Acute absolute recoil in XINSORB and EXCEL was 0.02±0.13 mm and −0.08±0.08 mm respectively (P=0.19. Acute percent recoil in XINSORB and EXCEL was 0.66±4.32% and −1.40±3.83%, respectively (P=0.45. CSA of XINSORB was similar to that of EXCEL immediately after implantation, so was CSA of XINSORB at 24-hours followup. Within XINSORB group, no difference existed between CSA after implantation and CSA at 24-hours followup. No sign of acute stent malapposition was detected by IVUS. Conclusions. The acute stent recoil of XINSORB is similar to that of EXCEL. No acute stent malapposition or collapse appeared in both kinds of stent. This preclinical study was designed to provide preliminary data for future studies of long-term efficacy and safety of XINSORB stent.

  2. Janus probe, a detection system for high energy reactor gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1980-03-01

    In reactor environments, gamma-ray spectra are continuous and the absolute magnitude as well as the general shape of the gamma continuum are of paramount importance. Consequently, conventional methods of gamma-ray detection are not suitable for in-core gamma-ray spectrometry. To meet these specific needs, a method of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry, namely Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, was developed for in-situ observations of reactor environments. A new gamma-ray detection system has been developed which extends the applicability of Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry up to roughly 7 MeV. This detection system is comprised of two separate Si(Li) detectors placed face-to-face. Hence this new detection system is called the Janus probe. Also shown is the block diagram of pulse processing instrumentation for the Janus probe. This new gamma probe not only extends the upper energy limit of in-core gamma-ray spectrometry, but in addition possesses other fundamental advantages

  3. PPARγ deficiency results in reduced lung elastic recoil and abnormalities in airspace distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously described airway epithelial cell PPARγ deficient mice that develop airspace enlargement with decreased tissue resistance and increased lung volumes. We sought to understand the impact of airspace enlargement in conditionally targeted mice upon the physio-mechanical properties of the lung. Methods We measured elastic recoil and its determinants, including tissue structure and surface forces. We measured alveolar number using radial alveolar counts, and airspace sizes and their distribution using computer-assisted morphometry. Results Air vs. saline-filled pressure volume profiles demonstrated loss of lung elastic recoil in targeted mice that was contributed by both tissue components and surface tension, but was proportional to lung volume. There were no significant differences in surfactant quantity/function nor in elastin and collagen content between targeted animals and littermate controls. Importantly, radial alveolar counts were significantly reduced in the targeted animals and at 8 weeks of age there were 18% fewer alveoli with 32% more alveolar ducts. Additionally, the alveolar ducts were 19% larger in the targeted animals. Conclusions Our data suggest that the functional abnormalities, including loss of recoil are secondary to altered force transmission due to differences in the structure of alveolar ducts, rather than changes in surfactant function or elastin or collagen content. These data further define the nature of abnormal lung maturation in the absence of airway epithelial cell PPARγ and identify a putative genetic determinant of dysanapsis, which may serve as a precursor to chronic lung disease. PMID:20525205

  4. PPARgamma deficiency results in reduced lung elastic recoil and abnormalities in airspace distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dawn M; Tsai, Larry W; Ingenito, Edward P; Starcher, Barry C; Mariani, Thomas J

    2010-06-02

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously described airway epithelial cell PPARgamma deficient mice that develop airspace enlargement with decreased tissue resistance and increased lung volumes. We sought to understand the impact of airspace enlargement in conditionally targeted mice upon the physio-mechanical properties of the lung. We measured elastic recoil and its determinants, including tissue structure and surface forces. We measured alveolar number using radial alveolar counts, and airspace sizes and their distribution using computer-assisted morphometry. Air vs. saline-filled pressure volume profiles demonstrated loss of lung elastic recoil in targeted mice that was contributed by both tissue components and surface tension, but was proportional to lung volume. There were no significant differences in surfactant quantity/function nor in elastin and collagen content between targeted animals and littermate controls. Importantly, radial alveolar counts were significantly reduced in the targeted animals and at 8 weeks of age there were 18% fewer alveoli with 32% more alveolar ducts. Additionally, the alveolar ducts were 19% larger in the targeted animals. Our data suggest that the functional abnormalities, including loss of recoil are secondary to altered force transmission due to differences in the structure of alveolar ducts, rather than changes in surfactant function or elastin or collagen content. These data further define the nature of abnormal lung maturation in the absence of airway epithelial cell PPARgamma and identify a putative genetic determinant of dysanapsis, which may serve as a precursor to chronic lung disease.

  5. PPARγ deficiency results in reduced lung elastic recoil and abnormalities in airspace distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starcher Barry C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. We previously described airway epithelial cell PPARγ deficient mice that develop airspace enlargement with decreased tissue resistance and increased lung volumes. We sought to understand the impact of airspace enlargement in conditionally targeted mice upon the physio-mechanical properties of the lung. Methods We measured elastic recoil and its determinants, including tissue structure and surface forces. We measured alveolar number using radial alveolar counts, and airspace sizes and their distribution using computer-assisted morphometry. Results Air vs. saline-filled pressure volume profiles demonstrated loss of lung elastic recoil in targeted mice that was contributed by both tissue components and surface tension, but was proportional to lung volume. There were no significant differences in surfactant quantity/function nor in elastin and collagen content between targeted animals and littermate controls. Importantly, radial alveolar counts were significantly reduced in the targeted animals and at 8 weeks of age there were 18% fewer alveoli with 32% more alveolar ducts. Additionally, the alveolar ducts were 19% larger in the targeted animals. Conclusions Our data suggest that the functional abnormalities, including loss of recoil are secondary to altered force transmission due to differences in the structure of alveolar ducts, rather than changes in surfactant function or elastin or collagen content. These data further define the nature of abnormal lung maturation in the absence of airway epithelial cell PPARγ and identify a putative genetic determinant of dysanapsis, which may serve as a precursor to chronic lung disease.

  6. Control of recoil losses in nanomechanical SiN membrane resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrielli, A.; Marconi, L.; Marin, F.; Marino, F.; Morana, B.; Pandraud, G.; Pontin, A.; Prodi, G. A.; Sarro, P. M.; Serra, E.; Bonaldi, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of a recoil damping analysis, we have designed and produced a membrane resonator equipped with a specific on-chip structure working as a "loss shield" for a circular membrane. In this device the vibrations of the membrane, with a quality factor of 107, reach the limit set by the intrinsic dissipation in silicon nitride, for all the modes and regardless of the modal shape, also at low frequency. Guided by our theoretical model of the loss shield, we describe the design rationale of the device, which can be used as effective replacement of commercial membrane resonators in advanced optomechanical setups, also at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, Jean

    1965-02-01

    This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr

  8. ''LIFETIME'': a computer program for analyzing Doppler-shift recoil-distance nuclear lifetime data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.; Fewell, M.P.; Johnson, N.R.

    1985-10-01

    The program LIFETIME is designed to extract lifetimes of nuclear levels from Doppler-shift recoil-distance experiments by performing a least-square fit to the experimental data (shifted and unshifted photopeak intensities and branching ratios). Initial populations of levels and transition rates between levels are treated as variable parameters. In terms of these parameters the population of each level as a function of time is determined by the Bateman equations, and the shifted and unshifted intensities are calculated. 19 refs., 5 figs

  9. Studies of (p, γ) reactions with the Daresbury Recoil Separator at ORNL'S HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Abbotoy, E.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Champagne, A.E.; Chen, A.A.; Greife, U.; Hill, D.W.; James, A.N.; Kozub, R.L.; Lewis, T.A.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.; Mahan, S.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Moazen, B.H.; Parker, P.D.; Pierce, D.E.; Roettger, M.E.; Sahin, L.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M.S.; Strieder, F.; Swartz, K.B.; Thomas, J.S.; Visser, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei is important in stellar explosions such as novae and X-ray bursts and for the production of neutrinos in the sun. The Daresbury Recoil Separator and a windowless gas target system have been installed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for measurements of proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The performance of the system has been characterized with a number of experiments using stable ion beams. We report on results from these commissioning measurements and plans for measurements of the 1 H( 17 F, 18 Ne) and 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B) reactions

  10. Segmented detector for recoil neutrons in the p({gamma}, n){pi}{sup +} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, E.; O' Rielly, G.V.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Feldman, G.; Jordan, D.; Kolb, N.R. E-mail: kolb@cls.usask.ca; Pywell, R.E.; Retzlaff, G.A.; Sawatzky, B.D.; Skopik, D.M.; Vogt, J.M.; Cairns, E.; Giesen, U.; Holm, L.; Opper, A.K.; Rozon, F.M.; Soukup, J

    1999-07-21

    A segmented neutron detector has been constructed and used for recoil neutron (6-13 MeV) measurements of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}n{pi}{sup +} very close to threshold. BC-505 liquid scintillator was used to allow pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and photons. A measurement of the absolute efficiency of the detector was performed using stopped pions in the reaction {pi}{sup -}p{yields}n{gamma}. Results of the efficiency calibration are compared to a Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  11. Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudte, A.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Ruiz, C.; Becker, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Schoessler, S.; Meckel, M.; Doerner, R.; Zeidler, D.; Weber, Th.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the correlated momentum distribution of both electrons from nonsequential double ionization of helium in a 800 nm, 4.5x10 14 W/cm 2 laser field. Using very high resolution coincidence techniques, we find a so-far unobserved fingerlike structure in the correlated electron momentum distribution. The structure can be interpreted as a signature of the microscopic dynamics in the recollision process. We identify features corresponding to the binary and recoil lobe in field-free (e,2e) collisions. This interpretation is supported by analyzing ab initio solutions of a fully correlated three-dimensional helium model

  12. Development of bubble chambers with enhanced stability and sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, W.J.; Collar, J.I.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; Nakazawa, D.; Odom, B.; O'Sullivan, K.; Plunkett, R.; Ramberg, E.; Raskin, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Vieira, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The viability of using Bubble Chambers as dark matter particle detectors is considered. Techniques leading to the enhanced chamber stability needed for this new application are described in detail. Prototype trials show that sensitivity to the low-energy nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) is possible in conditions of extreme insensitivity to minimum ionizing backgrounds. An understanding of detector response is demonstrated using existing theoretical models. We briefly comment on the prospects for detection of supersymmetric dark matter with large CF 3 I chambers

  13. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  14. Detection of nuclear recoils in prototype dark matter detectors, made from Al, Sn and Zn superheated superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abplanalp, M.; Van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector for cold dark matter and neutrinos. The response of SSG devices to nuclear recoils has been explored irradiating SSG detectors with a 70 MeV neutron beam. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of Sn, Al and Zn SSG detectors to nuclear recoil energies down to a few keV. The detector consisted of a hollow teflon cylinder (0.1 cm 3 inner volume) filled with tiny superconducting metastable granules embedded in a dielectric medium. The nuclear recoil energies deposited in the SSG were determined measuring the neutron scattering angles with a neutron hodoscope. Coincidences in time between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. In this paper the results of the neutron irradiation experiments at different SSG intrinsic thresholds are discussed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that SSG are sensitive to recoil energies down to similar 1 keV. The limited angular resolution of the neutron hodoscope prevented us from measuring the SSG sensitivity to even lower recoil energies. (orig.)

  15. Advances in continuous gamma-ray spectrometry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; McNeece, J.P.; Kaiser, B.J.

    1984-07-01

    Recent advances and applications in continuous Compton recoil gamma-ray spectrometry are described. Applications of continuous gamma-ray spectrometry are presented for: (1) Characterization of light water reactor (LWR) pressures vessel (PV) environments. (2) Assessment of fuel distributions for Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor recovery. (3) Measurement of LWR-PV-neutron exposure. The latest improvements attained with the Janus probe, a special in-situ configuration of Si(Li) detectors, are presented. The status of current efforts to extend the domain of applicability of this method beyond 3 MeV is discussed with emphasis on recent work carried out with Si(Li) detectors of much larger volume

  16. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  17. Removal of hydrogen from 2H::Si(100) by sputtering and recoil implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesauro, M.R.; Underwood, G.; Champion, A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Lowell, J. [Applied Materials, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to explore more completely the role of plasma ions in the epitaxial growth of silicon thin films by Remote Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (RPCVD), the energy dependent, absolute cross sections for the removal of hydrogen from the 2H::Si(100) surface by 100-200 eV Ar{sup +} and He{sup +} ions have been obtained. The measured integrated cross sections, on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2}, demonstrate that Ar{sup +} is more effective than He{sup +} in the sputter removal of surface hydrogen. Recoil implantation removal of surface hydrogen could not be measured in the experiments, and was estimated by modeling. The modeling suggests that recoil implantation removal is of increasing importance at lower ion energies, and is larger for Ar{sup +} bombardment than for He{sup +}. These results support the hypothesis that the generation of active sites through the removal of hydrogen from the passivated surface is an important step in the growth mechanism for RPCVD silicon epitaxy. They also explain the greater efficacy of Ar plasmas in RPCVD.

  18. Black hole radiation in the brane world and the recoil effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2002-01-01

    A black hole attached to a brane in a higher-dimensional space emitting quanta into the bulk may leave the brane as a result of a recoil. We study this effect. We consider black holes which have a size much smaller than the characteristic size of extra dimensions. Such a black hole can be effectively described as a massive particle with internal degrees of freedom. We consider an interaction of such particles with a scalar massless field and prove that for a special choice of the coupling constant describing the transition of the particle to a state with smaller mass the probability of massless quanta emission takes the form identical to the probability of the black hole emission. Using this model we calculate the probability for a black hole to leave the brane and study its properties. The discussed recoil effect implies that, for black holes which might be created in the interaction of high energy particles in colliders, the thermal emission of the formed black hole could be terminated and the energy nonconservation can be observed in brane experiments

  19. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.

  20. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  1. Etching behaviour of alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica studied via artificial ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, M.; Glasmacher, U.A.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTs) created by the α-decay of U, Th, and their daughter nuclei, are used by a new dating method to determine the formation age of dark mica bearing Quaternary and Neogene volcanic rocks and the cooling age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks [Chem. Geol. 166 (2000) 127, Science 155 (1967) 1103]. The age equation combines the volumetric density of ARTs with the U and Th contents. Etching latent ARTs (diameter 30-100 nm) in the mica mineral phlogopite by HF and measuring the areal density of triangular etch pits by optical and scanning force microscopy (SFM) leads to a linear growth of ART areal density versus etching time. The ART volume density is a function of the slope of the areal density and the etching rate (v eff ). Therefore, the determination of v eff is essential for the calculation of an age value. To determine the etching parameters such as etching efficiency and v eff , phlogopite samples were irradiated with 80 keV Au ions. Irradiated surfaces were etched with 4% HF at 23±2 deg. C during successive time intervals and after each interval studied with SFM. The etching rate v eff was determined by different techniques. To evaluate the threshold of etchability, the energy losses of the Au ions and α-recoil nuclei in phlogopite were calculated with the SRIM00 code. The etching efficiency of the Au ion tracks was then used to predict the corresponding etching efficiency of the natural radioactive nuclei

  2. CDMS Detector Fabrication Improvements and Low Energy Nuclear Recoil Measurements in Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastram, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) experiment is scaled up to tackle new dark matter parameter spaces (lower masses and cross-sections), detector production efficiency and repeatability becomes ever more important. A dedicated facility has been commissioned for SuperCDMS detector fabrication at Texas A&M University (TAMU). The fabrication process has been carefully tuned using this facility and its equipment. Production of successfully tested detectors has been demonstrated. Significant improvements in detector performance have been made using new fabrication methods, equipment, and tuning of process parameters. This work has demonstrated the capability for production of next generation CDMS SNOLAB detectors. Additionally, as the dark matter parameter space is probed further, careful calibrations of detector response to nuclear recoil interactions must be performed in order to extract useful information (in relation to dark matter particle characterzations) from experimental results. A neutron beam of tunable energy is used in conjunction with a commercial radiation detector to characterize ionization energy losses in germanium during nuclear recoil events. Data indicates agreement with values predicted by the Lindhard equation, providing a best-t k-value of 0.146.

  3. Energy transfer from excited cyclobutane-t chemically activated by nuclear recoil reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogar, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    Relative energy transfer efficiencies were determined for collisions between highly excited cyclobutane-t and a number of thermal bath gases, including nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane, the noble gases, and cyclobutane. The excited cyclobutane-t was produced with a broad spectrum of energies about a mean energy of 5 eV by replacement of hydrogen with nuclear recoil tritium. The distribution of cyclobutane-t included a fraction produced at such low energies that it was not subjected to unimolecular decomposition, a fraction always found as the decomposition product, ethylene-t, and a fraction subject to competitive stabilization-decomposition reactions. The fraction of cyclobutane-t produced at such extreme energies that it was not subject to competitive unimolecular reaction was determined by curve-fitting the pressure dependence of ratio of cyclobutane-t to ethylene-t. Subsequent examination of the composition dependence of the ratio of competitive cyclobutane-t and ethylene-t yields gave energy transfer efficiencies for C 4 H 8 , CF 4 , N 2 , He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe of 1.00:1.05:0.40, 0.12, 0.23, 0.24, 0.31, 0.39. The relative efficiencies found in this system are similar to those found in high energy conventional chemical activation systems, supporting this method for determination of energy transfer efficiencies following nuclear recoil activation. Cascade deactivation is demonstrated for this system and discussed with respect to energy transfer in hot atom activated systems

  4. The HERMES recoil photon-detector and nuclear p{sub t}-Broadening at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlem, Y. van

    2007-09-15

    The first part of this work consists of hardware research and development done in order to construct and test a photon-detector as one of the three detectors of the HERMES recoil detector. The HERMES recoil detector consists of a target cell, a silicon-detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon-detector. All are inside a super-conducting magnet. The silicon detector uses energy deposition to determine the momentum of the particle because in its energy range the energy deposition is an unambiguous function of the momentum of the particle. The scintillating fiber tracker is located outside the beam-vacuum and is surrounded by the photon-detector. It consists of two barrels with layers of scintillating fibers. It detects particles by converting their energy deposition into light. It measures two space points of a charged particle and from the bending of the assigned track (in the magnetic field provided by the super-conducting magnet) a momentum measurement can be derived. The photon-detector is located between the scintillating fiber tracker and the magnet. It consists (from the inside out) of three layers of tungsten showering material followed by scintillating strips. The second part of this work is an analysis performed concerning the transverse momentum broadening of hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering on a nuclear target compared to a D target. (orig.)

  5. Commissioning and performance studies of a proton recoil detector at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The COMPASS-II experiment is a fixed target experiment situated at CERN. A tertiary myon beam from the SPS scattered of protons from a liquid hydrogen target is used to measure Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Hard Exclusive Meson Production (HEMP). These processes offer a unique way to determine Generalized Parton Distributions, which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the nucleon by Ji's Sum Rule. One of the major parts of the COMPASS-II upgrade is the CAMERA detector. CAMERA is a proton recoil detector surrounding the COMPASS-II liquid hydrogen target. Its purpose is to measure the recoiled target proton in DVCS and HEMP reactions and viz to act as a veto to ensure the exclusivity of the measurement. The talk gives an outline of the detector and its readout electronics. It is focused on the commissioning and performance of the CAMERA detector and gives a brief insight into the ongoing DVCS analysis.

  6. Measurement of the scintillation light quenching for nuclear recoils induced by neutron scattering in detectors for dark matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagemann, T.

    2004-01-01

    The CRESST experiment established the simultaneous measurement of phonons and scintillation light induced by nuclear recoils in CaWO 4 crystals. At the tandem accelerator in Garching, Germany, a neutron scattering facility for the calibration of the detector response to nuclear recoils has been designed, set up and commissioned. The objective of this work is the description of the experimental setup of the neutron scattering facility, the determination of Quenching Factors in NE213, NaI(Tl) and CaWO 4 scintillators and their relation to characteristics of ion stopping

  7. Characterization of TiAlN thin film annealed under O2 by in situ time of flight direct recoil spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions and ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempez, A.; Bensaoula, A.; Schultz, A.

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation of an amorphous TiAlN coating has been studied by in situ direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS) and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI) and ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DRS and MSRI monitored the changes in surface composition as the sample was heated to 460 deg. C under an 18 O 2 pressure of 10 -6 Torr. Angular resolved XPS data were acquired for thickness-dependence information. The initial surface was partially oxidized from air exposure. Both DRS and XPS showed the Al-rich near surface and the presence of N in the subsurface. As shown by DRS and MSRI, oxidation at elevated temperatures yielded surface nitrogen loss and Ti enrichment. XPS confirmed the preferential formation of TiO 2 on the surface. This study also provides a comparison between the direct recoil (neutrals and ions) and the ionic recoil signals. In our conditions, the negative ionic fraction of all elements except H tracks their true surface content variations given by DRS. The results were compared with early work performed on identical samples. In this case the TiAlN film was oxidized with an O 2 pressure in the mTorr range and the surface changes are followed in situ by positive MSRI and XPS. This experiment also indicates that Al and N are buried under TiO 2 but from 600 deg. C

  8. The DarkSide-50 Experiment: Electron Recoil Calibrations and A Global Energy Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Brianne Rae [Hawaii U.

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of decades, there has been mounting astronomical evidence for non-baryonic dark matter, yet its precise nature remains elusive. A favored candidate for dark matter is the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which arises naturally out of extensions to the Standard Model. WIMPs are expected to occasionally interact with particles of normal matter through nuclear recoils. DarkSide-50 aims to detect this type of particle through the use of a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber. To make a claim of discovery, an accurate understanding of the background and WIMP search region is imperative. Knowledge of the backgrounds is done through extensive studies of DarkSide-50's response to electron and nuclear recoils. The CALibration Insertion System (CALIS) was designed and built for the purpose of introduc- ing radioactive sources into or near the detector in a joint eort between Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) and the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. This work describes the testing, installation, and commissioning of CALIS at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. CALIS has been used in mul- tiple calibration campaigns with both neutron and sources. In this work, DarkSide-50's response to electron recoils, which are important for background estimations, was studied through the use of calibration sources by constructing a global energy variable which takes into account the anti- correlation between scintillation and ionization signals produced by interactions in the liquid argon. Accurately reconstructing the event energy correlates directly with quantitatively understanding the WIMP sensitivity in DarkSide-50. This work also validates the theoretically predicted decay spectrum of 39Ar against 39Ar decay data collected in the early days of DarkSide-50 while it was lled with atmospheric argon; a validation of this type is not readily found in the literature. Finally, we show how well the constructed energy variable can predict

  9. Monsters on the move: A search for supermassive black holes undergoing gravitational wave recoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Yashashree; Robinson, Andrew; Lena, Davide

    2018-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that supermassive black holes (SMBH) reside at the centers of all large galaxies and are the gravitational ‘engines’ of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Furthermore, galaxy mergers are thought to have played a fundamental role in the growth and evolution of the largest galaxies in the nearby universe. A galaxy merger is expected to lead to the formation of an SMBH binary, which itself eventually coalesces through the emission of gravitational waves. Such events fall outside the frequency range accessible to the LIGO/VIRGO gravitational wave detectors, but they can be detected via electromagnetic signatures. Numerical relativity simulations show that, depending on the initial spin-orbit configuration of the binary, the merged SMBH receives a gravitational recoil kick that may reach several 1000km/s. This recoil in turn causes the merged SMBH to oscillate for up to ~1 Gyr in the gravitational potential well of the galaxy. During this time, the recoiling SMBH may be observed as a ‘displaced’ AGN. Such events provide a strong test of gravitational physics and the formation and merger frequencies of binary SMBH. As a result of residual oscillations, displacements ~10 – 100pc may be expected even in nearby elliptical galaxies and can be measured as spatial offsets in high resolution optical or infrared images. We present the results of a preliminary study, in which isophotal analysis was conducted for a sample of 96 galaxies to obtain the photocenter of the galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival optical or infrared WFC2/PC, ACS or NICMOS images. The position of the nuclear point source (AGN) was also measured to obtain a displacement vector. This initial sample reveals 18 candidates that show a significant displacement. Of these, 14 are hosted by core ellipticals, while the rest have a cuspy light profile. As galactic and nuclear dust structures may interfere with the isophotal analysis, we are currently obtaining new WFC

  10. Automatic detection of recoil proton tracks and background rejection in liquid scintillator-micro-capillary-array fast neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Tittelmeier, K.; Goldberg, M. B.; Bar, D.; Brandis, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe results on automatic detection of fast-neutron induced recoil-proton tracks in micro-capillary bundles filled with organic liquid scintillator, viewed by an intensified CCD camera. This imaging neutron spectrometer was developed for high position-resolution (few tens of μ m) imaging and medium-quality energy spectroscopy of neutrons in the energy range 2–20 MeV. In addition to recoil proton events which display a continuous extended track structure, CCD images include also a multitude of isolated spots of varying intensity ("blobs") that originate from several different sources, such as fragmented proton tracks, electrons from gamma-rays, short heavy-ion tracks, as well as events and noise that occur in the image intensifier and CCD. In order to identify the extended-track recoil proton events and separate them from these background events, a computerized, rapid and automatic track-recognition procedure was developed. Based on the analysis of track parameters such as: track area, light intensity, track length and width, the method is capable of distinguishing few recoil protons from the surrounding numerous background events typically found in each CCD frame.

  11. A proton-recoil neutron spectrometer for time-dependent ion temperatures on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Ion temperatures from inertial confinement fusion targets are usually determined by measuring the Doppler broadening of the neutron spectrum using the time-of-flight method. Measurement systems are generally designed so that the contribution of the duration of neutron production (∼100 ps) to the width of the neutron signal is negligible. This precludes the possibility of time-dependent ion temperature. If, however, one could measure the neutron energy and arrival time at a detector independently, then time-dependent neutron spectra could be obtained, and ion temperature information deduced. A concept utilizing a proton-recoil neutron spectrometer has been developed in which recoil protons from a small plastic foil are measured. From the energy, arrival time, and recoil angle of the recoil proton, the birth time and energy of the incident neutron can be deduced. The sensitivity of the system is low, but the higher anticipated neutron yields from the proposed National Ignition Facility may make the technique feasible. Large scintillator arrays currently in use on the Nova facility for neutron spectral measurements consist of ∼1,000 channels and detect between 50 and 500 counts for typical time-integrated data. Time-dependent results would then require about an order of magnitude larger system. Key issues for making this system feasible will be keeping the cost per channel low while allowing adequately time (∼ 50 ps), energy (20 keV), and angular resolution (2 mrad) for each of the proton detectors

  12. Loss of pulmonary elastic recoil in workers formerly exposed to proteolytic enzyme (alcalase) in the detergent industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, A W; Gandevia, B

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-seven workers in the detergent industry whose exposure to proteolytic enzyme ceased in 1969 have been examined clinically and functionally. By comparison with 42 lightly and moderately exposed subjects, 13 heavily exposed subjects showed significant loss of pulmonary elastic recoil as evidenced by increased lung volumes and increased pulmonary compliance, but there were no differences in airways resistance or other parameters of lung function. No difference was found between the two groups in relation to symptoms on exposure, current exercise tolerance, skin reactivity to the proteolytic enzyme alcalase, trypsin inhibitor capacity, and other features. An increased clinical grade of breathlessness was associated with evidence of airways obstruction, but not of altered elastic recoil. Comparison of the data on lung mechanics with results obtained in 1970 suggests that partial recovery of pulmonary elastic recoil may have occurred in some cases. It is also suggested that diminished elastic recoil, in the absence of impairment of transfer factor at rest, may reflect altered physical properties of the lung fibre network without loss of effective surface area available for gas exchange. PMID:963000

  13. Two-body electrodisintegration of 3He at large recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizer, P.H.M.; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Herder, J.W.A. den; Jans, E.; Lapikas, L.; Quint, E.N.M.; Witt Huberts, P.K.A. de; Postma, H.

    1987-01-01

    The two-body breakup of 3 He by 390 MeV electrons has been studied with good missing energy resolution for recoil momenta p R of 200 up to 500 MeV/c. Both the 3 He(e,e'p) 2 H and 3 He(e,e'd) 1 H channel were employed to obtain the data. We discuss a possible excess of high momentum components in the framework of two theoretical treatments of the reaction that include the final state interaction and employ Faddeev bound-state wave functions. Within the context of these models no clear indication for such an excess in the two-body breakup channel can be assessed. (orig.)

  14. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  15. Anion effect on the retention of recoil atom of coordination crystalline compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimotakis, P.N.; Papadopoulos, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The anion effect of various cobaltic crystalline compounds - having the same cation and differing in anion -on the retention of neutron activated central cobalt atom has been studied. The cation was trans-dichloro(bis)ethylenediamine cobalt(III) and the anions were simple spherical anions (Cl - , Br - , I - ), planar anions (NO 3 - ), trigonal pyramidal anions (ClO 3 - , BrO 3 - ), tetrahedral anions (SO 4 2- , CrO 4 2- , MnO 4 - ) and linear anions (SCN - ). The cobalt-60 activity after reactor irradiation either in simple Co 2+ cation or in cobaltic complex cation determined the retention values. In all irradiations at ordinary temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature the results showed an effect of the different anions, depending on the geometry, volume and charge, on the recombination of the recoil cobalt with the ligands in the coordination sphere. (author)

  16. Trapping of slow recoil ions: past results and speculations on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    A simple electrostatic ion trap has been utilized to capture low energy recoil ions made by fast heavy ion impact upon a neon gas target. The heavy ion beams have been provided by the LBL SuperHILAC and the work has so far concentrated upon studies of the decay of the trapped ion population in time following creation by the pulsed HILAC beam (3.3 msec pulse length, 36Hz repetition rate). The various charge states decay predominantly via electron capture collisions with the ambient gas in the ion trap. By varying the gas composition and density, one can determine the electron capture rate constants from which an effective (velocity averaged) capture cross-section can be obtained. The uniqueness of this work lies in the high charge states, up to Ne 10 + (fully stripped), and the low mean collision energies available (in the range 1.0 to 70.0 eV)

  17. On unfolding counting-rate spectra of recoil-proton neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeivin, Yehuda

    1983-01-01

    This note proposes a possible scheme for unfolding recoil-proton neutron detector data, in which at first the undistorted proton source spectrum is derived. The main argument in favour of this scheme is that, compared with the conventional scheme, it necessitates somewhat weaker assumptions with respect to the unknown spectrum above the detector's upper energy cutoff, and would therefore be more reliable. We also demonstrate a simple, elementary proof of the wall effect correction for spherical detectors, and, in order to gain insight of the potential merits of the proposed unfolding scheme, illustrate our main argument by considering a hypothetic linear range-energy relation, in which case complete unfolding becomes possible with no assumptions at all on the proton spectrum above the cutoff energy. (author)

  18. Synthesis of superheavy elements at the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinov, A. A., E-mail: voinov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Collaboration: JINR (Dubna), LLNL (Livermore), ORNL (Oak Ridge), University of Tennessee (Knoxville), Vanderbilt University (Nashville), Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Dimitrovgrad) Collaboration

    2016-12-15

    A survey of experiments at the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator (Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna) aimed at the detection and study of the “island of stability” of superheavy nuclei produced in complete fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca ions and {sup 238}U–{sup 249}Cf target nuclei is given. The problems of synthesis of superheavy nuclei, methods for their identification, and investigation of their decay properties, including the results of recent experiments at other separators (SHIP, BGS, TASCA) and chemical setups, are discussed. The studied properties of the new nuclei, the isotopes of elements 112–118, as well as the properties of their decay products, indicate substantial growth of stability of the heaviest nuclei with increasing number of neutrons in the nucleus as the magic number of neutrons N = 184 is approached.

  19. Elastic recoil detection method using DT neutrons for hydrogen isotope analysis in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Naoyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo

    2005-01-01

    The Fusion Neutronics Source of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has started the study on the hydrogen isotope analysis for fusion components since 2002 on the basis of the techniques such as nuclear activation method, ion beam method and imaging plate method. In this study, we propose the elastic recoil detection analysis (NERDA) method using 14.1 MeV neutron beam to extend the analyzable depth of hydrogen isotopes analysis up to several hundreds micrometers. An experimental setup for NERDA was constructed and a proof-of-principle experiment was then made using a standard sample of deuterated polyethylene film containing a known concentration of deuterium with thickness of 100 μm. The depth resolution of the present condition was estimated to be 158 μm for the sample. (author)

  20. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfu, E-mail: zhangjfu@gmail.com; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Guoguang [Applied Institute of Nuclear Technology, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an 710024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  1. Hydrogen determination using secondary processes of recoil proton interaction with sample material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, V.A.; Khajdarov, R.A.; Navalikhin, L.V.; Pardaev, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Possibilities of hydrogen content determination in different materials according to secondary processes of interaction of recoil protons(irradiation in the field of fast neutrons) with sample material resulting in the appearance of characteristic X-ray irradiation are studied. Excitated irradiation is recorded with a detector placed in the protective screen and located at a certain distance from the object analyzed and neutron source. The method is tested taking as an example analysis of bromine-containing samples (30% Br, 0.5% H) and tungsten dioxide. The determination limit of hydrogen content constitutes 0.05% at confidence coefficient of 0.9. Neutron flux constituted 10 3 neutrons/cm 2 xs, the time of measurement being 15-20 minutes, the distance from the sample to the detector being 12-15 cm [ru

  2. Lifetime measurements by the recoil path method. Application to the yrast states of 154Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmant, A.

    1979-01-01

    Lifetimes of high spin yrast states in 154 Er have been measured, using the recoil distance method. The special mode of feeding occuring through (heavy ion, xn) reactions has lead to write an analysis code (code BACLE) which allows the extraction of lifetimes of levels within a cascade that contains at most ten levels and for fifteen different targets to plunger distances. This code uses Bateman equations, in order to calculate the population of nuclei having a defined excited state, and also uses a non linear fitting procedure. The strengths of E2 transitions have been found of the same order of magnitude than the Weisskopf estimates. The experimental results about the nucleus 154 Er are discussed within the framework of the 'oblate coupling scheme' of A. Bohr and B.R. Mottelson [fr

  3. New design features of gas ionization detectors used for elastic recoil detection

    CERN Document Server

    Timmers, H; Ophel, T R

    2000-01-01

    Several alternative design features of large acceptance, gas ionization detectors have proven to be successful for application to elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). In particular, effects due to the distortion of the entrance field by a large area window have been eliminated in a simple fashion, to allow measurement of the initial rate of energy loss and to provide an energy- and species-independent cathode signal. No less importantly, use of a divided electrode in the anode plane has enabled a more straightforward means of determining the scattering angle that is required for kinematic corrections. An intermediate grid was found to provide a direct and true total energy signal, with only slightly diminished resolution compared with that of the summed total anode equivalent.

  4. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen in thin films using Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siketic, Zdravko; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Jaksic, Milko

    2010-01-01

    Determination of atomic concentrations in thin films is one of the key problems in materials science. Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis is a powerful method for depth profiling of light and medium mass elements in near surface layers of material. However, due to poor detection efficiency those spectrometers are not commonly used for hydrogen analysis. We have performed some improvements in order to increase detection efficiency and to make spectrometer more suitable for hydrogen analysis. The spectrometer performance was tested on amorphous Si samples implanted with H - and D - and hydrogenised Si standard reference sample. Sensitivity for hydrogen in silicon matrix was found to be several tens of ppm with a surface depth resolution of ∼ 15 nm.

  5. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  6. ASTROPHYSICS. Exclusion of leptophilic dark matter models using XENON100 electronic recoil data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Laboratory experiments searching for galactic dark matter particles scattering off nuclei have so far not been able to establish a discovery. We use data from the XENON100 experiment to search for dark matter interacting with electrons. With no evidence for a signal above the low background of our experiment, we exclude a variety of representative dark matter models that would induce electronic recoils. For axial-vector couplings to electrons, we exclude cross sections above 6 × 10(-35) cm(2) for particle masses of m(χ) = 2 GeV/c(2). Independent of the dark matter halo, we exclude leptophilic models as an explanation for the long-standing DAMA/LIBRA signal, such as couplings to electrons through axial-vector interactions at a 4.4σ confidence level, mirror dark matter at 3.6σ, and luminous dark matter at 4.6σ. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Laboratory experiments on the formation and recoil jet transport of aerosol by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Yoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Imamura, Keisuke; Okazaki, Katsuya

    2016-05-01

    In a high-repetition rate inertial fusion reactor, the first wall will be subjected to repeated ablation along with pellet implosions, which then leads to the formation of aerosol to scatter and/or deflect laser beams for the subsequent implosion, affecting the overall reactor performance. Proposed in the present work is a method of in-situ directed transport of aerosol particles by the use of laser ablation-induced jet recoil momenta. Lithium and carbon are used as the primary ablation targets, the former of which is known to form aerosol in the form of droplet, and the latter of which tends to form carbon nanotubes. Laboratory-scale experiments have been conducted to irradiate airborne aerosol particles with high-intensity laser to produce ablation-induced jet. Data have indicated a change in aerosol flow direction, but only in the case of lithium.

  8. Laser cooling of 85Rb atoms to the recoil-temperature limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the laser cooling of 85Rb atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice. We follow the two-step degenerate Raman sideband cooling scheme [Kerman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 439 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.439], where a fast cooling of atoms to an auxiliary state is followed by a slow cooling to a dark state. This method has the advantage of independent control of the heating rate and cooling rate from the optical pumping beam. We operate the lattice at a Lamb-Dicke parameter η =0.45 and show the cooling of spin-polarized 85Rb atoms to the recoil temperature in both dimensions within 2.4 ms with the aid of adiabatic cooling.

  9. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M Gatu; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Magoon, J; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M; Ulreich, J; Ashabranner, R C; Bionta, R M; Carpenter, A C; Felker, B; Khater, H Y; LePape, S; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Rygg, J R; Yeoman, M F; Zacharias, R; Leeper, R J; Fletcher, K; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J; Paguio, R

    2013-04-01

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  10. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer for time-resolved neutron measurements (MRSt) at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, C. E.; Frenje, J. A.; Wink, C. W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bionta, R.; Casey, D. T.; Khater, H. Y.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sorce, C.; Hares, J. D.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2017-10-01

    The next-generation Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer, called MRSt, will provide time-resolved measurements of the DT-neutron spectrum. These measurements will provide critical information about the time evolution of the fuel assembly, hot-spot formation, and nuclear burn in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The neutron spectrum in the energy range 12-16 MeV will be measured with high accuracy ( 5%), unprecedented energy resolution ( 100 keV) and, for the first time ever, time resolution ( 20 ps). An overview of the physics motivation, conceptual design for meeting these performance requirements, and the status of the offline tests for critical components will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL, and LLE.

  11. The fuzzy bag and baryonic properties with center of mass and recoil corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilotto, F.

    2003-01-01

    The fuzzy bag is a hadronic model which has features both of the bag model (energy-momentum conservation, QCD vacuum energy) and of relativistic potential models (confinement achieved through a potential). It is also a chiral model, with the unique property that the pion field is suppressed in the interior of the bag by means of a scalar potential, and yet chiral symmetry is preserved. This scalar potential allows one to control how far the pion field can penetrate in the interior of the bag. We calculate the masses of the fundamental baryon octet taking into account the center of mass, one-gluon exchange and one-pion exchange corrections. We also calculate the nucleon axial charge, charge radii and magnetic moments including center of mass and recoil corrections. The agreement with experiment is excellent, and the results indicate that the pion field is suppressed only very close to the center of the bag. (orig.)

  12. Heavy-ion elastic-recoil detection analysis of doped-silica films for integrated photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, T.D.M.; Timmers, H.; Gaff, K.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Photosensitive silica films, in which a permanent refractive index change is induced by exposure to ultra-violet (UV) light, are of interest for the fabrication of integrated photonic devices and circuits. Such films, consisting of Ge- and Sn-doped silica, are being fabricated at the Australian National University (ANU) by a plasma assisted deposition technique known as Helicon Assisted Reactive Evaporation (HARE). The initial refractive index of these films is related to their stoichiometry and can be altered further by controlled exposure to UV light . Contaminants introduced into the films during deposition can degrade their optical properties and are therefore also of interest. Hydrogen is of particular concern as it causes optical absorption in the wavelength range of interest for communications applications (1.3-1.5μm). High-energy heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis enables the detection of a broad range of elements with almost constant sensitivity. A variety of recoil detection systems have been developed for this purpose, including time-of-flight systems, magnetic spectrometers, and quadrupole spectrometers. However, these are often restricted to small acceptance solid angles. Beam-induced sample modification, such as hydrogen release, can therefore be a serious limitation. The use of a position sensitive gas ionization detector overcomes these limitations for a range of import ant applications by operating with a large solid angle and correcting the kinematic energy spread of the ions over large acceptance angles to provide ≤1% energy resolution. In this study, heavy-ion ERD employing a novel position sensitive gas ionization detector is used to characterize the composition, thickness, uniformity and hydrogen content of Ge- and Sn- doped silica films. The technique is shown to provide this information in a single measurement

  13. 2MASS J00423991+3017515: An Interacting Oddball or a Recoiling AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Blecha, Laura; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2017-06-01

    We present deep, multiband Hubble imaging and two epochs of optical spectroscopic monitoring of a peculiar nearby (z=0.14) AGN, 2MASS J00423991+3017515. The host galaxy containing the AGN is morphologically disturbed and interacting with an unmerged companion galaxy, suggesting it has had a rich merger history. The AGN itself is spatially displaced from the apparent center of its host galaxy and the symmetric broad Hα and Hβ lines are consistently blueshifted from the narrow line emission and host galaxy absorption by Δv = 1530 km/s. The investigation is ongoing, but we put forward two hypotheses to explain the odd features of this system. First, the abnormalities could be due to separate, independent causes. Projection effects from the interaction of the two galaxies could give the appearance of a spatial offset, while complex wind dynamics from the AGN accretion disk could give rise to the kinematic shift in the broad line emission. Second, this could be a recoiling AGN. This system fits the template of an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) that has recently received a “kick” from the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves (GWs) following the merger of two progenitor SMBHs. SMBH mergers are a likely end-product of hierarchical structure formation and are the supermassive cousins of the stellar-mass BH mergers observed with LIGO in the GW150914 and GW151226 events. However, a SMBH merger has yet to be unambigously detected. If confirmed as a recoiling AGN, 2MASS J00423991+3017515 will provide the first evidence of this growth pathway acting in the SMBH regime.

  14. The Differential Cross Section and Λ Recoil Polarization from γδ -> Κ0(ρ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, Nicholas [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Presented is the analysis of the differential cross section and Λ recoil polarization from the reaction γδ -> Κ0(ρ). This work measured these observables over beam energies from 0.90 GeV to 3.0 GeV. These measurements are the first in this channel to cover such a wide range of energies. The data were taken using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) along with a tagged photon beam. This analysis was completed by identifying events of interest that decayed into the final state topology of π-π+,π-&rho'(ρ). Through conservation of energy and momentum, the Κ0, Λ and missing mass of the spectator proton were reconstructed. Utilizing the same analysis techniques, the observables were measured on two different experiments with good agreement. Photoproduction of strange mesons from the neutron are difficult to measure, consequently there are only a few measurements of this kind. Despite that, these reactions supply essential complementary data to those on the proton. The differential cross sections and the recoil polarization extracted, span the region where new nucleon resonances have been found from studies of the reaction γρ -> Κ+Λ. Comparisons between the Κ+Λ and Κ0Λ cross section demonstrate that possible interference terms near 1900 MeV are less pronounced in the latter. This unexpected result inspired a partial wave analyses (PWA) to be fitted to the data. The fit solution shows that this measurement fostered an improvement on the knowledge of observed resonance parameters, necessary to understanding these excited states. The study of nucleon resonances is a key motivating factor since the resonance masses can be calculated from the theory of the strong nuclear force, called quantum chromodynamics, or QCD.

  15. Recoil and conversion electron considerations of the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho in vivo generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, J.R. [North-West Univ., Mmabatho (South Africa). CARST; Szuecs, Z. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Takacs, S.; Jarvis, N. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Jansen, D. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry

    2012-07-01

    The use of radionuclides as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly investigated. An important aspect is the delivery of the radionuclide to the target, i.e. the radionuclide is not lost from the chelating agent. For in vivo generators, it is not only the log K of complexation between the metal ion and the chelator that is important, but also whether the daughter radionuclide stays inside the chelator after decay of the parent radionuclide. In our previous work, we showed that the classical recoil effect is only applicable for decays with a Q value higher than 0.6 MeV (in the atomic mass range around 100). However, Zhernosekov et al. published a result for {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr (Q = 0.222 MeV) which indicated that > 95% of the daughter ({sup 140}Pr) was lost by a DOTA chelator upon decay of {sup 140}Nd. The authors ascribed this to the ''post-effect''. Their experiment was repeated with the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho generator to ascertain whether our calculations were correct. It was found that 72% of the daughter ({sup 166}Ho) was liberated from the DOTA chelator, indicating that the 'post effect' does exist in contrast to our recoil calculations. Upon further investigation, we determined that one should not only consider recoil energy levels but also the mode of decay which was able to explain the partial recoil found for {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho. It is concluded for the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho system that the low recoil energy of the daughter nucleus {sup 166}Ho is not a sufficient reason to rule out release of the nuclide from chelators. On the other hand, we found that the ratio of the {sup 166}Ho that gets released corresponds to the ratio of relaxation of Ho atoms via the Auger process. (orig.)

  16. Atom interferometric studies of light scattering - A new technique for measuring atomic recoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Scott

    This dissertation presents two techniques for measuring the atomic recoil frequency, oq, using a single-state atom interferometer that utilizes a dilute cloud of laser-cooled 85Rb atoms. An important motivation for these measurements is that o q, which is related to the ratio of Planck's constant and the atomic mass of rubidium hmRb , can be used to infer the atomic fine structure constant, alpha. The two techniques presented here involve time domain measurements carried out with standing-wave laser fields that manipulate atoms in the same atomic ground state and exploit the wave nature of cold atoms. The first technique uses two off-resonant standing-wave pulses to interfere momentum states so that the recoil frequency can be determined. However, to model the signal shape it is necessary to include effects of spontaneous emission during the interaction with light and the spatial profile of the laser beam. The second technique provides a robust alternative approach for measuring the recoil frequency because the signal shape is considerably simpler and can be modeled easily. We report measurements of atomic recoil using both techniques that are precise to ˜ 1 part per million. The precision was limited mainly by the time scale of the experiment (˜ 20 ms) due to the presence of magnetic field gradients. The dissertation also discusses recent improvements that have extended the time scale to the transit time limit for cold atoms. This is the time of travel of cold atoms through the region of interaction defined by the laser beams. The interferometer uses two standing-wave pulses separated by time T to put the atoms in a superposition of momentum states. Interference between momentum states produce a density grating echo signal at time 2 T. The echo time, 2T, corresponds to the time at which the Doppler phases of the momentum states associated with all atoms in the sample cancel. The echo technique is, therefore, a general method to overcome the effect of the

  17. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the DarkSide-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edkins, Erin Elisabeth [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-01

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a j oint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, $f_{90}$, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the $f_{90}$ distributio n of nuclear

  18. A new Recoil Proton Telescope for energy and fluence measurement of fast neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, Lena; Bachaalany, Mario [IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons), Cadarache Bat.159, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Husson, Daniel; Higueret, Stephane [IPHC / RaMsEs (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien / Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales), 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High Energy Neutron metrology Applications), is being developed at the IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons) and aims at characterizing energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a Recoil Proton Telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5 to 20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50{sub m} thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for the proton tracking and a 3 mm thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. This first prototype used CMOS sensors called MIMOSTAR, initially developed for heavy ion physics. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of ten compared with conventional designs. The first prototype has already been done and was a successful study giving the results it offered in terms of energy and fluence measurements. For mono energetic beams going from 5 to 19 MeV, the telescope offered an energy resolution between 5 and 11% and fluence difference going from 5 to 7% compared to other home standards. A second and final prototype of the detector is being designed. It will hold upgraded CMOS sensors called FastPixN. These CMOS sensors are supposed to run 400 times faster than the older version and therefore give the telescope the ability to support neutron flux in the order of 107 to 108cm{sup 2}:s{sup 1}. The first prototypes results showed that a 50 m pixel size is enough for a precise scattering angle reconstruction. Simulations using MCNPX and GEANT4 are already in place for further improvements. A DeltaE diode will replace the third CMOS sensor and will be installed right before the silicon diode for a better recoil proton selection. The final prototype with

  19. Nongravitational motions of comets: component of the recoil force normal to orbital plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1993-09-01

    The significance and detectability of a normal component of the nongravitational acceleration that perturbs the motions of periodic comets are examined by comparing the total perturbation effect, calculated from the component's empirical term in the equations of motion integrated over the orbital period, with the cumulative perturbations of the longitude of the ascending node and the orbital inclination brought about by the momentum that is transferred to the nucleus due to water outgassing from discrete active regions. It is shown that the approximation of temporal variations in the recoil acceleration computed using the well-known g(r) law, which is symmetrical with respect to perihelion, implies that the cumulative nongravitational perturbations of the two orbital elements are accounted for in a fashion that is inconsistent with the perturbation theory. The net result is that, in general, the value of the Style II nongravitational parameter that is consistent with the cumulative effect on the inclination, iA3, differs from the parameter's expected value that describes the cumulative effect on the nodal line, ΩA3. The parameter's distributions as functions of the spin vector and the direction of the ejecta's vector (described by the thrust angle) are represented graphically for several heliocentric orbits. Symmetries with respect to particular values of the argument of perihelion, the rotation constants, and the thrust angle that apply in the case of a baseline model (which involves assumptions of a single source and the absence of sublimation lags) are identified. The magnitudes of the parameter A3 derived from orbit- determination runs are found to be generally compatible with the presented interpretation in that they are not excessive, thus supporting the evidence presented in an earlier paper (Sekanina 1993) and based upon information on the transverse and radial components of the recoil force. The values of iA3 and ΩA3 are shown to coincide for certain

  20. Determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method in combination with magnetic spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doncel, M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gadea, A. [CSIC-University of Valencia, Istituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Quintana, B. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Mengoni, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Moeller, O.; Pietralla, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Dewald, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The current work presents the determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method, in combination with spectrometers for ion identification, normalizing the intensity of the peaks by the ions detected in the spectrometer as a valid technique that produces results comparable to the ones obtained by the conventional shifted-to-unshifted peak ratio method. The technique has been validated using data measured with the γ-ray array AGATA, the PRISMA spectrometer and the Cologne plunger setup. In this paper a test performed with the AGATA-PRISMA setup at LNL and the advantages of this new approach with respect to the conventional Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Effects of recoil-implanted oxygen on depth profiles of defects and annealing processes in P{sup +}-implanted Si studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kitano, Tomohisa; Watanabe, Masahito; Kawano, Takao; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa

    1996-04-01

    Effects of oxygen atoms recoiled from SiO{sub 2} films on depth profiles of defects and annealing processes in P{sup +}-implanted Si were studied using monoenergetic positron beams. For an epitaxial Si specimen, the depth profile of defects was found to be shifted toward the surface by recoil implantation of oxygen atoms. This was attributed to the formation of vacancy-oxygen complexes and a resultant decrease in the diffusion length of vacancy-type defects. The recoiled oxygen atoms stabilized amorphous regions introduced by P{sup +}-implantation, and the annealing of these regions was observed after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 700degC. For a Czochralski-grown Si specimen fabricated by through-oxide implantation, the recoiled oxygen atoms introduced interstitial-type defects upon RTA below the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, and such defects were dissociated by annealing at 1000degC. (author)

  2. Recoil chemistry in inorganic solids with simultaneous activation of anion and cation: indium iodate system [ Paper No. NC-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recoil chemistry of indium iodate has been worked out along with that of indium sulphate and potassium iodate with a view to find out the role of hot atoms of cation and anion being activated simultaneously. The chemical identification and separation has been presented in this paper along with some preliminary results on retention and yield of different hot species produced under (n,γ) process. (author)

  3. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saubamea, B.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  4. Fried-Yennie gauge recalculation of the electron line induced radiative-recoil corrections to muonium hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, V.Yu.; Eides, M.I.; Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    A new analytic calculation of radiative-recoil corrections to muonium ground-state hyperfine splitting induced by electron line insertions is performed. The starting point of this calculation is presented by the Fried-Yennie gauge expression for the electron line factor. The final result confirms the one obtained previously from the apparently different expression in the Feynman gauge and removes the slight discrepancy which existed in the literature between the calculations in different gauges. (orig.)

  5. Selective electron capture into slow highly ionized recoil atoms produced in heavy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Folkmann, F.; Mann, R.; Schartner, K.-H.

    1979-01-01

    The first experimental observation of the selective electron capture of slow highly ionized neon ions in the collisions with various gases is described. The slow neon ions were produced in the collision of fast heavy ions Pb 36+ , accelerated to the specific energy of 1.4 MeV/amu. X-ray spectroscopy and Auger-electron spectroscopy were applied to study the selective electron capture into higher shells. The measured spectra showed that the very heavy projectiles of 1.4 MeV/amu specific energy were likely to remove more than six electrons of the L-shell from light target atoms in a single collision. The electron capture from surrounding neutral target atoms into the outer shells of metastable highly charged recoil ions was observed. The capture process is discriminated from direct excitation because outer shells are selectively populated. A simple two center, one electron model was proposed which allows the calculation of principal quantum number and of capture radius. (Kato, T.)

  6. The thin-foil magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer MPRu at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Sunden, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Combo, A.; Cruz, N.; Batista, A.; Pereira, R.; Fortuna, R.; Sousa, J.; Popovichev, S.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrons are produced in fusion energy experiments with both deuterium (D) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutron spectroscopy is a valuable tool in the study of the underlying fuel ion populations. The magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer, originally installed at JET in 1996 for 14-MeV neutron measurements, has been upgraded, with the main aim of improving its signal-to-background ratio (S/B), making measurements of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission in D plasmas possible. The upgrade includes a new focal-plane detector, based on the phoswich technique and consequently less sensitive to background, and a new custom-designed digital data acquisition system based on transient recorder cards. Results from JET show that the upgraded MPRu can measure 2.5-MeV neutrons with S/B=5, an improvement by a factor of 50 compared with the original MPR. S/B of 2.8x10 4 in future DT experiments is estimated. The performance of the MPRu is exemplified with results from recent D plasma operations at JET, concerning both measurements with Ohmic, ion cyclotron resonance (ICRH) and neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating, as well as measurements of tritium burn-up neutrons. The upgraded instrument allows for 2.5-MeV neutron emission and deuterium ion temperature measurements in plasmas with low levels of tritium, a feature necessary for the ITER experiment.

  7. Observation of a resonance in $B^+ \\to K^+ \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decays at low recoil

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Cowie, E; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A broad peaking structure is observed in the dimuon spectrum of $B^+ \\to K^+ \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decays in the kinematic region where the kaon has a low recoil against the dimuon system. The structure is consistent with interference between the $B^+ \\to K^+ \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay and a resonance and has a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations. The mean and width of the resonance are measured to be $4191^{+9}_{-8}\\mathrm{\\,Me\\kern -0.1em V/}c^2$ and $65^{+22}_{-16}\\mathrm{\\,Me\\kern -0.1em V/}c^2$, respectively, where the uncertainties include statistical and systematic contributions. These measurements are compatible with the properties of the $\\psi(4160)$ meson. First observations of both the decay $B^+ \\to \\psi(4160) K^+$ and the subsequent decay $\\psi(4160) \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ are reported. The resonant decay and the interference contribution make up 20% of the yield for dimuon masses above 3770  MeV/c2. This contribution is larger than theoretical estimates.

  8. alpha-Actin: disposition, quantities, and estimated effects on lung recoil and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmixon, E H; Carlsson, K; Kuhn, C; Butler, J P; Hoppin, F G

    2001-07-01

    We have investigated the basis and implications of pneumoconstriction by measuring disposition and quantities of alpha-smooth muscle actin in rat and guinea pig lungs and modeling its effects on lung recoil and compliance. A robust marker of contractility, alpha-smooth muscle actin appears in smooth muscle or myofibroblast-like cells in pleura, airways, blood vessels, and alveolar ductal tissues. In each site, we measured its transected area by immunofluorescent staining and frequency-modulated scanning confocal microscopy. We incorporated these data in a model of the parenchyma consisting of an extensive elastic network with embedded contractile structures. We conclude that contraction at any one of these sites alone can decrease parenchymal compliance by 20-30% during tidal breathing. This is due mostly to the stiffness of activated contractile elements undergoing passive cycling; constant muscle tension would have little effect. The magnitude of the effect corresponds with known responses of the lung to hypocapnia, consistent with a homeostatic function in which gas exchange is defended by redistributing ventilation away from overventilated units.

  9. Genuine Tripartite Entanglement and Nonlocality in Bose-Einstein Condensates by Collective Atomic Recoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Adesso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a system represented by a Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with a cavity field in presence of a strong off-resonant pumping laser. This system can be described by a three-mode Gaussian state, where two are the atomic modes corresponding to atoms populating upper and lower momentum sidebands and the third mode describes the scattered cavity field light. We show that, as a consequence of the collective atomic recoil instability, these modes possess a genuine tripartite entanglement that increases unboundedly with the evolution time and is larger than the bipartite entanglement in any reduced two-mode bipartition. We further show that the state of the system exhibits genuine tripartite nonlocality, which can be revealed by a robust violation of the Svetlichny inequality when performing displaced parity measurements. Our exact results are obtained by exploiting the powerful machinery of phase-space informational measures for Gaussian states, which we briefly review in the opening sections of the paper.

  10. Effect of recoiled O on damage regrowth and electrical properties of through-oxide implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Wu, N.R.; Washburn, J.; Current, M.; Morgan, A.; Reed, D.; Maenpaa, M.

    1982-10-01

    High dose (4 to 7.5 x 10 15 cm -2 ) As implantations into p-type (100) Si have been carried out through a screen-oxide of thicknesses less than or equal to 775A and without screen oxide. The effect of recoiled O on damage annealing and electrical properties of the implanted layers has been investigated using a combination of the following techniques: TEM, RBS/MeV He + channeling, SIMS and Hall measurements in conjunction with chemical stripping and sheet resistivity measurements. The TEM results show that there is a dramatically different annealing behavior of the implantation damage for the through oxide implants (Case I) as compared to implants into bare silicon (Case II). Comparison of the structural defect profiles with O distributions obtained by SIMS demonstrated that retardation in the secondary damage growth in Case I can be directly related with the presence of O. Weak-beam TEM showed that a high density of fine defect clusters (less than or equal to 50A) were present both in Case I and Case II. The electrical profiles showed only 30% of the total As to be electrically active. The structural and electrical results have been explained by a model that entails As-O, Si-O and As-As complex formation and their interaction with the dislocations

  11. Recoil Induced Room Temperature Stable Frenkel Pairs in a-Hafnium Upon Thermal Neutron Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Tilman; Das, Satyendra K.; Dey, Chandi C.; Ghoshal, Shamik

    2013-11-01

    Ultrapure hafnium metal (110 ppm zirconium) was neutron activated with a thermal neutron flux of 6:6 · 1012 cm-2s-1 in order to obtain 181Hf for subsequent time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) experiments using the nuclear probe 181Hf(β-) 181Ta. Apart from the expected nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) signal for a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metal, three further discrete NQIs were observed with a few percent fraction each. The TDPAC spectra were recorded for up to 11 half lives with extreme statistical accuracy. The fitted parameters vary slightly within the temperature range between 248 K and 373 K. The signals corresponding to the three additional sites completely disappear after `annealing' at 453 K for one minute. Based on the symmetry of the additional NQIs and their temperature dependencies, they are tentatively attributed to Frenkel pairs produced by recoil due to the emission of a prompt 5:694 MeV -ray following thermal neutron capture and reported by the nuclear probe in three different positions. These Frenkel pairs are stable up to at least 373 K.

  12. Optical potentials derived from microscopic separable interactions including binding and recoil effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, E.R.; Walker, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    We first consider a projectile scattering from a nucleon bound in a fixed potential. A separable Galilean invariant projectile-nucleon interaction is adopted. Without using the fixed scatterer approximation or using closure on the intermediate target nucleon states we obtain various forms for the projectile-bound nucleon t matrix. Effects due to intermediate target excitation and nucleon recoil are discussed. By making the further approximations of closure and fixed scatterers we make connection with the work of previous authors. By generalizing to projectile interaction with several bound nucleons and examining the appropriate multiple scattering series we identify the optical potential for projectile elastic scattering from the many-body system. Different optical potentials are obtained for different projectile-bound nucleon t matrices, and we study the differences predicted by these dissimilar optical potentials for elastic scattering. In a model problem, we study pion-nucleus elastic scattering and compare the predictions obtained by adopting procedures used by (1) Landau, Phatak, and Tabakin and (2) Piepho-Walker to the predictions obtained in a less restrictive, but computationally difficult treatment

  13. Observation of a resonance in B+ → K+ μ+ μ- decays at low recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Cowie, E; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-09-13

    A broad peaking structure is observed in the dimuon spectrum of B+ → K+ μ+ μ- decays in the kinematic region where the kaon has a low recoil against the dimuon system. The structure is consistent with interference between the B+ → K+ μ+ μ- decay and a resonance and has a statistical significance exceeding six standard deviations. The mean and width of the resonance are measured to be 4191(-8)(+9)  MeV/c2 and 65(-16)(+22)  MeV/c2, respectively, where the uncertainties include statistical and systematic contributions. These measurements are compatible with the properties of the ψ(4160) meson. First observations of both the decay B+ → ψ(4160)K+ and the subsequent decay ψ(4160) → μ+ μ- are reported. The resonant decay and the interference contribution make up 20% of the yield for dimuon masses above 3770  MeV/c2. This contribution is larger than theoretical estimates.

  14. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2015-04-01

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  15. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar, E-mail: dmisra@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2015-04-15

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  16. Helium concentration in tungsten nano-tendril surface morphology using Elastic Recoil Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Doerner, R.P.; De Temmerman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Helium (He) concentrations in tungsten nano-tendrils (W fuzz) have been measured for the first time using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD). Fuzzy and non-fuzzy W surfaces were analyzed in order to illuminate the role of He in the transition in surface morphologies. Samples grown in the PISCES-A and PILOT-PSI experiments allowed a survey of surface temperature ranging from T s = 470–2595 K and of He fluence on the order of Φ He ∼ 10 24 –10 27 ions/m 2 . He concentrations measured in the bulk of W fuzz layers are roughly uniform with bulk He concentration 1–4 at.% while samples with just He in the near surface peaked at 1–2 at.%. This confirms that the nano-tendrils are filled with high pressure He bubbles since the solubility of He in W is ∼10 −5 at.%. This indicates that the ∼1000 K temperature fuzz-growth threshold is determined by the response of the W, not the near-surface He concentration

  17. Potku - New analysis software for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arstila, K.; Julin, J.; Laitinen, M. I.; Aalto, J.; Konu, T.; Kärkkäinen, S.; Rahkonen, S.; Raunio, M.; Itkonen, J.; Santanen, J.-P.; Tuovinen, T.; Sajavaara, T.

    2014-07-01

    Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (ToF-ERD) analysis software has been developed. The software combines a Python-language graphical front-end with a C code computing back-end in a user-friendly way. The software uses a list of coincident time-of-flight-energy (ToF-E) events as an input. The ToF calibration can be determined with a simple graphical procedure. The graphical interface allows the user to select different elements and isotopes from a ToF-E histogram and to convert the selections to individual elemental energy and depth profiles. The resulting sample composition can be presented as relative or absolute concentrations by integrating the depth profiles over user-defined ranges. Beam induced composition changes can be studied by displaying the event-based data in fractions relative to the substrate reference data. Optional angular input data allows for kinematic correction of the depth profiles. This open source software is distributed under the GPL license for Linux, Mac, and Windows environments.

  18. Detection Efficiency of a ToF Spectrometer from Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Mingolla, M. G.; Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    The detection efficiency of a time-of-flight system based on two micro-channel plates (MCP) time zero detectors plus a conventional silicon surface barrier detector was obtained from heavy ion elastic recoil measurements (this ToF spectrometer is mainly devoted to measurements of total fusion cross section of weakly bound projectiles on different mass-targets systems). In this work we have used beams of 7 Li, 16 O, 32 S and 35 Cl to study the mass region of interest for its application to measurements fusion cross sections in the 6,7 Li+ 27 Al systems at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier (0.8V B ≤E≤2.0V B ). As the efficiency of a ToF spectrometer is strongly dependent on the energy and mass of the detected particles, we have covered a wide range of the scattered particle energies with a high degree of accuracy at the lowest energies. The different experimental efficiency curves obtained in that way were compared with theoretical electronic stopping power curves on carbon foils and were applied.

  19. Compositional analysis of polycrystalline hafnium oxide thin films by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.L. [Departamento de Electronica y Tecnologia de Computadoras, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus Universitario Muralla del Mar, E-30202 Cartagena (Spain)]. E-mail: Felix.Martinez@upct.es; Toledano, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); San Andres, E. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Martil, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Bohne, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Roehrich, J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Strub, E. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-25

    The composition of polycrystalline hafnium oxide thin films has been measured by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). The films were deposited by high-pressure reactive sputtering (HPRS) on silicon wafers using an oxygen plasma at pressures between 0.8 and 1.6 mbar and during deposition times between 0.5 and 3.0 h. Hydrogen was found to be the main impurity and its concentration increased with deposition pressure. The composition was always slightly oxygen-rich, which is attributed to the oxygen plasma. Additionally, an interfacial silicon oxide thin layer was detected and taken into account. The thickness of the hafnium oxide film was found to increase linearly with deposition time and to decrease exponentially with deposition pressure, whereas the thickness of the silicon oxide interfacial layer has a minimum as a function of pressure at around 1.2 mbar and increases slightly as a function of time. The measurements confirmed that this interfacial layer is formed mainly during the early stages of the deposition process.

  20. Effects of primary recoil (PKA) energy spectrum on radiation damage in fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Tadao; Iwase, Akihiro

    1997-10-01

    Irradiation effects by different energetic particles such as electrons, various ions and neutrons are compared in fcc metals, particularly in Cu and Ni. It is discussed on the statistical consideration that the logarithm of the so-called PKA median energy, log T 1/2 , is a good representative to characterize the primary recoil (i.e. PKA) energy spectrum with the resultant defect production. For the irradiations of electrons, various ions and neutrons to Cu and Ni, fundamental physical quantities such as the fraction of stage I recovery, the defect production cross sections and the radiation annealing cross sections can be well scaled as a function of log T 1/2 , if the effects of the electron excitation caused by irradiating ions are excluded. Namely, all data of the respective physical quantity lie on a single continuous curve as a function of log T 1/2 . This characteristic curve is utilized to predict the damage accumulation (i.e. defect concentration) as a function of dpa in Cu and Ni with the PKA median energy as a parameter. (author)

  1. Higher-order perturbative corrections to b --> c transitions at zero recoil

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1995-01-01

    We estimate the two-loop perturbative corrections to zero-recoil matrix elements of the flavour-changing currents \\bar c\\,\\gamma^\\mu b and \\bar c\\,\\gamma^\\mu\\gamma_5\\,b by calculating the terms of order n_f\\,\\alpha_s^2 and substituting the dependence on the number of flavours by the first coefficient of the \\beta-function. Both for vector and axial vector currents, we find moderate two-loop corrections below 1\\% in magnitude. Using the Brodsky--Lepage--Mack enzie prescription to set the scale in the order-\\alpha_s corrections in the \\overline{\\rm MS} scheme, we obtain \\mu_V\\simeq 0.92\\sqrt{m_b m_c} and \\mu_A\\simeq 0.51\\sqrt{m_b m_c} in the two cases. These scales are sufficiently large for perturbation theory to be well-behaved. The implications of our results to the extraction of |\\, V_{cb}| are briefly discussed.

  2. Angular correlations between recoil velocity and angular momentum vectors in molecular photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G. E.; Sivakumar, N.; Chawla, D.; Houston, P. L.; Burak, I.

    1988-03-01

    A technique has been developed for determining the angular correlation between a photofragment's angular momentum vector J, its recoil velocity vector v, and the transition dipole moment of the parent molecule μp . Doppler profile spectroscopy used in conjunction with laser-induced fluorescence probing by polarized light can be used to determine the correlations. The pairwise correlations between these vectors as well as their triple correlation are discussed for limiting cases using a classical approach as well as for the general case using a quantum approach based on density matrices. The current formulations differ in two ways from the recent approach of Dixon, who used a bipolar expansion of the correlated velocity and angular momentum distributions. The physical basis for the influence of the vector correlations on the Doppler profile is somewhat more transparent in the current formulations, and the direct connection between the measured correlations and the t-matrix elements occurring in the theory of Balint-Kurti and Shapiro for the photodissociation of a triatomic molecule is also demonstrated.

  3. Recoil distance method lifetime measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC using the TIGRESS Integrated Plunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, A.; Ball, G. C.; Bernier, N.; Cross, D. S.; Domingo, T.; Drake, T. E.; Evitts, L. J.; Garcia, F. H.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hackman, G.; Hallam, S.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R.; Krücken, R.; MacConnachie, E.; Moukaddam, M.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Paetkau, O.; Pore, J. L.; Rizwan, U.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Shoults, J.; Smallcombe, J.; Smith, J. K.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Van Wieren, K.; Williams, J.; Williams, M.

    2018-02-01

    The TIGRESS Integrated Plunger device (TIP) has been developed for recoil distance method (RDM) lifetime measurements using the TIGRESS array of HPGe γ-ray detectors at TRIUMF's ISAC-II facility. A commissioning experiment was conducted utilizing a 250 MeV 84Kr beam at ≈ 2 × 108 particles per second. The 84Kr beam was Coulomb excited to the 21+ state on a movable 27Al target. A thin Cu foil fixed downstream from the target was used as a degrader. Excited nuclei emerged from the target and decayed by γ-ray emission at a distance determined by their velocity and the lifetime of the 21+ state. The ratio of decays which occur between the target and degrader to those occurring after traversing the degrader changes as a function of the target-degrader separation distance. Gamma-ray spectra at 13 target-degrader separation distances were measured and compared to simulated lineshapes to extract the lifetime. The result of τ = 5 . 541 ± 0 . 013(stat.) ± 0 . 063(sys.) ps is shorter than the literature value of 5 . 84 ± 0 . 18 ps with a reduction in uncertainty by a factor of approximately two. The TIP plunger device, experimental technique, analysis tools, and result are discussed.

  4. Complementarity and the Nature of Uncertainty Relations in Einstein–Bohr Recoiling Slit Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tanimura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A model of the Einstein–Bohr recoiling slit experiment is formulated in a fully quantum theoretical setting. In this model, the state and dynamics of a movable wall that has two slits in it, as well as the state of a particle incoming to the two slits, are described by quantum mechanics. Using this model, we analyzed complementarity between exhibiting an interference pattern and distinguishing the particle path. Comparing the Kennard–Robertson type and the Ozawa-type uncertainty relations, we conclude that the uncertainty relation involved in the double-slit experiment is not the Ozawa-type uncertainty relation but the Kennard-type uncertainty relation of the position and the momentum of the double-slit wall. A possible experiment to test the complementarity relation is suggested. It is also argued that various phenomena which occur at the interface of a quantum system and a classical system, including distinguishability, interference, decoherence, quantum eraser, and weak value, can be understood as aspects of entanglement. Quanta 2015; 4: 1–9.

  5. Ejection of fast recoil atoms from solids under ion bombardment (medium-energy ion scattering by solid surfaces: Pt. 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonoy, A.I.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the third part of our review surface scattering. Part I, which was devoted to the scattering of ions by the surfaces of disordered solids, was published in 1972; Part II, concerning scattering by crystal surfaces, was published in 1974. Since the publication of these reviews the material contained in them has become obsolete in many respects. A more recent account of the status of the problem has been given in a number of studies, including the book by E.S. Mashkova and V.A. Molchanov, Medium-Energy Ion Scattering by Solid Surfaces (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980), than extended version of which was published by North-Holland in 1985. We note, however, that at the time these reviews were written the study of fast recoil atoms had not been carried out systematically; the problem was studied only as a by-product of surface scattering and sputtering. For this reason, in the above-mentioned works and in other reviews the data relating to recoil atoms were considered only occasionally. In recent years there have appeared a number of works - theoretical, experimental and computer -specially devoted to the study of the ejection of recoil atoms under ion bombardment. A number of interesting effects, which are due to the crystal structure of the target, have been discovered. It therefore, appeared desirable to us to systematize the available material and to present it as Part III of our continuing review. (author)

  6. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobic, T.; Wursten, E.; Couratin, C.; Soti, G.; Severijns, N. [KU Leuven University, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Ban, G.; Fabian, X.; Flechard, X.; Lienard, E. [Normandie Univ., ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, Caen (France); Beck, M.; Friedag, P.; Weinheimer, C. [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Glueck, F.; Kozlov, V.Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Herlert, A. [FAIR, Darmstadt (Germany); Knecht, A. [KU Leuven University, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); CERN, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver BC (Canada); Traykov, E. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Van Gorp, S. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory, Saitama (Japan); Zakoucky, D. [ASCR, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-15

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β{sup +} decay of {sup 35}Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2 ns and position resolution of 0.1 mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for {sup 35}Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer. (orig.)

  7. Use of the on-line Moessbauer effect as a contribution to the study of recoil defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandey, Christian

    1974-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of effects of nuclear reactions, also known as 'after-effects' such as atomic disorders resulted from atom recoil, but also possible chemical modifications. The author more particularly focuses of recoil defects. He reports a critical review of studies of structure defects (in pure metals, ordered alloys, ionic crystals) performed by using conventional resonance absorption, and then presents an analysis of results of the defect creation dynamics as it had been proposed by other authors. He also proposes an overview of the evolution and disappearance of defects during thermal treatments. After a review of experiments based on the on-line Moessbauer effect, the author reports the study of recoil effects in pure metals (iron, hafnium), in alloys (Fe 1-x Al x , FeGe 2 , cubic, monoclinic and hexagonal FeGe), and in organic complexes (ferrous oxalate, different types of hafnium chelate, hafnium oxide). He finally discusses the electronic properties of different types of iron and hafnium chelate in solid phase [fr

  8. Detector line spread functions determined analytically by transport of Compton recoil electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veld, A.A. van't; Luijk, P. van; Praamstra, F.; Hulst, P.C. van der

    2001-01-01

    To achieve the maximum benefit of conformal radiation therapy it is necessary to obtain accurate knowledge of radiation beam penumbras based on high-resolution relative dosimetry of beam profiles. For this purpose there is a need to perform high-resolution dosimetry with well-established routine dosimeters, such as ionization chambers or diodes. Profiles measured with these detectors must be corrected for the dosimeter's nonideal response, caused by finite dimensions and, in the case of an ionization chamber, the alteration of electron transport and a contribution of electrons recoiled in the chamber wall and the central electrode. For this purpose the line spread function (LSF) of the detector is needed. The experimental determination of LSFs is cumbersome and restricted to the specific detector and beam energy spectrum used. Therefore, a previously reported analytical model [Med. Phys. 27, 923-934 (2000)] has been extended to determine response profiles of routine dosimeters: shielded diodes and, in particular, ionization chambers, in primary dose slit beams. The model combines Compton scattering of incident photons, the transport of recoiled electrons by Fermi-Eyges small-angle multiple scattering theory, and functions to limit electron transport. It yields the traveling direction and the energy of electrons upon incidence on the detector surface. In the case of ionization chambers, geometrical considerations are then sufficient to calculate the relative amount of ionization in chamber air, i.e., the detector response, as a function of the detector location in the slit beam. In combination with the previously reported slit beam dose profiles, the LSF can then readily be derived by reconstruction techniques. Since the spectral contributions are preserved, the LSF of a dosimeter is defined for any beam for which the effective spectrum is known. The detector response profiles calculated in this study have been verified in a telescopic slit beam geometry, and were

  9. A Potential Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole, CXO J101527.2+625911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Yoon, Ilsang; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Codigo Postal: 8970117 (Chile); Harvey, D. [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, Chemin des Maillettes, 51, Versoix CH-1290, Suisse (Switzerland); Kim, Ji Hoon, E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We have carried out a systematic search for recoiling supermassive black holes (rSMBH) using the Chandra Source and SDSS Cross-Match Catalog. From the survey, we have detected a potential rSMBH, CXO J101527.2+625911, at z = 0.3504. The source CXO J101527.2+625911 has a spatially offset (1.26 ± 0.05 kpc) active SMBH and kinematically offset broad emission lines (175 ± 25 km s{sup −1} relative to the systemic velocity). The observed spatial and velocity offsets suggest that this galaxy could be an rSMBH, but we have also considered the possibility of a dual SMBH scenario. The column density toward the galaxy center was found to be Compton thin, but no X-ray source was detected. The non-detection of the X-ray source in the nucleus suggests that either there is no obscured actively accreting SMBH or that there exists an SMBH, but it has a low accretion rate (i.e., a low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN)). The possibility of the LLAGN was investigated and found to be unlikely based on the H α luminosity, radio power, and kinematic arguments. This, along with the null detection of an X-ray source in the nucleus, supports our hypothesis that CXO J101527.2+625911 is an rSMBH. Our GALFIT analysis shows the host galaxy to be a bulge-dominated elliptical. The weak morphological disturbance and small spatial and velocity offsets suggest that CXO J101527.2+625911 could be in the final stage of a merging process and about to turn into a normal elliptical galaxy.

  10. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  11. Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR) method for acoustic power estimation: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Rivens, Ian; ter Haar, Gail

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound imparted air-recoil resonance (UIAR), a new method for acoustic power estimation, is introduced with emphasis on therapeutic high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) monitoring applications. Advantages of this approach over existing practices include fast response; electrical and magnetic inertness, and hence MRI compatibility; portability; high damage threshold and immunity to vibration and interference; low cost; etc. The angle of incidence should be fixed for accurate measurement. However, the transducer-detector pair can be aligned in any direction with respect to the force of gravity. In this sense, the operation of the device is orientation independent. The acoustic response of a pneumatically coupled pair of Helmholtz resonators, with one of them acting as the sensor head, is used for the estimation of acoustic power. The principle is valid in the case of pulsed/ burst as well as continuous ultrasound exposure, the former being more sensitive and accurate. An electro-acoustic theory has been developed for describing the dynamics of pressure flow and resonance in the system considering various thermo- viscous loss mechanisms. Experimental observations are found to be in agreement with theoretical results. Assuming the window damage threshold (~10 J·mm(-2)) and accuracy of RF power estimation are the upper and lower scale-limiting factors, the performance of the device was examined for an RF power range of 5 mW to 100 W with a HIFU transducer operating at 1.70 MHz, and an average nonlinearity of ~1.5% was observed. The device is also sensitive to sub-milliwatt powers. The frequency response was analyzed at 0.85, 1.70, 2.55, and 3.40 MHz and the results are presented with respective theoretical estimates. Typical response time is in the millisecond regime. Output drift is about 3% for resonant and 5% for nonresonant modes. The principle has been optimized to demonstrate a general-purpose acoustic power meter.

  12. Enhanced ventricular untwisting during exercise: a mechanistic manifestation of elastic recoil described by Doppler tissue imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notomi, Yuichi; Martin-Miklovic, Maureen G; Oryszak, Stephanie J; Shiota, Takahiro; Deserranno, Dimitri; Popovic, Zoran B; Garcia, Mario J; Greenberg, Neil L; Thomas, James D

    2006-05-30

    The cascade of events by which early diastolic left ventricular (LV) filling increases with exercise is not fully elucidated. Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) can detect myocardial motion, including torsion, whereas color M-mode Doppler (CMM) can quantify LV intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs). Twenty healthy volunteers underwent echocardiographic examination with DTI at rest and during submaximal supine bicycle exercise. We assessed LV long-/short-axis function, torsion, volume, inflow dynamics, and early diastolic IVPG derived from CMM data. LV torsion and untwisting velocity increased with exercise (torsion, 11+/-4 degrees to 24+/-8 degrees ; untwisting velocity, -2.0+/-0.7 to -5.6+/-2.3 rad/s) that was associated with an increase in IVPG (1.4+/-0.5 to 3.7+/-1.2 mm Hg). Untwisting in normal subjects occurred during isovolumic relaxation and early filling, significantly before long-axis lengthening or radial expansion. The clinical feasibility of this method was tested in 7 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); torsion was higher at rest but did not increase with exercise (16+/-4 degrees to 14+/-6 degrees), whereas untwisting was delayed and unenhanced (-1.6+/-0.8 to -2.3+/-1.2 rad/s). In concert, IVPG was similar at rest (1.2+/-0.3 mm Hg), but the exercise response was blunted (1.6+/-0.8 mm Hg). In normal subjects and HCM patients, there was a similar linear relation between IVPG and untwisting rate, with an overall correlation coefficient of r=0.75 (Pelastic recoil, critically linking systolic contraction to diastolic filling.

  13. Structure relates to elastic recoil and functional role in quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Marco; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; De Pasquale, Viviana; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tendons and ligaments have similar but slightly different structure and composition. Crimps of tendons and ligaments are morphological structures related to the elastic functional properties of these connective tissues. Aim of this study was to investigate the morphological arrangement of collagen fibres, fibrils and crimping pattern of suprapatellar (rectus femoris tendon-RFT and vastus intermedius tendon-VIT) and infrapatellar connective tissues (patellar ligament-PL) to relate their structural aspects to their common function role of leg extension. RFT, VIT and PL were removed from knees of Sprague-Dawley rats and light and electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) performed. Sagittal sections showed that collagen array and crimping pattern were similar in RFT and PL but differed from VIT. Morphometric analysis confirmed that crimp number was about the same in RFT and PL (5.4+/-1.4 and 6.1+/-2.8 respectively), but it was almost three times higher in VIT (14.5+/-4.7). Similarly crimp top angle in RFT and PL (141.5+/-15.0 degrees and 146.2+/-12.2 degrees respectively) was significantly higher than in VIT (122.3+/-14.8 degrees ) and the crimp base length was more than twice as wide in RFT (75.5+/-22.6microm) and PL (72.3+/-28.9microm) than in VIT (36+/-14.1microm). The smaller, fewer and most crimped crimps in VIT show that this tendon has a greater elastic recoil and responds to higher forces as among quadriceps muscles the vastus intermedius belly contributes the most during knee extension. By contrast, RFT acting as a "stopper" tendon also plays a ligament role by limiting an excessive flexion of the joint during postural rest position of the knee.

  14. The host galaxy of the gravitational wave recoiling black hole candidate 3C186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaberge, Marco

    2017-08-01

    We discovered a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling black hole (BH) candidate in our HST WFC3 snapshot images of the radio-loud QSO 3C186. These events are expected to happen as a result of BH-BH mergers. This extremely energetic phenomenon leads to the production of an intense field of GWs, which in most cases are emitted anisotropically. As a result, the merged black hole may receive a kick and be displaced from the center of the host galaxy with velocities that can be as high as 4000 km/s. Depending on the relative orientation of the kick with respect to the line-of-sight, if the BH is active we expect to observe an offset QSO. Furthermore, the broad lines may be offset with respect to the narrow lines, which are emitted in the frame of the host. 3C186 shows all of the predicted observational features of a such an event. Spectra show offsets between narrow and broad emission lines of 2100km/s, and our HST image clearly shows that the QSO is offset by 1.3 with respect to the isophotal center of the host galaxy. Scenarios alternative to the GW kick as the origin for the observed features are unlikely, but still viable. Only HST allows us to obtain spatially resolved information, high sensitivity and stable PSF to better investigate the host galaxy properties. We will use ACS and WFC3 to obtain deep images and study the morphology of the host galaxy. We will unambiguously establish whether the host galaxy of 3C186 underwent a major merger and we will be able to set accurate constraints on the age of the merger. The proposed observations will have a tremendous impact on our knowledge of supermassive BH mergers and the associated emission of gravitational waves.

  15. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes 97Ru, 100Pd, 100Rh, and 101mRh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by 12C ions in a 92Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 μm. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24° flexion angle removed (14±1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12±3) mm3/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  16. Recoil Directionality Studies in Two-Phase Liquid Argon TPC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Matteo; Batignani, Giovanni; Marcello Bonivento, Walter; Bottino, Bianca; Campajola, Luigi; Caravati, Mauro; Catalanotti, Sergio; Cicalò, Corrado; Cocco, Alfredo; Covone, Giovanni; De Rosa, Gianfranca; Devoto, Alberto; Dionisi, Carlo; Fiorillo, Giuliana; Giagu, Stefano; Gulino, Marisa; Kuss, Michael; Lissia, Marcello; Lista, Luca; Longo, Giuseppe; Pallavicini, Marco; Pandola, Luciano; Razeti, Marco; Rescigno, Marco; Rossi, Biagio; Rossi, Nicola; Testera, Gemma; Trinchese, Pasquale; Walker, Susan; Zullo, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Projects attempting the direct detection of WIMP dark matter share the common problem of eliminating sources of background or using techniques to distinguish background events from true signals. Although experiments such as DarkSide have achieved essentially background free exposures through careful choice of materials and application of efficient veto techniques, there will still be a high burden of proof to convince the greater scientific community when a discovery is claimed. A directional signature in the data would provide extremely strong evidence to distinguish a true WIMP signal from that of an isotropic background. Two-phase argon time projection chambers (TPCs) provide an experimental apparatus which can both be scaled to the ton-scale size required to accommodate the low cross-section expected for WIMP interactions and have an anisotropy that could be exploited to evaluate the polar angles of the resulting nuclear recoils from WIMP collisions with target nuclei. Our studies show that even a modest resolution in the polar angle reconstruction would offer a powerful tool to detect a directional signature. In this contribution, the status of the ReD experiment, which is under construction at Naples University, will be also shown. The aim of the project is to assess and enhance the directionality of two-phase argon TPCs. ReD will use a small TPC exposed to a beam of mono-energetic neutrons to study the so called "columnar recombination" in liquid argon. This development could have high impact on the future experiments in the field, opening up the potential to find conclusive evidence for dark matter or disprove the WIMP hypothesis at and above the mass range explored by planned accelerator experiments.

  17. COREL, Ion Implantation in Solids, Range, Straggling Using Thomas-Fermi Cross-Sections. RASE4, Ion Implantation in Solids, Range, Straggling, Energy Deposition, Recoils. DAMG2, Ion Implantation in Solids, Energy Deposition Distribution with Recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: COREL calculates the final average projected range, standard deviation in projected range, standard deviation in locations transverse to projected range, and average range along path for energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. RASE4 calculates the instantaneous average projected range, standard deviation in projected range, standard deviation in locations transverse to projected range, and average range along path for energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. RASE4 also calculates the instantaneous rate at which the projectile is depositing energy into atomic processes (damage) and into electronic processes (electronic excitation), the average range of target atom recoils projected onto the direction of motion of the projectiles, and the standard deviation in the recoil projected range. DAMG2 calculates the distribution in depth of the energy deposited into atomic processes (damage), electronic processes (electronic excitation), or other energy-dependent quality produced by energetic atomic projectiles incident on amorphous targets or crystalline targets oriented such that the projectiles are not incident along low index crystallographic axes or planes. 2 - Method of solution: COREL: The truncated differential equation which governs the several variables being sought is solved through second-order by trapezoidal integration. The energy-dependent coefficients in the equation are obtained by rectangular integration over the Thomas-Fermi elastic scattering cross section. RASE4: The truncated differential equation which governs the range and straggling variables is solved through second-order by trapezoidal integration. The energy

  18. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R.; Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Costantini, E.; Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A.; Mainieri, V.; Jahnke, K.; Komossa, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  19. Characterization of the relationship between systolic shear strain and early diastolic shear strain rates: insights into torsional recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B; Paterson, Ian; Chow, Kelvin; Cheng-Baron, June; Scott, Jessica M; Esch, Ben T; Ennis, Daniel B; Haykowsky, Mark J

    2010-09-01

    Early diastolic left ventricular (LV) untwisting has been evaluated as a manifestation of LV recoil, reflecting the release of elastic energy stored during systole. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between systolic strain (e.g., circumferential strain and the shear strains that comprise twist) with the resulting early diastolic shear strain rates, including the rate of untwisting. A further goal was to characterize these relationships regionally from apical to basal locations. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging tissue tagging was used to measure circumferential strain, global and regional (apex, mid, basal) twist (theta), and circumferential-longitudinal (epsilon(CL)) and circumferential-radial (epsilon(CR)) shear strains along with the corresponding untwisting rates (dtheta/dt) and diastolic shear strain rates (depsilon/dt) in 32 healthy males (33 +/- 7 yr). LV untwisting rates and shear strain rates measured during early diastole varied significantly with the measurement location from apex to base (P 0.05). Normalization of the untwisting rates to the peak twist (dtheta/dt(Norm) = -13.6 +/- 2.1 s(-1)) or shear strain rates to peak systolic shear strain (depsilon(CL)/dt(Norm) = -15.0 +/- 5.4 s(-1), and depsilon(CR)/dt(Norm) = -14.2 +/- 7.7 s(-1)) yielded a uniform measure of early diastolic function that was similar for all shear strain and twist components and for all locations from apex to base. These findings support a linear model of torsional recoil in the healthy heart, where diastolic shear strain rates (e.g., untwisting rates) are linearly related to the corresponding preceding systolic shear stain component. Furthermore, these findings suggest that torsional recoil is uncoupled from end-systolic volumes or the associated strains, such as circumferential strain.

  20. Recoil damage in InSb and InP observed by perturbed angular correlation with 111Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, K.; Shoji, T.

    1976-01-01

    The recoil damage caused by the 113 In 4.28% (γ, 2n) 111 In reaction has been investigated in InSb and InP by means of time-differential perturbed-angular-correlation (TDPAC) measurements on the 247 keV (5/2) + state of 11 1 Cd, with 111 In parent probe atoms internally implanted by the reaction. The fractions of unperturbed components have been found to be substantially smaller than those of perturbed components. It follows that the 111 In recoils stop in a disordered zone, since no chemical preference exists for the probe atom before the decay. Axially symmetric electric field gradients of 15.7 +- 0.7 MHz in InSb and 19.2 +- 0.8 MHz in n- and p-type InP have been resolved after irradiations, indicative of the presence of defect-species-like ion pairs. More complicated defect introduction has been found in InP under a higher influence. The presence of probe atoms with 5p dangling bonds has been demonstrated in irradiated materials by large field gradients of hardcore values greater than about 450 MHz. This is in accord with an observation of the 119 Sn* Moessbauer effect in InSb exhibiting a quadrupole splitting of 1.1 + - 0.1 mm s -1 for 119 Sb parent probe atoms created from the decay and recoil of a 121 Sb 57.25% (γ, 2n). The points of 50% recovery have been located at around 250 0 C for InSb and 450 0 C for InP. The defect interactions during the course of annealing seem to be complex. (author)

  1. Quantitative angiographic comparison of elastic recoil after coronary excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty and balloon angioplasty alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikwerda, S; van Swijndregt, E M; Melkert, R; Serruys, P W

    1995-02-01

    Coronary lumen changes during and after excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty were measured by quantitative coronary angiography, and the results were compared with the effects of balloon angioplasty alone. Reduction of atherosclerotic tissue mass by laser ablation in the treatment of coronary artery disease may be more effective in enlarging the lumen than balloon angioplasty alone. A series of 57 consecutive coronary lesions successfully treated by xenon chloride excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty were individually matched with 57 coronary artery lesions successfully treated by balloon angioplasty alone. The following variables were measured by quantitative coronary analysis: 1) ablation by laser, 2) stretch by balloon dilation, 3) elastic recoil, and 4) acute gain. Matching by stenosis location, reference diameter and minimal lumen diameter resulted in two comparable groups of 57 lesions with identical baseline stenosis characteristics. Minimal lumen diameter before excimer laser-assisted balloon angioplasty and balloon angioplasty alone were (mean +/- SD) 0.73 +/- 0.44 and 0.74 +/- 0.43 mm, respectively. Laser ablation significantly improved minimal lumen diameter by 0.56 +/- 0.44 mm before adjunctive balloon dilation. In both treatment groups, similar-sized balloon catheters (2.59 +/- 0.35 and 2.56 +/- 0.40 mm, respectively) were used. After laser-assisted balloon angioplasty, elastic recoil was 0.84 +/- 0.30 mm (32% of balloon size), which was identical to that after balloon angioplasty alone, namely, 0.82 +/- 0.32 mm (32%). Consequently, both interventions resulted in similar acute gains of 1.02 +/- 0.52 and 1.00 +/- 0.56 mm, respectively. Minimal lumen diameter after intervention was equal in both groups: 1.75 +/- 0.35 and 1.75 +/- 0.34 mm, respectively. The statistical power of this study in which a 25% difference in elastic recoil (0.2 mm) between groups was considered clinically important was 95%. In matched groups of successfully treated

  2. Form factors of the semileptonic decays B(D) → π + lν near zero recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hongying.

    1995-12-01

    We discuss the possible corrections of some recent calculations on the form factors which parametrize the matrix element of the decays B(D) → πlν. These calculations are based on the assumption that the B * (D * ) pole contribution is fully dominant near the zero recoil. By using the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We have calculated some low-lying states pole terms predicted by the quark model. The numerical results are obtained to the next-leading order of the 1/M expansion. (author). 12 refs, 1 tab

  3. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    using a proton recoil spectroscopy detection system. Comparison was also made between in phantom 10 BF 3 readings made at the BMRR and those made at the RARAF accelerator facility

  5. Potential effects of alpha-recoil on uranium-series dating of calcrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of paleosol ages in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at the time the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, is important for fault-displacement hazard assessment. Uranium-series isotope data were obtained for surface and subsurface calcrete samples from trenches and boreholes in Midway Valley, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. 230Th/U ages of 33 surface samples range from 1.3 to 423 thousand years (ka) and the back-calculated 234U/238U initial activity ratios (AR) are relatively constant with a mean value of 1.54 ± 0.15 (1σ), which is consistent with the closed-system behavior. Subsurface calcrete samples are too old to be dated by the 230Th/U method. U-Pb data for post-pedogenic botryoidal opal from a subsurface calcrete sample show that these subsurface calcrete samples are older than ~ 1.65 million years (Ma), old enough to have attained secular equilibrium had their U-Th systems remained closed. However, subsurface calcrete samples show U-series disequilibrium indicating open-system behavior of 238U daughter isotopes, in contrast with the surface calcrete, where open-system behavior is not evident. Data for 21 subsurface calcrete samples yielded calculable 234U/238U model ages ranging from 130 to 1875 ka (assuming an initial AR of 1.54 ± 0.15, the mean value calculated for the surface calcrete samples). A simple model describing continuous α-recoil loss predicts that the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reach steady-state values ~ 2 Ma after calcrete formation. Potential effects of open-system behavior on 230Th/U ages and initial 234U/238U ARs for younger surface calcrete were estimated using data for old subsurface calcrete samples with the 234U loss and assuming that the total time of water-rock interaction is the only difference between these soils. The difference between the conventional closed-system and open-system ages may exceed errors of the calculated conventional ages for samples older than ~ 250 ka, but is

  6. Determination of the extraction efficiency for {sup 233}U source α-recoil ions from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Following the α decay of {sup 233}U, {sup 229}Th recoil ions are shown to be extracted in a significant amount from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell. The produced recoil ions and subsequent daughter nuclei are mass purified with the help of a customized quadrupole mass spectrometer. The combined extraction and mass purification efficiency for {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is determined via MCP-based measurements and via the direct detection of the {sup 229}Th α decay. A large value of (10±2)% for the combined extraction and mass purification efficiency of {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is obtained at a mass resolution of about 1u/e. In addition to {sup 229}Th, also other α-recoil ions of the {sup 233,} {sup 232}U decay chains are addressed. (orig.)

  7. Direct determination of recoil ion detection efficiency for coincidence time-of-flight studies of molecular fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Carnes, K. D.; Ginther, S. G.; Johnson, D. T.; Norris, P. J.; Weaver, O. L.

    1993-06-01

    Molecular fragmentation of diatomic and small polyatomic molecules caused by fast ion impact has been studied. The evaluation of the cross sections of the different fragmentation channels depends strongly on the recoil ion detection efficiency, ɛ r (single ions proportional to ɛ r, and ion pairs to ɛ r2, etc.). A method is suggested for the direct determination of this detection efficiency. This method is based on the fact that fast H + + CH 4 collisions produce C 2+ fragments only in coincidence with H + and H +2 fragments, that is, there is a negligible number of C 2+ singles, if any. The measured yield of C 2+ singles is therefore due to events in which the H +m of the H +m +C 2+ ion pair was not detected and thus is proportional to 1-ɛ r. Methane fragmentation caused by 1 MeV proton impact is used to evaluate directly the recoil ion detection efficiency and to demonstrate the method of deriving the cross sections of all breakup channels.

  8. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from 18O to 245Cm and 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of 245 Cm and 249 Cf with 18 O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation

  9. Influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms in oxygen-containing chromium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costea, T.

    1969-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms produced by the reaction 50 Cr (n,γ) 51 Cr in oxygen-containing chromium compounds has been studied. Three methods have been used to introduce the defects: doping (K 2 CrO 4 doped with BaCrO 4 ), irradiation by ionizing radiation (K 2 CrO 4 irradiated in the presence of Li 2 CO 3 ) and non-stoichiometry (the semi-conducting oxides of the CrO 3 -Cr 2 O 3 series). The thermal annealing kinetics of the irradiated samples have been determined, and the activation energy has been calculated. In all cases it has been observed that there is a decrease in the activation energy for thermal annealing in the presence of the defects. In order to explain the annealing process, an electronic mechanism has been proposed based on the interaction between the recoil species and the charge-carriers (holes or electrons). (author) [fr

  10. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  11. Differential cross section and recoil polarization measurements for the gamma p to K+ Lambda reaction using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Michael E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present measurements of the differential cross section and Lambda recoil polarization for the gamma p to K+ Lambda reaction made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. These measurements cover the center-of-mass energy range from 1.62 to 2.84 GeV and a wide range of center-of-mass K+ production angles. Independent analyses were performed using the K+ p pi- and K+ p (missing pi -) final-state topologies; results from these analyses were found to exhibit good agreement. These differential cross section measurements show excellent agreement with previous CLAS and LEPS results and offer increased precision and a 300 MeV increase in energy coverage. The recoil polarization data agree well with previous results and offer a large increase in precision and a 500 MeV extension in energy range. The increased center-of-mass energy range that these data represent will allow for independent study of non-resonant K+ Lambda photoproduction mechanisms at all production angles.

  12. Computer simulation of disordering and amorphization by Si and Au recoils in 3C--SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Weber, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular dynamics has been employed to study the disordering and amorphization processes in SiC irradiated with Si and Au ions. The large disordered domains, consisting of interstitials and antisite defects, are created in the cascades produced by Au primary knock-on atoms (PKAs); whereas Si PKAs generate only small interstitial clusters, with most defects being single interstitials and vacancies distributed over a large region. No evidence of amorphization is found at the end of the cascades created by Si recoils. However, the structure analysis indicates that the large disordered domains generated by Au recoils can be defined as an amorphous cluster lacking long-range order. The driving force for amorphization in this material is due to the local accumulation of Frenkel pairs and antisite defects. These results are in good agreement with experimental evidence, i.e., the observed higher disordering rate and the residual disorder after annealing for irradiation with Au 2+ are associated with a higher probability for the in-cascade amorphization or formation of a large disordered cluster

  13. Methods of neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1981-01-01

    The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)

  14. Force-time profile differences in the delivery of simulated toggle-recoil spinal manipulation by students, instructors, and field doctors of chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVocht, James W; Owens, Edward F; Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Strazewski, John; Bhogal, Ramneek; Xia, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the force-time profiles of toggle recoil using an instrumented simulator to objectively measure and evaluate students' skill to determine if they become quicker and use less force during the course of their training and to compare them to course instructors and to field doctors of chiropractic (DCs) who use this specific technique in their practices. A load cell was placed within a toggle recoil training device. The preload, speed, and magnitude of the toggle recoil thrusts were measured from 60 students, 2 instructors, and 77 DCs (ie, who use the toggle recoil technique in their regular practice). Student data were collected 3 times during their toggle course (after first exposure, at midterm, and at course end.) Thrusts showed a dual-peak force-time profile not previously described in other forms of spinal manipulation. There was a wide range of values for each quantity measured within and between all 3 subject groups. The median peak load for students decreased over the course of their class, but they became slower. Field doctors were faster than students or instructors and delivered higher peak loads. Toggle recoil thrusts into a dropping mechanism varied based upon subject and amount of time practicing the task. As students progressed through the class, speed reduced as they increased control to lower peak loads. In the group studies, field DCs applied higher forces and were faster than both students and instructors. There appears to be a unique 2-peak feature of the force-time plot that is unique to toggle recoil manipulation with a drop mechanism. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the connection between the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution and the electron doubly differential cross section in ion-atom ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.D.; Tribedi, L.C.; Richard, P.; Cocke, C.L.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Lin, C.D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. MacDonald Lab.

    1996-03-28

    The connection between the ejected electron doubly differential cross section (DDCS) and the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution is presented. The relation between the two allows us to obtain a precise measurement and/or calculation of the doubly differential cross section with respect to longitudinal recoil-ion momentum and ejected electron angle d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{sub {rho}R} {sub parallel} {sub to} {sub d}{Omega} based on the corresponding electron DDCS. Distinct features characterizing fast ion-atom ionization processes are identified in both spectra. (Author).

  16. On the connection between the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution and the electron doubly differential cross section in ion-atom ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.; Wang, Y.D.; Tribedi, L.; Cocke, C.L.; Lin, C.D.; Rodriguez, V.D. [Universidade de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-05-01

    The connection between the ejected electron doubly differential cross section (DDCS) and the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution is presented. The relation between the two allows the authors to obtain a precise measurement and/or calculation of the doubly differential cross section with respect to longitudinal recoil-ion momentum and ejected electron angle d{sup 2}{sigma}/(dp{sub R{parallel}}d{Omega}{sub e)} based on the corresponding electron DDCS. Distinct features characterizing fast ion-atom ionization processes are identified in both spectra.

  17. Efficiency and directional effects in the detection of low-energy recoil nuclei in a NaI(Tl) single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Graichen, J; Schueth, J; Siepe, A; Witsch, W V

    2002-01-01

    The pulse shape for low-energy sup 1 sup 2 sup 7 I recoils in a NaI(Tl) single crystal was investigated as a function of the crystal orientation, using elastic neutron scattering. For comparison, the pulse shape was also studied for Compton-scattered electrons at small pulse heights. In addition, relative and absolute yields were measured for the elastic scattering of neutrons from sup 2 sup 3 Na and sup 1 sup 2 sup 7 I. Large deficits were observed in the count rates, indicating detection efficiencies for the recoiling nuclei which are much smaller than 100%.

  18. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmata, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the QQDS magnetic spectrometer that is used for high resolution ion beam analysis (IBA) of light elements at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is presented for the first time. In addition all parameters are investigated that influence the analysis. Methods and models are presented with which the effects can be minimised or calculated. There are five focal points of this thesis. The first point is the construction and commissioning of the QQDS magnetic spectrometer, the corresponding scattering chamber with all the peripherals and the detector, which is specially developed for high resolution elastic recoil detection. Both the reconstructed spectrometer and the detector were adapted to the specific experimental conditions needed for high-resolution Ion beam analysis of light elements and tested for routine practice. The detector consists of two components. At the back end of the detector a Bragg ionization chamber is mounted, which is used for the particle identification. At the front end, directly behind the entrance window a proportional counter is mounted. This proportional counter includes a highresistance anode. Thus, the position of the particles is determined in the detector. The following two points concern fundamental studies of ion-solid interaction. By using a magnetic spectrometer the charge state distribution of the particles scattered from the sample after a binary collision is both possible and necessary for the analysis. For this reason the charge states are measured and compared with existing models. In addition, a model is developed that takes into account the charge state dependent energy loss. It is shown that without the application of this model the depth profiles do not correspond with the quantitative measurements by conventional IBA methods and with the thickness obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The second fundamental ion-solid interaction is the damage and the modification of the sample that occurs during

  19. Atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  20. Local LET Spectra in Tissue for Solar Flare Protons in Space and for Neutron-Produced Recoil Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.J.

    1964-01-01

    The problem of exposure hazards from solar-particle beams in space has created considerable interest in the determination of the rem/rad ratio for proton radiations with continuous energy spectra. Since these spectra, as the beam travels through an absorber, undergo continuous profound changes, the local rem/rad ratio in tissue has to be determined for true appraisal of the radiation burden. Assessing the RBE by integrating the ordinary LET values of the spectral components seems unsatisfactory because it does not consider the fine-structure of the energy dissipation created by secondary particles. A quantitative analysis of the differential LET spectrum and comparison to the corresponding spectrum of standard X-rays would define the relative effectiveness much better. In this investigation, the differential LET spectra at different depths in tissue have been analysed for a typical solar-proton beam and for neutron-produced recoil protons from thermal fission. A comparison to the spectrum of standard X-rays reveals a striking similarity for flare-produced protons whereas neutron-recoil protons exhibit a basically different LET spectrum centring heavily on high and very high values of local LET. Extending the analysis from actual space-radiation proton spectra to conceptual spectra of varying negative slope shows that the basic similarity to standard X-rays is always preserved. It can be stated, then, that contrary to neutron-produced recoil protons the rem/rad ratio for proton beams in space will remain, for all types of spectra, well below 2. Recently reported findings of an RBE of 0.5 to 0.6 for producing acute radiation sickness in mice with monoenergetic protons of 660 MeV from an accelerator appear plausible from the differential LET spectrum of such protons which centres on LET values considerably below the maximum in the LET spectrum of X-rays. In the composite LET spectra of flare-produced protons, the method of integration takes the low LET of these high

  1. Molecular Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovac, S.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging mass spectrometry (IMS is a recently developed method for direct determination of spatial distribution of biopolymers, preferably proteins on cell surface and tissues. Imaging mass spectrometry data are mainly based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization- Time of Flight (MALDI TOF. The MALDI TOF based imaging mass spectrometry was applied for determination of changes in kidney tissue of sensitive mice after poisoning with aristolochic acid I. The second application presented here were changes in the gastric tissue in mice after infection with Helicobacter pylori, as a model of gastric cancer in humans caused by this pathogen microorganism. Molecular imaging mass spectrometry can be applied in medicine, mostly for identification of candidate biomarkers for malignant and non-malignant diseases. Furthermore, imaging MS has almost unlimited capacity in agriculture, food technology and biotechnology, e. g. for monitoring, process development and quality control of manufactured tissue of animal, plant and microbial origin.

  2. Software for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Software for Nuclear Spectrometry was dedicated to review the present status of software for nuclear spectrometry and to advise on future activities in this field. Because similar AGM and consultant's meetings had been held in the past; together with an attempt to get more streamlined, this AGM was devoted to the specific field of software for gamma ray spectrometry. Nevertheless, many of the issues discussed and the recommendations made are of general concern for any software on nuclear spectrometry. The report is organized by sections. The 'Summary' gives conclusions and recommendations adopted at the AGM. These conclusions and recommendations resulted from the discussions held during and after presentations of the scientific and technical papers. These papers are reported here in their integral form in the following Sections

  3. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  4. Neutron spectrometry measurements in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.; Carter, M.

    1988-01-01

    A compact structure was prepared for use in making measurements of neutron penetration in iron which could serve as reference data and as a check for computer codes. About 30 iron plates were put together giving a useful overall length of 130 cm. At various depths along the central axis of the iron block, measurements were made with liquid scintillator spectrometers and proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 14 KeV and 10 MeV. Here we report the original spectra of the impulses and the neutron spectra found by the NE213 code based on the differential method and by unfolding with the SPEC4 code for liquid scintillation counters and proton recoil spectrometers, respectively. 12 figs., 60 tabs., 6 refs

  5. Light output response of EJ-309 liquid organic scintillator to 2.86-3.95 MeV carbon recoil ions due to neutron elastic and inelastic scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Mark A.; Ruch, Marc L.; Hamel, Michael C.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Hausladen, Paul A.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first measurements of energy-dependent light output from carbon recoils in the liquid organic scintillator EJ-309. For this measurement, neutrons were produced by an associated particle deuterium-tritium generator and scattered by a volume of EJ-309 scintillator into stop detectors positioned at four fixed angles. Carbon recoils in the scintillator were isolated using triple coincidence among the associated particle detector, scatter detector, and stop detectors. The kinematics of elastic and inelastic scatter allowed data collection at eight specific carbon recoil energies between 2.86 and 3.95 MeV. We found the light output caused by carbon recoils in this energy range to be approximately 1.14% of that caused by electrons of the same energy, which is comparable to the values reported for other liquid organic scintillators. A comparison of the number of scattered neutrons at each angle to a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended simulation indicates that the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation of differential cross sections for 14.1 MeV neutrons on carbon has discrepancies with the experiment as large as 55%, whereas those reported in the JENDL-4.0u evaluation agree with experiment.

  6. Semileptonic B to D Decays at Nonzero Recoil with 2+1 Flavors of Improved Staggered Quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Si-Wei; DeTar, Carleton; Du, Daping; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Laiho, Jack; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermilab Lattice-MILC collaboration is completing a comprehensive program of heavy-light physics on the MILC (2+1)-flavor asqtad ensembles with lattice spacings as small as 0.045 fm and light-to-strange-quark mass ratios as low as 1/20. We use the Fermilab interpretation of the clover action for heavy valence quarks and the asqtad action for light valence quarks. The central goal of the program is to provide ever more exacting tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We give a progress report on one part of the program, namely the analysis of the semileptonic decay B to D at both zero and nonzero recoil. Although final results are not presented, we discuss improvements in the analysis methods, the statistical errors, and the parameter coverage that we expect will lead to a significant reduction in the final error for |V cb | from this decay channel.

  7. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    CERN Document Server

    Serpico, Pasquale D

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particle. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velo...

  8. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  9. BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Rizvi, Eram; Tseng, Jeff

    2008-04-01

    We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.

  10. BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Tseng, Jeff; Rizvi, Eram

    2008-01-01

    We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.

  11. Optimization of microwave-induced chemical etching for rapid development of neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, G.S.; Tripathy, S.P.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic investigation is carried out to optimize the recently established microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) parameters for rapid development of neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 detectors. Several combinations of all available microwave powers with different etching durations were analysed to determine the most suitable etching condition. The etching duration was found to reduce with increasing microwave power and the tracks were observed at about 18, 15, 12, and 6 min for 300, 450, 600 and 900 W of microwave powers respectively compared to a few hours in chemical etching (CE) method. However, for complete development of tracks the etching duration of 30, 40, 50 and 60 min were found to be suitable for the microwave powers of 900, 600, 450 and 300 W, respectively. Temperature profiles of the etchant for all the available microwave powers at different etching durations were generated to regulate the etching process in a controlled manner. The bulk etch rates at different microwave powers were determined by 2 methods, viz., gravimetric and removed thickness methods. A logarithmic expression was used to fit the variation of bulk etch rate with microwave power. Neutron detection efficiencies were obtained for all the cases and the results on track parameters obtained with MICE technique were compared with those obtained from another detector processed with chemical etching. - Highlights: • Microwave-induced chemical etching method is optimized for rapid development of recoil tracks due to neutrons in CR-39 detector. • Several combinations of microwave powers and etching durations are investigated to standardize the suitable etching condition. • Bulk-etch rates are determined for all microwave powers by two different methods, viz. gravimetric and removed thickness method. • The method is found to be simple, effective and much faster compared to conventional chemical etching

  12. Spectral flux of the p-7Li(C Q-M neutron source measured by proton recoil telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov S.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron-based fast neutron source at NPI produces mono-energetic neutron fields up to 35 MeV neutron energy using the p + 7Li(carbon backing reactions. To be applied for activation cross-section measurements, not only the intensity of neutron peak, but also the contribution of low-energy continuum in the spectra must be well determined. Simulations of the spectral flux from present source at a position of irradiated samples were performed using CYRIC TOF-data validated in the present work against LA150h by calculations with the transport Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Simulated spectra were tested by absolute measurements using a proton-recoil telescope technique. The recoil-proton spectrometer consisted of a shielded scattering chamber with polyethylene and carbon radiators and the ΔE1-ΔE2-E telescope of silicon-surface detectors located to the neutron beam axis at 45° in the laboratory system. Si-detectors were handled by usual data acquisition system. Dead-time – and pulse-overlap losses of events were determined from the count rate of pulse generator registered during duty cycle of accelerator operation. The proton beam charge and data were taken in the list mode for later replay and analysis. The calculations for 7Li(p,n and 12C(p,n reactions reasonably reproduce CYRIC TOF neutron source spectra. The influence of neutron source set-up (proton beam dimensions, 7Li-foil, carbon stopper, cooling medium, target support/chamber and the geometry-arrangement of irradiated sample on the spectral flux is discussed in details.

  13. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for {sup 72}Ge, {sup 75}As, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 109}Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for {sup 90}Zr and {sup 55}Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  14. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  15. Defining elastic fiber interactions by molecular fishing: an affinity purification and mass spectrometry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stuart A; McGovern, Amanda; Small, Elaine; Ward, Lyle J; Baldock, Clair; Shuttleworth, Adrian; Kielty, Cay M

    2009-12-01

    Deciphering interacting networks of the extracellular matrix is a major challenge. We describe an affinity purification and mass spectrometry strategy that has provided new insights into the molecular interactions of elastic fibers, essential extracellular assemblies that provide elastic recoil in dynamic tissues. Using cell culture models, we defined primary and secondary elastic fiber interaction networks by identifying molecular interactions with the elastic fiber molecules fibrillin-1, MAGP-1, fibulin-5, and lysyl oxidase. The sensitivity and validity of our method was confirmed by identification of known interactions with the bait proteins. Our study revealed novel extracellular protein interactions with elastic fiber molecules and delineated secondary interacting networks with fibronectin and heparan sulfate-associated molecules. This strategy is a novel approach to define the macromolecular interactions that sustain complex extracellular matrix assemblies and to gain insights into how they are integrated into their surrounding matrix.

  16. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  17. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of

  18. Targeted mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Aloria, Kerman; Omaetxebarria, Miren J.

    2017-01-01

    biological processes in the cell and it is one the most characterized PTM up to date. During the last decade, the development of phosphoprotein/phosphopeptide enrichment strategies and mass spectrometry (MS) technology has revolutionized the field of phosphoproteomics discovering thousands of new site...

  19. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Condition were determined under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids are dissolved completely by fusion with KF and Ba-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion. Radium is precipitated with barium by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute HCl solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of DTPA and the Ra and Ba sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid to produce very small crystals. The precipitate is mounted on 0.1-μm membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution, almost as good as with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates, is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97%. One solid sample can be prepared for counting in less than 2 hours. Methods are discussed for ensuring reliability of the results. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and recoil products is discussed

  20. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  1. Isotopic production cross-sections and recoil velocities of spallation-fission fragments in the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+e

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Wlazlo, W; Benlliure, J; Casarejos, E; Armbruster, P; Bernas, M; Enqvist, T; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Rejmund, F; Mustapha, B; Schmidt, K.-H; Stéphan, C; Taïeb, J; Tassan-Got, L; Volant, C; Boudard, A; Czajkowski, S; 10.1103/PhysRevC.75.014602

    2007-01-01

    Fission fragments of 1A GeV 238U nuclei interacting with a deuterium target have been investigatedwith the Fragment Separator (FRS) at GSI (Darmstadt) by measuring their isotopicproduction cross-sections and recoil velocities. The results, along with those obtained recently forspallation-evaporation fragments, provide a comprehensive analysis of the spallation nuclear productionsin the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+d. Details about experiment performance, data reductionand results will be presented.

  2. Relationship between extent of pulmonary emphysema by high-resolution computed tomography and lung elastic recoil in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, S; Miniati, M; Bellina, C R; Battolla, L; Catapano, G; Begliomini, E; Giustini, D; Giuntini, C

    2001-08-15

    We investigated the relationship between the extent of pulmonary emphysema, assessed by quantitative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and lung mechanics in 24 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The extent of emphysema was quantified as the relative lung area with CT numbers elastic recoil pressure (Pst(max)) averaged 54 +/- 24% predicted, and the exponential constant K of pressure-volume curves was 258 +/- 116% predicted. Relative lung area with CT numbers elastic properties of the lung tissue.

  3. Evidence for age-dependent air-space enlargement contributing to loss of lung tissue elastic recoil pressure and increased shear modulus in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, K; Kumar, H; Tawhai, M H

    2017-07-01

    As a normal part of mature aging, lung tissue undergoes microstructural changes such as alveolar air-space enlargement and redistribution of collagen and elastin away from the alveolar duct. The older lung also experiences an associated decrease in elastic recoil pressure and an increase in specific tissue elastic moduli, but how this relates mechanistically to microstructural remodeling is not well-understood. In this study, we use a structure-based mechanics analysis to elucidate the contributions of age-related air-space enlargement and redistribution of elastin and collagen to loss of lung elastic recoil pressure and increase in tissue elastic moduli. Our results show that age-related geometric changes can result in reduction of elastic recoil pressure and increase in shear and bulk moduli, which is consistent with published experimental data. All elastic moduli were sensitive to the distribution of stiffness (representing elastic fiber density) in the alveolar wall, with homogenous stiffness near the duct and through the septae resulting in a more compliant tissue. The preferential distribution of elastic proteins around the alveolar duct in the healthy young adult lung therefore provides for a more elastic tissue. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We use a structure-based mechanics analysis to correlate air-space enlargement and redistribution of elastin and collagen to age-related changes in the mechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. Our study highlights that both the cause (redistribution of elastin and collagen) and the structural effect (alveolar air-space enlargement) contribute to decline in lung tissue elastic recoil with age; these results are consistent with published data and provide a new avenue for understanding the mechanics of the older lung. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. g-Factor measurements of first 2+ states of heavy Te isotopes based on nuclear spin de orientation for nuclei recoiling in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, M.; Pavan, J.; Stone, N.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Bingham, C.R.; Dupak, J.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C.J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Radford, D.C.; Stone, J.R.; Timlin, C.L.; Yu, C.-H.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the recoil-in-vacuum (RIV) method can be used to determine the g-factor of the Coulumb excited first 2 + state of 132 Te. This was possible owing to advantages provided by CLARION (ORNL clover multi-detector array) and the segmented charged particle detector HyBall. Calibratory experiments were performed with 122,126,13 Te and a g-factor of 132 Te was deduced g = (+)0.35(5)

  5. Calculations of the transverse spatial distribution of NE102 scintillation light made by recoil protons from collimated 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goosman, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation has been made of the spatial distribution of NE102 scintillation light produced by recoil protons from collimated 14-MeV neutron illumination. Results were then averaged over offset circles of various radii, thus determining the fraction of the total scintillation light created inside cylindrical scintillators for uniform neutron illumination over the front face of the scintillator. The results are useful in sensitivity considerations for neutron-imaging camera design

  6. Chemical effects of the radioactive decay 7677Kr→7677Br reactions of recoil bromine in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, D. de.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the chemical reactions of 76 Br and 77 Br recoil species, formed by radioactive decay of 76 Kr and 77 Kr, with various gaseous compounds. Due to differences in decay energy and decay mode the resulting 76 Br and 77 Br isotopes obtain different kinetic energies and carry different charges; 76 Kr decays completely via electron capture and the resulting 76 Br is formed with a multiple positive charge and a kinetic energy of 7.2 eV at the most. 77 Kr decays for only 16% via electron capture, resulting in 77 Brsup(n+) ions with a maximal kinetic energy of 56.9 eV. 84% of the 77 Kr decays via #betta# + particle emission, which leads to 77 Br species, that are mainly negative or uncharged and that possess a maximal kinetic energy of 36.4 eV. The aim of this study was to explore whether these initial differences in charge and kinetic energy are reflected in the products, formed after chemical reactions of 76 Br and 77 Br. (Auth.)

  7. Alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasmacher, U.A.; Lang, M.; Klemme, S.; Moine, B.; Barbero, L.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-recoil tracks (ART) are lattice defects caused by the α-decay of 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, and daughter products. Visualization of etched ARTs in dark mica by phase-contrast microscopy allows dating of Quaternary geological as well as archaeological materials. Visualization of etched ARTs by Nomarski-differential-interference-contrast microscopy (NDICM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM) enables the access to areal densities (ρ a ) of ART etch pits beyond 10 4 mm -2 and thus the extension of the new ART-dating technique to an age range >1 Ma. The successful application of SFM as a new tool in geochronology could open the way to a field to be characterized as nanogeochronology. In order to visualize ARTs by NDICM and SFM, dark mica was etched with 4% HF at 21 deg. C for 5-107 min. A linear relationship between ρ a and etching time (t e ) was observed for phlogopites from the Kerguelen Islands (French territory, Indian Ocean), and the Kovdor magmatic complex (Russia). The volume density (ρ v ) of ART is a function of etching speed (v eff ) and slope of the ρ a -growth curve. The ART-age equation allows the calculation of an individual ρ v -growth curve for the phlogopite analysed by us using the uranium and thorium content. The ART-ages were determined by combining the experimentally obtained volume density with the individual ρ v -growth curve

  8. Ultra thin layer activation by recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions. Applicability in wear and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, O.; Sauvage, T.; Blondiaux, G.; Guinard, L.

    1997-07-01

    A new calibration procedure is proposed for the application of recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions (energies between a few hundred keV and a few MeV) into the near surface of materials as part of a research programme on sub-micrometric wear or corrosion phenomena. The depth profile of implanted radioelements is performed by using ultra thin deposited films obtained by cathode sputtering under argon plasma. Two curves for 56 Co ion in nickel have been determined for implantation depths of 110 and 200 nm, respectively, and stress the feasibility and reproducibility of this method for such activated depths. The achieved surface loss detection sensitivities are about 1 and 2 nm respectively. The on line detection mode is performed directly on the sample of interest. A general description of the method is presented. A study of the reaction kinematics followed by a general treatment on the irradiation parameters to be adopted are also developed with the intention of using the ultra thin layer activation method (UTLA) to further applications in research and industry. (author)

  9. Fast neutron spectroscopy by gas proton-recoil methods at the light water reactor pressure vessel simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1980-10-01

    Fast neutron spectrum measurements were made in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel Simulator (PVS) to provide neutron spectral definition required to appropriately perform and interpret neutron dosimetry measurements related to fast neutron damage in LWR-PV steels. Proton-recoil proportional counter methods using hydrogen and methane gas-filled detectors were applied to obtain the proton spectra from which the neutron spectra were derived. Cylindrical and spherical geometry detectors were used to cover the neutron energy range between 50 keV and 2 MeV. Results show that the neutron spectra shift in energy distribution toward lower energy between the front and back of a PVS. The relative neutron flux densities increase in this energy range with increasing thickness of the steel. Neutron spectrum fine structure shapes and changes are observed. These results should assist in the generation of more accurate effective cross sections and fluences for use in LWR-PV fast neutron dosimetry and materials damage analyses

  10. Deciphering pre-compound emission in low energy heavy ion interactions from recoil range and spin distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Vijay R.; Shuaib, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Emission of light fast particles (LFP), particularly in heavy ion reactions at low energies, has regenerated interest in pre-compound (PCN) processes. Generally, the relative strength of compound (CN) and PCN components in such reactions is estimated from the enhancement in the flux of emitted LFP s in forward direction over the backward direction. Another method often employed is to analyze the measured excitation functions (EFs) for deviations from the statistical predictions and to attribute them to the PCN processes. In order to investigate the role of PCN emission following three consistent measurements i.e., the EFs, RRDs and SDs of product nuclei produced in the 16 O+ 169 Tm system have been carried out by using GPSC and GDA facilities of the IUAC, New Delhi. Measurement of the EFs and RRDs are based on the recoil catcher off-line spectroscopy. However, measurements of the SDs is based on the detection of prompt γ-rays of product residues in forward and backward directions

  11. An Improved Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 370 kg (250 kg active mass) two-_phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The first absolute charge (Qy) and light (Ly) measurement performed in situ in the LUX detector with a D-D calibration technique for nuclear recoil spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV respectively have been reported in. The D-D calibration has subsequently been further improved by incorporating pulsing technique, i.e. the D-D neutron production is concentrated within narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz) with the timing information recorded. This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. Brown University, Large Underground Xenon(LUX) Collaboration.

  12. A dye laser-cryogenic helium jet system and recoil-mass-separator for studies of nuclei far from stability

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D L; Cormier, T M; Hermann, G; Lin, B S; Martin, A G; Nicolis, N G; Stwertka, P M

    1981-01-01

    Most of the recent applications of lasers to on-line measurements of hyperfine interactions and isotope shifts have been made using high energy proton beams to produce large fluxes of a wide range of unstable atoms. On-line mass separators select the atomic species of interest. At NSRL the authors have in the final stages of development an on-line laser spectroscopy system for the upgraded MP tandem. The system is based on the use of more selective heavy-ion reactions so that mass separation is not usually required, and very sensitive detection techniques so that measurements are possible with small fluxes of atoms. A recoil mass separator is also near completion and will be used for a variety of studies of nuclei far from stability, including providing, when necessary, mass separated reaction products for study using the laser system. The heavy ion beam energy available from the upgraded MP allows production of neutron deficient nuclei by means of fusion-evaporation reactions that is limited only by the onse...

  13. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  14. Study of Nuclear Collisions of 86 MeV/a.m.u. $^{12}$C with Heavy Targets by Collection of the Heavy Recoil Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is twofold:\\\\ \\\\ Firstly to test the possibilities of collection of the heavy recoil nuclei with the device presented schematically on the figure. The recoil nuclei escaping from the irradiated target are first thermalised in a gas (N^2). One then takes advantage of their remaining charge to collect them with an electric field on the surface of a solid state detector. Tests already performed with other beams give absolute efficiency around 5\\%. The best conditions of collections with very energetic |1|2C have first to be tested. Secondly to get some insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms induced by 86~MeV/a.m.u. |1|2C using the possibilities of this recoil chamber. Two kinds of mechanisms should occur in these interactions. If the incident energy is damped (deep inelastic reaction, fusion), the heavy nucleus will be highly excited and the residual nuclei will lie along the @G^n/@G^p~=~1~line. For heavy nuclei this line is located at about 25~mass units from the stability line. If ...

  15. THE EXPERIMENTAL-DIDACTIC STAND FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUECE OF THE PARALLEL SET OF MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL DAMPERS ON THE RECOIL OF THE SLIDING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin BAJKOWSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the laboratory stand, dedicated for research and didactic purposes is presented. The stand allows investigating the parameters which characterizes the recoil effect in the 12,7 x 99 mm caliber arm. It is also possible to study the dependencies in the system with the parallel magnetorheological dampers, which are placed in the universal basis for weapon. The methodology of the research, as well as the experimental data and theoretical discussions concerning the components of the recoil force are provided. The part of the research devoted to the recoil effect was performed in a large-caliber arm configuration, which allows to fire shots in a laboratory conditions utilizing training bullets with reduced propellant charge. The experimental studies were also carried out for the rifle grenades. The results indicate the possibility of building a universal basis for 12,7 mm x 99 caliber weapons and can provide useful information for formulating the design assumptions for the controlled dampers with magnetorheological fluid, designed for special purposes.

  16. A cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy for the investigation on the dynamics of atomic and molecular reactions in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Lu, D.; Wei, B.; Zhang, B. H.; Tang, Y. J.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2014-10-01

    A cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy to study the fragmentation of molecules impact by electrons has been described, which mainly comprises a pulsed electron gun, a supersonic gas jet, a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer, a multi-hit position sensitive detector and a data acquisition system. According to the measured TOF data and corresponding positions information on the detector, the recoil-ions' trajectories can be reconstructed and their initial 3D momentum vectors can be calculated. The energy spread of the electron gun, about 8.5 eV, and the resolution of momentum component parallel and perpendicular to the TOF direction for recoil-ions, about 0.23 and 0.35 a.u., respectively, are obtained by using helium as the gas target. To test the performance of the setup, the fragmentation of nitrogen induced by 100 eV electrons impact is investigated and some reaction channels with different kinetic energy distributions, like dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion, are analyzed. Good agreement is achieved with previous studies.

  17. A cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy for the investigation on the dynamics of atomic and molecular reactions in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Lu, D. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: brwei@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, B.H.; Tang, Y.J. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, PO Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Hutton, R.; Zou, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-15

    A cold target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy to study the fragmentation of molecules impact by electrons has been described, which mainly comprises a pulsed electron gun, a supersonic gas jet, a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer, a multi-hit position sensitive detector and a data acquisition system. According to the measured TOF data and corresponding positions information on the detector, the recoil-ions’ trajectories can be reconstructed and their initial 3D momentum vectors can be calculated. The energy spread of the electron gun, about 8.5 eV, and the resolution of momentum component parallel and perpendicular to the TOF direction for recoil-ions, about 0.23 and 0.35 a.u., respectively, are obtained by using helium as the gas target. To test the performance of the setup, the fragmentation of nitrogen induced by 100 eV electrons impact is investigated and some reaction channels with different kinetic energy distributions, like dissociative ionization and Coulomb explosion, are analyzed. Good agreement is achieved with previous studies.

  18. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a

  19. Desorption in Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanov, Dilshadbek Tursunbayevich; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Sakai, Yuji; Takaishi, Rio; Habib, Ahsan; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Wada, Hiroshi; Nonami, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In mass spectrometry, analytes must be released in the gas phase. There are two representative methods for the gasification of the condensed samples, i.e. , ablation and desorption. While ablation is based on the explosion induced by the energy accumulated in the condensed matrix, desorption is a single molecular process taking place on the surface. In this paper, desorption methods for mass spectrometry developed in our laboratory: flash heating/rapid cooling, Leidenfrost phenomenon-assisted thermal desorption (LPTD), solid/solid friction, liquid/solid friction, electrospray droplet impact (EDI) ionization/desorption, and probe electrospray ionization (PESI), will be described. All the methods are concerned with the surface and interface phenomena. The concept of how to desorb less-volatility compounds from the surface will be discussed.

  20. Identification of some chemical constituents of Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF) and evaluation of the anti radical activity; Identificacao de alguns constituintes quimicos de Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) por de alguns constituintes quimicos de Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) por CLAE-IES-EM (TOF) e avaliacao da atividade antirradicalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Adriana Candido da Silva; Vilegas, Wagner; Santos, Lourdes Campaner dos [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica.Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2011-07-01

    A rapid analytical approach, suitable to characterize the compounds present in the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Indigofera hirsute, was developed. The method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, electrospray positive ionization and detection by time of flight (HPLC-ESI-MS-TOF) identified, tryptophan, uracil, rutin, kempferol-3-O{beta}{sub -}-D-glucopyranoside, gallic acid and methyl gallate. The antiradical activity of this extract was evaluated using DPPH assay, with gallic acid as antiradical pattern. The study revealed the antiradical activity of methyl galatte (EC{sub 50} = 5 {+-} 0.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 5 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and rutin (EC{sub 50} = 21.6 {+-} 0.6 {mu}g m L{sup -1}), isolated from methanol extract (EC{sub 50} = 67.7 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), which showed strong antiradical activity. (author)

  1. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulai, J.

    1981-02-01

    The bases of Rutherford ion backscattering and its combination with channeling effect technique are reviewed. This combined method is recently referred to as Backscattering Spectrometry. The measurement of chemical compositions, the detection of crystal defects etc are dealt with. Comparison with other surface analysis methods is also given. The review was delivered as a lecture during the ''International School for Surface Physics'' (Varna, Bulgaria, Sep 18 - Oct 20, 1980). (author)

  2. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  3. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  4. High-resolution plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider the topic of high-resolution plasma spectrometry (HRPS). Several different experimental approaches to HRPS are reviewed, and the benefits derived from increased spectral resolution are discussed. Results from the scientific literature are presented, but no attempt is made to provide an encyclopedic review. The discussion is limited to plasma emission spectrometry and, in particular, to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

  5. Sample Preprocessing For Atomic Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Tae

    2004-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of atomic spectrometry, which deals with atomic absorption spectrometry such as Maxwell-Boltzmann equation and Beer-Lambert law, atomic absorption spectrometry for solvent extraction, HGAAS, ETASS, and CVAAS and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, such as basic principle, generative principle of plasma and device and equipment, and interferences, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry like device, pros and cons of ICP/MS, sample analysis, reagent, water, acid, flux, materials of experiments, sample and sampling and disassembling of sample and pollution and loss in open system and closed system.

  6. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  7. Alpha spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, Jana; Kuruc, Jozef; Galanda, Dusan; Matel, Lubomir; Velic, Dusan; Aranyosiova, Monika

    2009-01-01

    A sample of thorium content on steel discs was prepared by electrodeposition with a view to determining the natural thorium isotope. Thorium was determined by alpha spectrometry and by secondary ion mass spectrometry and the results of the two methods were compared

  8. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Freddy C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Barbante, Carlo, E-mail: barbante@unive.it [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes — CNR, Venice (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science.

  9. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Freddy C.; Barbante, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science

  10. Towards 100Sn with GASP + Si-ball + Recoil Mass Spectrometer: High-spin states of 105Sn and 103In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Sferrazza, M.; Ackermann, D.; Bazzacco, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Bizzeti, P.G.; Bizzeti Sona, A.M.; Brandolini, F.; Burch, R.; Buscemi, A.; De Acuna, D.; De Poli, M.; Fahlander, C.; Li, Y.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Lunardi, S.; Makishima, A.; Menegazzo, R.; Mueller, L.; Napoli, D.; Ogawa, M.; Pavan, P.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Seweryniak, D.; Soramel, F.; Spolaore, P.; Zanon, R.

    1995-01-01

    Very proton rich nuclei in the A∼100 region have been investigated using the GASP array coupled with the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) and the GASP Si-ball. High-spin states of 105 Sn and 103 In nuclei formed with the reaction 58 Ni+ 50 Cr at 210MeV have been investigated up to similar 10 and 7MeV of excitation energy respectively. We have confirmed the known excited states for both nuclei and extended to higher spin the level scheme. The experimental level schemes are compared with shell model calculations. ((orig.))

  11. Experimental study of ionization yield of liquid xenon for electron recoils in the energy range 2.8-80 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Afanasyev, V. V.; Alexandrov, I. S.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Egorov, D. A.; Etenko, A. V.; Gulin, M. A.; Ivakhin, S. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Karelin, A. K.; Khromov, A. V.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Klimanov, S. G.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Konovalov, A. M.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kuchenkov, A. V.; Kumpan, A. V.; Melikyan, Yu. A.; Nikolaev, R. I.; Rudik, D. G.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Stekhanov, V. N.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the first detailed experimental study of ionization yield of electron recoils with energies below 100 keV produced in liquid xenon by the isotopes 37Ar, 83mKr, 241Am, 129Xe, 131Xe. It is confirmed by a direct measurement with 37Ar isotope (2.82 keV) that the ionization yield increases with the energy decrease in the energy range below ~ 10 keV in accord with the NEST predictions. Decay time of scintillation at 2.82 keV is measured to be τ = 25 ± 3 ns at electric field 3.75 kV/cm.

  12. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, M., E-mail: gatu@psfc.mit.edu; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Skulina, K.; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Farrell, M. P.; Hoppe, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Reynolds, H. G.; Schoff, M. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. This paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ∼200 keV FWHM.

  13. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Free neutron decay, n→pe anti ν e , is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present doctoral

  14. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-24

    Free neutron decay, n{yields}pe anti {nu}{sub e}, is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present

  15. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  16. Laboratory of acceleration mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybler, P.; Chrapan, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper authors describe the principle of the method of acceleration mass spectrometry and the construction plans of this instrument at the Faculty of ecology and environmental sciences in Banska Stiavnica. Using of this instrument for radiocarbon dating is discussed. A review of laboratories with acceleration mass spectrometry is presented

  17. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  18. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  19. Accelerator-based ultrasensitive mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter describes a new mass spectrometry technique involving charged particle accelerators normally used for basic research in nuclear science. Topics considered include the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, the limitations of the direct measurement of radioactive decay, mass spectrometry using a tandem electrostatic accelerator, mass spectrometry using a cyclotron, how accelerator mass spectrometry circumvents the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, measurements of stable isotopes, nuclear physics and astrophysics applications, modifications to existing accelerators, descriptions of dedicated systems, and future applications

  20. Lattice QCD calculation of the B(s )→D(s) *ℓν form factors at zero recoil and implications for |Vc b|

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judd; Davies, Christine T. H.; Wingate, Matthew; Hpqcd Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    We present results of a lattice QCD calculation of B →D* and Bs→Ds* axial vector matrix elements with both states at rest. These zero recoil matrix elements provide the normalization necessary to infer a value for the CKM matrix element |Vc b| from experimental measurements of B¯ 0→D*+ℓ-ν ¯ and B¯s0→Ds*+ℓ-ν¯ decay. Results are derived from correlation functions computed with highly improved staggered quarks (HISQ) for light, strange, and charm quark propagators, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quark propagator. The calculation of correlation functions employs MILC Collaboration ensembles over a range of three lattice spacings. These gauge field configurations include sea quark effects of charm, strange, and equal-mass up and down quarks. We use ensembles with physically light up and down quarks, as well as heavier values. Our main results are FB→D *(1 )=0.895 ±0.01 0stat±0.024sys and FBs→Ds*(1 )=0.883 ±0.01 2stat±0.02 8sys . We discuss the consequences for |Vc b| in light of recent investigations into the extrapolation of experimental data to zero recoil.

  1. Recoil-range studies of heavy products of multinucleon transfer from /sup 18/O to /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    Recoil range distributions were measured for alpha and spontaneous fission activities made in the bombardment of /sup 245/Cm and /sup 249/Cf with /sup 18/O from 6.20 MeV/nucleon down to the interaction barrier. The shape of the distributions indicates tht transfers of up to four protons take place via a combination of quasi-elastic (QET) and deep inelastic (DIT) mechanisms, rather than complete fusion-de-excitation (CF) or massive transfer (MT). Angular distributions constructed from recoil range distributions, assuming QET/DIT, indicate that the QET component contributes more significantly to the heavy product residue cross section than the DIT, even though primary cross sections are expected to be higher for DIT than for QET. This may be explained qualitatively as a result of the high excitation energies associated with DIT; the very negative Q/sub gg/ of projectile stripping for these systems combined with the lower expected optimal Q/sub rxn/ of QET compared to DIT can give QET products comparatively low excitation.

  2. Minimizing the cost of locomotion with inclined trunk predicts crouched leg kinematics of small birds at realistic levels of elastic recoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Kilbourne, Brandon M; Blickhan, Reinhard; Andrada, Emanuel

    2016-02-01

    Small birds move with pronograde trunk orientation and crouched legs. Although the pronograde trunk has been suggested to be beneficial for grounded running, the cause(s) of the specific leg kinematics are unknown. Here we show that three charadriiform bird species (northern lapwing, oystercatcher, and avocet; great examples of closely related species that differ remarkably in their hind limb design) move their leg segments during stance in a way that minimizes the cost of locomotion. We imposed measured trunk motions and ground reaction forces on a kinematic model of the birds. The model was used to search for leg configurations that minimize leg work that accounts for two factors: elastic recoil in the intertarsal joint, and cheaper negative muscle work relative to positive muscle work. A physiological level of elasticity (∼ 0.6) yielded segment motions that match the experimental data best, with a root mean square of angular deviations of ∼ 2.1 deg. This finding suggests that the exploitation of elastic recoil shapes the crouched leg kinematics of small birds under the constraint of pronograde trunk motion. Considering that an upright trunk and more extended legs likely decrease the cost of locomotion, our results imply that the cost of locomotion is a secondary movement criterion for small birds. Scaling arguments suggest that our approach may be utilized to provide new insights into the motion of extinct species such as dinosaurs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Spectrometry techniques for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    The energy of the radiation emission following the nuclear decay is unique and the characteristic of the radio nuclide which undergoes decay. Thus measurement of the energy of the radiation offers a method of identifying the radio nuclides. The prime requirement of the energy measurement is a suitable detector which shows response proportional to the energy of the radiation rather than the presence of the radiation. The response from such detectors are suitably processed and distributed with respect to the signal strength which is proportional to incident energy. This distribution is normally referred as energy spectrum and is recorded in the multichannel analyser. The measurement of energy and intensity of radiation from the spectrum is called radiation spectrometry. Thus the radiation spectrometry allows the identification and quantification of radioactive isotopes in variety of matrices. The radiation spectrometry has now become a popular radioanalytical technique in wide area of nuclear fuel cycle programs. The popular spectrometry techniques commonly used for the radioactivity measurement and analysis are Alpha spectrometry, Gamma ray spectrometry and Beta spectrometry

  4. Determination of hydrogen concentration in a-Si and a-Ge layers by elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanh, N.Q.; Serenyi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) using MeV He + ions. ERD is most frequently used for H detection, because it is simple, non-destructive method. The samples were annealed in high purity argon at 623 K for 1 and 4 hours. Non-hydrogenated samples sputtered and annealed under the same conditions of the hydrogenated ones were also investigated. It was shown that hydrogen can diffuse out faster from Ge film than from the Si one during annealing. This result is in good agreement with literature and with our previous prediction concerning the thermal stability investigations of hydrogenated Si/Ge multilayers. As it is follows from the ERDA results, the formation of bubbles on the surface of multilayers is due to release of hydrogen from the Ge layers. Breaking of the Si-H bonds is also possible but they play a minor role in the structural degradation of multilayers. This work was supported by the Scientific Cooperation Agreement between MTA (Hungary) and CNR (Italy) (contract no.MTA 1102) and by the National Office for Research and Technology (NKTH, grant no.TFSOLAR2).

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    function, mass spectrometry is the method of choice. Mass spectrometry can now identify proteins with very high sensitivity and medium to high throughput. New instrumentation for the analysis of the proteome has been developed including a MALDI hybrid quadrupole time of flight instrument which combines...... advantages of the mass finger printing and peptide sequencing methods for protein identification. New approaches include the isotopic labeling of proteins to obtain accurate quantitative data by mass spectrometry, methods to analyze peptides derived from crude protein mixtures and approaches to analyze large...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  7. Mass Spectrometry of Halopyrazolium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Pande, U. C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven halogen substituted 1-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolium bromides or chlorides were investigated by field desorption, field ionization, and electron impact mass spectrometry. Dealkylation was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition. An exchange between covalent and ionic halogen prior...

  8. A comparative reliability and performance study of different stent designs in terms of mechanical properties: foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Bin; Choi, Hyuk; Joo, Sang Min; Kim, Han Ki; Shin, Jae Hee; Hwang, Min Ho; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Dong-Gon; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lim, Chun Hak; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Heung-Man; Sun, Kyung

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to improve the mechanical performance of stents by conducting reliability performance testing and finite element method (FEM)-based simulations for coronary stents. Three commercially available stent designs and our own new design were tested to measure the factors affecting performance, specifically foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. The stents used in the present experiments were 3 mm in working diameter and 18 mm of working length. The results of the experiments indicate that the foreshortening of stents A, B, C, and our new design, D, was equivalent to 2.25, 0.67, 0.46, and 0.41%, respectively. The recoil of stents A, B, C, and D was 6.00, 4.35, 3.50, and 4.36%, respectively. Parallel plate radial force measurements were A, 3.72 ± 0.28 N; B, 3.81 ± 0.32 N; C, 4.35 ± 0.18 N; and D, 4.02 ± 0.24 N. Radial forces determined by applying uniform pressure in the circumferential direction were A, 28.749 ± 0.81 N; B, 32.231 ± 1.80 N; C, 34.522 ± 3.06 N; and D, 42.183 ± 2.84 N. The maximum force of crimped stent at 2.2-mm deflection was 1.01 ± 0.08 N, 0.82 ± 0.08 N, 0.92 ± 0.12 N, and 0.68 ± 0.07 N for each of stents A, B, C and D. The results of this study enabled us to identify several factors to enhance the performance of stents. In comparing these stents, we found that our design, stent D, which was designed by a collaborative team from seven universities, performed better than the commercial stents across all parameter of foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  10. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparison of in vivo acute stent recoil between the bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent and the everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium coronary stent: insights from the ABSORB and SPIRIT trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanimoto, Shuzou; Serruys, Patrick W; Thuesen, Leif

    2007-01-01

    the antiproliferative drug, everolimus, and expected to be totally metabolized and absorbed in the human body. Because the BVS is made from polymer, it may have more acute recoil than metallic stents in vivo. METHODS: A total of 54 patients, who underwent elective stent implantation for single de novo native coronary...

  12. Modification of the Microchannel Plate (MCP) Detectors for the Recoil Mass Separator St. George for the Improvement of Particle Identification in (α,γ) Reaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.-Lexus; Hanner, A. P.; Hinnefeld, Jerry; Morales, Luis; Souza, R. T.; Couder, Manoel

    2017-09-01

    The Recoil Mass Separator St George in Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) is being used for the study of low energy (α, γ) reactions using inverse kinematics to better understand the helium burning processes in stars. The St. George detector system uses two MCP detectors and a silicon strip detector to measure time of flight and energy, respectively, of ions reaching the end of the device. To improve the time resolution of the MCP detectors and to add position sensitivity, we modified the circuitry of both MCP detectors and added a segmented anode with readout via two delay lines. Details of the modifications and initial results showing the effects on time resolution and the added position information will be presented. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-0959816.

  13. Correlated formation of the excited states of recoil and scattered ions in multiple electron capture collision of Ar8+ with CO2 and OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, H.; Takahashi, K.; Matsumoto, J.; Karimi, R.; Sanderson, J. H.; Shiromaru, H.

    2018-02-01

    Multiple ionization events induced by low energy collisions between Ar8+ projectiles and linear triatomic molecular targets, CO2 and OCS, were studied in order to shed light on the correlation between the electronic states of the scattered ion and the ionic fragmentation processes. Position-sensitive time-of-flight measurements of all the recoil fragments, triggered by detection of a charge-selected scattered ion, allowed us to distinguish between ionic fragmentation processes in which different numbers of Auger electrons were emitted by the projectile, just after multiple electron capture. A strong correlation is found for triple capture collisions, between fragmentation with high kinetic energy and events when only single Auger electron emission takes place.

  14. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Schaeffer, J. C.; Frankel, R.; Sinenian, N.; Childs, R. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Burke, M.; Roberts, S.

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  15. Yield of chromosomal aberrations and recoil particle range in Chineses hamster fibroblasts exposed to 8.5 to 500 keV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturelid, S.; Bergman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of chromatid aberrations in S-phase Chinese hamster fibroblasts has been studied for irradiation by 60 Co gamma rays and neutrons of average energy 8.5, 45, 83, 200 and 500 keV. At 10 per cent aberration level the relative biological afficiency varied between 2.2 +- 0.6 (at 8.5 keV) and a maximum of 47 +- 9 (at 200 keV). The neutron generated recoils have short range in comparison to chromosomal dimensions. The strong variation with neutron energy is therefore not necessarily reflecting variations in the average linear energy transfer. Good agreement between experimental and predicted response was obtained when effects ascribed to range were considered. A critical volume within which primary lesions should occur in order to make chromosomal aberrations probable was derived. The corresponding site radius was estimated to be 1-3 μm. (author)

  16. Non local separable interactions in the description of some nuclear properties. Recoil and finite range effects in the CRC formalism for the study of heavy ion transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Some simplifications given by the nonlocal separable interactions (NLSI) allowed an exhaustive study of the three body problem to be performed. This work is intended to show that NLSI are also useful in studying the properties of nuclei. Some satisfactory results obtained in the infinite nuclear matter and also in the Hartree-Fock study of some 3s-1d nuclei are then given. A coupled reaction formalism has been developed for the analysis of heavy ion induced reactions. The recoil and finite range effects, which are necessary tools in heavy-ion induced reactions, have been introduced from the work of Coker et al. for the ( 3 He,t) reaction [fr

  17. The coincidence counting technique for orders of magnitude background reduction in data obtained with the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H; Manuel, M J-E; Gatu Johnson, M; Schaeffer, J C; Frankel, R; Sinenian, N; Childs, R A; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Burke, M; Roberts, S

    2011-07-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been built and successfully used at OMEGA for measurements of down-scattered neutrons (DS-n), from which an areal density in both warm-capsule and cryogenic-DT implosions have been inferred. Another MRS is currently being commissioned on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for diagnosing low-yield tritium-hydrogen-deuterium implosions and high-yield DT implosions. As CR-39 detectors are used in the MRS, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). The coincidence counting technique was developed to reduce these types of background tracks to the required level for the DS-n measurements at OMEGA and the NIF. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that the number of background tracks is reduced by a couple of orders of magnitude, which exceeds the requirement for the DS-n measurements at both facilities.

  18. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q2 1.47 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G n E/G n M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2 H((rvec e),e/(rvec n)) 1 H reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G n E at Q 2 = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G n E at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 lies slightly above the Galster parameterization

  19. Simulation Study of Using High-Z EMA to Suppress Recoil Protons Crosstalk in Scintillating Fiber Array for 14.1 MeV Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinggang; Hu, Huasi; Zhang, Fengna; Zhang, Tiankui; Lv, Wei; Zhan, Yuanpin; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of a high-Z extra mural absorber (EMA) to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic (polystyrene) scintillating fiber array for 14.1 MeV fusion neutron imaging. Crosstalk induced by recoil protons was studied, and platinum (Pt) was selected as EMA material, because of its excellent ability to suppress the recoil protons penetrating the fibers. Three common fiber arrays (cylindrical scintillating fibers in square and hexagonal packing arrangements and square scintillating fibers) were simulated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating the effect of Pt-EMA in improving spatial resolution. It is found that the resolution of the 100 μm square fiber array can be improved from 1.7 to 3.4 lp/mm by using 10- μm-thick Pt-EMA; comparatively, using an array with thinner square fibers (50 μm) only obtains a resolution of 2.1 lp/mm. The packing fraction decreases with the increase of EMA thickness. Our results recommend the use of 10 μm Pt-EMA for the square and the cylindrical (hexagonal packing) scintillating fiber arrays with fibers of 50-200 μm in the cross-sectional dimension. Besides, the dead-zone material should be replaced by high-Z material for the hexagonal packing cylindrical fiber array with fibers of 50-200 μm in diameter. Tungsten (W) and gold (Au) are also used as EMA in the three fiber arrays as a comparison. The simulation results show that W can be used at a lower cost, and Au does not have any advantages in cost and resolution improvement.

  20. Black-hole horizons as probes of black-hole dynamics. I. Post-merger recoil in head-on collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, José Luis; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2012-04-01

    The understanding of strong-field dynamics near black-hole horizons is a long-standing and challenging problem in general relativity. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black-hole horizons open new avenues into the problem. In this first paper in a series of two, we focus on the analysis of the recoil occurring in the merger of binary black holes, extending the analysis initiated in [L. Rezzolla, R. P. Macedo, and J. L. Jaramillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 221101 (2010).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.221101] with Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. More specifically, we probe spacetime dynamics through the correlation of quantities defined at the black-hole horizon and at null infinity. The geometry of these hypersurfaces responds to bulk gravitational fields acting as test screens in a scattering perspective of spacetime dynamics. Within a 3+1 approach we build an effective-curvature vector from the intrinsic geometry of dynamical-horizon sections and correlate its evolution with the flux of Bondi linear momentum at large distances. We employ this setup to study numerically the head-on collision of nonspinning black holes and demonstrate its validity to track the qualitative aspects of recoil dynamics at infinity. We also make contact with the suggestion that the antikick can be described in terms of a “slowness parameter” and how this can be computed from the local properties of the horizon. In a companion paper [J. L. Jaramillo, R. P. Macedo, P. Moesta, and L. Rezzolla, following article, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 85, 084031 (2012).] we will further elaborate on the geometric aspects of this approach and on its relation with other approaches to characterize dynamical properties of black-hole horizons.

  1. The decays anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} at low recoil and their constraints on new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Danny van

    2012-07-15

    In this thesis we test the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics by studying the exclusive rare decays anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}. We calculate the angular distribution of the decay anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} in the most general basis of effective operators. We obtain results for the angular distribution in the kinematic region of low hadronic recoil. Based on our results for the angular distribution, we propose observables which exhibit no or only very weak dependence on hadronic matrix elements. Beyond CP-averaged observables, we also investigate direct and mixing induced CP asymmetries at low hadronic recoil. We conclude our investigation of exclusive decays by studying the decay anti B → anti Kl{sup +}l{sup -}, where we find a relation between the CP asymmetry of the rates of anti B → anti K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}. Standard model results for a majority of our analytic results are given. Beyond that, we perform a model-independent analysis based on available experimental data and obtain constraints on the Wilson coefficients C{sub 9} and C{sub 10}, as well as lower bounds on the zero-crossing in the anti B → anti K*l{sup +}l{sup -} forward-backward asymmetry. Based on recent LHC data we find two disjoint solutions for the Wilson coefficients. One of the solutions is in good agreement with the Standard Model, but sizable deviations are still allowed.

  2. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  3. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  4. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base

  5. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  6. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  7. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  8. Mass spectrometry with particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator use is renewing the ultrasensitive mass spectrometry in extending the detection limits. These new devices allow the measurement of rare isotope ratio, as 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl or 41 Ca, from the earth natural reservoirs [fr

  9. Gamma and X 93 spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Meetings of Gamma and X 93 Spectrometry were held on 12-14 October 1993. The symposium was organized into six sessions: Instrumentation development, Nuclear matter measurement, Method and calibration, Medical applications, Environment survey (radioactive traces measurement), other applications (spent fuels analysis, various techniques). Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  10. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap...

  11. Mass spectrometry in epigenetic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, and many of these inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Despite intense research, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of action of these molecules remain, to a wide extent, unclear. The recent application of mass spectrometry...

  12. Direct measurement of resonance strengths in 34S(α ,γ )38Ar at astrophysically relevant energies using the DRAGON recoil separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2018-03-01

    Background: Nucleosynthesis of mid-mass elements is thought to occur under hot and explosive astrophysical conditions. Radiative α capture on 34S has been shown to impact nucleosynthesis in several such conditions, including core and shell oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning, and type Ia supernovae. Purpose: Broad uncertainties exist in the literature for the strengths of three resonances within the astrophysically relevant energy range (ECM=1.94 -3.42 MeV at T =2.2 GK ). Further, there are several states in 38Ar within this energy range which have not been previously measured. This work aimed to remeasure the resonance strengths of states for which broad uncertainty existed as well as to measure the resonance strengths and energies of previously unmeasured states. Methods: Resonance strengths and energies of eight narrow resonances (five of which had not been previously studied) were measured in inverse kinematics with the DRAGON facility at TRIUMF by impinging an isotopically pure beam of 34S ions on a windowless 4He gas target. Prompt γ emissions of de-exciting 38Ar recoils were detected in an array of bismuth germanate scintillators in coincidence with recoil nuclei, which were separated from unreacted beam ions by an electromagnetic mass separator and detected by a time-of-flight system and a multianode ionization chamber. Results: The present measurements agree with previous results. Broad uncertainty in the resonance strength of the ECM=2709 keV resonance persists. Resonance strengths and energies were determined for five low-energy resonances which had not been studied previously, and their strengths were determined to be significantly weaker than those of previously measured resonances. Conclusions: The five previously unmeasured resonances were found not to contribute significantly to the total thermonuclear reaction rate. A median total thermonuclear reaction rate calculated using data from the present work along with existing literature values

  13. Ninth ISMAS workshop on mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2000-12-01

    Mass spectrometry has wide-ranging applications in such diverse areas as nuclear industry, agriculture, drugs, environment, petroleum and lentils. There is an urgent need to absorb and assimilate state-of-the-art technological developments in the field. Emerging trends in atomic mass spectrometry, advances in organic mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative analyses by mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry in oceanography are some of the areas that need to be expeditiously examined and are covered in this volume. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  15. EMERGING POLLUTANTS, MASS SPECTROMETRY, AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically fundamental to amassing our understanding of environmental processes and chemical pollution is the realm of mass spectrometry (MS) - the mainstay of analytical chemistry - the workhorse that supplies definitive data that environmental scientists and engineers reply upon for identifying molecular compositions (and ultimately structures) of chemicals. While the power of MS has long been visible to the practicing environmental chemist, it borders on obscurity to the lay public and many scientists. While MS has played a long, historic (and largely invisible) role in establishing our knowledge of environmental processes and pollution, what recognition it does enjoy is usually relegated to that of a tool. It is usually the relevance or significance of the knowledge acquired from the application of the tool that has ultimate meaning to the public and science at large - not how the data were acquired. Methods (736/800): Mass Spectrometry and the

  16. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  17. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  18. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics; Refroidissement laser subrecul au nanokelvin. Mesure directe de la longueur de coherence spatiale. Nouveaux tests des statistiques de Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saubamea, B

    1998-12-15

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  19. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions; Couplage entre un piege magneto-optique et un spectrometre d'impulsion d'ions de recul: application aux collisions ions-atomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blieck, J

    2008-10-15

    {sup 87}Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na{sup +} projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  20. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  1. B s → Kℓν ℓ and B ( s) → π( K) ℓ + ℓ - decays at large recoil and CKM matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey V.

    2017-08-01

    We provide hadronic input for the B-meson semileptonic transitions to a light pseudoscalar meson at large recoil. The B s → K form factor calculated from QCD light-cone sum rule is updated, to be used for a | V ub | determination from the B s → Kℓν width. Furthermore, we calculate the hadronic input for the binned observables of B → πℓ + ℓ - and B → Kℓ + ℓ -. In addition to the form factors, the nonlocal hadronic matrix elements are obtained, combining QCD factorization and light-cone sum rules with hadronic dispersion relations. We emphasize that, due to nonlocal effects, the ratio of branching fractions of these decays is not sufficient for an accurate extraction of the | V td /V ts | ratio. Instead, we suggest to determine the Wolfenstein parameters A, ρ, η of the CKM matrix, combining the branching fractions of B → Kℓ + ℓ - and B → πℓ + ℓ - with the direct CP -asymmetry in the latter decay. We also obtain the hadronic matrix elements for a yet unexplored channel B s → Kℓ + ℓ -.

  2. Discovery of Naturally Etched Fission Tracks and Alpha-Recoil Tracks in Submarine Glasses: Reevaluation of a Putative Biosignature for Earth and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. French

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, conspicuously “biogenic-looking” corrosion microtextures have been found to occur globally within volcanic glass of the in situ oceanic crust, ophiolites, and greenstone belts dating back to ~3.5 Ga. These so-called “tubular” and “granular” microtextures are widely interpreted to represent bona fide microbial trace fossils; however, possible nonbiological origins for these complex alteration microtextures have yet to be explored. Here, we reevaluate the origin of these enigmatic microtextures from a strictly nonbiological standpoint, using a case study on submarine glasses from the western North Atlantic Ocean (DSDP 418A. By combining petrographic and SEM observations of corrosion microtextures at the glass-palagonite interface, considerations of the tectonic setting, measurement of U and Th concentrations of fresh basaltic glass by ICP-MS, and theoretical modelling of the present-day distribution of radiation damage in basaltic glass caused by radioactive decay of U and Th, we reinterpret these enigmatic microtextures as the end product of the preferential corrosion/dissolution of radiation damage (alpha-recoil tracks and fission tracks in the glass by seawater, possibly combined with pressure solution etch-tunnelling. Our findings have important implications for geomicrobiology, astrobiological exploration of Mars, and understanding of the long-term breakdown of nuclear waste glass.

  3. Reprint of: A supersonic jet target for the cross section measurement of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction with the recoil mass separator ERNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnani, D.; Buompane, R.; Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Busso, M.; De Cesare, M.; De Stefano, G.; Duarte, J. G.; Gasques, L. R.; Morales Gallegos, L.; Palmerini, S.; Romoli, M.; Tufariello, F.

    2018-01-01

    12C(α, γ)16O cross section plays a key-role in the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars. Hence, it must be determined with the precision of about 10% at the relevant Gamow energy of 300 keV. The ERNA (European Recoil mass separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration measured, for the first time, the total cross section of 12C(α, γ)16O by means of the direct detection of the 16O ions produced in the reaction down to an energy of Ecm = 1.9 MeV. To extend the measurement at lower energy, it is necessary to limit the extension of the He gas target. This can be achieved using a supersonic jet, where the oblique shock waves and expansion fans formed at its boundaries confine the gas, which can be efficiently collected using a catcher. A test version of such a system has been designed, constructed and experimentally characterized as a bench mark for a full numerical simulation using FV (Finite Volume) methods. The results of the commissioning of the jet test version and the design of the new system that will be used in combination with ERNA are presented and discussed.

  4. Measurement of |Vcb| and the Form-Factor Slope for BBar -> Dlnu Decays on the Recoil of Fully Reconstructed B Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B

    2008-08-21

    We present a measurement of the CKM matrix element |V{sub cb}| and the form-factor slope {rho}{sup 2} for {bar B} {yields} D{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays based on 417 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The semileptonic decays are selected in B{bar B} events in which the hadronic decay of the second B meson is fully reconstructed. From the measured differential decay rate of the signal decay we determine G(1)|V{sub cb}| = (43.0 {+-} 1.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -3}, {rho}{sup 2} = 1.20 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04, where G(1) is the hadronic form factor at the point of zero recoil. Using a lattice calculation for G(1) we extract |V{sub cb}| = (39.8 {+-} 1.8 {+-} 1.3 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -3}, where the stated errors refer to the statistical, systematic, and form factor uncertainties. We also present a measurement of the exclusive branching fractions, {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0} {ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = (2.31 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.07)% and {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +} {ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = (2.23 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.08)%.

  5. Development of highly efficient proton recoil counter telescope for absolute measurement of neutron fluences in quasi-monoenergetic neutron calibration fields of high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Saegusa, Jun; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Precise calibration of monitors and dosimeters for use with high energy neutrons necessitates reliable and accurate neutron fluences being evaluated with use of a reference point. A highly efficient Proton Recoil counter Telescope (PRT) to make absolute measurements with use of a reference point was developed to evaluate neutron fluences in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields. The relatively large design of the PRT componentry and relatively thick, approximately 2 mm, polyethylene converter contributed to high detection efficiency at the reference point over a large irradiation area at a long distance from the target. The polyethylene converter thickness was adjusted to maintain the same carbon density per unit area as the graphite converter for easy background subtraction. The high detection efficiency and thickness adjustment resulted in efficient absolute measurements being made of the neutron fluences of sufficient statistical precision over a short period of time. The neutron detection efficiencies of the PRT were evaluated using MCNPX code at 2.61x10 -6 , 2.16x10 -6 and 1.14x10 -6 for the respective neutron peak energies of 45, 60 and 75 MeV. The neutron fluences were determined to have been evaluated at an uncertainty of within 6.5% using analysis of measured data and the detection efficiencies. The PRT was also designed so as to be capable of simultaneously obtaining TOF data. The TOF data also increased the reliability of neutron fluence measurements and provided useful information for use in interpreting the source of proton events.

  6. Measurement of the proton form factors ratio GE/GM to Q2 = 5.6 GeV2 by recoil polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayou, Olivier [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the results of the experiment E99-007, which measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factors of the proton to the four momentum transfer square Q2 = 5.6 GeV2, by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2000 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 4.6 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoil proton was measured in the Focal Plane Polarimeter, located after one of the two High Resolution Spectrometers in the hall. The ratio of the transverse to longitudinal components of the recoil proton polarization is proportional to the ratio of the form factors. Elastic events were selected by detecting the scattered electron in a large acceptance lead-glass calorimeter. The main result of this experiment is the linear decrease of the form factor ratio with increasing Q2, corresponding to different spatial distributions of the electric charge and the magnetization. Numerous theoretical calculations show that relativistic effects, such as mixing of spin states due to Lorentz boosts, are important to account for the observed data in this critical intermediate kinematic region.

  7. Unraveling the Pathophysiology of the Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: Unsuspected Mild Centrilobular Emphysema Is Responsible for Loss of Lung Elastic Recoil in Never Smokers With Asthma With Persistent Expiratory Airflow Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Arthur F; Yamamoto, Alfred; Verbeken, Eric K; Nadel, Jay A

    2015-08-01

    Investigators believe most patients with asthma have reversible airflow obstruction with treatment, despite airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness. There are smokers with chronic expiratory airflow obstruction despite treatment who have features of both asthma and COPD. Some investigators refer to this conundrum as the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Furthermore, a subset of treated nonsmokers with moderate to severe asthma have persistent expiratory airflow limitation, despite partial reversibility. This residuum has been assumed to be due to large and especially small airway remodeling. Alternatively, we and others have described reversible loss of lung elastic recoil in acute and persistent loss in patients with moderate to severe chronic asthma who never smoked and its adverse effect on maximal expiratory airflow. The mechanism(s) responsible for loss of lung elastic recoil and persistent expiratory airflow limitation in nonsmokers with chronic asthma consistent with ACOS remain unknown in the absence of structure-function studies. Recently we reported a new pathophysiologic observation in 10 treated never smokers with asthma with persistent expiratory airflow obstruction, despite partial reversibility: All 10 patients with asthma had a significant decrease in lung elastic recoil, and unsuspected, microscopic mild centrilobular emphysema was noted in all three autopsies obtained although it was not easily identified on lung CT scan. These sentinel pathophysiologic observations need to be confirmed to further unravel the epiphenomenon of ACOS. The proinflammatory and proteolytic mechanism(s) leading to lung tissue breakdown need to be further investigated.

  8. Coincident detection of electrons ejected at large angles and target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u Oq++Ar collision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither III, C.C.; Breinig, M.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.; Richards, J.D.; Price, K.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distributions of energetic electrons ejected at angles between 45 degree and 135 degree with respect to the incident-beam direction have been measured in coincidence with the charge states of the target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u O q+ (q=4,7)+Ar collision systems. These measurements have been made for ∼179-, ∼345-, and ∼505-eV electrons. Additionally, the energy distributions of electrons ejected into specific angular regions have been measured. Ar LMM satellite Auger electrons appear as a peak in the energy spectrum of electrons ejected at all large angles. The center of this peak is found at an electron energy of ∼179 eV. Electrons with ∼179 eV energy, ejected at large angles, are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 4+. Electrons with ∼345 eV energy and ∼505 eV energy ejected at large angles are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 3+. The angular distributions for these electrons are strongly peaked in the forward direction; essentially no electrons are observed at angles larger than 90 degree. These results are consistent with the dominant production mechanism for energetic electrons ejected at large angles being a binary-encounter process. Differential cross sections have been calculated from these angular distributions. They are on the order of 10 -21 cm 2 /(eV sr)

  9. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather complementary. An ideal system

  10. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  11. Deuterium measurement by emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.; Heilig, K.; Dumke, I.

    1978-01-01

    The method makes it possible to determine the relative deuterium content of enriched water samples. For this, the relative intensities of the Hα and Dα lines are measured which are emitted by a high-frequency discharge in water vapour. Although the method is not as exact as mass spectrometry, it has the following advantages: - Easy sample preparation (no reduction necessary); - samples of highly different enrichment can be measured one after the other without the danger of memory effects; - much lower apparatus and cost expenditure. The necessary sample size is about the same in both methods. (orig.) [de

  12. Principle of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The principle of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is described mainly on technical aspects: hardware construction of AMS, measurement of isotope ratio, sensitivity of measurement (measuring limit), measuring accuracy, and application of data. The content may be summarized as follows: rare isotope (often long-lived radioactive isotope) can be detected by various use of the ion energy obtained by the acceleration of ions, a measurable isotope ratio is one of rare isotope to abundant isotopes, and a measured value of isotope ratio is uncertainty to true one. Such a fact must be kept in mind on the use of AMS data to application research. (M.H.)

  13. Role of Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketha, Siva S; Singh, Ravinder J; Ketha, Hemamalini

    2017-09-01

    The advent of mass spectrometry into the clinical laboratory has led to an improvement in clinical management of several endocrine diseases. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry found some of its first clinical applications in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, in quantitative steroid analysis, and in drug analysis laboratories. Mass spectrometry assays offer analytical sensitivity and specificity that is superior to immunoassays for many analytes. This article highlights several areas of clinical endocrinology that have witnessed the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Search for the Rare Leptonic B- to tau- anti-neutrino Recoiling against B+ to Decays to anti-D*0 l+ Lepton-neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Mousumi; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-10-17

    This thesis describes a search for the decay B{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} in 231.8 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) decays recorded with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. A sample of events with one reconstructed exclusive semi-leptonic B decay (B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}*{sup 0} {ell}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ell}}) is selected, and in the recoil a search for B{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} signal is performed in the following {tau} decay modes: {tau}{sup -} {yields} e{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub e}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup -} {yields} {mu}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}, and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}. They find no evidence of signal, and they set a preliminary upper limit on the branching fraction of {beta}(B{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}) < 2.8 x 10{sup -4} at the 90% confidence level (CL). This result is then combined with a statistically independent BABAR search for B{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}} to give a combined preliminary limit of {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}) < 2.6 x 10{sup -4} at 90% CL.

  15. Recoil Polarization Measurements for Neutral Pion Electroproduction at Q^2=1 (GeV/c)^2 Near the Delta Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Kelly; et. Al.

    2005-09-01

    We measured angular distributions of differential cross section, beam analyzing power, and recoil polarization for neutral pion electroproduction at Q{sup 2} = 1.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} in 10 bins of W across the Delta resonance. A total of 16 independent response functions were extracted, of which 12 were observed for the first time. Comparisons with recent model calculations show that response functions governed by real parts of interference products are determined relatively well near 1.232 GeV, but variations among models is large for response functions governed by imaginary parts and for both increases rapidly with W. We performed a nearly model-independent multipole analysis that adjusts complex multipoles with high partial waves constrained by baseline models. Parabolic fits to the W dependence of the multipole analysis around the Delta mass gives values for SMR = (-6.61 +/- 0.18)% and EMR = (-2.87 +/- 0.19)% that are distinctly larger than those from Legendre analysis of the same data. Similarly, the multipole analysis gives Re(S0+/M1+) = (+7.1 +/- 0.8)% at W=1.232 GeV, consistent with recent models, while the traditional Legendre analysis gives the opposite sign because its truncation errors are quite severe. Finally, using a unitary isobar model (UIM), we find that excitation of the Roper resonance is dominantly longitudinal with S1/2 = (0.05 +/- 0.01) GeV{sup (-1/2)} at Q{sup 2}=1. The ReS0+ and ReE0+ multipoles favor pseudovector coupling over pseudoscalar coupling or a recently proposed mixed-coupling scheme, but the UIM does not reproduce the imaginary parts of 0+ multipoles well.

  16. The puzzling case of the radio-loud QSO 3C 186: a gravitational wave recoiling black hole in a young radio source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaberge, M.; Ely, J. C.; Meyer, E. T.; Georganopoulos, M.; Marinucci, A.; Bianchi, S.; Tremblay, G. R.; Hilbert, B.; Kotyla, J. P.; Capetti, A.; Baum, S. A.; Macchetto, F. D.; Miley, G.; O'Dea, C. P.; Perlman, E. S.; Sparks, W. B.; Norman, C.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets are thought to be associated with rapidly spinning black holes (BHs). BH spin-up may result from a number of processes, including accretion of matter onto the BH itself, and catastrophic events such as BH-BH mergers. Aims: We study the intriguing properties of the powerful (Lbol 1047 erg s-1) radio-loud quasar 3C 186. This object shows peculiar features both in the images and in the spectra. Methods: We utilize near-IR Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to study the properties of the host galaxy, and HST UV and Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra to study the kinematics of the source. Chandra X-ray data are also used to better constrain the physical interpretation. Results: HST imaging shows that the active nucleus is offset by 1.3 ± 0.1 arcsec (I.e. 11 kpc) with respect to the center of the host galaxy. Spectroscopic data show that the broad emission lines are offset by -2140 ± 390 km s-1 with respect to the narrow lines. Velocity shifts are often seen in QSO spectra, in particular in high-ionization broad emission lines. The host galaxy of the quasar displays a distorted morphology with possible tidal features that are typical of the late stages of a galaxy merger. Conclusions: A number of scenarios can be envisaged to account for the observed features. While the presence of a peculiar outflow cannot be completely ruled out, all of the observed features are consistent with those expected if the QSO is associated with a gravitational wave (GW) recoiling BH. Future detailed studies of this object will allow us to confirm this type of scenario and will enable a better understanding of both the physics of BH-BH mergers and the phenomena associated with the emission of GW from astrophysical sources.

  17. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  18. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  19. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transition shift are discussed in the report. Keywords. Neutron spectrometry; slowing-down spectrometry; nucleosynthesis; Maxwellian neu- tron spectra. PACS Nos 29.30.Hs; 29.30.-h. “One can hardly find another field, the study of which gives so ...

  20. Improved sensitivity using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sensitivity using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for detection of propyl chloroformate derivatised β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in ... We show a 10-fold increase in sensitivity with the LC-MS method compared to the previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) ...

  1. Gamma spectrometry of infinite 4Π geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-07-01

    Owing to the weak absorption og gamma radiation by matter, gamma-ray spectrometry may be applied to samples of great volume. A very interesting case is that of the gamma-ray spectrometry applied with 4Π geometry around the detector on a sample assumed to be of infinite extension. The determination of suitable efficiencies allows this method to be quantitative. (author) [pt

  2. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  3. Atomic mass spectrometry of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, J. M.; Matteson, S.; Duggan, J. L.; Elliott, P.; Marble, D.; McDaniel, F. D.; Weathers, D.

    1990-12-01

    Texas Instruments and the University of North Texas (UNT) are collaborating on the design of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system dedicated primarily to the analysis of impurities in electronic materials and metals. An AMS beamline consisting of high-resolution magnetic ( {M}/{dM } > 350) and electrostatic ( {E}/{dE } > 700) analysis followed by a surface barrier detector has been installed on the NEC 9SDH pelletron at UNT, and a "clean" ion source is under development. An existing ion source (NEC Cs sputter source) has been used in conjunction with the AMS beamline to generate computer controlled molecule-free mass analyses of solid samples. Through a careful choice of isotopes and charge states a robust algorithm can be developed for removing molecular interferences from the mass analysis for essentially all materials. Examples using graphite, Si and CdZnTe are discussed.

  4. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Principal processes in the radiolysis of gases with fission recoils and gamma rays. Annual progress report, October 16, 1979-September 15, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisels, G.G.

    1980-10-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry and threshold photoelectron-coincident photoion mass spectrometry of propane-2- 13 C showed that skeletal isomerization in propane ions precedes the fragmentation of that ion to ethylene ion and methane. Methylnitrite ion was exceptional in its fragmentaion near threshold; the products NO + and CH 3 O + are not competitive. Electron range and energy loss for 50 to 500 eV electrons were measured for the rare gases and nitrogen. Isomerization of nitromethane ion to methylnitrite ion appears to be controlled by electronic state correlation. While highly exothermic even at threshold for parent ion formation of nitromethane, dissociation and presumably isomerization to methylnitrite ion occur only from the upper, 2A'' state of nitromethane ion, which correlates approximately with the 2A'' state of methylnitrite ion

  6. Analysis of H in Natural and Experimental Nominally Anhydrous Minerals: A Comparison of Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, Infrared and SIMS Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, A. C.; Mosenfelder, J. L.; Bureau, H.; Raepsaet, C.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments to determine the H storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) can be used to place strong constraints on the degree of hydration required to initiate volatile fluxed melting in the mantle. Moreover, accurate measurements of H in NAMs from mantle xenoliths may be used to constrain the rheological properties of the source region. However, accurate measurements of H concentrations using infrared and ion beam techniques require mineral specific calibrations. Standardless measurements of H using elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in some cases have provided valuable verification of calibrations for other techniques, but so far have had limited application to experimental samples owing to sample size and analytical background. Results of recent measurements of H in garnet, pyroxene and feldspar will be used to illustrate the potential of the technique. Some of the results we will present include the following: 1) Forsterites grown at 2 and 3 GPa in the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system exhibit low frequency absorption bands in the OH stretching region between 3300 and 3400 cm-1, but very limited absorption at higher frequencies where the strongest absorption bands are usually seen for Al-free olivine. Analyses of H in these samples by ERDA will be used to develop a tentative site-specific molar absorption coefficient for the low frequency OH absorption band. 2) ERDA measurements of H in silicate glass standards verify previous determinations by Karl Fischer titration and FTIR spectroscopy, validating the ERDA technique. Samples of these rhyolitic glasses are available on request for use as analytical standards, and come with a compendium of analyses that have been used to characterize major and minor elemental composition and H content. 3) ERDA measurements of three homogeneous grossular garnets from East Africa show an excellent correlation (r2 = 1) with absorbance in the O-H stretching region and indicate an integral molar absorption coefficient

  7. Neutron fluence and energy reconstruction with the IRSN recoil detector μ-TPC at 27 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Richer, J.P. [IRSN, PRP-HOM, SDE, LMDN, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D. [CNRS/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, LPSC, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), associated to the French Metrology Institute (LNE), is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: μ-TPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize with a primary procedure the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 1 MeV. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors, which are able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulated detector response. The μ-TPC is a new reliable detector which enables to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without deconvolution or neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The μ-TPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27.2 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector simulation. This work shows the first direct

  8. Medium modifications with recoil polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J.F.J. van den [Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge Energiefysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ent, R. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He({rvec e},e{prime},{rvec p}){sup 3}H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium.

  9. Medium modifications with recoil polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, J.F.J. van den; Ent, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He(rvec e,e',rvec p) 3 H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium

  10. Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindic, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft ionization techniques, electrospray (ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI make the analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry (MS possible. MS is used for determination of the molecular weight of peptides and protein, sequence analysis, characterization of protein-ligand interactions etc. The detection limit, resolution and mass accuracy depend on instrument used (Table 1. Impurities (buffers, salts, detergents can reduce the ion intensities or even totally suppress them, so a separation method (chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis must be used for purification of the sample.Molecular mass of intact protein can be determined by ESI or MALDI MS. Multiply charged ions are produced by ESI MS, while singly charged ions are predominant in MALDI spectra (Fig. 2.Sequence analysis of proteins by MS can be performed using peptide mass fingerprint. In this method, proteins are separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and digested with specific protease (Table 2 or digested and then separated by two-dimensional chromatography (Fig. 1. The obtained peptide mixtures are analyzed by MS or MALDI-TOF technique. The masses determined by MS are compared with calculated masses from database entries. Different algorithms have been developed for protein identification. Example of posttranslational modifications (N- and O-glycosylation and protein sequence complex analysis after dual digestion (endoproteinase digestion followed by endoglycosidase digestion is shown in Fig. 3.It is known that detection of peptides by MS is influenced by intrinsic properties like amino acid composition, the basicity of the C-terminal amino acid, hydrophobicity, etc. Arginine-containing peptides dominate in MS spectra of tryptic digest, so the chemical derivatization of lysine terminal residue by O-methilisourea or 2-methoxy-4,5-1H-imidazole was suggested (Fig. 4.The peptide mass fingerprint method can be improved further by peptide fragmentation using tandem

  11. A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri Neetu; Gupta Ankit; Taneja Ruchi; Bilandi Ajay; Beniwal Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z) of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z) is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses ...

  12. Mass spectrometry at the Pittsburgh conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borman, S.

    1987-01-01

    Each year analytical chemists flock to the Pittsburgh Conference to learn about the latest trends in analytical instrumentation. In this Focus, a number of prominent mass spectroscopists who attended this year's meeting in Atlantic City, NJ, discuss their perceptions of current developments in the field of mass spectrometry (MS). In the June 1 issue of Analytical Chemistry, the authors coverage of the Pittsburgh Conferences continues with a follow-up article on specific developments in hyphenated mass spectrometry - primarily liquid chromatography - MS (LC/MS) and gas chromatography - infrared spectrometry MS (GC/IR/MS)

  13. Proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappellin, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) provides on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a low detection threshold and a fast response time. Commercially available set-ups are usually based on quadrupole analysers but recently new instruments based on time-of-flight (PTR-ToF-MS) analysers have been proposed and commercialized. PTR-MS has been successfully applied to a variety of fields including environmental science, food science and technology, plant physiology and medical science. Many new challenges arise from the newly available PTR-ToF-MS instruments, ranging from mass calibration and absolute VOC concentration determination to data mining and sample classification. This thesis addresses some of these problems in a coherent framework. Moreover, relevant applications in food science and technology are presented. It includes twelve papers published in peer reviewed journals. Some of them address methodological issues regarding PTR-ToF-MS; the others contain applicative studies of PTR-ToF-MS to food science and technology. Among them, there are the first two published applications of PTR-ToF-MS in this field. (author)

  14. Photon spectrometry utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, R.; Benevides, C.; Lima, F.; Vilela, E.

    2015-01-01

    Having in mind the time spent on the uneventful work of characterization of the radiation beams used in a ionizing radiation metrology laboratory, the Metrology Service of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste - CRCN-NE verified the applicability of artificial intelligence (artificial neural networks) to perform the spectrometry in photon fields. For this, was developed a multilayer neural network, as an application for the classification of patterns in energy, associated with a thermoluminescent dosimetric system (TLD-700 and TLD-600). A set of dosimeters was initially exposed to various well known medium energies, between 40 keV and 1.2 MeV, coinciding with the beams determined by ISO 4037 standard, for the dose of 10 mSv in the quantity Hp(10), on a chest phantom (ISO slab phantom) with the purpose of generating a set of training data for the neural network. Subsequently, a new set of dosimeters irradiated in unknown energies was presented to the network with the purpose to test the method. The methodology used in this work was suitable for application in the classification of energy beams, having obtained 100% of the classification performed. (authors)

  15. Difraction spectrometry by laser beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in laser technology have permitted the development of numerous applications, in particular diffraction spectrometry by laser beams for the determination of the distribution curve of the particle sizes of different materials; this permits one to obtain the distribution of particle size in both wet and dry materials. In the present paper a brief description of the technique and its principles is offered. The results obtained with different materials-limestone clay, gypsum, Portland cement and siliceous materials are given.

    Los avances en la tecnología laser han permitido el desarrollo de múltiples aplicaciones, en concreto la espectrometría de difracción de rayos laser para la determinación de la curva de distribución del tamaño de partícula de diferentes materiales, y que permite la obtención de la misma tanto en seco como en húmedo. En este trabajo se hace una descripción breve de la técnica y de sus fundamentos. Se presentan resultados con diferentes materiales: caliza, arcilla, yeso, cemento Portland y materiales silíceos.

  16. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  17. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  18. Mass Spectrometry-Based Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Longo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of candidate biomarkers within the entire proteome is one of the most important and challenging goals in proteomic research. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a modern and promising technology for semiquantitative and qualitative assessment of proteins, enabling protein sequencing and identification with exquisite accuracy and sensitivity. For mass spectrometry analysis, protein extractions from tissues or body fluids and subsequent protein fractionation represent an important and unavoidable step in the workflow for biomarker discovery. Following extraction of proteins, the protein mixture must be digested, reduced, alkylated, and cleaned up prior to mass spectrometry. The aim of our chapter is to provide comprehensible and practical lab procedures for sample digestion, protein fractionation, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.

  19. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  20. Mass Spectrometry Analyses of Multicellular Tumor Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Mitchell; Mittal, Parul; Lokman, Noor A; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter

    2017-12-11

    Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are a powerful biological in vitro model, which closely mimics the 3D structure of primary avascularized tumors. Mass spectrometry (MS) has established itself as a powerful analytical tool, not only to better understand and describe the complex structure of MCTS, but also to monitor their response to cancer therapeutics. The first part of this review focuses on traditional mass spectrometry approaches with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular characteristics of these structures. Then the mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches used to obtain spatially defined information from MCTS is described. Finally the analysis of primary spheroids, such as those present in ovarian cancer, and the great potential that mass spectrometry analysis of these structures has for improved understanding of cancer progression and for personalized in vitro therapeutic testing is discussed. © 2017 The Authors. PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, R.; Bunkenborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied to study biomolecules and one rapidly developing field is the global analysis of proteins, proteomics. Understanding and handling mass spectrometry data is a multifaceted task that requires many decisions to be made to get the most comprehensive information...... from an experiment. Later chapters in this book deal in-depth with various aspects of the process and how different tools can be applied to the many analytical challenges. This introductory chapter is intended as a basic introduction to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to set the scene...... for newcomers and give pointers to reference material. There are many applications of mass spectrometry in proteomics and each application is associated with some analytical choices, instrumental limitations and data processing steps that depend on the aim of the study and means of conducting it. Different...

  2. Mass spectrometry of fluorocarbon-labeled glycosphingolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Arigi, Emma; Eichert, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A method for generation of novel fluorocarbon derivatives of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with high affinity for fluorocarbon phases has been developed, and their potential applications to mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for glycosphingolipidomics have been investigated. Sphingolipid...

  3. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  4. Thirteenth ISMAS symposium cum workshop on spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Alamelu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical tool and finds applications in almost all branches of science and technology like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Material Science, Geology, Nuclear Science, Industry, Oceanography, Environment etc. Innovations in the designs of mass spectrometers coupled with new ionization techniques have further strengthened the capabilities of mass spectrometry for analyzing all types of molecules including thermally labile and non-volatile at concentrations down to femto gram levels. The applications of mass spectrometry to the biomedical sciences have provided a unique, easy and fast approach to genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The availability of different types of mass spectrometers for inorganic elemental and isotopic composition determination have strengthened the role of mass spectrometry for analyzing all elements starting from hydrogen onwards. It is now possible to carry out speciation analysis using electrospray mass spectrometry. The individual conference papers in the proceedings covers fundamentals of mass spectrometry, qualitative and quantitative aspects and data interpretation, maintenance of mass spectrometers, selection of mass spectrometer, and recent advances in the field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Elastic recoil atomic spectroscopy of light elements with sub-nanometer depth resolution; Elastische Rueckstossatomspektrometrie leichter Elemente mit Subnanometer-Tiefenaufloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmata, Marcel

    2011-06-30

    In this thesis the QQDS magnetic spectrometer that is used for high resolution ion beam analysis (IBA) of light elements at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is presented for the first time. In addition all parameters are investigated that influence the analysis. Methods and models are presented with which the effects can be minimised or calculated. There are five focal points of this thesis. The first point is the construction and commissioning of the QQDS magnetic spectrometer, the corresponding scattering chamber with all the peripherals and the detector, which is specially developed for high resolution elastic recoil detection. Both the reconstructed spectrometer and the detector were adapted to the specific experimental conditions needed for high-resolution Ion beam analysis of light elements and tested for routine practice. The detector consists of two components. At the back end of the detector a Bragg ionization chamber is mounted, which is used for the particle identification. At the front end, directly behind the entrance window a proportional counter is mounted. This proportional counter includes a highresistance anode. Thus, the position of the particles is determined in the detector. The following two points concern fundamental studies of ion-solid interaction. By using a magnetic spectrometer the charge state distribution of the particles scattered from the sample after a binary collision is both possible and necessary for the analysis. For this reason the charge states are measured and compared with existing models. In addition, a model is developed that takes into account the charge state dependent energy loss. It is shown that without the application of this model the depth profiles do not correspond with the quantitative measurements by conventional IBA methods and with the thickness obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The second fundamental ion-solid interaction is the damage and the modification of the sample that occurs during

  6. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-06-01

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  7. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  8. Mass spectrometry in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Takuji

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely used and playing a very important role in the field of nuclear science and technology. A major reason for this is that not only the types of element but also its isotopes have to be identified and measured in this field. Thus, some applications of this analytical method are reviewed and discussed in this article. Its application to analytical chemistry is described in the second section following an introductory section, which includes subsections for isotropic dilution mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and isotopic correlation technique. The isotopic ratio measurement for hydrogen, uranium and plutonium as well as nuclear material control and safeguards are also reviewed in this section. In the third section, mass spectrometry is discussed in relation to nuclear reactors, with subsections on natural uranium reactor and neutron flux observation. Some techniques for measuring the burnup fraction, including the heavy isotopic ratio method and fission product monitoring, are also described. In the fourth section, application of mass spectrometry to measurement of nuclear constants, such as ratio of effective cross-sectional area for 235 U, half-life and fission yield is reviewed. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Tandem mass spectrometry at low kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooks, R.G.; Hand, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent progress in mass spectrometry, as applied to molecular analysis, is reviewed with emphasis on tandem mass spectrometry. Tandem instruments use multiple analyzers (sector magnets, quadrupole mass filters and time-of-flight devices) to select particular molecules in ionic form, react them in the gas-phase and then record the mass, momenta or kinetic energies of their products. The capabilities of tandem mass spectrometry for identification of individual molecules or particular classes of compounds in complex mixtures are illustrated. Several different types of experiments can be run using a tandem mass spectrometer; all share the feature of sifting the molecular mixture being analyzed on the basis of chemical properties expressed in terms of ionic mass, kinetic energy or charge state. Applications of mass spectrometry to biological problems often depend upon desorption methods of ionization in which samples are bombarded with particle beams. Evaporation of preformed charged species from the condensed phase into the vacuum is a particularly effective method of ionization. It is suggested that the use of accelerator mass spectrometers be extended to include problems of molecular analysis. In such experiments, low energy tandem mass spectrometry conducted in the eV or keV range of energies, would be followed by further characterization of the production ion beam using high selective MeV collision processes

  10. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  11. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for molecular-frame photoemission are presented for inner-valence shell photoionization of the CO molecule induced by linearly and circularly polarized light. The experimental recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) obtained from dissociative...... for the case of general elliptically polarized light, to obtain the RFPAD rather than the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD), which would be obtained with the assumption of instantaneous dissociation. We have considered photoionization of CO for the photon energies of 26.0 eV, 29.5 e......V, and 32.5 eV. A comparison of experimental and theoretical RFPADs allows us to identify the ionic states detected in the experimental studies. In addition to previously identified states, we found evidence for the 2 (2)Delta state with an ionization potential of 25.3 eV and (2)Sigma(+) states...

  12. An automatic sample changer for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    An automatic sample changer for gamma spectrometry is described which is designed for large-volume, low radioactivity environmental samples of various sizes up to maximum dimensions 100 mm diameter x 60 mm high. The sample changer is suitable for use with most existing gamma spectrometry systems which utilize GeLi or NaI detectors in vertical mode, in conjunction with a pulse height analyzer having auto-cycle and suitable data output facilities; it is linked to a Nuclear Data ND 6620 computer-based analysis system. (U.K.)

  13. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  14. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  15. Chemical analysis of refractories by plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrometry has been, since the last two or three decades, the traditional procedure for the chemical analysis of refractories, due to its high degree of accuracy and speed to produce analytical results. An interesting alternative to X-ray fluorescence is provided by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry technique, for those laboratories where wet chemistry facilities are already available or process control is not required at high speed, or investiment costs have to be low. This paper presents results obtained by plasma spectroscopy for the analysis of silico - aluminous refractories, showing calibration curves, precion and detection limits. Considerations and comparisons with X-ray fluorescence are also made. (author) [pt

  16. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  17. Characterization of Synthetic Peptides by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala K; Mirza, Osman; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI-TOF-MS an......Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI...

  18. Analysis of mass spectrometry data in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rune; Jensen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    The systematic study of proteins and protein networks, that is, proteomics, calls for qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins and peptides. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a key analytical technology in current proteomics and modern mass spectrometers generate large amounts of high-quality data...... that in turn allow protein identification, annotation of secondary modifications, and determination of the absolute or relative abundance of individual proteins. Advances in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics rely on robust bioinformatics tools that enable large-scale data analysis. This chapter describes...

  19. Analog to digital conversion for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, P.V.R. de.

    1982-04-01

    A study of the analog to digital conversion techniques for nuclear spectrometry is presented and the main design philosophies of nuclear ADC's are compared. Among them, the most suitable for the current Brazilian conditions, concerning the specifications and components avaiability is the one that employs a statistical correction of successive approximation converters. This technique is described in full detail. A prototype has been developed an tested for the practical demonstration of the theoretical conclusions. These tests was carried on nuclear spectrometry data aquisition system whose implementation is also described. (Author) [pt

  20. Absorption Mode FTICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kilgour, D.P.A.; Konijnenburg, M.; O'Connor, P.B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields

  1. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Neutron spectrometry provides many branches of science and technology with the necessary data. Usually the main part of the data is supplied by powerful neutron time-of-flight spectrometers. Nevertheless there are many other very effective but simpler and cheaper neutron spectroscopy methods on accelerators, ...

  2. Imaging mass spectrometry of polymeric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that makes images of molecular distributions at surfaces based on mass spectral information. At a range (typically a raster) of positions, mass spectra are measured from the surface giving a characteristic fingerprint for the material that is present at

  3. Identification of bacteria using mass spectrometry techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krásný, Lukáš; Hynek, R.; Hochel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 353, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 67-79 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Bacteria * Identification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2013

  4. Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Measurement of High Concentrations of Arsenic and Selenium. ... This procedure allowed a rapid determination of As from minimum 4.462 mg/L to higher concentrations without sample pretreatment. Besides As, this method successfully measured Se concentrations ...

  5. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for molecular diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Zhu, Y. F.; Allman, S. L.; Tang, K.; Matteson, K. J.; Chang, L. Y.; Chung, C. N.; Martin, Steve; Haff, Lawrence

    1996-04-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used for molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Both 3-base deletion and single-base point mutation have been successfully detected by clinical samples. This new detection method can possibly speed up the diagnosis by one order of magnitude in the future. It may become a new biotechnology technique for population screening of genetic disease.

  6. Characterization of microbial siderophores by mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluháček, Tomáš; Lemr, Karel; Ghosh, D.; Milde, D.; Novák, Jiří; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 35-47 ISSN 0277-7037 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13038; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/1150; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : iron * siderophores * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.373, year: 2016

  7. Extending mass spectrometry's reach in proteome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downard, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mass spectrometry is an essential component of proteome analysis. The accuracy, speed and sensitivity of mass spectrometric analysis is further aided by an ability to analyse proteins and peptides directly from two-dimensional sample arrays. This is accomplished either by gel excision and recovery of proteins or their proteolysis products, or after blotting of gel-separated proteins onto membranes. The protein components are most often analysed in each case by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Beyond automated protein identification, proteomics ultimately demands that protein function and activity be characterised. We have developed new mass spectrometry methodologies that enable protein-protein associations to be analysed by MALDI mass spectrometry. Methods to preserve protein-protein associations on 2D sample surfaces and to affect their ionisation and detection have been developed. This presentation will describe the features of protocol that are required for the successful analysis of protein-protein complexes. Data will be shown to illustrate the application of the technology to the study of important biological and immunological processes. The methods form the basis of powerful new mass spectrometric based assays for screening and affinity studies. Details of our investigations and their implications for high-throughput proteomics applications will be discussed in conjunction with directions of our future research

  8. Characterization of Synthetic Peptides by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhala, Bala K; Mirza, Osman; Højrup, Peter; Hansen, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides.

  9. Chemistry Nobel Prize 2002-Mass Spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Chemistry Nobel Prize 2002 - Mass Spectrometry. M Vairamani. Research News Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 69-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0069-0076 ...

  10. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutron spectrometry provides many branches of science and technology with the necessary data. Usually the main part of the data is supplied by powerful neutron time-of-flight spectrometers. Nevertheless there are many other very effective but simpler and cheaper neutron spectroscopy methods on accelerators, suitable ...

  11. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  12. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Complex Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates the state of the art in pyrolysis mass spectrometry techniques through applications in: (1) structural determination and quality control of synthetic polymers; (2) quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures; (3) classification and structural characterization of fossil organic matter; and (4) nonsupervised numerical extraction of…

  13. Application of gamma spectrometry survey and discussion on data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ji'an; He Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed and discussed the different opinions about the measured parameters of gamma spectrometry data, introduced the effect of gamma spectrometry survey to the search for sandstone type uranium deposit. The author believes that it is very necessary to perform some ground gamma spectrometry survey and enforce the development and application of airborne radiometric data so as to carry out the role of gamma spectrometry in the exploration of sandstone type uranium deposit. (authors)

  14. Use of mass spectrometry to study signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    biochemical assays have been used to identify molecules involved in signaling pathways. Lately, mass spectrometry, combined with elegant biochemical approaches, has become a powerful tool for identifying proteins and posttranslational modifications. With this protocol, we hope to bridge the gap between...... identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry. We discuss the special requirements for the identification of phosphorylation sites in proteins by mass spectrometry. We describe enrichment of phosphopeptides from unseparated...

  15. Determination of plutonium-238 in plutonium by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 238 Pu in plutonium samples by alpha spectrometry. Various factors attributing towards the energy degradation, a problem usually encountered in alpha spectrometry, are discussed. A computer programme is given for the evaluation of peak areas when the alpha spectrum is degraded. The results are compared with those obtained by mass spectrometry. (author)

  16. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems

  17. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS): what, how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is one of the oldest mass spectrometric techniques, which has been used for determining the isotopic composition and concentration of different elements using isotope dilution. In spite of the introduction of many other inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the TIMS technique plays the role of a definitive analytical methodology and still occupies a unique position in terms of its capabilities with respect to precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity

  18. Accelerator mass spectrometry: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the analytical technique of choice for the detection of long-lived radionuclides which cannot be practically analysed with decay counting or conventional mass spectrometry. The main use of AMS has been in the analysis of radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides for archaeological, geological and environmental applications. In addition, AMS has been recently applied in biomedicine to study exposure of human tissues to chemicals and biomolecules at attomole levels. There is also a world-wide effort to analyse rare nuclides of heavier masses, such as long-lived actinides, with important applications in safeguards and nuclear waste disposal. The use of AMS is limited by the expensive accelerator technology required and there are several attempts to develop smaller and cheaper AMS spectrometers. 5 refs.

  19. [Sample preparation and bioanalysis in mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Wagner, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of compounds of clinical interest of low molecular weight (sample preparation. Sample preparation is a crucial part of chemical/biological analysis and in a sense is considered the bottleneck of the whole analytical process. The main objectives of sample preparation are the removal of potential interferences, analyte preconcentration, and converting (if needed) the analyte into a more suitable form for detection or separation. Without chromatographic separation, endogenous compounds, co-eluted products may affect a quantitative method in mass spectrometry performance. This work focuses on three distinct parts. First, quantitative bioanalysis will be defined, different matrices and sample preparation techniques currently used in bioanalysis by mass spectrometry of/for small molecules of clinical interest in biological fluids. In a second step the goals of sample preparation will be described. Finally, in a third step, sample preparation strategies will be made either directly ("dilute and shoot") or after precipitation.

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Protein Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shiyong; Downard, Kevin M; Wong, Jason W H

    2017-01-01

    Through advances in molecular biology, comparative analysis of DNA sequences is currently the cornerstone in the study of molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Nevertheless, protein mass spectrometry offers some unique opportunities to enable phylogenetic analyses in organisms where DNA may be difficult or costly to obtain. To date, the methods of phylogenetic analysis using protein mass spectrometry can be classified into three categories: (1) de novo protein sequencing followed by classical phylogenetic reconstruction, (2) direct phylogenetic reconstruction using proteolytic peptide mass maps, and (3) mapping of mass spectral data onto classical phylogenetic trees. In this chapter, we provide a brief description of the three methods and the protocol for each method along with relevant tools and algorithms.

  1. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevestam, Goeran; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas; Tagziria, Hamid; Vanhavere, Filip; Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm -2 s -1 , where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm -2 s -1 , again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved

  2. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevestam, Goeran [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: goeran.loevestam@ec.europa.eu; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Vanhavere, Filip [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved.

  3. Auger spectrometry of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of Auger spectrometry at synchrotron radiation centers. First, he explains how a high energy photon source such as the APS (Advanced Photon Source) could be used to help provide missing spectral information about the shell structure of some elements. The missing data occurs mainly at higher energies in the 1--10 keV ranges as for the K-shells of Z = 30 to 60 elements and the L-shells for Z = 30 to 100 elements. He explains how even though Auger electron spectrometry does not depend on synchrotron radiation it can greatly benefit from this variable photon source as it allows one to select the Auger line group that is most suitable for a specific purpose. Most significantly, a continuous photon source becomes indispensable when one is interested in threshold effects. Lastly, he discusses coherence effects between different inner-shell vacancy states by way of some recent work done at Daresbury

  4. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  5. Hydrocarbon fractions. Aromatic determination by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Analysis of hydrocarbon fractions by mass spectrometry using low energy electrons, for determination of aromatic hydrocarbons repartition, suitable for fraction with the following properties: boiling point up to 320 0 C, whithout olefine, sulfur content up to 0.1 per cent, boiling range up to 100 0 C, if the final temperature is 200 0 C, and up to 50 0 C, if over 200 0 C [fr

  6. Laser mass spectrometry for selective ultratrace determination

    CERN Document Server

    Wendt, K; Müller, P; Nörtershäuser, W; Schmitt, A; Trautmann, N; Bushaw, B A

    1999-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been explored in respect to its capabilities for isobaric suppression, isotopic selectivity, and overall efficiency. Theoretical calculations within the density matrix formalism on coherent multi-step excitation processes predict high specifications, which have been confirmed by spectroscopic measurements in Ca and which make the technique attractive for ultratrace detection. Analytical applications are found in the determination of the ultratrace isotope sup 4 sup 1 Ca for cosmochemical, radiodating, and medical applications.

  7. Polymer and Additive Mass Spectrometry Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The use of mass spectrometry in fields related to polymers has increased significantly over the past three decades and will be explored in this literature review. The importance of this technique is highlighted when exploring how polymers degrade, verifying purchased materials, and as internal requirements change. The primary focus will be on four ionization techniques and the triple quadrupole and quadrupole / time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The advantages and limitations of each will also be explored.

  8. Radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry: background and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukens, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the advent of radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) many studies have been conducted to understand the background from mass spectrometric processes and the origins of contamination associated with the ion source and sample preparation. By studying the individual contributions a better understanding of these processes has been obtained and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to date samples reliably up to 60 000 BP. (orig.)

  9. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  10. Some advances in inorganic analytical mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Three recent developments in mass spectrometry are applicable to analytical problems. High powered laser excitation of metals, semi-conductors, and insulators combined with mass analysis provides an absolute analytical probe. Combining an inductively coupled argon plasma with mass analysis provides facile and sensitive analysis of aqueous solutions. A cryogenic hollow cathode containing ice is a proven ion source for 20 to 50 μL of aqueous samples with prior treatment. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Proton affinity measurements using ion mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud.; Shooshtari, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    Relative proton affinities are usually measured by means of high pressure mass spectrometry. In this work ion mobility spectrometry was used to determine proton affinities. The standard molar enthalpy change ΔH 0 M for the reaction MH + +N[rlhar2]M+NH + was found to be: -(56.3±0.8) kJ·mol -1 , when M was ethyl acetate and N ethanol; -(27.8±0.5) kJ·mol -1 , when M was acetophenone and N ethyl acetate; -(10.6±0.2) kJ·mol -1 , when M was cycloheptanone and N ethyl acetate; -(66.1±1.2) kJ·mol -1 , when M was dimethyl methyl phosphonate and N ethyl acetate; and, -(56.7±0.9) kJ·mol -1 , when M was dimethyl methyl phosphonate and N cycloheptanone. These values are internally consistent and in good agreement with results obtained with high pressure mass spectrometry. On the basis of proton affinities of cycloheptanone and ethyl acetate, an absolute proton affinity of (902±1.2) kJ·mol -1 has been determined for dimethyl methyl phosphonate

  13. Determination of curium-242 by α spectrometry and mass spectrometry in spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, F.; Aubert, M.; Degros, J.P.; Duda, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Curium-242 is a particularly important isotope in spent nuclear fuels due to its contribution to the residual power and also of its radioactive decrease chain. The determination of its content is therefore essential to improve the knowledge of the nuclear data. According to the nature and the cooling time of the spent fuel, the 242 Cm content can be lower than the detection limit of the classically used mass spectrometric techniques. To overcome this limitation, alpha spectrometry can be advantageously used for this radionuclide of short period (T = 162.9 days). From dilute solutions of MOX fuels of short time of cooling and for which the content of 242 Cm is about a few tens of pg, the development of different successive chemical separations permitted to get sufficiently pure curium fractions to perform curium isotopic analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry but also the determination of the 242 Cm/ 244 Cm ratio by alpha spectrometry. The agreement on the ratios determined by the two techniques has allowed to spread the measure by alpha spectrometry to a UOX fuel of content in 242 Cm even lower. The association of the 242 Cm/ 244 Cm ratio measurement with the 244 Cm/ 238 U ratio obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry and isotope dilution, with a 248 Cm/ 233 U spike, permits to know the content in curium-242 in relation to uranium-238 which is used as a reference in the fuel. (author)

  14. Influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms in oxygen-containing chromium compounds; Influence des defauts cristallins sur la reactivite chimique des atomes de recul dans des composes oxygenes du chrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costea, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms produced by the reaction {sup 50}Cr (n,{gamma}){sup 51}Cr in oxygen-containing chromium compounds has been studied. Three methods have been used to introduce the defects: doping (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} doped with BaCrO{sub 4}), irradiation by ionizing radiation (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} irradiated in the presence of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and non-stoichiometry (the semi-conducting oxides of the CrO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} series). The thermal annealing kinetics of the irradiated samples have been determined, and the activation energy has been calculated. In all cases it has been observed that there is a decrease in the activation energy for thermal annealing in the presence of the defects. In order to explain the annealing process, an electronic mechanism has been proposed based on the interaction between the recoil species and the charge-carriers (holes or electrons). (author) [French] On a etudie l'influence des defauts cristallins sur la reactivite chimique des atomes de recul produits par la reaction {sup 50}cr (n,{gamma}){sup 51}Cr, dans des composes oxygenes du chrome. Les defauts ont ete introduits par trois voies: dopage (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} dope avec BaCrO{sub 4}), irradiation avec des radiations ionisantes (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} irradie en presence de Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) et non-stoechiometrie (les oxydes semiconducteurs de la serie CrO{sub 3}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}). On a determine la cinetique du recuit thermique des echantillons irradies et on a calcule l'energie d'activation. Dans tous les cas, on a observe, en presence des defauts, une diminution de l'energie d'activalion du recuit thermique. On a propose, pour expliquer les processus de recuit, un mecanisme electronique base sur l'interaction entre les especes de recul et les porteurs de charge (trous ou electrons). (auteur)

  15. Primary retention following nuclear recoil in β-decay: Proposed synthesis of a metastable rare gas oxide ((38)ArO4) from ((38)ClO4(-)) and the evolution of chemical bonding over the nuclear transmutation reaction path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F

    2014-12-01

    Argon tetroxide (ArO4) is the last member of the N=50 e(-) isoelectronic and isosteric series of ions: SiO4(4-), PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and ClO4(-). A high level computational study demonstrated that while ArO4 is kinetically stable it has a considerable positive enthalpy of formation (of ~298kcal/mol) (Lindh et al., 1999. J. Phys. Chem. A 103, pp. 8295-8302) confirming earlier predictions by Pyykkö (1990. Phys. Scr. 33, pp. 52-53). ArO4 can be expected to be difficult to synthesize by traditional chemistry due to its metastability and has not yet been synthesized at the time of writing. A computational investigation of the changes in the chemical bonding of chlorate (ClO4(-)) when the central chlorine atom undergoes a nuclear transmutation from the unstable artificial chlorine isotope (38)Cl to the stable rare argon isotope (38)Ar through β-decay, hence potentially leading to the formation of ArO4, is reported. A mathematical model is presented that allows for the prediction of yields following the recoil of a nucleus upon ejecting a β-electron. It is demonstrated that below a critical angle between the ejected β-electron and that of the accompanying antineutrino their respective linear momentums can cancel to such an extent as imparting a recoil to the daughter atom insufficient for breaking the Ar-O bond. As a result, a primary retention yield of ~1% of ArO4 is predicted following the nuclear disintegration. The study is conducted at the quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations [QCISD/6-311+G(3df)] level of theory followed by an analysis of the electron density by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Crossed potential energy surfaces (PES) were used to construct a PES from the metastable ArO4 ground singlet state to the Ar-O bond dissociation product ArO3+O((3)P) from which the predicted barrier to dissociation is ca. 22kcal/mol and the exothermic reaction energy is ca. 28kcal/mol [(U)MP2/6-311+G(d)]. Copyright © 2014

  16. Study of the electro-disintegration of deuterium 2H(e,e'p)n in a large domain of inelasticity and for recoil neutron momenta from 0 to 500 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis, we present three exclusive electron scattering experiments on deuterium. Recoil neutron momenta from |n| = 0 to 500 MeV/c have been extracted from these measurements. In the first experiment, we studied the low recoil neutron momenta from |n| = 0 to 175 MeV/c in the quasi-elastic region. The second one is sensitive to the intermediate region from |n| = 155 to 335 MeV/c. The high momenta |n| =300 to 500 MeV/c were covered in the third kinematic condition range, in a more inelastic region influenced by pion exchange currents and isobar configuration. The S-wave component of the deuterium wave function has a minimum near 450 MeV/c, so the third measurement is mainly sensitive to the deuterium D-state and can provide a test of the nucleon-nucleon potential. The difficulty of these experiments comes from the small cross sections (≥ 15 pb/sr 2 /MeV) and the use of cryogenic liquid target whose density and dimension must be known accurately. The determination of the absolute values of the cross section is discussed in detail. The accuracy obtained was about 6 or 7 pc. The data from these experiments are compared to non-relativistic calculations of H. Arenhoevel and J.M. Laget which include electron interaction with the two nucleons, excitation states of the nucleon, proton neutron final state interaction and pionic exchange currents. These calculations are in good agreement with the first experiments for RSC potential. The agreement with Arenhoevel calculation is also good in the third one, but for this last experiment, a gauge invariance problem, coming certainly from the final state treatment, still remains in Laget's calculation. Data seem to favor the RSC or Paris nucleon nucleon potentials; 30 pc differences could be observed between their predictions and those given by the Bonn potentials. Nevertheless the study of the influence of the nucleon-nucleon potential can only be done in a complete relativistic calculation. (author) [fr

  17. Determination of plutonium isotopes in bilberry using liquid scintillation spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seferinoğlu, Meryem; Aslan, Nazife; Kurt, Aylin; Erden, Pınar Esra; Mert, Hülya

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents α-particle spectrometry and liquid scintillation spectrometry methods to determine plutonium isotopes in bilberry. The analytical procedure involves sample preparation steps for ashing, digestion of bilberry samples, radiochemical separation of plutonium radioisotopes and their measurement. The validity of the method was checked for coherence using the ζ test, z-test, relative bias and relative uncertainty outlier tests. The results indicated that the recommended procedures for both measurement systems could be successfully applied for the accurate determination of plutonium activities in bilberry samples. - Highlights: • Sample preparation methods for Pu using LSS and alpha spectrometry developed. • Complete separation of plutonium from interfering radionuclides. • Commercial bilberry was spiked with NPL 2011 (AH-B11144) proficiency test sample. • Results were checked using ζ test, z-test, rel. bias and rel. uncert. outlier tests. • Recommended procedures successfully applied to bilberry samples

  18. The use of lasers as sources for Raman spectrometry, resonance Raman spectrometry, and light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitini, R.; Ceccaldi, M.; Leicknam, J.P.; Plus, R.

    1975-01-01

    The activity of the laboratory is principally centred on the determination of molecular structures and the study of molecular interactions in solution by infrared and Raman spectrometry. With the development of work on relatively large molecules, particularly biological molecules, it became necessary to complete information on the molecular weight and on the intra and intermolecular geometry and interactions of these bodies. In order to obtain these informations Rayleigh scattering and resonance Raman spectrometry were used. The advantages of using vibrational spectrometry, particularly Raman, in conjunction with the diffusion of light for these structural and molecular interaction studies is emphasized. It is shown that these two techniques could not have developed as they have done in the last few years without the use of lasers as light source [fr

  19. Study by Auger spectrometry and mass spectrometry of the chemisorption of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, E.; Chiarena, J.C.; Gillet, M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of Auger spectrometry and mass spectrometry was employed to study CO chemisorption on polycrystalline Mo surfaces at room temperature. Five adsorption states were observed and the binding parameters (E,n 0 ,tau 0 ) were calculated for the three important states. The results obtained by the two methods are in accord but the occurence of electronic desorption in Auger experiments was pointed out. Contamination effects by C atoms in such studies were investigated by repeated cycles of adsorption-desorption and a characteristic evolution of flash desorption was observed. The results are discussed in this point of view enhancing the importance of a control of the adsorption surface cleanness by a method of great sensibility like Auger spectrometry. (Auth.)

  20. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  1. Beam-Recoil Polarization Transfer in the Nucleon Resonance Region in the Exclusive $\\vec{e}p \\to e'K^+\\vec{\\Lambda}$ and $\\vec{e}p \\to e'K^+\\vec{\\Sigma}^0$ Reactions at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Carman, B.A. Raue, for the CLAS Collaboration

    2009-06-01

    Beam-recoil transferred polarizations for the exclusive $\\vec{e}p \\to e'K^+ \\vec{\\Lambda},\\vec{\\Sigma}^0$ reactions have been measured using the CLAS spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory. New measurements have been completed at beam energies of 4.261 and 5.754~GeV that span a range of momentum transfer $Q^2$ from 0.7 to 5.4~GeV$^2$, invariant energy $W$ from 1.6 to 2.6~GeV, and the full center-of-mass angular range of the $K^+$ meson. These new data add to the existing CLAS $K^+\\Lambda$ measurements at 2.567~GeV, and provide the first-ever data for the $K^+\\Sigma^0$ channel in electroproduction. Comparisons of the data with several theoretical models are used to study the sensitivity to $s$-channel resonance contributions and the underlying reaction mechanism. Interpretations within two semi-classical partonic models are made to probe the underlying reaction mechanism and the $s\\bar{s}$ quark-pair creation dynamics.

  2. Performance Test of Alpha Spectrometry for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Youn; Yoon, Jong-Ho; Han, Ki-Tek; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Environmental samples are analyzed by various methods such as, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), HRGS (high resolution gamma spectrometry) and alpha /beta particle analysis. In this study, we will described the result of performance test using alpha spectrometry for analyzing environmental samples. Measurement data of the U activity using SRM based on extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin. It should be effective way to separate of uranium isotope for the measurement of alpha spectrometry. But, the result of this measurement data is higher than another recovery data. Also concentration of U data is lack of consistency. We leave out of consideration many effect of factors about influence in the experiment process. In the future work, we will try to reduce the step of experiment process and reflect the uncertainty factors

  3. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using NSDAAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.

    2009-10-01

    The reconstruction of neutron spectra from count rates of a Bonner spheres spectrometric system is performed using various methods such as Monte Carlo methods, the parameterization and iterative methods. The weight of the Bonner spheres spectrometric system, the procedure for the reconstruction of the spectra, the need of an experienced user, the high consumer of time, the need of use a reconstruction code as the BUNKI, SAND, among others, and the resolution of the spectrum are some problems that this system presents. This has motivated the development of complementary procedures such as maximum entropy, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. In previous work, has reported a new method called robust design methodology of artificial neural networks, to construct various network topologies capable of solving the problems of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, however, due to the newness of this technology, be noted that there are not tools to end-user that allow test and validate the designed networks. This paper presents a software for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, designed from the information extracted of an artificial neural network designed by robust design methodology of artificial neural networks. This tool has the following characteristics: was designed in a user graphical interface easy to use, requires not knowledge of neural networks or neutron spectrometry by the user; execution speed of the application; unlike the deconvolution codes are not required to select an initial spectrum for the spectrum reconstruction; as an additional element to this tool, besides the spectrum, the calculation is performed simultaneous to H(10), E, H p , s (10,θ) from just counting rates from a Bonner spheres spectrometric system. (author)

  5. Atomic spectrometry update : a review of advances in environmental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Owen T.; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Cook, Jennifer M.; Davidson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    This is the 31st annual review of the application of atomic spectrometry to the chemical analysis of environmental samples. This update refers to papers published approximately between August 2014 and July 2015 and continues the series of Atomic Spectrometry Updates (ASUs) in Environmental Analysis that should be read in conjunction with other related ASUs in the series, namely: clinical and biological materials, foods and beverages; advances in atomic spectrometry and related techniques; ele...

  6. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  7. Performance of gamma spectrometry counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Maziah Mahmud

    2007-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry counting system widely used as tool to measure qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray emitters in a sample. Container size, sample to detector distance, sample volume are well known factors that affecting the quality of measurement. However, factor such as the age of the system was not been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out how the age factor affecting the quality of the measurement. From this study, it is found that when the age of the system increased, the system tends to have higher lower limit of detection and poorer linearity showing that age factor do affecting the quality of measurement. (Author)

  8. Mass spectrometry by means of tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based on an accelerator allows to measure rare cosmogenic isotopes found in natural samples with isotopic abundances up to 10E-15. The XTU Tandem of Legnaro National Laboratories can measure mean heavy isotopes (36Cl, 41Ca, 129I) in applications interesting cosmochronology and Medicine. The TTT-3 Tandem of the Naples University has been modified in view of precision studies of C14 in Archeology, Paleantology and Geology. In this paper a review is made of principles and methodologies and of some applicationy in the framework of the National Program for mass spectrametry research with the aid of accelerators

  9. Modulation spectrometry of neutrons with diffractometry applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hiismäki, Pekka

    1997-01-01

    Modulation spectrometry of neutrons refers to a measuring principle, characterized by classification of neutron histories in a probabilistic way, not the usual deterministic way. In order to accomplish this, neutron beams entering the sample are modulated by high-transmission, white-beam selectors of the multislit type, such as Fourier or statistical choppers or high-frequency-modulated spin-flippers. In this scheme it is impossible to decide in a unique way through which particular slit any single neutron passed, but the distribution of histories for a large population of neutrons can neverth

  10. Deciphering Dorin M glycosylation by mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Petr; Kovář, Vojtěch; Štěrba, Ján; Strohalm, Martin; Kavan, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; Grubhoffer, Libor; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2008), s. 345-354 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) SGA2008/017; XE(XE) EC MKTD-CT-2004-014407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : glycosylation * tandem mass spectrometry * lectin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2008

  11. Mass spectrometry investigation of magnetron sputtering discharges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr; Musil, Jindřich; Lančok, Ján; Fitl, Přemysl; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Vlček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2017), s. 438-443 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010490; GA ČR GA17-13427S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mass spectrometry * atoms * radicals and ions * RF discharge * contamination * metallic films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.530, year: 2016

  12. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  13. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  14. Mass spectrometry a versatile aid to inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1976-01-01

    Several hundred publications have appeared in the last three years that deal with applications of Mass Spectrometry to inorganic analysis. Bulk and localized trace analysis, surface and thin film characterization and microstructure examination are currently performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Spark Source Mass Spectrometry and the newly developed Laser Probe Mass Spectrometry. Suitable experimental procedures allow insulators, biologic materials and microsamples to be analysed. In spite of the classification by techniques this review is essentially devoted to the most significant papers in analytical applications but instrumental and basic features are sometimes introduced to support the discussions

  15. Impact of automation on mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Rockwood, Alan

    2015-10-23

    Mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS and LC-MS/MS) is an analytical technique that has rapidly grown in popularity in clinical practice. In contrast to traditional technology, mass spectrometry is superior in many respects including resolution, specificity, multiplex capability and has the ability to measure analytes in various matrices. Despite these advantages, LC-MS/MS remains high cost, labor intensive and has limited throughput. This specialized technology requires highly trained personnel and therefore has largely been limited to large institutions, academic organizations and reference laboratories. Advances in automation will be paramount to break through this bottleneck and increase its appeal for routine use. This article reviews these challenges, shares perspectives on essential features for LC-MS/MS total automation and proposes a step-wise and incremental approach to achieve total automation through reducing human intervention, increasing throughput and eventually integrating the LC-MS/MS system into the automated clinical laboratory operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of superheated emulsions in neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mala; Abe, Masashi; Sawamura, Teruko; Roy, S.C; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, B.

    2003-01-01

    'Superheated emulsions' are known to detect energetic radiations. The use of superheated emulsion as neutron spectrometry needs monoenergetic neutrons for the calibration. Because of the limitation of the availability of monoenergetic neutrons, the present work deals with the alternative method to find out the temperature-threshold neutron energy relationship for superheated emulsions. R-114 (C2C12F4, b.p.3.77degC) is used as the superheated liquid to unfold the neutron energy spectrum generated at Pb target by 45 MeV electron LINAC. The normalized response of the emulsion with temperature is obtained as an integrated spectrum, the derivative of which generates neutron energy spectrum. It is noted that R114 detector is insensitive to gamma rays at low temperature and it is only at 70degC to low energy. The present study gives an approach to the application of superheated emulsions in neutron spectrometry in a complex radiation field of both gamma rays and neutrons of different energy. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Parsimonious Charge Deconvolution for Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Charge deconvolution infers the mass from mass over charge (m/z) measurements in electrospray ionization mass spectra. When applied over a wide input m/z or broad target mass range, charge-deconvolution algorithms can produce artifacts, such as false masses at one-half or one-third of the correct mass. Indeed, a maximum entropy term in the objective function of MaxEnt, the most commonly used charge deconvolution algorithm, favors a deconvolved spectrum with many peaks over one with fewer peaks. Here we describe a new “parsimonious” charge deconvolution algorithm that produces fewer artifacts. The algorithm is especially well-suited to high-resolution native mass spectrometry of intact glycoproteins and protein complexes. Deconvolution of native mass spectra poses special challenges due to salt and small molecule adducts, multimers, wide mass ranges, and fewer and lower charge states. We demonstrate the performance of the new deconvolution algorithm on a range of samples. On the heavily glycosylated plasma properdin glycoprotein, the new algorithm could deconvolve monomer and dimer simultaneously and, when focused on the m/z range of the monomer, gave accurate and interpretable masses for glycoforms that had previously been analyzed manually using m/z peaks rather than deconvolved masses. On therapeutic antibodies, the new algorithm facilitated the analysis of extensions, truncations, and Fab glycosylation. The algorithm facilitates the use of native mass spectrometry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of protein and protein assemblies. PMID:29376659

  18. Mass Spectrometry on Future Mars Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry investigations on the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the 2018 ExoMars missions will address core science objectives related to the potential habitability of their landing site environments and more generally the near-surface organic inventory of Mars. The analysis of complex solid samples by mass spectrometry is a well-known approach that can provide a broad and sensitive survey of organic and inorganic compounds as well as supportive data for mineralogical analysis. The science value of such compositional information is maximized when one appreciates the particular opportunities and limitations of in situ analysis with resource-constrained instrumentation in the context of a complete science payload and applied to materials found in a particular environment. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on ExoMars will thus benefit from and inform broad-based analog field site work linked to the Mars environments where such analysis will occur.

  19. Cs+ ion source for secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, B.L.; Weiss, H.; Liebl, H.

    1981-12-01

    Various types of cesium ionization sources currently used in secondary ion mass spectrometry are briefly reviewed, followed by a description of the design and performance of a novel, thermal surface ionization Cs + source developed in this laboratory. The source was evaluated for secondary ion mass spectrometry applications using the COALA ion microprobe mass analyzer. (orig.)

  20. X-ray spectrometry for preventive conservation of cultural heritage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytical chemistry does play a key role in the chemical characterization of the environment and it appears that X-ray spectrometry, in its many forms, is one of the most relevant analytical techniques in preventive conservation, as it is in cultural heritage research in general. X-ray spectrometry has indeed been the method ...