WorldWideScience

Sample records for tlatelolco treaty

  1. TLATELOLCO treaty today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Matias Romero de Estudios Diplomaticos.

    1996-01-01

    The 30 th. Anniversary of the opening to sign of Tlatelolco Treaty it is reached in an undeniable fact: the benefit and full standing upon a free nuclear weapons zone in Latin America and the Carib. The Instituto Matias Romero de Estudios Diplomaticos (IMRED) convoked an expertise group in safety affairs and disarmament, mexicans and foreigners, diplomatics and academics, to think over the present importance of Tlatelolco Treaty. The assays included in this number of the Revista Mexicana de Politica Exterior to bring out the transcendency of the such legal instrument and the way to fortify the regime created by itself, the relevance of integration attempts for the free nuclear weapons zones and the obstacles that its confronts, as soon as, the possibilities and the potential of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  2. Some considerations on the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    Some considerations related to the Tlatelolco Treaty are focused and so are the role and the position of Brazil in view of the Treaty. Short historical remarks are presented in order to show the commitments of Brazil with the Treaty. Finally, considerations concerned with the validity of the Treaty as the legal instrument to contribute to the security and peace in the World. (Author) [pt

  3. Meaning and repercussions of the Tlatelolco Treaty for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the meaning and repercussions of the TLATELOLCO Treaty for Latin America and the caribbean, as part of the major efforts regarding . A nuclear weapons-free zone, It also describes the role of the OPANAL and that of the IAEA article 13 of the treaty, as well as regional and international safeguards are also highlighted

  4. Amendments to the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the amendments to the Tlatelolco Treaty approved on 26 August 1992 by the Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

  5. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  6. Law 16.597 approve correction to Treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Approve it the amendments to the Treaty for the Proscription of the Nuclear Weapons in the Latin America (Treaty of TLATELOLCO), adopted for the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of the Nuclear Weapons in the Latin America and the Caribbean in their seventh extraordinary period of Sessions, in Mexico D:F., August of 1992, resolution 26 Not. 290(VII) [es

  7. The de-nuclearization of Latin America: 40 years of the Tlatelolco Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornstein, Roberto M.

    2007-01-01

    The 14 of February of 1967, in the Palace of Tlatelolco, the brand-new seat of the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs, significantly located in the Square of the Three Cultures in Mexico City, was carried out the solemn approval and the opening to the signature of the 'Treaty for the De-nuclearization of Latin America' (later 'and of the Caribbean') known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco. The Treaty is the binding international legal instrument that created the first zone free of nuclear weapons in the world, with the exception of the inhabited Antarctica It is recognized for this reason by the international community as a milestone in the matter of non proliferation of nuclear weapons (it preceded the 'Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty' or NPT) and has been the example and inspiration for the other de-nuclearized zones in the planet. The present paper tries to rescue the ups and downs of the arduous negotiation and to analyze the distinctive characteristics of the Treaty and their later evolution. The successive position assumed by our country in relation to the Treaty are also analyzed. (author) [es

  8. The Treaty of Pelindaba: In the footsteps of Tlatelolco and Rarotonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunbanwo, S.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones was emphasized by the United Nations in its resolution 3472B (XXX) in 1975. It is stated that Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones constitute one of the most effective means for preventing the proliferation, both horizontal and vertical of nuclear weapons and for contributing to the elimination of the danger of nuclear holocaust. The third Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone is to be created in Africa due to Treaty of Pelindaba which was signed in April 1996. The first and the second Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones were the Latin America and Caribbean Zone and South Pacific Zone created by the Treaties of Tlatelolco and Rarotonga respectively

  9. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a letter of 28 January 1994, the Director General was informed that on 18 January 1994, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean entered into force for the Argentine Republic

  10. The Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In a note verbale of 10 June 1994, the Agency was informed that, on 30 May 1994, the instruments necessary to bring the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin American and the Caribbean into force for the Federative Republic of Brazil had been deposited. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Brazil to the International Organizations in Vienna, the text of the note is attached hereto for the information of Member States

  11. Declaration by the governments of Argentina, Brazil and Chile on the entry into force for them of the treaty of Tlatelolco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a declaration by the Governments of Argentina, Brazil and Chile on the entry into force for them of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco), made on 26 August 1992 at the VII Special Session of the Agency for the Distribution of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL), held in Mexico City

  12. The Guadalajara Accord between Brazil and Argentina: a tentative step toward the nuclear weapons-free Latin America envisioned by the Treaty of Tlatelolco

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Francis Xavier

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1967, the treaty of Tlatelolco declared Latin America to be a nuclear weapons-free zone, but this goal remains unfulfilled. Argentina and Brazil, the :Latin American nations most capable of building nuclear weapons, refuse to comply with the treaty. Argentine and Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons fro the 1970's to the late 1980's. The emergence of democratic regimes from the 1980's encouraged t...

  13. Declaration by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil on the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Tlatelolco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The document reproduces the text of a declaration made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil on 14 February 1992 at a special meeting of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL) held in Mexico City to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (the Tlatelolco Treaty)

  14. IAEA safeguards related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons- T.N.P. and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America-Tlatelolco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.D.F.

    1978-04-01

    The application of safeguards, focusing mainly the causes that gave origin to this type of control, is studied. The safeguard procedures used by the IAEA are also given, relative to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America - Tlatelolco, the Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons - T.N.P. and the Euratom safeguards. Some consideration is given to the organizations related to safeguards application such as IAEA, OPANAL and Euratom, their functions and aims. (F.E.) [pt

  15. Tlatelolco treaty for the proscription of nuclear armaments in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espiell, H G

    1981-03-01

    The Tlateloco Treaty has established in Latin America the first and hitherto only zone free from nuclear armament existing in the inhabited world. This Latin American example guarantees not only the Continent's security from a future nuclear war, but it might also motivate the possible, though difficult, creation of other zones free from nuclear armament in other regions of the world. The Tlateloco system includes three instruments: a Treaty, open to signature and ratification by the Latin American States and two additional protocols. The Treaty includes regime of duties regarding military denuclearization, a control system, the creation of an organism (OPANAL) and the regime that governs pacific use of nuclear energy. The Treaty has been signed by 25 Latin American States (excepting Cuba, Guyana, Dominica and Santa Lucia), and ratified by 24 (excepting Argentine). There are 22 States members of OPANAL (all the rest, excepting Brazil and Chile). Additional Protocol I applies the military denuclearization regime to territories owned by non-Latin American States located in the Treaty zone. England and the Low Countries are Parts in the Additional Protocol I which has been signed, but not ratified, by the United States and France. Additional Protocol II establishes the duties of the powers possessing nuclear armaments with respect to the denuclearized Latin American zone. It has been signed and ratified by the United States, France, Great Britian, China, and the USSR.

  16. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  17. The Brazilian position during the final transactions the treaty for the proscriptions of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Costa, C.E.S.C. da.

    1979-02-01

    The Brazilian position during the final transactions on the treaty for the proscription of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is presented. An analysis of the main clauses of this treaty is given, well as a comparative study between the principle points of Tlatelolco Treaty and Non-Proliferation Treaty [pt

  18. Rarotonga : in the footsteps of Tlatelolco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadlier, D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the development of the Treaty of Rarotonga, also known as the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, the purpose of which is to strengthen the security of the South Pacific region. The origins of the Treaty go back over twenty years and stem from the concern of South Pacific countries at the continued testing of nuclear explosive devices in the region

  19. Agreement of 2 February 1990 between Saint Lucia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters of 6 November 1995 and 24 April 1996 with Saint Lucia in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean ('the Tlatelolco Treaty'). The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 1996

  20. The Non-Proliferation Treaty increases security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahiluoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty indefinitely was a historic decision. The Treaty is the most extensive international agreement on security policy to date; now its obligations have become a permanent part of international justice. Moreover, the NPT represents a political and moral obligation. Through the NPT, the international community has made a permanent commitment to restrict the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Increasing pressures will be applied to the few countries still outside the NPT, making it more likely that these countries will eventually change their views. The likelihood of regional bans on nuclear weapons in the Middle East and in Asia, too, will increase. The Treaty promotes the establishment of new nuclear-free zones. The nuclear-free zone in Latin America - the countries covered by the Tlatelolco Treaty - is already very close to its full implementation. Finland is firmly committed to the obligations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The NPT Conference of 1995 was among the first international meetings in which Finland participated, and took an active role, as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  1. Treaty implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper touches on three aspects of the relationship between intelligence and treaty implementation, a two-way association. First the author discusses the role of intelligence as a basis for compliance monitoring and treaty verification. Second the authors discusses payoffs of intelligence gathering and the intelligence process of treaty implementation, in particular on-site inspection. Third, the author goes in another direction and discusses some of the tensions between the intelligence gathering and treaty-implementation processes, especially with regard to extensive use of on-site inspection, such as we are likely to see in monitoring compliance of future arms control treaties

  2. The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty: a critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel-Green, Michael.

    1990-01-01

    The study commences with a brief analysis of the nuclear free zone concept (NFZ) as it has evolved internationally, particularly in the UN context. The historical development, internationally-perceived objectives, definition, and key attributes of the regional NFZ concept, are discussed with the aim of developing a systematic framework and departure point for analysing the provisions and features of the Rarotonga Treaty. The Rarotonga Treaty is then analysed according to five key NFZ attributes: scope, domain, control system, implementation, and relation to collateral measures. It is argued that the treaty is highly selective in its scope, limited in its geographical application, less stringent in its control system than the Tlatelolco Treaty, and rigid in its amendment provisions, and that the implementation process does not envisage follow-on stages or collateral measures oriented to further denuclearization of the region. The ensuing chapters examine the motivation of the Australian Government in initiating and negotiating the treaty, and the nature of the United States, Soviet Union and regional state responses to it. The final chapter critically examines the various claims made for the treaty's contribution to regional and global security, argues that the treaty represented a regional consolidation of US and ANZUS nuclear interests at a time of strategic expansion in the Pacific, and considers some of the consequences and implications of the treaty, regionally and globally. 545 refs

  3. Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America. An agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 17 November 2003 with the Republic of Panama in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. This Exchange of Letters constitutes an agreement confirming that: the Safeguards Agreement of 23 March 1984, concluded between the Republic of Panama and the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty), also satisfies the obligation of Panama under Article III of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA; the safeguards set forth in the Safeguards Agreement shall also apply, as regards Panama, in connection with the NPT; the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement shall apply as long as Panama is party to the NPT or the Tlatelolco Treaty or both. The agreement reflected in the Exchange of Letters was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 November 2003, and pursuant to its terms, entered into force on that date

  4. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  5. Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The document reproduces the full text of the Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty) on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within United States Protocol I Territories for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

  6. Obsolete treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The proliferation of ballistic missile technologies (as opposed to nuclear ones) is not limited actually by any international treaty, there are no treaties of that kind. It is hardly imaginable that the international community could succeed in getting any agreements in the near future that would ban (or seriously limit) missile technology proliferation, similar to Non-proliferation Treaty or CTBT. An optimum option would permit the declared nuclear powers to have intercontinental ballistic missiles until the transition to a nuclear-weapon-free world, while any space activity would be under strict international control

  7. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters with the Commonwealth of Dominica in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean, which constitutes an agreement confirming that the Safeguards Agreement of 3 May 1996 (IAEA-INFCIRC-513) concluded between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (Dominica) and the IAEA pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) satisfies the obligation of Dominica under Article 13 of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA

  8. Elena Poniatowska y la polifonía nocturna de Tlatelolco

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Salinas, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    La crónica de Elena Poniatowska ha sido el inicio de su escritura testimonial. El análisis de La Noche de Tlatelolco implica coincidencias singulares con la política activa llevada a cabo por la escritora y resume la situación mexicana en un momento de represión estatal. El simbolismo de la plaza de Tlatelolco se remonta a los tiempos del virreinato, otorgándole un valor añadido. El diálogo entre los distintos tiempos y los textos que surgen de los acontecimientos como los de Octavio Paz y...

  9. The treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The text of the statement, made by Ambassador Carlos Portales Cifuentes, Director General for Foreign Policy of the Ministry of External Relations of Chile, during the VIII. Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) on the occasion of Chile's becoming a Contracting Party to the Tlatelolco Treaty, is being circulated for the information of all Member States of the Agency at the request of the Alternate to the Resident Representative of Chile

  10. Agreement between the Republic of Chile and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. Agreement by exchange of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 with the Republic of Chile in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document reproduces the Agreement by exchange of letters with the Republic of Chile on Safeguards Agreement of 5 April 1995 concluded between Chile and the IAEA, in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty). The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 1996. The texts of letters of 6 November 1995 and 25 June 1996 are also included

  11. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jasani, B.; Lingenfelder, I.

    2009-01-01

    of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment...... companies, national research institutions and international organizations, all of whom were brought together under the aegis of the European research project GMOSS (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability). This book is tailored for the scientific community that deals with the application of EO data...... of civil security. Written for: Scientists, researchers in spatial sciences as well as practitioners, politicians, decision makers at NGO's in the field of security, crisis management, risk assessment and vulnerability....

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement 1 concluded between the Republic of Panama and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (TLATELOLCO) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 29 November 2001. It was signed in the City of Panama on 11 December 2001

  13. The Treaty of Lisbon

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Gloggnitzer

    2008-01-01

    The Treaty of Lisbon is the EU’s new legal framework. The EU heads of state or government have agreed on a new EU treaty conceived to ensure that the enlarged EU consisting of 27 Member States functions more efficiently than under the Treaty of Nice, which is currently in place. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by EU heads of state or government on December 13, 2007, in Lisbon. The Treaty of Lisbon is to replace the EU Constitutional Treaty rejected in national referendums in France and the Ne...

  14. Law approving the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America Treaty (Tlatelolco Treaty), signed in Mexico on February 14 of 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Tries about the military denuclearization in Latin America, by means of the compromise to maintain for ever their territories free of nuclear weapons, and to use only for pacific applications the nuclear material and plants settled in the Region [es

  15. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  16. A comparison of contributions from the Aztec cities of Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan to the bird chapter of the Florentine Codex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Haemig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Florentine Codex is a Renaissance-era illuminated manuscript that contains the earliest-known regional work on the birds of México. Its Nahuatl language texts and scholia (the latter later incorporated into its Spanish texts were written in the 1560s by Bernardino de Sahagún’s research group of elite native Mexican scholars in collaboration with Aztecs from two cities: Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlan. In the present study, I compared the contributions from these two cities and found many differences. While both cities contributed accounts and descriptions of land and water birds, those from Tlatelolco were mainly land birds, while those from Tenochtitlan were mainly water birds. Tlatelolco contributed over twice as many bird accounts as Tenochtitlan, and supplied the only information about medicinal uses of birds. Tenochtitlan peer reviewed the Tlatelolco bird accounts and improved many of them. In addition, Tenochtitlan contributed all information on bird abundance and most information about which birds were eaten and not eaten by humans. Spanish bird names appear more frequently in the Aztec language texts from Tenochtitlan. Content analysis of the Tenochtitlan accounts suggests collaboration with the water folk Atlaca (a prehistoric lacustrine culture and indigenous contacts with Spanish falconers. The Renaissance-era studies of Sahagún’s research group, on a now lost island in the formerly vast, bird-rich wetlands of the Valley of México, constitute the birth of Mexican ornithology and, coincidently, give the history of Mexican ornithology a distinctive, Aztlán-like beginning, significantly different from the ornithological histories of neighboring countries.

  17. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  18. The third review conference of the parties of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and recent developments concerning international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Richter, B.; Schlupp, C.; Stein, G.

    1986-11-01

    The non-proliferation activities and instruments are listed in a table. The two main instruments are the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAEA Safeguards, which are supplemented by treaties of regional restricted effects, such as the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the EURATOM treaty. The two-tier structure of the treaties, i.e. to provide for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and at the same time foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has proven to have a particularly stabilizing effect, which was confirmed by the last Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation. The conference members were particularly satisfied with the results of the IAEA Safeguards. Future developments towards improving international safeguards will concentrate on operator-friendly and financially reasonable safeguards measures, such as safeguards effectiveness evaluations and near-real-time accountancy. The results of the CAS discussions on the definition of principles and goals of co-operation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are of importance also to the PUNE conference. The PUNE conference will be held in 1987 and is expected to yield points of orientation for further embedding the non-proliferation principle in the international co-operative activities and the nuclear business in the 1980s. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  20. The INF Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S.-Soviet agreement to eliminate intermediate-range (500-5,000 kilometers) nuclear weapons, known as the INF Treaty, was signed on December 8, 1987, and ratified by the Senate on May 27, 1988. Although the actual negotiation of the agreement has a long and fractious history, its ratification was swift and won the support of all but five members of the U.S. Senate. As the first agreement between the two sides to eliminate --- rather than simply reduce or constrain --- an entire class of weapons, the INF Treaty is popularly believed to be a major arms control success story. It was the first U.S.-Soviet arms control treaty to be ratified by the Senate since 1972, when the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty was approved. This paper discusses the INF Treaty which owes its genesis to a decision taken by the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) alliance in the last months of the Carter administration to deploy new nuclear weapons in Europe

  1. Nuclear energy and non-proliferation in Latin America: the constitution of Tlatelolco system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armanet, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear energy as alternative energy resource and its military use are analysed. Then the main characteristics of the Tratelolco treaty and non-proliferation in Latin America are discussed. Finally the importance of the nuclear-weapons-free zone in Latin America is shown. (A.B.T.) [pt

  2. The positive side of Lisbon Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty or Reform Treaty represent in brief the current position of the European Union member states towards the idea of European economic integration. One important characteristic of this Lisbon Treaty is the fact that it amends at the same time two previous treaties, namely the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Communities.

  3. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  4. Intelligence and treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    What did the intelligence community and the Intelligence Committee di poorly in regard to the treaty ratification process for arms control? We failed to solve the compartmentalization problem/ This is a second-order problem, and, in general, analysts try to be very open; but there are problems nevertheless. There are very few, if any, people within the intelligence community who are cleared for everything relevant to our monitoring capability emdash short of probably the Director of Central Intelligence and the president emdash and this is a major problem. The formal monitoring estimates are drawn up by individuals who do not have access to all the information to make the monitoring judgements. This paper reports that the intelligence community did not present a formal document on either Soviet incentives of disincentives to cheat or on the possibility of cheating scenarios, and that was a mistake. However, the intelligence community was very responsive in producing those types of estimates, and, ultimately, the evidence behind them in response to questions. Nevertheless, the author thinks the intelligence community would do well to address this issue up front before a treaty is submitted to the Senate for advice and consent

  5. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  6. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  7. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  8. The European Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boege, U.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of the treaty is highlighted. The treaty consists of a preamble and 50 articles and is divided into 8 parts and supplemented with 14 annexes. The parts of the treaty deal with the following: (i) definitions and purpose of the treaty; (ii) general topics such as trading, competition, transit, technology transfer and access to capital markets; (iii) support and protection of investments; (iv) list of regulations; (v) resolution of disputes; (vi) provisional clauses governing trade with GATT non-member states; (vii) structural and institutional provisions concerning the execution and function of the protocol, tasks of the Charter conference and secretariat including their equipment, rules of conduct and financing; and (viii) final provisions. (J.B.)

  9. Law approving the modifications to the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America Treaty (Tlatelolco Treaty), adopted by the General Opanal Conference, dated on July 3 1990, May 10 1991 and August 26 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Tries about the military denuclearization in Latin America, by means of the compromise to maintain, for ever, their territories free of nuclear weapons, and to use the nuclear material and plants settled in the Region only for peaceful uses [es

  10. The New START Treaty: a necessary or obsolete treaty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekovich, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In a first part, the author evokes the discussions between the Republicans and the Democrats about the fact that President Obama said to President Medvedev he would have more flexibility to negotiate with Russia after the elections of 2012, whereas there is some controversy about the importance of US antimissile defence in terms of national security when Russia keeps on supporting dangerous states like Syria, North Korea and Iran. In a second part, he briefly recalls the objectives and content of the previous START treaties, outlines that START II is already obsolete, that which lead to a new approach called New START by the White House. Then, while noticing critics and evoking other treaties, he discusses the arguments for or against such a new treaty which is perceived as either only cosmetic or decisive. He comments ambiguities, ulterior motives, perceptions and strategic approaches of the different actors whether they are Russians or Americans. He finally outlines some measures of this New Treaty which may jeopardize positive expectations regarding the reduction of strategic weapons and the antimissile defence

  11. South Pacific nuclear free zone treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Treaty of Rarotonga creates a ''nuclear-free'', rather than a ''nuclear-weapon-free'', zone. The former term was chosen for a number of reasons. It was the intention of the signatories to the Treaty to keep the region free of the stationing of nuclear weapons, nuclear testing and environmental pollution by radioactive waste. Moreover, they wished to prohibit all types of nuclear explosions. Accordingly, the operative articles of the Treaty refer consistently to ''nuclear explosive devices'', a term which is interpreted to cover all such devices, irrespective of the purpose (military or peaceful) stated for their use. The Final Document of the first special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament, unanimously adopted by the Assembly in 1978, states that nuclear-weapon-free zones should be established on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and taking into account the region's characteristics, and that the process of establishing such zones in different parts of the world should be encouraged with the ultimate objective of achieving a world entirely free of nuclear weapons. The members of the South Pacific Forum concluded the Treaty of Rarotonga as a step in that process

  12. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  14. Australia: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Model Treaty text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The scope of the proposed Treaty includes the following: Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control; each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion

  15. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  16. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  17. Citizenship of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely MILITARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in two parts. The first part covers history, "Union citizenship, according to previous Treaties Lisbon Treaty, and the second refers to the privileges which they have as citizens of the Union Treaty as a result of reforming the European Union, referring to documents on which this Treaty adhere it recognizes as having the same legal force, treaties, (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

  18. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  19. Nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Taking into account the devastation that a nuclear war would inflict upon mankind, and the resulting need to do all that is in our power to keep such a tragedy from occuring, as well as to implement measures to safeguard all the peoples' safety, each State that owns nuclear weapons and that is a part of the Treaty pledges not to trade nuclear weapons, other explosive devices nor the control over such instruments to any other entity whatsoever, wether directly or indirectly. Likewise, all States that does not posses any nuclear weaponry and that are part of the Treaty, in turn pledge not to receive from any other entity nuclear weaponry or other explosive devices in trade, wether directly or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire this fashion of weaponry and not to request or accept any help whatsoever in the manufacturing of nuclear weaponry or related devices. The present Treaty remains open to the subscription of other countries, on July 26, 1968, with Mexico as one of the signatory countries

  20. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepon, M.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  1. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  2. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  3. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Socioeconomic Data and Application Center (SEDAC) Treaty Status Dataset contains comprehensive treaty information for multilateral environmental agreements,...

  4. The European Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1996-01-01

    The history, purpose, scope and the main topics of the treaty are highlighted. Special attention is paid on problems of trading, competition, transit, technology transfer and access to capital markets; support and protection of investments; resolution of disputes; provisional clauses governing trade with GATT non-member states; structural and institutional provisions concerning the execution and function of the protocol, tasks of the Charter conference and secretariat including their equipment, rules of conduct and financing. The Charter is setting up a framework for co-operation, trade and investment in energy products and services with countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, based on principles of free-markets and non-discrimination

  5. EUROATOM-treaty and intergovernmental conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2007-01-01

    On June 26, 2007 the European Council decided under the chairmanship of the Head of State of the German Government, Angela Merkel, to work out a ''Reform Treaty'' for the European Union. The current version of the ''Reform Treaty'' and the Intergovernmental Conference are a successful result of the German and French policy for Europe. The process will be continued under the Portuguese chairmanship of the European Union. The ''Reform Treaty'' includes a special separate energy chapter. The chapter includes targets for an EU-energy policy as well as targets for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Furthermore special technical topics of a revision of the EURATOM-Treaty are mentioned. General revisions of the EURATOM-Treaty or a special Intergovernmental Conference on the EURATOM-Treaty are not expected. Maybe, the European Parliament will get more competence in some parts of decision making processes. Due to the differing views on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the EU member states a revision of the EUROATOM-Treaty is more unlikely expected. (orig.)

  6. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in late May 1972 former President Richard M. Nixon went to Moscow and signed, among other documents, a Treaty to Limit Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Systems. Under this agreement, both the United States and the Soviet Union made a commitment not to build nationwide ABM defenses against the other's intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. They agreed to limit ABM deployments to a maximum of two sites, with no more than 100 launchers per site. Thirteen of the treaty's sixteen articles are intended to prevent any deviation from this. In addition, a joint Standing Consultative Commission to monitor compliance was created. National technical means --- sophisticated monitoring devices on land, sea, and in space --- were to be the primary instruments used to monitor compliance with the treaty. The ABM Treaty was signed in conjunction with an Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense and ABM Treaty Limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Brian

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. must critically evaluate our current ballistic missile defense (BMD) strategy. In today's geostrategic context, is it sound strategy to continue to impose 1972 ABM Treaty restrictions on BMD systems development...

  8. Analysis of the Interactions between Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    PROVISIONS Assist ana protect against chemical weapons UIVERSALITY Research, share/exchange chemi- cals, equipment, information rela. Not applicable ting...liability in the event of injury to a Soviet inspector. U.S. escorts maintain the right to prevent Soviet inspectors from undertaking life ...updated continually through notifications for the life of the Treaty and in total at periodic intervals. The START Treaty requires a myriad of

  9. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  10. Nuclear-weapon-free zones: Pursuing security, region by region. Conference of States Parties and Signatories of treaties that establish nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nuclear-weapon-free zones, over the past four decades, is a testament to what nations can do, region by region, to achieve common security objectives. In fact, when considering the history of nuclear non-proliferation efforts, it might be said that here in Mexico City is w here it all began . The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first multilateral treaty to establish a region free of nuclear weapons and a requirement for comprehensive IAEA safeguards for its parties - and clearly gave impetus to the conclusion of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Nuclear-weapon-free zones provide tangible security benefits. They help to reassure the larger international community of the peaceful nuclear intentions of countries in these regions. They provide their members with security assurances against the use, or threat of use, of nuclear weapons by a nuclear-weapon State. They include control mechanisms for dealing with non-compliance in a regional setting. And in all cases, they prohibit the development, stationing or testing of nuclear weapons in their respective regions. An important benefit of these zones is that they open a forum for expanded regional dialogue on issues of security. Because the causes of insecurity vary from region to region, security solutions do not come in a 'one-size-fits-all' package. It is for this reason that regional dialogues, as we see in the nuclear-weapon-free zones, are so beneficial. It is clear that such treaties, and such security dialogues, would be invaluable in other areas of the world, such as the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. Since the end of the Cold War, the international security landscape has undergone dramatic changes. For example, the rise in terrorism, the discovery of clandestine nuclear programmes, and the emergence of covert nuclear procurement networks have heightened our awareness of vulnerabilities in the nuclear non-proliferation regime. This statement focuses on two issues

  11. The Euratom Treaty v. Treaties of the European Union: limits of competence and interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptasekaite, Rasa

    2011-07-15

    The main aim of this research was to analyse the interaction between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in certain specific fields - environmental nuclear liability, transport of radioactive substances and common market (free movement of goods, competition law and state aid). However, before doing that, certain introduction to regulation of the Euratom Treaty, its special features and the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty seemed beneficial. Therefore, the research consists of two parts - the introduction to the Euratom Treaty and the assessment of the relation between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in the areas mentioned above. The conclusions related to each of the areas are presented in the end of each chapter while the general conclusions of the research are provided in the end. The literature used in the research include legislative and non-legislative acts of the Euratom Community and the European Union, Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union, publications of various researchers and internet resources.

  12. The Euratom Treaty v. Treaties of the European Union: limits of competence and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptasekaite, Rasa

    2011-07-01

    The main aim of this research was to analyse the interaction between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in certain specific fields - environmental nuclear liability, transport of radioactive substances and common market (free movement of goods, competition law and state aid). However, before doing that, certain introduction to regulation of the Euratom Treaty, its special features and the changes made by the Lisbon Treaty seemed beneficial. Therefore, the research consists of two parts - the introduction to the Euratom Treaty and the assessment of the relation between the Euratom Treaty and the TFEU in the areas mentioned above. The conclusions related to each of the areas are presented in the end of each chapter while the general conclusions of the research are provided in the end. The literature used in the research include legislative and non-legislative acts of the Euratom Community and the European Union, Judgements of the Court of Justice of the European Union, publications of various researchers and internet resources

  13. The Emergence of Denmark’s Tax Treaty Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2018-01-01

    This contribution analyzes the origin and creation of Denmark’s tax treaty network in a historical perspective. The development of the Danish treaty network is studied through an international perspective and by discussing a number of milestone events. It is concluded that the general tendency has...... pointed toward a continuously growing Danish treaty network and also that the question on abuse of the treaties has become of greater concern during the past decades. Moreover, it is argued that the growing number and importance of Denmark’s tax treaties over time created a need for the Danish parliament...... to be more directly involved in the conclusion of new tax treaties...

  14. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  15. Impending revision of the euratom treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahl, G.

    1979-01-01

    The decision by the European Court of Justice in the matter of the EEC's participation in international negotiations on safety problems of the nuclear fuel cycle is of basic importance, beyond the case to which it referred, in the interpretation of the respective provisions of the Euratom Treaty in the nuclear fuel sector. The reasoning of the European Court of Justice, which constitutes a reinforcement and advancement of the responsibilities and rights of the EEC, has made France ask for a revision of the Treaty. (orig.) [de

  16. Gradualism in Tax Treaties with Irreversible Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chisik; Ronald B. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral international tax treaties govern the host country taxation for the vast majority of the world’s foreign direct investment (FDI). Of particular interest is the fact that the tax rates used under these treaties are gradually falling although the treaties themselves do not specify any such reductions. Since there is no outside governing agency to redress treaty violations, such reductions must be both mutually beneficial and self-enforcing. Furthermore, the optimal tax rates must be l...

  17. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  18. Digital Storytelling for Historical Understanding: Treaty Education for Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Katia; Lewis, Patrick; Kreuger, Claire; Naytowhow, Joseph; Tupper, Jennifer; Couros, Alec; Montgomery, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project that sought to interrogate the possibilities of digital storytelling as a pathway towards a more complete understanding of treaties and the treaty relationship in western Canada. This research is situated in the province of Saskatchewan, where treaty education (that is, education about the…

  19. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblat, Jozef.

    1990-01-01

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  20. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  1. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  2. Enhanced Cooperation under the Lisbon Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced cooperation is often regarded as being a way out of EU decision-making deadlock and as a major possibility of proceeding with European integration in selected areas. Although the mechanism has been in place since the Treaty of Amsterdam, enhanced cooperation has only recently become a

  3. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  4. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  5. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  7. Tax treaty entitlement issues concerning dual residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, D.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a dual resident taxpayer is entitled to tax treaties concluded by each residence state with a third state has been controversial. Since 2008, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Commentary on Article 4(1) of the OECD Model states that such a

  8. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  9. Rome, Saguntum and the Ebro Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eckstein

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Pol. III 14, 9-10 makes it possible to argue that Rome's amicitia with Saguntum may have antedated the death of Hamilcar Barca, and so was no provocative innovation of the late 220's B. C. It is also unlikely that Rome's ties with Saguntum were affected by the terms of the Ebro Treaty of ca. 226, while Rome's right to such ties had a legal basis in the «Spanish terms» of the Roman-Punic Treaty of 348. It thus appears that in the late 220's it was Hannibal (not Rome who was seeking to change the existing status quo south of the Ebro.

  10. Treaty aids 'detensioning of southern Africa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, W.

    1991-01-01

    South Africa's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is a significant step forward in trading non-weapons related nuclear technology with other world powers. In an interview with Dr Waldo Stumpf, chief executive officer of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, the impact of this decision on the Corporation and the whole of southern Africa is discussed

  11. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  12. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  13. "We are taking you to attend the birth of history": Tlatelolco in Carlos Fuentes' Los 68: París, Praga, México and Roberto Bolaño's Amuleto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Domingo Amestoy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar la novela de Roberto Bolaño Amuleto (1999 y en particular su interés por el límite de una resistencia política. En este estudio se yuxtapone la descripción en la novela de la masacre en Tlatelolco con la obra de Carlos Fuentes Los 68: París, Praga, México (2005, y su uso tanto de la memoria no ficcional de París en 1968 como el recuento ficcional de lo sucedido en Tlatelolco. Este artículo intenta demostrar cómo en Los 68 se intenta recuperar un tipo de subjetividad cuyos imaginarios utópicos definían los años sesenta, y cómo el uso de alegoría en Amuleto marca el vaciamiento de ese imaginario.This paper analyzes Roberto Bolaño’s Amuleto (1999, and in particular its interest in the cotemporary limits of political resistance. The essay subsequently juxtaposes the novel’s depiction of the massacre at Tlateloco with Carlos Fuentes’ Los 68: Paris, Praga, México (2005, and its use of both a non-fictional memoir of Paris in 1968 and a fictionalized account of Tlateloco. Ultimately, this essay demonstrates how Los 68 attempts to recuperate a kind of subjectivity in which utopian imaginaries defined the 1960s, but which Amuleto’s mobilization of allegory reveals as emptied out.

  14. Does Investment Treaty Affect the Improvement on FDI?

    OpenAIRE

    Eunsook Seo

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes how investment treaty affects investment creation. Analysis results show that investment treaty could not directly affect the increase in investment with the form of investment agreement contradicting and the opening of investment treaty countries have increased a great deal of investment. Contracting the investment agreement means to ultimately improve the investment environment such as policy transparency, simplification of administration, and the simplification or the cl...

  15. Kajian Perbandingan Tax Treaty Model: OECD, UN, dan US

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmawati, Dyna

    2003-01-01

    The needs of tax treaty arise as International trade growth rapidly due to advancement of information technology. Taxa imposed on income derived from International trade are double. Tax treaty or tax convention is bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. This agreement arranges taxation rights. There are 3 (three) tax treaty model, which is used as reference to make bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. The first one is OECD Model made by The OECD...

  16. Experience in non-proliferation verification: The Treaty of Raratonga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The verification provisions of the Treaty of Raratonga are subdivided into two categories: those performed by IAEA and those performed by other entities. A final provision of the Treaty of Raratonga is relevant to IAEA safeguards according to support of the continued effectiveness of the international non-proliferation system based on the Non-proliferation Treaty and the IAEA safeguards system. The non-IAEA verification process is described as well

  17. Innovation in Justice and Security by Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myzafer ELEZI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is a legal package which includes previous treaties, starting from the year 1957, following the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Nice in 2001, summarized in a single text that introduces a number of changes of the way how the European Union works, in order to make it more efficient for its citizens. This Treaty converts the European Union for the first time in a single entity, unifying pillars of its activities which are as follows: the European Communities, Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters, which so far only the European Communities had the status of judicial person. It modifies the Treaty of European Union, created by the European Union and the Treaty created by the European Community, which is in power, but do not replace them. The new Treaty gives the EU the legal framework, and necessary tools to face the future challenges and to respond to its citizen’s perspectives. The Conference will introduce all the innovations that the Treaty of Lisbon brings not only in the field of security and foreign policy of the EU, but also in those related to police and judicial cooperation regarding criminal matters.

  18. The Treaty of Maastricht and energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.; Pielow, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1993 a German-Spanish colloquy on topical questions of community law as well as national and supra-national energy law was held at the Institute of Mining and Energy Law at Bochum. Discussions centered around the constitutional issues surrounding the treaty establishing the European Union of 7th February 1992, which came into force on 1st November 1993, and its implications for the national regulatory systems in the energy economy. Against this background the most recent developments in energy law and energy policy in Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany were described. (orig./HP) [de

  19. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  20. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  1. The CFE Treaty and changed conditions in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    The Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed in November 1990 by sixteen nations, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and six nations, members of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO). It was resigned to prevent a major surprise attack in Europe by the conventional forces of one Treaty Organization against those of the other and was the first major arms control treaty to address conventional weapons. This paper focuses on how CFE adapted to changes in the military-political situation in Europe which occurred after 1990 and failed to adapt to others. Suggestions are offered on how it might be changed to make it more relevant under these changed conditions.

  2. Why we should let the Lisbon treaty rest in peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Should the Irish be forced to vote again on the recently rejected Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum? The diplomatic signals coming from Brussels suggest that the Irish will be asked to solve the problem themselves using the Danish/Irish model of sending the same treaty with some clarifications...... on sensitive issues to a second vote. EU governments must therefore seriously consider in the coming days whether the Lisbon Treaty is really worth the risk of continuing the ratification process and forcing the Irish to vote again.  Given the modest nature of the reforms in the Treaty and evidence showing...... that the EU-27 actually is able to function under the current rules, governments should back away from talk of a serious crisis facing the EU in the event of non-ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. If they choose to press forward ratification and force the Irish to vote again on the more-or-less the same...

  3. World status: the Climate Change Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Last month, 153 countries signed a legally binding treaty to stabilise atmospheric emissions at 1990 levels, at various target dates. The USA refused to put a time limit on its stabilisation period, but nonetheless the fact that so many nations signed was regarded as one of the triumphs of Rio conference. Yet for all the apparent over-kill, Rio had one very important message for energy producers: controlling emissions is going to dominate the global agenda for the next twenty years. The rearguard action being waged by many producers to the effect that global warming does not exist, or is not as bad as we thought, is not going to kill the fundamental legislative effort that has now started. (Author)

  4. Trade treaties and alcohol advertising policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Restrictions on alcohol advertising are vulnerable to challenge under international trade agreements. As countries negotiate new trade treaties and expand the scope of existing ones, the risk of such a challenge increases. While alcohol advertising restrictions normally do not distinguish between foreign and domestic products, this neutral character does not protect them from being challenged under trade rules. The article analyzes four provisions of trade agreements--expropriation, de facto discrimination, market access, and necessity--in relation to the jeopardy they pose for alcohol advertising restrictions. Key cases are reviewed to illustrate how these provisions have been used to either overturn existing advertising restrictions or prevent new ones from coming into force. The article also reports on the mixed results governments have had in trying to justify their regulations to trade panels and the stringent criteria imposed for proving that a regulation is "necessary."

  5. Mitigation incentives with climate finance and treaty options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Future greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation action of current non-climate-policy (NP) countries is considered to take two alternative forms: 1) “climate finance” payments received in return for future reductions in its GHG emissions below a defined “baseline”; and 2) join a “climate treaty” whereby the required emissions reductions are formally binding. It is assumed that baselines defining climate finance payments, and required emissions reductions under a treaty, depend positively on current emissions. It is then shown that making such future options available reduces current GHG mitigation in NP countries, leading to higher emissions in the short run. This effect is stronger when future climate finance payments are higher; the required relative emissions reductions under a treaty are greater; when commitments under a treaty are longer-lasting; and mitigation targets depend more on current emissions. Such short-run increases in emissions can (sometimes, more than) fully eliminate the effect of the subsequent policy. When climate finance and treaties are both future alternatives, more generous climate finance can make it harder and more expensive to induce the country to join a climate treaty. - Highlights: • A good future climate finance arrangement can increase GHG emissions today. • The same can be the case with a future and restrictive climate treaty. • These can be problems when costs under such solutions are reduced by higher emissions today. • Better climate finance also tends to make joining a climate treaty less attractive.

  6. THE LISBON TREATY- LINK BETWEEN PARTICIPATIVE DEMOCRACY AND ADMINISTRATIVE MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosie Irina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paperwork examines briefly, the implications it carries on the Lisbon Treaty, the organizational, institutional and decision-making level in the current context of the European Union, included in the reform process. It is important to mention that the European Union's desire is to assign a new role, upwards of national parliaments it is materialized with the new regulation of the Lisbon Treaty. This creates premises to develop a common foreign policy, providing Member States and Community institutions the chance to creatively use new opportunities. The Treaty encourages participative democracy and citizen participation with implications in decision-making efficiency gains.

  7. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  8. The Efficacy of Water Treaties in the Eastern Nile Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhibegezer Ferede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyse the efficacy of the water treaties of the Nile in light of the principles of international law. The following critical examination of the treaties brings to light numerous legal defects associated with fraud, coercion, exclusivity and the deficiency of many of the precepts of the international law. Moreover, the lower riparian states’ advocacy for the succession of colonial treaties, which is branded as the re-affirmation of colonialism, is found to be incompatible with the principles of the clean-slate theory adopted by the upper riparian states. Therefore, the region lacks an efficacious regime that could address the interests of all riparian states.

  9. 78 FR 75251 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...-2013-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Correction AGENCY: United States... Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) that... practice in patent cases for consistency with the changes in the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) and provisions of...

  10. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

  11. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  12. Tax Treaties and EC Law : Development, Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Muren, Gustaf; Krohn, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Double taxation treaties play a vital part in the international relations between states regarding taxation matters. Since double taxation can occur as soon as a person has income in more than one state, it is very important that there can be effective remedies to the problems that can occur in these situations. Double taxation treaties are necessary in most situations created by international trade and they are even more important in such a free flowing economic co-operation such as the EU, ...

  13. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  14. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the statement of the Director General of the IAEA to the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, New York, 24 April 2000. The speech focus on the IAEA activities relevant to the implementation of the Treaty, namely: verification through the IAEA safeguards, peaceful nuclear co-operation in the field of human health, food and agriculture, water resources management, environmental pollution monitoring, training

  15. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given

  16. Committees and groups related to the EURATOM treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.R. [comp.] [Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    The EURATOM Treaty has not been modified since its creation (Rome, 25 March 1957) but has simply been adapted to take account of the fusion of the executive bodies of the three original European Treaties and the enlargement with new Member States. The EURATOM Treaty is in existence simultaneously with the 1992 Maastricht Treaty. No changes in the EURATOM Treaty that influence the practical working conditions were brought about in the 1997 intergovernmental conference. This edition of the survey of groups related to the EURATOM Treaty is an update of earlier versions issued in Danish language. It is sponsored by the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) in conjunction with the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The main purpose is to informally provide those circles in the Nordic countries who want to get acquainted with the groups involved in work related to EURATOM with a simplified overview. The present edition is not different from earlier issues in that it contains an outline without the intent to go into details, and without the ambition to be complete. It thus does not represent an official picture of the committees and groups. Nor should it be seen as an organisation chart of related Commission services. The information is mostly based on personal contacts with persons having knowledge from work with the groups in question. The author would be grateful for corrections and suggestions in order to improve the picture given. 15 figs.

  17. US Investment Treaties and Labor Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Ho Kim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.

  18. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-04

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  19. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  20. Disposition scenarios and safeguardability of fissile materials under START Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) signed in 1991 and the Lisbon Protocol of 1992, a large inventory of fissile materials will be removed from the weapons fuel cycles of the United States and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The Lisbon Protocol calls for Ukraine, Kazakstan, and Byelarus to become nonnuclear members of the treaty and for Russia to assume the responsibility of the treaty as a nuclear weapons state. In addition, the START-II Treaty, which was signed in 1993 by the United States and Russia, further reduces deployed nuclear warheads and adds to the inventory of excess special nuclear materials (SNM). Because storage of in-tact warheads has the potential for a open-quotes breakout,close quotes it would be desirable to dismantle the warheads and properly dispose of the SNMs under appropriate safeguards to prevent their reentry into the weapons fuel cycle. The SNM recovered from dismantled warheads can be disposed of in several ways, and the final choices may be up to the country having the title to the SNM. Current plans are to store them indefinitely, leaving serious safeguards concerns. Recognizing that the underlying objective of these treaties is to prevent the fissile materials from reentering the weapons fuel cycle, it is necessary to establish a verifiable disposal scheme that includes safeguards requirements. This paper identifies some realistic scenarios for the disposal of SNM from the weapons fuel cycle and examines the safeguardability of those scenarios

  1. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  2. Rush-Bagot and the upkeep of arms treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, B.

    1991-01-01

    Signing an arms treaty after a long negotiation brings a great sense of completion, but that is only the beginning. Living under a treaty - implementing it, resolving different interpretations and compliance disputes, adapting it to changed times - is itself a continuing negotiating process. Handling this process poorly can greatly undermine the original agreement. But nurturing a treaty properly can strengthen it and keep it effective in new circumstances. The history of the Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817, which limited warships on the Great Lakes, provides examples of many of the problems that can come up. It was violated, subjected to proportional responses, threatened with unilateral reinterpretation and abrogation, modified by executive agreement, and violated again. It proved hard to kill, but ultimately these successive traumas compromised its purpose and value. Indeed, continual threats and violations worsened the rancor between the US and Canada. Today, what influence the agreement still has on restraining armaments on the lakes flows mainly from its symbolism; although the agreement remains in force, none of its original provisions are currently observed. In many ways - violations, untenable reinterpretations, proposals for proportionate responses, claims of technological obsolescence - the Rush-Bagot experience foreshadowed the Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty's troubles over the past decade. But the ABM Treaty's drafters built in provisions to deal with such problems. The Rush-Bagot experience offers lessons for managing today's accords - but largely lessons in what not to do

  3. Indonesia ratifies the treaty on non proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moendi Poernomo

    1979-01-01

    By Act no. 8 of 1978 Indonesia ratified the treaty on the non proliferation of nuclear weapons. This means that Indonesia became a party to the treaty. Ratification does not guarantee that Indonesia will automatically obtain assistance in developing its nuclear technology capability, but in this way at least Indonesia demonstrates its intention to promote world peace as clearly stated in the Main Guide Lines of State Policy. Development of nuclear technology can be achieved through international cooperation with advanced countries without being suspected of having intention other than peace. (author)

  4. Previewing the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomper, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite groundbreaking disarmament pledges and substantial effort, the Obama administration's hopes for a successful Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference may not be fully realised. Many developing countries are in no mood to grant new non-proliferation concessions, such as tightened rules on access to sensitive nuclear technologies, tougher inspection rules, or limits on withdrawing from the treaty. The non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain angered by the failure to move forward on many disarmament commitments pledged at the 1995 and 2000 Conferences. Moreover, progress on disarmament measures under Obama has been slower than hoped, as he faces considerable scepticism in Washington about his strategy. (author)

  5. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    article-by-article analysis can be found at http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /newstart/c44126.htm. 2 For a brief summary of the original START Treaty, as...2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/224236.htm . The fact sheet does not display warhead subtotals for each delivery system; it only includes an...of Strategic Offensive Forces, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, April 1, 2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/228652.htm. The New START Treaty: Central

  6. A climate treaty and the Norwegian economy: A CGE assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendemoen, A.; Vennemo, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of an international climate treaty on a single country-Norway. A disaggregate computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used. We discuss the treaty's effects on main macroeconomic indicators, economic growth, distributional impacts, the impact on pollutant emissions other than CO 2 , and the secondary benefits of this reduction. The results suggest that CO 2 emissions will decrease compared to the current level. The distributional impacts are modest. Increases in secondary benefits recoup almost one half of the loss in private consumption. We characterize the uncertainty of this estimate. 21 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. The impact of endogenous tax treaties on foreign direct investment: theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Mario Larch; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of tax treaties on bilateral stocks of outward FDI. For this purpose we employ a numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms to study the impact of tax treaties on both welfare and outward FDI. The model indicates under which factor endowment configurations countries gain in welfare when implementing a tax treaty. This motivates an empirical specification of the endogenous selection into implementing new tax treaties. Usin...

  8. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  9. 78 FR 24780 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application ACTION: Notice of request for public comment. SUMMARY: The... Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: OMB-1405-0101... Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investors. Estimated Number of Respondents: 17...

  10. A treaty banning nuclear weapons and its implications for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven, O.; van der Meer, S.

    2015-01-01

    International support for a new multilateral treaty banning nuclear weapons is increasing. What implications would such a treaty have for the Netherlands? This policy brief describes the legal and political context of such a treaty and examines the implications of two scenarios: one in which the

  11. The Lisbon Treaty and the role of the European Parliament in the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, the European Council commissioned an intergovernmental conference to draft a 'treaty of reform' of the European Union. The wording of the treaty was signed by the heads of state and government of the member countries on December 13, 2007. The ongoing process of ratification in the 27 EU member countries is to be completed before the next elections to the European Parliament in June 2009. The treaty is now referred to as 'Lisbon Treaty'. The Lisbon Treaty (Treaty Amending the Treaty about the European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community) does not replace the European Treaties currently in force, but merely amends them. Also the 'Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)' is amended in this way. On the basis of the contributions about 'The German Presidency Program of the Council Working Group on Nuclear Issues - an Interim Report' (W. Sandtner and S. Thomas) and 'Euratom Treaty and Intergovernmental Conference' (S. Thomas), current links to the Euratom Treaty with potential amendments are presented and commented upon. (orig.)

  12. Tracing the Origins of the Netherlands’ Tax Treaty Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Evers (Maikel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis contribution identifies the main determinants and key persons that constituted the tax treaty policy of the Netherlands. This policy is rooted in the political chess games in 19th century mainland Europe. In this century, European states gained experience in negotiating trade and

  13. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner. Using panel data for ...

  14. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...(s) and, insofar as possible, with tribal consensus. [66 FR 44987, Aug. 27, 2001] ...

  15. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  16. The Treaty of Lisbon and European Environmental Law and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, H.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution analyses the effects of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon for European environmental law and policy. The central conclusion is that, apart from the new numbering and some new names for procedures and institutions, this does not entail any major changes. The new Energy

  17. 76 FR 72245 - Implementation of Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... equipment sold under a contract in the amount of $25,000,000 or more (currently required for amounts of $14... equipment sold under a contract in the amount in the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia and the Defense Trade...

  18. Algorithms for the Network Analysis of Bilateral Tax Treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Polak (Sven)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this thesis we conduct a network analysis of bilateral tax treaties. We are given tax data of 108 countries. Companies often send money from country to country via indirect routes, because then the tax that must be paid might be lower. In the thesis we will study the most important

  19. Bounded Rationality and the Diffusion of Modern Investment Treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    insights on cognitive heuristics. In line with recent work on policy diffusion, it suggests that a bounded rationality framework has considerable potential to explain why, and how, developing countries have adopted modern investment treaties. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the case of South...

  20. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Dudeney

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of the original 12 Treaty signatories, consisting of the seven claimant nations, the USA and Russia, not only set the political agenda for the continent but also provide most of the science, with those CPs producing the most science generally having the greatest political influence. None of the later signatories to the Treaty appear to play a major role in managing Antarctica compared with this group, with half of all CPs collectively producing only 7% of the policy papers. Although acceptance as a CP requires demonstration of a substantial scientific programme, the Treaty has no formal mechanism to review whether a CP continues to meet this criterion. As a first step to addressing this deficiency, we encourage the CPs collectively to resolve to hold regular international peer reviews of their individual science programmes and to make the results available to the other CPs.

  1. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  2. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  3. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  4. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Thomas [School of Law, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  5. Mainstreaming Investment Treaty Jurisprudence: The Contribution of Investment Treaty Tribunals to the Consolidation and Development of General International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.B.; Tvede, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of internal and external precedent has been studied in relation to numerous international courts and tribunals. The participation of investment treaty tribunals in judicial dialogues or judicial cross-fertilization, by contrast, has remained underexplored. The present article closes this gap

  6. How to strengthen the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1975-01-01

    NPT consists of a complex set of undertakings and obligations, each of which represents in its own right a highly desirable objective that should be pursued whether or not the Treaty itself existed, and irrespective of the success (or lack of it) achieved in pursuit of the other objectives. These objectives are: (a) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to countries other than the five that possessed them at the end of 1966. Obviously, this is the main purpose of the Treaty. It provides the substance of the first three articles and gives the Treaty its name (Arts. I, II, III); (b) to promote international co-operation in developing the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and particularly to help developing countries in this regard (Art. IV); (c) to afford all parties whatever benefits may be derived from the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (Art. V); (d) to pursue negotiations towards the cessation of the arms race, nuclear disarmament and eventually a treaty on general and complete disarmament, 'under strict and effective international control'. Although this is not actually said in the relevant article (Article VI), it is generally considered that this obligation falls particularly upon those parties of the Treaty that are 'Nuclear Weapon States'. (Art. VI) The preambular paragraph regarding the 'determination expressed' by the parties to the Moscow Test Ban Treaty to seek a complete and perpetual discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons, is also relevant to the objective of arms control and disarmament. (Art. VI) Since consummation of each of these objectives is 'devoutly to be wished', in Hamlet's words, there should be no question of bargaining or horse-trading between them. Despite some specious arguments to the contrary, history shows that the possession of superior weapons has never prevented war and a further spread of nuclear weapons must inevitably increase, perhaps in geometrical progression, the likelihood of a nuclear conflict

  7. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  8. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  9. Interactive image and text processing for nuclear treaty support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Wukelic, G.E.; Foote, H.P.

    1991-03-01

    The report covers experimentation with integrating a wide range of technologies and data sets with the principal goal of supporting treaty related activity. Scientists attempting to apply computer analysis tools to their problem sets often face several practical problems beyond the purely scientific ones. These include (1) the need to be proficient in several different computer operating systems with diverse characteristics, (2) the time wasted in dealing with software issues rather than problem solving and (3) the time required to master computer application software, which limits time available to explore new analysis techniques. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a spatial-based data fusion system. Selected features of this system, involving advanced image and text processing schemes, have applicability to both technical and non-technical functions associated with increasing treaty-related information management requirements

  10. Law as Treaties?: The Constitutionality of Congressional-Executive Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    This article seeks to resolve the debate over the use of a statutory method for approving international agreements in place of the supermajority process required by the Constitution's Treaty Clause. These "congressional-executive agreements," which require only simple majorities in Congress and presidential signature, have become the instrument of choice for entry into some of the nation's most significant international obligations, such as the WTO and NAFTA. Some, such as Bruce Ackerman and ...

  11. Leadership in politics and science within the Antarctic Treaty

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Dudeney; David W.H. Walton

    2012-01-01

    For over 50 years the Antarctic has been governed through the Antarctic Treaty, an international agreement now between 49 nations of whom 28 Consultative Parties (CPs) undertake the management role. Ostensibly, these Parties have qualified for their position on scientific grounds, though diplomacy also plays a major role. This paper uses counts of policy papers and science publications to assess the political and scientific outputs of all CPs over the last 18 years. We show that a subset of t...

  12. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  13. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...

  14. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  15. The legacy of the Treaty of Lausanne in the light of Greek-Turkish relations in the twentieth century: Greek perceptions of the Treaty of Lausanne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfetas Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Treaty of Lausanne and the compulsory exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey became the basis both for the reorientation of their foreign policies and for the establishment of close relations of friendship and cooperation between the two countries. But the Cyprus question and the Aegean conflict affected bilateral relations. It had a negative impact on the Treaty of Lausanne.

  16. Analyses on the Possible Brexit through the Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Teodora Andronic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe is facing a social crisis like never before, and this comes just after an economical one. The huge flow of migrants that started crossing into Europe at the end of 2015 was just the straw that broke the camel for Great Britain, because the Brits were threatening to leave the EU for some time. Prime Minister David Cameron has warned his European counterparts that his country might leave if his demands are not met. He clearly affirmed that he wants to stay in the EU, but under different rules. He negotiated a package of reforms, demanding concessions from a frightened Brussels, that has seen almost inevitable the change in some EU treaty terms. The PM used the 2011 European Union Act at the negotiations, document which requires any EU treaty that passes new powers to Brussels to be put to an internal British referendum. On June 23rd there is set a referendum on the country’s membership to the EU. But this amount of uncertainty led to the fall of the pound (reaching its lowest level since 2009, to fear for the investors and furious debates between the political parties. We shall further analyze the Lisbon Treaty, in order to better understand the legislation behind this European-wide tension, and to explain the implications of such an event.

  17. On-site inspections under the INF Treaty. A post-mortem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.

    2001-01-01

    Midnight on 31 May 2001 marked the end of all on-site inspections (OSIs) under the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Signed by the US and the Soviet Union in 1987, the treaty has now come of age and must survive for the rest of its indefinite duration without the security of regular OSIs. The ending of OSIs provides an opportunity to assess the success of this aspect of the verification regime and how the treaty is to be verified without them. The INF Treaty banned all ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometres. It was the first treaty to eliminate a whole class of nuclear weapons and the first nuclear arms control agreement to provide for OSIs. All 2,692 INF missiles were eliminated by May 1991, within the three-year time limit. A further 10 years of OSIs helped provide reassurance of continuing compliance. The treaty will continue to be verified by so-called national technical means, primarily satellites. The Special Verification Commission, set up under the treaty to resolve issues relating to treaty implementation and compliance, will continue to meet when requested by a treaty party. Universal opinion is that the treaty has been successfully verified to date. However, a number of problems were encountered and lessons learned from the experience. In particular, the treaty negotiators proved to have been overly cautious in envisaging how inspections would actually be conducted. One of the main achievements of OSIs under the INF Treaty has been to create a basic model and procedures for inspections which have been adopted in the more complex arms control and disarmament treaties that have followed

  18. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  19. Universalization or abandonment: which perspectives for the INF Treaty? Analysis note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornel, Pierre de

    2008-07-01

    The author discusses the future of the INF Treaty (Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty). This future is directly related to the evolutions of the strategic Russian-American relationship, but also to issues of ballistic proliferation and to related efforts to stem them, and to issues related to access to space. Thus, the author discusses the relationships between the INF Treaty and multilateral instruments of ballistic non proliferation. He discusses the possible perspective of a universalization of the INF Treaty, and the Russian initiative of universalization of the Treaty. He finally addresses the perspectives and stakes of future negotiations within a positive context of support of the USA to this initiative, and of French proposals on short range and medium range missiles. Issues will then concern the implementation of a control system, and of guarantees, the entry into force of the treaty. Obstacles on this way are evoked

  20. The Emergence of Denmark’s Tax Treaty Network — A Historical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyzes the origin and creation of Denmark’s tax treaty network in a historical perspective. The development of the Danish treaty network is studied through an international perspective and by discussing a number of milestone events. It is concluded that the general tendency has pointed toward a continuously growing Danish treaty network and also that the question on abuse of the treaties has become of greater concern during the past decades. Moreover, it is argued that the growing number and importance of Denmark’s tax treaties over time created a need for the Danish parliament to be more directly involved in the conclusion of new tax treaties.

  1. INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE LISBON TREATY: THE SOCIAL ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Abdulla

    2011-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty is an attempt to overcome the difficulties faced in thefunctioning of previous treaties of the European Union. It aims, through itsprovisions, at offering better opportunities for action including the social scope,but the inter-governmental nature of decision-making continues to prevail.This paper focuses on provisions for social policyin the Lisbon Treaty andimportant changes that deal with reforms in this field. More co...

  2. Judicial Decision and Rethinking the Constitutional Principles Concerning Treaty Making Power and Process of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Umpai, Kiarttiphorn

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the treaty making power and process in recent constitutional provisions reforms in Thailand. It aims to analyze whether the constitutional provision has affected the treaty-making crisis. This study relied on the theory of the sovereignty of state exercised by the executive branch in compliance with the treaty making power concept, the separation of powers, and the checks and balances doctrine. The findings revealed that Thailand’s constitutional amendment related t...

  3. A Legal and Economic Analysis of Austria's Double Tax Treaty Network with Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Fuentes Hernandez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To what degree developing countries gain from signing double tax treaties is being hotly debated. In this paper, we analyze the Austrian tax treaty policy. Combining legal and economic perspectives, we find that developing countries are likely to expect both positive and negative impacts from signing a double tax treaty (DTT) with Austria. On the one hand, the results of our econometric analysis suggest that middle-income countries that sign a DTT with Austria may expect an inc...

  4. The Rarotonga treaty: regional approach to non-proliferation in the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitropulos, P.

    1988-01-01

    The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation in the South-Pacific-the Rarotonga treaty - is discussed. The regional approach to the problem of non-proliferation is aimed in a wide sense at the assistance to detante in a certain region and the propagation of measures strengthening confidence there. On December 11, 1975 at the initiative of New Zealand and Fiji the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the nuclear-free zone in the South-Pacific. In compliance with the Rarotonga treaty a large nuclear-free zone is created. The participants of the Rarotonga Treaty assess the values of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  5. The Subsidiarity of International Treaties Against Double Taxation Critical Analysis of French Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho, Anapaula Trindade

    2016-01-01

    The application of tax treaties by national courts around the world is not uniform. Depending on the country where a given taxpayer raised a conflict between the provisions of the national tax rules and the regime provided by a tax treaty, the interpretation of the tax treaty might vary. The result can lead to a situation of double taxation, contrary to the aim of tax treaties. The contribution is about a particular principle of law that the Administrative French Supreme Court, i.e., the “Con...

  6. The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty eight years after the opening of the treaty for signature: what is the situation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, G.; Rousseau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The International community has just celebrated the eight anniversary of the opening for signature, on 24 September 1996, of the Comprehensive Nuclear -test-Ban Treaty (C.T.B.T.). This event provides an opportunity to review briefly the current situation with regard to the Treaty and the international organisation responsible for preparing the various steps necessary for its implementation. The purpose of this paper is not to give once again a detailed description of the history of the Treaty, the issues at stake and its prospects. It is simply recalled that the major undertaking by States Parties to the Treaty is not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. It is also useful to note that the Treaty provides for a verification regime consisting of the following four elements: creation of a permanent International Monitoring system; consultation and clarification procedures to be followed by states in the event of a suspicious occurrence; on-site inspections, carried out at the request of a State Party; confidence-building measures. On the eve of important deadlines particularly during 2005 for disarmament and nonproliferation, it was useful to give a brief factual picture of the current Treaty situation and above all of the results obtained to date by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. (N.C.)

  7. Canadian University Acknowledgment of Indigenous Lands, Treaties, and Peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rima; Duong, Aaron; Kesler, Linc; Ramos, Howard

    2017-02-01

    At many Canadian universities it is now common to publicly acknowledge Indigenous lands, treaties, and peoples. Yet, this practice has yet to be considered as a subject of scholarly inquiry. How does this practice vary and why? In this paper we describe the content and practice of acknowledgment, linking this content to treaty relationships (or lack thereof). We show that acknowledgment tends to be one of five general types: of land and title (British Columbia), of specific treaties and political relationships (Prairies), of multiculturalism and heterogeneity (Ontario), of no practice (most of Quebec), and of people, territory, and openness to doing more (Atlantic). Based on these results, we conclude that the fluidity of acknowledgment as a practice, including changing meanings depending on the positionality of the acknowledger, need to be taken into account. Plusieurs universités Canadien pratique une reconnaissance des territoires, des traités, et des peoples autochtone en publique. Cette pratique, cependant, n'a jamais été considérée comme une enquête savante. Dans ce projet nous regardons comment les reconnaissances varie par institution et pourquoi. Nous trouvons qu'il y a un lien entre le contenu des reconnaissances et les relations traité. On démontre cinq forme des reconnaissances: territoire et titre (Colombie britannique); traité spécifique and les relations politiques (Prairies); multiculturalisme et hétérogénéité (Ontario); l'absence (la majorité du Québec); et des peoples, territoire et volonté a plus faire (Atlantique). Nous concluons que la fluidité de la reconnaissance, comme pratique, est fluide et doit prendre en considération la position de la personne qui le fait. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  8. The Australia-Indonesia Zone of Cooperation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The Australia-Indonesia Zone of Cooperation Treaty heralded the birth of a regime to allow joint development of the petroleum resources in an area where the sea boundary is subject to competing claims. This regime consists of a ministerial council and a joint authority. Eleven production sharing contracts for area A were signed by February 1992. The contractors have committed themselves to an exploration expenditure of at least US$200 million for the period from 1992 to 1994, including the drilling of 23 wells. (author)

  9. The Indo-American Nuclear Treaty: Challenges and Controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    In September 2008 India signed a co-operation agreement on civil nuclear energy with the United States. So doing, it got rid of an embargo that lasted for several decades, due to India's refusal to sign the NPT. This agreement has triggered many political debates in India and in the United States as well. Though the treaty is part of a new general design of the Indian diplomacy, it is very likely that it does not mean that New Delhi has radically changed its views on Washington

  10. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  11. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Withdrawal Clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutherin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Like any international agreement, the NPT includes a withdrawal clause. The North Korean withdrawal, which was announced in 1993 and became effective in 2003, shows how difficult it is to preserve this possibility, while guaranteeing compliance with signed agreements. To achieve this target, two conditions are required: first, enhancing the means by which the reasons for withdrawals can be made clear and second, to allow the Security Council to draw all the consequences of withdrawals that could imply that a treaty has been violated

  12. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  13. The Treaty of Lisbon and the European Border Control Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Takle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The question raised in the article is how the new provisions of the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme concerning the EU’s asylum and migration policy might consolidate existing trends within the European border control regime. The regime is defined by a combination of three features: (i a harmonisation of categories among the EU/Schengen member states, (ii a growing use of new technology in networked databases and (iii an increasing sorting of individuals based on security concerns. Although none of these features is new, the combination gives a new impetus to the European border control regime. The article concludes that the Lisbon Treaty and the Stockholm programme consolidate and strengthen existing trends. This implies that policies on border control, asylum, immigration, judicial cooperation and police cooperation are consolidated in a broader approach to border control, and that there is a strengthening of EU foreign policy within the European border control regime. The boundaries between previously dispersed policy areas are blurred. The combination of different aspects of security and various levels of authority requires coordination of policies with substantially different goals, and goes beyond mere border control.

  14. European Institutional Developments and Evolutions Post‑Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Sorin Dumitrescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims at analysing the main difficulties the European institutions were confronted to and identifying the axes of urgent reforms of the European construction, which are claimed to be applied, immediately, after the recent parliamentary elections from 25 of May together with the installation of the new decision teams in Brussels. While the first part of the article examine the action of the various European institutions within the new constitutional architecture, the second part will cover some axes needed which could be followed by the Union starting with the new term. In the context of the economic and financial crisis, the first European institutional cycle under the terms of the Lisbon Treaty –2009-2014, became an important challenge for the application of the provisions concerning the functioning of the European institutions. An objective assessment of the ways regarding the practical implementation of the Treaty must take into consideration the negative influence of the economic crisis upon the decisions assumed by the high national and European responsibles.

  15. Extradition To and From the United States: Overview of the Law and Recent Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    extradition treaty would unconstitutionally infringe upon the President’s treaty- making power. Id. at 258-259. However, the court avoided striking down...109 F.3d 165, 167-68 (3d Cir. 1997); Abbas v. Department of Homeland Sec., Civil Action No. 09-0169, 2009 WL 2512844, at *3-4 (U.S.W.D.La.,2009

  16. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  17. Role of sustainable development in Bilateral Investment Treaties : Recent trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, international investment law has undergone an explosive growth, which is characterized by the proliferation of Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and a growing number of investment-treaty arbitrations. The effect of BITs on developing countries (host states) can be

  18. Political significance of the CTBT (History, status, relationship with the Pelindaba Treaty, etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onanga-Anyanga, P.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with historical overview, negotiations on CTBT and its adoption, status and verification system of the Treaty, political significance of CTBT and its significance for States signatories in Africa. Separate chapters are devoted to the African region, CTBT Pelindaba Treaty and cooperative prospects and relevance of the CTBT for Africa

  19. The Irish 'no' to the Lisbon Treaty: Ireland's voice and Europe's exit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "no" of the Irish electorate against the Treaty of Lisbon has hit the European elite hard. However, it was not directed against support for the EU as such but rather against a deliberately unintelligible Treaty. Lack of knowledge seems to have played a pivotal role in the voting behaviour, as

  20. 26 CFR 301.6114-1 - Treaty-based return positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relating to elimination of double taxation; (vi) That a nondiscrimination provision of a treaty allows the... of an election under section 897(i); (2) That a treaty reduces or modifies the taxation of gain or...) A foreign person (other than an individual or a State, including a political subdivision or local...

  1. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  2. The European Parliament in the 2000 IGC and the Constitutional Treaty negotiations: from loser to winner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek

    2007-01-01

      Abstract           Why did two rounds of EU constitutional reform held within a five year period yield very different results? The 2000 IGC resulted in the modest Treaty of Nice, whereas the 2002-04 round drafted the Constitutional Treaty, which although it did not involve major substantive cha...

  3. The LOB Provision in the New Japan-Netherlands Tax Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgens, F.P.G.; Hofland, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the comptability of the limitation on benefits provision of the Japan-Netherlands tax treaty with the OECD Model Tax Convention and the fundamental freedoms of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and conclude that it is clearly in conflict with a

  4. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on

  5. The New Partnership Approach in the 2003 Belgium-Netherlands Tax Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.K. Fibbe (Gijsbert); M. Isenbaert (Mathieu)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractSince 1 January 2003, a new double tax Treaty is applicable between Belgium and the Netherlands. The old Treaty of 1970 already included a specific provision relating to partnerships. Including three distinct provisions has now expanded the tradition and it is the objective of this

  6. 22 CFR 41.1 - Exemption by law or treaty from passport and visa requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Virgin Islands. An alien departing from Guam, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands of the United States.... Personnel belonging to the armed services of a government which is a Party to the North Atlantic Treaty and which has ratified the Agreement Between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty Regarding the Status...

  7. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  8. 78 FR 32362 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia; Announcement of... Government of the United States of America and the Government of Australia Concerning Defense Trade... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and Australia,'' published on April 11, 2013...

  9. The Impact of the Lisbon Treaty on EU Competition Law: A Review of Recent Case Law of the EU Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Van Rompuy

    2011-01-01

    Since the Lisbon Treaty came into force on December 1, 2009, there has been no Treaty provision proclaiming adherence to the principle of undistorted competition. Ben Van Rompuy (Georgetown Univ. Law Center)

  10. Present status of the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchaev, B.

    1976-01-01

    The Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons plays an important role in enhancing the security of all States. It is essential to maintain in the implementation of the Treaty an acceptable balance of the mutual responsibilities and obligations of all the countries Party to the Treaty wether or not nuclear weapon States. These questions were discussed during the Conference on the operation of the Treaty held in Geneva in May 1975. It was emphasized at the Conference that the first five years of application of the Treaty had shown a consistent increase in the number of ratifications and in the safeguards agreements concluded on the basis of the Agreement. (N.E.A.) [fr

  11. The text of the Cairo declaration. Adopted on the occasion of the signing of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) Cairo, 11 April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As requested by the Resident Representative of Egypt to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the document reproduces the text of the 'Cairo Declaration' which was adopted by the African States signatories of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of Pelindaba) on the occasion of the signature of the Treaty on 11 April 1996 in Cairo

  12. Beneficial Ownership Provisions In Tax Treaties Between Developed And Developing Countries: The Canada/South Africa Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Ann Steenkamp

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted its first draft tax treaty in 1963, the world has experienced an astonishing surge in international trade and investment. The tax treatment of these cross-border transactions is affected by double tax agreements. As tax treaty networks will likely continue to expand, concerns about tax treaty abuse might be expected to grow. The extent to which a countrys tax treaty policy favours developing countries ...

  13. 75 FR 58012 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-156E Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Information Collection: DS-156E Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application ACTION: Notice of request for... Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: 1405-0101. Type of Request... State (CA/VO). Form Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant treaty trader/investor visa applicants...

  14. 75 FR 25910 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-156E, Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ..., Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application, OMB Control Number 1405-0101 ACTION: Notice of request for...: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application. OMB Control Number: 1405-0101. Type of Request: Extension of a...) Form Number: DS-156E. Respondents: Nonimmigrant treaty trader/investor visa applicants. Estimated...

  15. 77 FR 33089 - Announcement of Entry Into Force of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ..., 2012, the United States and the United Kingdom exchanged diplomatic notes bringing the Treaty between... of the rule published on March 21, 2012, implementing the Treaty and making other updates to the... 16592) implementing the Treaty and making other updates to the ITAR. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  16. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Nathan R.; Johnson, William C.; Brubaker, Erik M.; Kupinski, Matthew Alan; MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  17. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  18. Optimal imaging for treaty verification FY2014 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, Nathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kupinski, Matthew Alan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); MacGahan, Christopher Jonathan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-10-01

    FY2014 technical report of our project funded by DNN R&D that leverages advanced inference methods developed for medical and adaptive imaging to address arms control applications. We seek a method to acquire and analyze imaging data of declared treaty-accountable items without creating an image of those objects or otherwise storing or revealing any classified information. Such a method would avoid the use of classified-information barriers. We present our progress on FY2014 tasks defined in our life-cycle plan. We also describe some future work that is part of the continuation of this project in FY2015 and beyond as part of a venture that joins ours with a related PNNL project.

  19. Ethiopia before the United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brems

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known — together with their additional protocols — as the core international human rights instruments: - The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; - The Convention on the Rights of the Child;  - The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.  The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in international human rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining the treaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted by the state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nations materials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of this process the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state — Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system. Key Words: United Nations, Human Rights Conventions, State Reporting, Human Rights Situation in Ethiopia

  20. EUROATOM-treaty and intergovernmental conference; Euratom-Vertrag und Regierungskonferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technologie Berlin/Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Referat III B 4

    2007-10-15

    On June 26, 2007 the European Council decided under the chairmanship of the Head of State of the German Government, Angela Merkel, to work out a ''Reform Treaty'' for the European Union. The current version of the ''Reform Treaty'' and the Intergovernmental Conference are a successful result of the German and French policy for Europe. The process will be continued under the Portuguese chairmanship of the European Union. The ''Reform Treaty'' includes a special separate energy chapter. The chapter includes targets for an EU-energy policy as well as targets for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Furthermore special technical topics of a revision of the EURATOM-Treaty are mentioned. General revisions of the EURATOM-Treaty or a special Intergovernmental Conference on the EURATOM-Treaty are not expected. Maybe, the European Parliament will get more competence in some parts of decision making processes. Due to the differing views on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the EU member states a revision of the EUROATOM-Treaty is more unlikely expected. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  2. SAVING KYOTO: Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, R A

    2000-11-03

    The climate treaty being hammered out this month at The Hague may be doomed to failure, as numerous observers say the United States simply won't ratify any treaty that requires such wrenching reductions in carbon emissions, and if the United States bails out, the protocol is in very deep trouble. Some policy analysts think that by tweaking the rules, the United States could eventually sign on, but if they are tweaked too much, other countries may balk. The key, some say, will be keeping the treaty going now and rethinking its controversial goals later.

  3. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  4. The International Treaty on Global Warming: Is it Good or Bad for the Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinyu; Bao, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Global warming is one of the hottest topics all over the world. International authorities have worked together to negotiate the Paris Agreement on global warming. This Agreement has its supporters and critics. The key question is whether on balance is the Paris Assignment good or bad for the United States economy. This paper begins with some background information leading up to the passage of the treaty. Next, I outline what is in treaty. I then critically analyze the arguments in support of and against the Assignment. Finally, I explain the basis for my opinion that in the long run the treaty will benefit the United States economy.

  5. The legal points at issue concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty and the verification agreement of EURATOM with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1975-01-01

    An excellent and comprehensive but very juridicial contribution on: Development and content of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the problems which this Treaty poses for EURATOM (a common market, common supply, joint enterprises, Non-proliferation Treaty and France), the compatibility of the Non-proliferation Treaty with the EURATOM Treaty, verification agreement EURATOM - IAEA (the IAEA as the supervisory authority, the control system of the IAEA, guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements, national systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material IAEA supervision as a secondary control, principles of IAEA supervision, secrecy, conflict management), conclusion of the verification agreement, deviations from the guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements legal reflexions (verification agreement and Non-proliferation Treaty, reservations concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty, questions of competence between EURATOM and member states without nuclear weapons, problems of equal treatment). (HP/LN) [de

  6. Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montjoie, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Given that safety is the number one priority for the nuclear industry, it would seem normal that procedures exist to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of the conventions on nuclear safety, as already exist for numerous international treaties. Unfortunately, these procedures are either weak or even nonexistent. Therefore, consideration must be given to whether this weakness represents a genuine deficiency in ensuring the main objective of these conventions, which is to achieve a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. But, before one can even address that issue, a prior question must be answered: does the specific nature of the international legal framework on nuclear safety automatically result in a lack of non-compliance procedures in international conventions on the subject? If so, the lack of procedures is justified, despite the drawbacks. The specific nature of the international law on nuclear safety, which in 1994 shaped the content of the CNS by notably not 'allowing' (even today) the incorporation of precise international rules have been taken into account. The next step is to examine whether the absence of non-compliance procedures (which could have been integrated into the text) is a hindrance in ensuring the objectives of the conventions on nuclear safety, and to examine the procedures that could have been used, based on existing provisions in other areas of international law (environmental law, financial law, disarmament law, human rights, etc.). International environmental law will be the main source of this study, as it has certain similarities with the international law on nuclear safety due to the sometimes vague nature of its obligations and irrespective of the fact that one of the purposes of nuclear safety is in particular to protect the environment from radiological hazards. Indeed, the provisions of the law on nuclear safety are mainly technical and designed to guarantee the normal operation of nuclear facilities

  7. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  8. The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Fifteen years after entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The need to halt a wider spread of nuclear weapons grew out of the realization that the increase in the number of countries possessing such weapons would increase the threat to world security. As the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons clearly states in its preamble, the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war. The Treaty - also known as the non-proliferation Treaty - was concluded in 1968, at a time when there were already five nuclear-weapon Powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China. This fact sheet is intended to provide background material on the Treaty, including the events that led to its conclusion, an overview of its provisions and the developments at the two previously held Review Conferences

  9. Towards the fourth review conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This publication focuses on the background of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), its main provisions and some of the major issues discussed at the three conferences that have thus far been held to review the operation of the Treaty. A fourth conference to review the operation of the Treaty will be held at Geneva from 20 August to 14 September 1990. It will be the last regular review conference before the convening, in 1995, of a conference which will ''decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods'' (article X, para.2). A Preparatory Committee (open to all parties) for the Fourth Review Conference has been established by the parties to the NPT, and 95 parties attended the first session, held in New York from 1 to 5 May 1989

  10. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the reasons of criticism and even rejection of the Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, dealing in particular with the alledged discriminating nature of the Treaty and with the statement that the Treaty is not apt to prevent proliferation on a vertical plane. He further discusses the motives behind the efforts of potential nuclear weapons states to get nuclear weapons. The system of worldwide and bilateral safeguards and controls covering the transfer of nuclear technologies is explained. In conclusion the author suggests to pay more attention to article IV, sub-section (2) of the Non-Proliferation Treaty as this might offer a suitable approach to restricting the dissemination of nuclear explosives. (HP) [de

  11. INNOVATIONS AND CHANGES BROUGHT BY THE LISBON TREATY:THE SOCIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Azizi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty is an attempt to overcome the difficulties faced in thefunctioning of previous treaties of the European Union. It aims, through itsprovisions, at offering better opportunities for action including the social scope,but the inter-governmental nature of decision-making continues to prevail.This paper focuses on provisions for social policyin the Lisbon Treaty andimportant changes that deal with reforms in this field. More concretely, theobjective of this paper is to emphasize the most important social aspects of theTreaty in question.Social policy has been qualified as a common competence of the EU and memberstates (article 4b. The EU has to undertake measures to assure the coordination ofemployment policies of member states and to initiate the coordination of socialpolicies of member states.This paper analyzes the provisions that deal with employment, social dialog,consultations between employees and employers, child protection, as well as othersegments of social policy.

  12. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-7 - Coordination with income tax treaties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coordination with income tax treaties. (a) Consistency requirement—(1) Application. The application of this... nonresidents the deduction for personal residence mortgage interest expense and generally limits them to only...

  13. Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Interagency Coordination and Collaboration for the Protection of Tribal Treaty Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) affirming protection of tribal treaty rights and similar tribal rights relating to natural resources when federal action is taken. It will be updated as additional federal agencies become signatories.

  14. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons which is the corner-stone of an international non-proliferation regime which has grown to embrace the overwhelming majority of countries in the world in the period since the Treaty. The other elements of the regime include, first of all, the safeguards system of IAEA-which operates to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to military or other prohibited activities and must be accepted by all non-nuclear-weapon parties to the Treaty and, secondly, the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and the south Pacific Nuclear Free zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)-which serve to extend the regime geographically. The last two Treaties require safeguards agreements with IAEA. In addition, the Treaty of Tlatelolco contains provisions establishing the agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure compliance

  15. Assuring the success of the non-proliferation treaty extension conference. Excerpts from the panel discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents excerpts from a conference organized by the NGO Committee on Disarmament Inc., in cooperation with the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs, and covers the following issues: status of the comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations, fissile cut-off and ending production of nuclear weapons, how should nuclear weapons states pursue disarmament under Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), NPT extension: problems and prospects

  16. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-04-22

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970.

  17. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  18. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [fr

  19. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depositary Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [ru

  20. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act 1986 - No. 140 of 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to give effect to Australia's obligations as a Party to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty of 6 August 1985. The Act is supplemented by the provisions of the Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981 as amended in 1986 as regards dumping of radioactive material into the sea. The Act repeats the substantive provisions of the Treaty and lays down prohibitions in relation to nuclear explosive devices. (NEA) [fr

  1. Russia’s Treaties of Friendship and Co-Operation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    two years. 13. Malaysia No treaty in the immediate future, but there exists the possibility of a non-socialist oriented treaty if Soviet- Malaysian ...health services, the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism, sport, and other fields. The two sides shall facilitate the expansion of cooperation...and contacts between them in the fields of science, art, literature, education, health care the press, radio, television, cinema , tourism and spirit

  2. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  3. Accounting and international relations:Britain, Spain and the Asiento treaty

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona, S.; Donoso, R.; Walker, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The boundaries between accounting and law are contingent on time-space intersections. Here, these margins are explored in the realm of international relations by focusing on the Asiento, an 18th century treaty granting Britain the monopoly to trade slaves with the Spanish American colonies. Although a relatively minor concern of treaty-makers, noncompliance with provisions of the Asiento by the South Sea Company placed accounting centre stage in conflicts between Britain and Spain. In combina...

  4. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970 [es

  5. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-04-01

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  6. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  7. Lisbon Treaty – the architect of a new European institutional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POPESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is today managed by the Lisbon Treaty, which stated, in his time, and rightly so, that is a step towards European integration, both at the institutional and human level, a treaty that succeed, despite difficulties, to move forward the European project that combined his account about half a century. The changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty have a significant impact on EU governance. Treaty of Lisbon makes substantial changes in the management of the EU, especially with regard to the European Council, the Council of Ministers and the EU's rotating presidency. The main task of the research in this paper is the approach of the provisions of the EU Reform Treaty (Lisbon Treaty in terms of constitutional law. Research conducted prior to permit formulation of a general belief, namely that common European history of all its successes and difficulties demonstrates the viability of the European idea and the correct direction of institutional developments in the EU and the Member States.

  8. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  9. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  10. The migratory bird treaty and a century of waterfowl conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Batt, Bruce D. J.; Blohm, Robert J.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Perry, Matthew; Ringelman, James K.; Sedinger, James S.; Serie, Jerome R.; Sharp, David E.; Trauger, David L.; Williams, Christopher K.

    2018-01-01

    In the final decades of the nineteenth century, concern was building about the status of migratory bird populations in North America. In this literature review, we describe how that concern led to a landmark conservation agreement in 1916, between the United States and Great Britain (on behalf of Canada) to conserve migratory birds shared by Canada and the United States. Drawing on published literature and our personal experience, we describe how subsequent enabling acts in both countries gave rise to efforts to better estimate population sizes and distributions, assess harvest rates and demographic impacts, design and fund landscape-level habitat conservation initiatives, and organize necessary political and regulatory processes. Executing these steps required large-scale thinking, unprecedented regional and international cooperation, ingenuity, and a commitment to scientific rigor and adaptive management. We applaud the conservation efforts begun 100 years ago with the Migratory Bird Treaty Convention. The agreement helped build the field of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twentieth century but only partially prepares us for the ecological and social challenges ahead. 

  11. Accountability for the human right to health through treaty monitoring: Human rights treaty bodies and the influence of concluding observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; De Milliano, Marlous; Chakrabarti, Averi; Kim, Yuna

    2017-11-04

    Employing novel coding methods to evaluate human rights monitoring, this article examines the influence of United Nations (UN) treaty bodies on national implementation of the human right to health. The advancement of the right to health in the UN human rights system has shifted over the past 20 years from the development of norms under international law to the implementation of those norms through national policy. Facilitating accountability for this rights-based policy implementation under the right to health, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) monitors state implementation by reviewing periodic reports from state parties, engaging in formal sessions of 'constructive dialogue' with state representatives, and issuing concluding observations for state response. These concluding observations recognise the positive steps taken by states and highlight the principal areas of CESCR concern, providing recommendations for implementing human rights and detailing issues to be addressed in the next state report. Through analytic coding of the normative indicators of the right to health in both state reports and concluding observations, this article provides an empirical basis to understand the policy effects of the CESCR monitoring process on state implementation of the right to health.

  12. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: Review conference of the States Parties Geneva 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985 with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty are being realized. The Treaty, commonly referred to as the non-proliferation Treaty, is the fundamental instrument to avert the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons and is, perhaps, the most important multilateral arms regulation agreement of our time. It was negotiated in the 1960s in the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament in Geneva and in the United Nations General Assembly. The Treaty was opened for signature in London, Moscow and Washington on July 1, 1968. On that date, it was signed by the three Depositary Governments - the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States - and by 58 other States. As of December 31, 1983 the number of States parties to the Treaty had risen to 119

  13. The Substantive Scope of Double Tax Treaties - a Study of Article 2 of the OECD Model Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstetter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Tax treaty protection from international double taxation only goes as far as the treaty's substantive scope. Nations worldwide have adopted the text of Article 2 of the OECD Model Double Taxation Conventions (headed Taxes covered) in concluding bilateral treaties to prevent double taxation in the area of taxes on income and capital and taxes on estates, inheritances, and on gifts. The wording and structure of Article 2 give rise to a host of ambiguities, creating uncertainty for taxpayers reg...

  14. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  15. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  16. Treaties against nuclear terrorism. The global legal framework can make a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    Two international treaties, one being drafted and the other already on the books, specifically address nuclear terrorism. The first Treaty known as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted in 1980 under auspices of the IAEA. The second Treaty for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is being drafted as part of the UN global campaign against terrorism. Both could require that specific measures be taken worldwide to protect and secure nuclear facilities from terrorist attack and sabotage. But neither one does. Efforts to include such requirements, before the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, have not borne fruit. Now, in the wake of lessons learned, is the time to revive and support them

  17. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  18. Preserving the ABM treaty: a critique of the Reagan Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, S.D.; Farley, P.J.; Holloway, D.

    1984-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposal for long-term research and development on a leak-proof defense capability conflicts with the past 15 years of Soviet-American strategic relations and arms control negotiations. It represents a unilateral change, and will elicit a Soviet response based on how the Soviets think their own security may be affected. Whether the SDI transcends or enhances defense, it raises basic issues involving the US-Soviet strategic relationship. Emphasizing the central bearing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 the author reviews these issues and questions about the technical and strategic grounds of the proposal. Three recommendations are to limit the SDI program to a search for scientific possibilities, to consult with the Soviets on the ABM Treaty, and to recognize that the ABM Treaty will enhance security more than the SDI. 58 references

  19. Unilateral US Withdrawal from the ABM Treaty of 1972 and its Global Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sergeevich Butorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the origins and reasons for the termination of the US operations of the Soviet-American ABM Treaty in 1972 based on a study in the Archives of the Russian Federation's foreign policy documents, as well as the US Congress materials, traced the evolutionary path of unilateral withdrawal from the American side agreements. The article notes that for three decades was carried out in relation to the Soviet-American agreements on limiting missile defense systems in 1972 a policy of double standards. Declaring in words their commitment to the fundamental principles of the treaty, in practice, the United States all these years set the stage for a unilateral withdrawal from the contract. Particularly emphasized that the denunciation of Washington in 2001 ABM Treaty is the cornerstone of strategic stability and security in the world, it became the starting point for the deployment of the US global missile defense system.

  20. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-12-13

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1973 pursuant to Article 25.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Mexico and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 14 September 1973 pursuant to Article 25.

  6. About the treaty of complete nuclear test ban: the USA between unilateralism and multilateralism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article analyses the possible reasons that have led the US Senate to reject the treaty of comprehensive nuclear test ban. Even if this decision did not retained the attention of the international public opinion, it appears as surprising because the USA have worked a lot for the elaboration of this treaty and were considered as the main beneficiaries of it. Three interpretations are proposed by the author: some purely internal disputes inside Clinton's administration, a real will of the USA to abandon the arms control policy, or an intermediate attitude which allows the USA to act on different levels and to get rid of common rules. (J.S.)

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T2011). Announcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    To build and strengthen its relationship with the broader science community in support of the Treaty, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) invites the community to a scientific conference CTBT: Science and Technology 2011 (S and T 2011), to be held from 8 to 10 June 2011 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. The conference goals are: Discuss advances in science and technology relevant to test ban verification; Explore scientific applications of the CTBT verification infrastructure; Encourage partnerships and knowledge exchange between the CTBTO and the broader scientific community.

  8. Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and U.S. security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the United States has the technical expertise and physical means to i) maintain a safe, secure and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile without nuclear-explosion testing, and ii) effectively monitor global compliance once the Treaty enters into force. Moreover, the CTBT is judged to help constrain proliferation of nuclear-weapons technology, so it is considered favorable to U.S. security. Review of developments since the studies were published, in 2002 and 2012, show that the study conclusions remain valid and that technical capabilities are better than anticipated.

  9. The Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown : a microcosm of treaty, trust, and self-determination conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Reilly, J.A. [O' Reilly and Associates (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A review of legal proceedings of the Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown was presented. Proceedings were instituted in 1989 and relate to breaches by the Federal Crown of its treaty, trust, obligations and duties to the Samson Cree Nation. Legal proceedings are based on the treaty, as well as on the inherent and Aboriginal rights of the Samson Cree Nation. The historical and money management phases of the proceedings have now been completed. Issues raised by the proceedings include respect for the inherent right of self determination, proper interpretation and implementation of Treaty No. 6, and an appropriate consideration of the trust obligations assumed by the Crown as part of the constitutional compact. The Samson plaintiffs sought judicial recognition of their reserve lands, including the rights to oil and gas reserves and royalty proceeds. The proceeding identified breaches by the Crown of Samson treaty rights and breaches concerning management by the Crown of Samson royalty and other trust moneys. The case showed that the Crown retained and borrowed Samson Cree trust moneys and failed to prudently invest the Samson Cree Nation moneys or pay interest at a rate commensurate with prudent investment. The proceedings raised issues concerning the nature and scope of Treaty No. 6 and treaty rights of Treaty No. 6 Indians in relation to reserves, reserve resources and reserve assets. It was concluded that the case is a significant constitutional benchmark deriving from a strong recent recognition by the Supreme Court of Canada of the juridical force of treaties with Indian Nations.

  10. 77 FR 16591 - Implementation of the Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty Between the United States and the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... the amount of $25,000,000 or more, or for defense articles and defense services sold under a contract... Australia will be published later in the year once that treaty enters into force. Additionally, the... Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty between the United States and Australia, and to identify, via a...

  11. Benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the treaty-related science and technologies: A personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes benefits from an exchange of knowledge in the non-proliferation treaty related science and technologies concerning science and technology development. Benefits to State Parties are concerned with non-treaty uses of seismic, hydro acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides data, their evaluation and measuring techniques

  12. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, B.

    2000-01-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  13. 28 CFR 0.109 - Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Friendship and General Relations Between the United States and Spain. 0.109 Section 0.109 Judicial... Service § 0.109 Implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the United States... States within the meaning of Article XXIV of the Treaty of Friendship and General Relations Between the...

  14. Taxation of Capital Gains in Spanish Tax Treaties: The Belgium-Spain Double Taxation Convention on Income and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyse the treatment of capital gains in Spanish tax treaties. In particular, the author focuses on the new provision on the taxation of capital gains as a consequence of the alienation of shares in the Belgium-Spain double tax treaty.

  15. Suggested treaty benefits approaches for collective investment vehicles (CIVs) and its investors under the OECD MTC 2010 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; Weber, D.; van Weeghel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collective Investment Vehicles (CIVs) are specifically addressed in the 2010 update of the OECD Model Tax Convention (MTC) and the Commentary thereto. Attention is paid to the tax treaty position of CIVs in an international context. The main question is whether a CIV is treaty eligible and if not,

  16. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  17. The Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown : a microcosm of treaty, trust, and self-determination conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    A review of legal proceedings of the Samson Cree Nation v. the Crown was presented. Proceedings were instituted in 1989 and relate to breaches by the Federal Crown of its treaty, trust, obligations and duties to the Samson Cree Nation. Legal proceedings are based on the treaty, as well as on the inherent and Aboriginal rights of the Samson Cree Nation. The historical and money management phases of the proceedings have now been completed. Issues raised by the proceedings include respect for the inherent right of self determination, proper interpretation and implementation of Treaty No. 6, and an appropriate consideration of the trust obligations assumed by the Crown as part of the constitutional compact. The Samson plaintiffs sought judicial recognition of their reserve lands, including the rights to oil and gas reserves and royalty proceeds. The proceeding identified breaches by the Crown of Samson treaty rights and breaches concerning management by the Crown of Samson royalty and other trust moneys. The case showed that the Crown retained and borrowed Samson Cree trust moneys and failed to prudently invest the Samson Cree Nation moneys or pay interest at a rate commensurate with prudent investment. The proceedings raised issues concerning the nature and scope of Treaty No. 6 and treaty rights of Treaty No. 6 Indians in relation to reserves, reserve resources and reserve assets. It was concluded that the case is a significant constitutional benchmark deriving from a strong recent recognition by the Supreme Court of Canada of the juridical force of treaties with Indian Nations

  18. 77 FR 30584 - Notice of Termination of United States-Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... of Termination of United States--Bolivia Bilateral Investment Treaty AGENCY: Department of State and Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Government of Bolivia has...-9580. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Bolivia delivered notice on June 10, 2011, that it was terminating the...

  19. Applying the neutron scatter camera to treaty verification and warhead monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The neutron scatter camera was originally developed for a range of SNM detection applications. We are now exploring the feasibility of applications in treaty verification and warhead monitoring using experimentation, maximum likelihood estimation method (MLEM), detector optimization, and MCNP-PoliMi simulations.

  20. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Turkey...Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom. 3 North Atlantic Treaty Organizations, “NATO-EU: A...supranational organization through a constitutional process, the organization did achieve its highest level of state integration within the

  1. The Status of Thailand's Implementation of International Treaty Obligations Regarding Linguistic Human Rights in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent consideration by the Thai government of a national language policy, this article considers the status of Thailand's treaty obligations regarding linguistic human rights in education. It presents a general background, a brief linguistic profile of Thailand, a concise summary of the concept and importance of linguicide, and a…

  2. A treaty more alarming than efficient. The dismantled warheads will not be destroyed. Danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, P.; Despic-Popovic, H.; Nougayrede, N.

    2002-01-01

    This political analysis presents the new treaty of nuclear weapons dismantling between Russia and Usa. In fact the warheads will not be completely dismantling but only stocked, leading to a possible recovery by terrorists. It underlines the real interests of this agreement which are more economic than peaceful. (A.L.B.)

  3. 78 FR 47479 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...: Nonimmigrant Treaty Trader/Investor Application ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to.../Investor Application OMB Control Number: OMB-1405-0101 Type of Request: Extension of a Currently Approved... Investor Estimated Number of Respondents: 41,752 Estimated Number of Responses: 41,752 Average Time per...

  4. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... and for foreign firms in their supply chains. The U.S. concluded the DTC Treaties with Australia and... respondent commended the Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) Council on recognizing the importance of the... established a Management Board to resolve such issues, adopted a detailed management plan, and conducted...

  5. Indian Treaties: Two Centuries of Dishonor. American Indian Reader: Current Affairs, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette

    Today self-determination, economy, tribal jurisdiction, taxation, water and resource rights, and other aspects of American Indian affairs are affected by issues raised through the treaties and agreements made with Indian nations and tribes, and through the executive orders and statutes. Government policy has been influenced by the pressure brought…

  6. The Relationship between Preservative Tax Assessments and Netherlands Tax Treaties: Not Always Pacta Sunt Servanda?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgens, F.P.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decisions of the Dutch Supreme Court of 20 February 2009, BNB 2009/260 through 262 and 19 June, 2009, BNB 2009/263 through 266 on the relationship between the domestic concept of preservative tax assessments and previously concluded tax treaties. The author argies that some

  7. Tax Treaty Treatment of Dividend Related Payments under Share Loan Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses some of the qualification and allocation challenges that dividend related payments under share loan agreements give rise to for tax treaty purposes. The analysis is based on constructed scenarios illustrating how inconsistent domestic allocation of the dividend related payments...... loan agreement fulfils the beneficial ownership requirement....

  8. Found in translation: the correct interpretation of 'Secret Formula or Process' in India's tax treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the critically reviews of the Delhi High Court in Director of Income Tax v New Skies Satellite BV to interpreting the phrase "secret formula or process" in the India-Netherlands Tax Treaty 1989. It argues that the court's sole reliance on the English version of the text of the

  9. Law 16.518 Antarctic Treaty: approve the protocols about Environment protection and annex s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The treaty Antarctic in their appendix C in its articles is about the elimination of residuals by means of its removal of the area of having Treated Antarctic among them radioactive materials, planning of the wastes, communication treatment and exam of the plans of treatment of wastes, treatment proceeding prevention of sea contamination ,discharge of hydrocarbons petroliferous, discharge of liquid noxious substances [es

  10. Harming asylum seekers’ chances through poor use of human rights treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Meili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, UK courts and administrative tribunals havebecome increasingly comfortable relying on international human rightstreaties in cases where non-citizens claim asylum or other means ofprotection from persecution. However, this trend does not mean thatthese treaties have always been deployed by refugee lawyers in wayswhich benefit their clients.

  11. Greening the EU: National positions in the run‐up to the Amsterdam treaty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Liefferink, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    for an investigation into the 'self-perception' of the 'green' member states and for a detailed assessment of the national positions of the six countries with regard to environmental issues in the preparatory phase of the Amsterdam Treaty. Although the six 'forerunners' are often grouped together, differences among...

  12. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  13. A multilateral tax treaty : designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused

  14. Fifty Years of Safeguards under the EURATOM Treaty. A Regulatory Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Chare, P.

    2007-01-01

    March 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of one of the founding treaties of the European Community. The EURATOM Treaty has its origins at a time when the stability of energy supplies in Europe was a major concern. Recently, much debate has centred on the possible reform or repeal of some parts of the treaty, given that its original aim was to promote and oversee the development of nuclear energy in Europe. This debate has focused attention on the future contribution of nuclear power to increasing energy demands in an enlarged Europe. However, despite these issues there is near universal agreement that the EURATOM Treaty has played a vital role in the protection of European citizens through the controls required for nuclear materials. Chapter 7 of the treaty (Safeguards) confers wide regulatory powers to the European Commission to ensure that civil nuclear materials are not diverted from their intended use as declared by the operators. This paper describes the early period of operation of the safeguards inspectorate, and gives statistics on the numbers and types of inspections carried out by the EURATOM inspectors, and discusses from an operational point of view the value of inspection activities. Further, a critical appraisal of Articles 77-85 within Chapter 7 is made. The paper also considers those safeguards requirements that are important to strengthen, in order to maintain a strong regulatory system to oversee future challenges, particularly in the context of increasing decommissioning activities within Europe. It is noteworthy that fifty-years after the founding of the treaty, many of the concerns about security of energy supply have re-emerged. It is a measure of the vision and forward thinking of its founders that the treaty has successfully overseen the safe and secure development of nuclear power in Europe (which currently provides a third of its electricity needs) and despite the many changes and developments that have occurred, that the

  15. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  16. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-05

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995.

  17. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995

  18. Introduction of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and preparatory activities for its entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu Establishment, Mutsu, Aomori (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a very important treaty, not only for Japan but also for the world, because it prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. The treaty however will not enter into force until it has been signed and ratified by all the 44 states listed in Annex 2 to the treaty. Many efforts to facilitate the treaty's early entry into force are being done by many countries and many international organizations. As one of result of these efforts, a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization had be established at a meeting of State Signatories on 19 November 1996, and the Commission started activities to establish global verification regime of the treaty and to prepare for its entry into force. Under the CTBT activities, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is expected to play an important role as supporter for the Japanese Government, especially in a field of an International Monitoring System (IMS). However, there is no appropriate guide book on the CTBT for JAERI staff at present. This report provides some introduction of the CTBT regime and preparatory activities for its entry into force. Only open source information is used for making the report. If anyone need more detail information, it should be asked to contact competent authorities. (author)

  19. Institutionalising co-operation : a study of the Elysée treaty and Franco-German co-operation 1963-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Sverdrup, Bjørn Otto

    1994-01-01

    "INSTITUTIONALISING CO-OPERATION. A STUDY OF THE ELYSÉE TREATY AND FRANCO-GERMAN CO-OPERATION 1963-93" In 1963, France and Germany completed 'The Franco-German Treaty on Organization and Principles of Co-operation', the so-called Elysée Treaty. The Elysée Treaty, and its protocols, are in this study viewed as a political institution, hence the Elysée Treaty will be referred to as the Franco-German institution. This study seeks to answer the question of how the Franco-German institution has...

  20. The (new) cooling of U.S./Russian relations and the INF Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    The issue of Ukraine is not the only current cause of tension between the United States and the Russian Federation. This publication stated four months ago that, 'the time for confidence and transparency between Moscow and Washington is over', and bilateral relations have become increasingly strained. This fact is currently manifesting itself by a certain degree of questioning of the 1987 Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. This disarmament treaty is a symbolic instrument of the prosperous period that arms control experienced in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War, as much multilateral as bilateral, at the end of the 1980's, at the time of progress in the strategic dialogue between Regan and Gorbachev and the quest for parity between the two powers. This commitment by the two parties to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals, which was the first of its kind, helped to eliminate all land-based ballistic and cruise missiles with a range between 500 km and 5500 km along with their delivery systems in Europe over the course of three years. The United States has since May 2013 accused Russia of violating the INF Treaty by testing (from 2008 onwards according to a press source) a land-based cruise missile (GLCM) covered by the ban, with the objective of developing its capabilities in this field. Yet Washington has not given any indication of the identity of the incriminated Russian missile. Russia denies any wrongdoing, stating that this allegation is baseless and that Russia is in compliance with its commitments under the Treaty. Moscow has also counter-attacked by accusing the United States of developing, in the framework of the U.S. missile de-fence programme in Europe, a ground-based version of the MK-41 sea-based missile defence launch system, which Russia deems to be a violation of the Treaty. The language used in managing this disagreement between the two capitals is inconclusive in establishing the actual existence of a violation of the terms of the

  1. The European Union Court of Justice after the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Created by the Treaty of Paris as a judicial authority which ensures respect for the law when interpreting and applying this treaty, the European Court of Justice has so far been repeatedly reformed. The latest reform of the judicial system of the European Union, put into effect by the Lisbon Treaty, largely relies on solutions contained in the unaccepted Treaty on the Constitution for Europe. Novelties that this treaty brings could be grosso modo divided into several basic categories. First, there are organizational changes related to the different name and composition of the courts, appointment of judges and advocates-general and the formation of specialized courts. The new terminology and organization aims to provide a clear distinction between the Court of Justice of the EU, which is an aggregate term or generic designation for the entire judicial system of the Union, and special judicial bodies that enter into its composition. These are the Court of Justice as the highest authority, the General Court which is actually the renamed Court of First Instance, and specialized courts that replaced the judicial panels. The second category includes changes that expand the jurisdiction of the Court to certain new areas owing to the abolition of the former EU pillar structure and the dissolution of the European Community. On such a basis, an integration of court jurisdiction regarding the first and third pillar ensued, as the Court of Justice was vested with general and compulsory jurisdiction over the entire law created in the newly established area of freedom, security and justice. The exception is the area of common foreign and security policy, in which the Court's jurisdiction still remains excluded. The third type of amendment extends the scope of judicial reviews of the validity of acts adopted by EU institutions and enables authorized subjects an easier access to the Court. Their aim is to strengthen the rule of law within the legal system of

  2. Agreement of 12 July 1973 between Costa Rica and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Costa Rica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  3. Agreement between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 November 1999, signed in Vienna on 17 December 1999, and entered into force on the same date

  4. The third review conference of the parties to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was held in Geneva from 27 August to 21 September 1985, with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty were being realized. The Conference ended with the adoption by consensus of a Final Declaration, by which the States parties, among other things, solemnly declared their conviction that the Treaty was essential to international peace and security and expressed their support for its objectives. This Fact Sheet provides information on the preparations for the Conference, developments at the Conference and the main features of the Final Declaration. Te text of the Treaty is reproduced in Disarmament Fact Sheet No. 33, and its historical background is contained in Fact Sheet No. 41

  5. The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS—Some Thoughts on Complexity and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI, which was signed in June 2017, raises a multitude of questions relating not only to the text of the treaty provisions but also to the way the MLI will interact with tax treaties, for instance, and what it will mean for the future development of tax treaty law and international cooperation in tax matters. This article focuses on two aspects of the MLI. First, it deals with the substance of the MLI by providing an overview of its background and content, including the many options available to the contracting states under the MLI. Second, some thoughts are presented on the effects of the MLI in terms of complexity and uncertainty.

  6. The Lisbon Treaty and the New Dimensions of the Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica NEGRUT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the paper was constituted on an extremely present subject of real interest. Using the content analysis thorough a descriptive documentary research this study aims atidentifying the new dimensions of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity after the Lisbon Treaty. For this end, an analysis of the specific objectives was performed: the concept ofproportionality, the evolution of subsidiarity and the new valences of the two principles in the framework of the modifications introduces by the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. We assert thus thatin virtue of these modifications, the application of the principles of proportionality and subsidiarity has the purpose of maintaining the institutional balance, as the subsidiarity establishes which of the competencies belongs to the state or community institutions and the proportionality indicates the dimensions of applying the legislative measures.

  7. Purposes of double taxation treaties and interpretation of beneficial owner concept in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Selezen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The term ‟beneficial owner” has been interpreted by Ukrainian courts concerning the application of double taxation treaties’ provisions since the adoption of the Tax Code of Ukraine in 2010. Changing nature of the beneficial owner concept, its importance as an instrument for treaty shopping counteraction and the necessity of its proper interpretation in the Ukrainian reality are the main factors that have a strong impact on the development of court practice concerning beneficial ownership. The article focuses on the prevention of tax avoidance as one of the purposes of double taxation treaties and its role in the interpretation of the term ‟beneficial owner”. The analysis is based on the practice of the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine on interpretation of the relevant provisions of the Convention between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of Switzerland on Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital as of 30 October 2000.

  8. Verification in the international treaty and expected its activities for FMCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Cold war had been finished and the international society was going to move detente. The mass destruction weapons decrease its object and they are going to be reduced or reversed. By change of the international conditions in the field of non-proliferation, it is necessary to the activities for decreasing atomic weapons and a countermeasure of diffusion of nuclear materials produced by waste and dissection of excess atomic weapon to other countries and stranger. We understand that non-proliferation means a countermeasure of decreasing nuclear weapon. So that the non-proliferation system should be regulated systematically in order to foresee the international tendency in the future and the verification activities to attain reliability assurance of international treaty for disarmament and non-proliferation. NPT reconsider congress decided to begin early negotiation of Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) in 1995. The functions, verification and expected activities of FMCT are discussed. (S.Y.)

  9. Verification arrangements for the proposed fissile material cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, an agreement to terminate the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons has been on the agenda. On December 16, 1993, the UNGA adopted Resolution A/RES/48/75/L which recommends ''the negotiation in the most appropriate international forum of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices''. The proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) is still one of the most important items on the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. Successful achievement of the FMCT would be an important step towards the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. (author)

  10. BOLIVIA IN 1904. WHY DO THEY SIGN THE TREATY WITH CHILE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORETO CORREA VERA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that Bolivia - despite the negotiations of 1895 and all the recent rhetoric - was not worried of the effective recovery of the coast until long after the signing of the 1904 Treaty, instead of that, the presidency of Ismael Montes and the rise of Liberals in the Bolivian state, prioritized the modernization of the country and the search for ways to get the production of tin at any cost, at that time, the main wealth of Bolivia. This text has the purpose of explaining –as a witness of the time-, what were the reasons that the Bolivian authorities wielded before their people to sign the Treaty of Peace with Chile. Following that logic and notwithstanding all the recent literature, it seems appropriate to go beyond the subjective line of interpretation to establish the sayings of the main actors.

  11. Achieving a nuclear weapons ban treaty is possible. United Nations have proposed it, we can obtain it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    As member of an activist association, the author shows that, after the adoption of a UN resolution in favour of the elaboration of a nuclear weapons ban treaty, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of the civil society and the mobilization of the public opinion seems necessary. In appendix, the resolution adopted by the UN general assembly on December 23, 2016 is attached. It summarizes the advances of multilateral negotiations for a comprehensive nuclear disarmament and expresses some recommendations

  12. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins; Jackeline Lucas Souza

    2014-01-01

    To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied t...

  13. INCOME TAX TREATIES, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD FOR THE CONVENTION BETWEEN U.S. AND ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    De Girolamo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Double taxation has a detrimental effect on the movement of capital, technology and persons and on the exchange of goods and services. Tax conventions, when properly applied, remove the obstacles of double taxation, thereby promoting the development and flow of international trade and investment. Hence, one of the most important roles of double income treaties is to remove the double taxation and to beat these obstacles for cross-border economic transactions. The globalization of fina...

  14. Purposes of double taxation treaties and interpretation of beneficial owner concept in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Selezen

    2017-01-01

    The term ‟beneficial owner” has been interpreted by Ukrainian courts concerning the application of double taxation treaties’ provisions since the adoption of the Tax Code of Ukraine in 2010. Changing nature of the beneficial owner concept, its importance as an instrument for treaty shopping counteraction and the necessity of its proper interpretation in the Ukrainian reality are the main factors that have a strong impact on the development of court practice concerning beneficial ownership....

  15. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  16. Action plan for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) Malaysian National Data Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashillah Baharuddin; Alawiah Musa; Roslan Mohd Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a keystone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential basis for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion moreover will restrict the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. One of the key features of this treaty is the development of an International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect any nuclear weapon test. The IMS comprises a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories that monitor the Earth for evidence of nuclear explosions. It uses four verification methods, including seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound, in addition to radionuclide monitoring of the underground, underwater and atmosphere environments, respectively, whereas, radionuclide monitoring can detect radioactive debris vented from atmospheric, underground or underwater nuclear explosions. Malaysia signed the CTBT on 23 July 1998, and is currently in the process of drafting a national CTBT Act to facilitate ratification. As provided for under the Treaty, one of the radionuclide-monitoring stations (Rain) under the IMS will be located in Malaysia. The station is under the responsibility of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, as the National Authority for the CTBT. The operation of the IMS is supported by an International Data Centre (IDC) CTBT, which is based at the headquarters of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. To facilitate the acquisition of data from the IMS for the purposes of verifying compliance with the Treaty in general, and to enable Malaysia to benefit from the scientific applications of the data obtainable from the IDC, a CTBT National Data Centre (NDC) is the process of being established in Malaysia , which is targeted to be fully operational by the third quarter of 2007. (Author)

  17. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  18. Concluding a strategic arms reduction treaty: Prospects, obstacles, and implications for security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFate, P.

    1990-01-01

    What are the prospects for START, given the various questions and obstacles? What will be the effect of this treaty on US-USSR relations, given the present dynamics political climate? And what are the national security implications associated with its completion and ratification? Is this an era of tremendous promise in which the US and the USSR can pursue mutual interests in the foreign policy area? These questions are addressed by the panelists

  19. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  20. The Proposal for an Indo-Pacific Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation: a Critical Reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Vignesh

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Indo- Pacific construct brings about interesting avenues for cooperation among states in the region. Characterised by the intertwining geographies of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Indo- Pacific region is home to some of the most diverse peoples and economies in the world. In a speech delivered at the CSIS, Washington in 2013, the former Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegwa outlined the need for an “Indo- Pacific Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation”. In ef...

  1. The Non-Proliferation Treaty on the threshold to the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    1991-06-01

    The basic outlines of non-proliferation policy, its instruments, the position of the protagonists' interests and the fundamental fields of conflict are to the fore. The history and structure of international non-poliferation policy and, in particular, of the NPT, are described, the instruments for verifying the purely peaceful use of nuclear power (safeguards) are analysed, and important future technological and political challenges of the Treaty are listed. (orig./HP) [de

  2. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA) SAVA

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the ...

  3. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  4. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  5. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation

  6. The competences of European Union institutions in the trade policy (Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is the best known at the world’s leading trade power and the common trade policy is the core of EU external relations. The events of the last years and the extension of the EU to 27 member proved that the functioning system could no longer continue and was requiring a new institutional framework. The Lisbon Treaty was the right solution. It purposes are to bring changes for the citizens, institutions, external relations foe the consolidation of democracy in EU. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the major revisions introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon regarding the trade policy. Also, it analyses the extension and clarification of EU competence, the greater role of the European Parliament and the inclusion of investment policy in trade policy, the voting rules in trade area and the international negotiation of trade agreements. The study describes, as well, the impact of Lisbon Treaty implementation on the MS which are independent nations, but without power of decision in the common trade policy.

  7. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5–2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. - Highlights: • The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise occurred in Jordan. • The detection sensitivity for two On-site Inspection techniques was evaluated. • The techniques search for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. • Laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples was the optimum technique.

  8. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  9. Treaty-Port English in Nineteenth-Century Shanghai: Speakers, Voices, and Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Si

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the introduction of English to the treaty port of Shanghai and the speech communities that developed there as a result. English became a sociocultural phenomenon rather than an academic subject when it entered Shanghai in the 1840s, gradually generating various social activities of local Chinese people who lived in the treaty port. Ordinary people picked up a rudimentary knowledge of English along trading streets and through glossary references, and went to private schools to improve their linguistic skills. They used English to communicate with foreigners and as a means to explore a foreign presence dominated by Western material culture. Although those who learned English gained small-scale social mobility in the late nineteenth century, the images of English-speaking Chinese were repeatedly criticized by the literati and official scholars. This paper explores Westerners’ travel accounts, as well as various sources written by the new elite Chinese, including official records and vernacular poems, to demonstrate how English language acquisition brought changes to local people’s daily lives. I argue that treaty-port English in nineteenth-century Shanghai was not only a linguistic medium but, more importantly, a cultural agent of urban transformation. It gradually molded a new linguistic landscape, which at the same time contributed to the shaping of modern Shanghai culture.

  10. The Energy Charter Treaty and Related Documents. A Legal Framework for International Energy Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Charter Treaty is a unique instrument for the promotion of international cooperation in the energy sector. Following its entry into force on 16 April 1998, the Treaty, together with the related documents contained in this booklet, provides an important legal basis for the creation of an open international energy market. The Charter process includes the countries of the enlarged European Union, Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Japan, Australia and Mongolia. The Treaty remains open for accession by all countries committed to observance of its principles. It is very positive in this regard that states such as China, Iran, South Korea and the countries of ASEAN are taking a close interest in the Charter process, thus opening up the prospect of a further extension of its geographical scope. The primary challenge facing the constituent members of the Energy Charter process in the coming years will be that of ensuring full implementation of the Treaty's commitments. This will entail increased focus on multilateral cooperation over transit, trade, investments, environmental protection and energy efficiency. By continuing to build on its existing work in these areas, the Charter process stands ready to play a key role in translating the aim of a truly open non-discriminatory energy market into reality. This publication reproduces the text of the following documents: Final Act of the European Energy Charter Conference with all Annexes thereto, as opened for signature in Lisbon on 17 December 1994 and corrected by the Protocol of Correction of 2 August 1996; the Chairman's Statement at Adoption Session on 17 December 1994, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Joint Memorandum of the Delegations of the Russian Federation and the European Communities on Nuclear Trade, as reported in the Note from the Secretariat 42/94 CONF 115; the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on

  11. Increasing popular participation in the treaty-making process : the legislative process of Section 190 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki-Okabe, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the authority to conclude international treaties was exclusively exercised by administrative bodies (or the chief of state). However, recent studies pointed out that the present legislative bodies have come to play a more active role through ratification or the review of treaties in European and American countries. Harrington (2005) studied judicial reform in British dominions and criticized the past executive-dominant treaty-making process as a “democratic deficit” due to a fea...

  12. Proceedings of the review conference of the parties to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Geneva, 5-30 May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons review the different Articles of the Treaty and their implementation following a report on the preparations for the Conference. The Annexes contain the text of the Treaty, as well as addresses by various Delegates concerning their countries' positions together with the final declaration and a series of draft resolutions. (NEA) [fr

  13. The role of Brazil in multilateral disarmament efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines Brazil’s motivations, objectives, and action in international instances related to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control, particularly the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT. The paper describes the evolution of Brazilian attitudes and decisions and discusses prospects for nuclear disarmament opened by the proposal of a treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons.

  14. The role of Brazil in multilateral disarmament efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article examines Brazil’s motivations, objectives, and action in international instances related to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control, particularly the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The paper describes the evolution of Brazilian attitudes and decisions and discusses prospects for nuclear disarmament opened by the proposal of a treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons.

  15. SEVEN KEY INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION- VALIDATED BY THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena\tIFTIME

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The seven institutions of the EU, which the title of this articles announces, structure the institutional basis of the Common European Home, considered to be the emblem of the most dynamic and complex, the most institutionalized and discussed (even controversial regional integration process. Building the Community Europe has began by the establishment of the Communities having 3 political institutions which represented in the evolution of the integration process, the triangle that ensured the coherence and the continuity of the Community actions: Council of Ministers, European Commission and the Assembly to which was added the Court and from 1974 the European Council as an indicative body. The five main institutions have formed the Community institutional system which over time had mainly guidance competences, of decision and direction (Council of Ministers, the Commission and the European Council or control skills ( the European Parliament and the Court of Justice. Since 1975, the institutional structure was strengthened through the creation of a Court of Auditors with general competences of checking accounts and discharge in Community activities. Maastricht Treaty 1992 (1993 raises this body to the rank of Community institution, without substantially altering its powers. The 6 Community institutions were supplemented by validating the status of Community institution of the ECB by the Lisbon Treaty 2007 (2009. ECB together with the national central banks of the Member States whose currency is the euro make up the Eurosystem. Through the Lisbon Treaty, the institutional structure was subjected to a process of improvement and strengthening of the EU which functions currently through the 7 institutions, interdependent, which are in a complementary relationship determined by the common goals which they pursue in Europe and in relations with other parts of the world.

  16. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  17. Statements commemorating the twentieth anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The document reproduces the following statements commemorating the twentieth anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Statement by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, statements on behalf of the depository Governments and statements on behalf of other Governments (Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Liechtenstein, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Western Samoa and Nordic Countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden)

  18. Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-27

    February 25, 2014. See also, Rubio et al ., S.Con.Res. 34, letters cited in H.R. 1960, §1055, para 7. 8 U.S. House, Committee on Armed Services. Letter...New York Times, October 19, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/20/world/europe/russia-missiles-inf-treaty.html. 6 Joe Gould , “U.S. Lawmakers Urge...National Security Strategy of the United States, White House, January 1988 , p. 16. 13 Article V states, “The Parties agree that an armed attack

  19. Get SMART: the case for a strategic materials reduction treaty, and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Inventories of weapons plutonium removed from nuclear warheads should be reduced as quickly as possible to prevent large-scale rearmament by the United States or Russia and to minimize the risk of theft or sabotage by a sub-national group. The U.S. and Russia should agree to a Strategic Materials Reduction Treaty (SMART) establishing an aggressive timetable for manual reduction of national security needs and schedule the final disposition of this material. An aggressive disarmament timetable will require an aggressive implementation program. This should take advantage of available resources within the U.S. and Russia as well as in third countries, including potentially both reactor and immobilization options, as long as stringent safeguards and security can be guaranteed at all participating facilities. Many existing light water reactors in the U.S. are well suited to the purpose, and several private operators of these plants have formally expressed interest to the U.S. government in providing such service. Russian fast and light water reactors appear to be less readily available to burn weapons plutonium. Russia, the United States and other G-7 countries should develop international programs to facilitate the most rapid possible reduction in weapons plutonium inventories, consistent with SMART. Such international co-operation would add credibility and transparency to the nuclear disarmament process in the spirit of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and could add momentum toward the conclusion of both a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and a Fissile Material Production Cut-off Treaty. This international program should take advantage of existing global infrastructure for the use of plutonium fuel as well as other capability (e.g., in the U.S. and Canada) that could supplement existing civilian Pu use plans, as well as vitrification or other immobilization facilities. In combination, it is reasonable to forecast a global capability to disposition at least 10 tons of weapons

  20. Education as a right in international treatie: A reading from inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Montanchez Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical review of education as a right, in international treaties and the evolution of the concept of inclusive education from a diverse multi and intercultural perspective. This article is part of a doctoral thesis from Valencia, Spain, researched in Ecuador. Inclusive education proposes quality education for everyone, demanding a response from competent institutions to develop a tolerant culture to difference in defense of human rights and equal opportunity. This essay facilitates guidelines that develop and support the construction of inclusive classrooms by education professionals at a primary school level as well as at a university level.

  1. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeibraaten, S.

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments

  2. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  3. The Energy Charter Treaty and settlement of disputes – current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Gabriela Iacob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Charter Treaty (the “ECT” is a multilateral agreement aiming to promote energy cooperation and security. This paper focuses on the provisions of the ECT governing the protection of foreign investments and the settlement of disputes between investors and host states. In particular, this paper analyses the recent developments and challenges in the field of dispute settlement under the ECT, such as the increase in arbitrations, the withdrawal of Italy from the ECT, as well as the interplay between EU law and the ECT.

  4. Nuclear weapon-free zone, non-proliferation treaty and South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaramu, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Emergence of and the motivations behind the concept of nuclear weapon free zone, the conceptual linkage between the nuclear weapon free zone and the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the problems involved in the implementation of nuclear weapon free zone proposals put forward from time to time are discussed. Pakistan's proposal for a nuclear weapon free zone in South Asia, motivations behind the proposal, and India's response to it are examined. It is pointed out that both the NPT and nuclear weapon free zone indirectly grant a certain amount of legitimacy to the use of nuclear weapons. (M.G.B.)

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Suriname and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The text of the Agreement of 2 February 1979 and of the Protocol thereto between Suriname and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 February 1979. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article III thereof.

  6. The European Union’s external trade policy after the Treaty of Lisbon: a neo-gramscian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Ihor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies neo-Gramscian theory to analyze the European Union’s external trade policy after the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009. It argues that despite the claim that procedural and institutional changes which took place as a result of the ratification of the Treaty serve the general interest of the EU citizens, they were in fact orchestrated by the European transnational capitalist class and serve primarily interests of this group. Paper starts by outlining key institutional and procedural changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, briefly outlining their implications for the EU. Further on, rationale for these changes is explained by focusing on socio-economic developments that took place in the EU during the past couple of decades. After outlining how the current hegemonic bloc was established, paper proceeds with explaining why the implemented changes were so important for the dominant in the EU social forces.

  7. World hazards and nuclear weapons: right and wrong answers. To reach a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary

  8. Lisbon Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylber Sela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  9. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  10. Objectives and Activities. Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The Treaty provides for a comprehensive global verification regime, which consists of an International Monitoring System (IMS), consultation and clarification procedures, provisions for requesting on-site inspections, and confidence-building measures. The present verification regime is the result of many years of negotiations led by an international Group of Scientific Experts (GSE) at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva to ensure that non-compliance with the provisions of the Treaty can be detected in a timely manner. The 337 IMS monitoring facilities (170 seismic, 11 hydroacoustic, 60 infrasound, 80 radionuclide stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories) are located all over the world including in some of the most remote regions such as the Arctic and Antarctica. The seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide monitoring technologies are designed to register sound and energy vibrations underground, in the sea and in the air, and to detect radionuclides released into the atmosphere. IMS data is collected and transmitted via the state-of-the-art, satellite-based Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI) to the International Data Centre (IDC) at the Commission's headquarters in Vienna. Here the data are processed and, together with IDC products such as Reviewed Event Bulletins and other event screening services, released to Member States for final analysis.

  11. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy policy in SE Europe: SE European Energy Community Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlov, Andjelka

    2010-01-01

    Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. (author)

  12. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Bryan

    2014-07-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada's invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a result of these cases, many commentators and activists view IIAs as a threat to public health and have lobbied against their inclusion in ongoing trade negotiations. This article does not argue against IIAs. Instead, it seeks to demonstrate how more sophisticated treaty drafting can neutralize the threat to public health. In this regard, the article seeks to engage members of the public health community as campaigners not against IIAs but as advocates of better treaty drafting to ensure that IIAs do not infringe upon the right of a nation to take non-discriminatory measures for the promotion and protection of the health of their populations.

  13. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue: verification of arms control treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  14. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGahan, Christopher J.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Brubaker, Erik M.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models for plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  15. Linear models to perform treaty verification tasks for enhanced information security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGahan, Christopher J., E-mail: cmacgahan@optics.arizona.edu [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kupinski, Matthew A. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Brubaker, Erik M.; Hilton, Nathan R.; Marleau, Peter A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Linear mathematical models were applied to binary-discrimination tasks relevant to arms control verification measurements in which a host party wishes to convince a monitoring party that an item is or is not treaty accountable. These models process data in list-mode format and can compensate for the presence of variability in the source, such as uncertain object orientation and location. The Hotelling observer applies an optimal set of weights to binned detector data, yielding a test statistic that is thresholded to make a decision. The channelized Hotelling observer applies a channelizing matrix to the vectorized data, resulting in a lower dimensional vector available to the monitor to make decisions. We demonstrate how incorporating additional terms in this channelizing-matrix optimization offers benefits for treaty verification. We present two methods to increase shared information and trust between the host and monitor. The first method penalizes individual channel performance in order to maximize the information available to the monitor while maintaining optimal performance. Second, we present a method that penalizes predefined sensitive information while maintaining the capability to discriminate between binary choices. Data used in this study was generated using Monte Carlo simulations for fission neutrons, accomplished with the GEANT4 toolkit. Custom models for plutonium inspection objects were measured in simulation by a radiation imaging system. Model performance was evaluated and presented using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

  16. Global Health Security Demands a Strong International Health Regulations Treaty and Leadership From a Highly Resourced World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2015-10-01

    If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing

  17. The European Communities (Definition of Treaties) (No.5) (Joint European Torus) Order 1978 (S.I. no.1032)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order declares the Exchange of Letters dated 3 May 1978 between the Government of the United Kingdom and the European Atomic Energy Community regarding privileges to be granted to the Joint European Torus to be a Community Treaty as defined in section 1(2) of the European Communities Act 1972. The principal effect of declaring this Exchange of Letters to be a Community Treaty as so defined is to bring into play, in relation to the Exchange of Letters, the provisions of section 2 of the European Communities Act 1972 [fr

  18. The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959): Genesis, Transformation and Dissemination of a Treaty (Re)Constituting a Transnational Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the social and legal status of the child evolved considerably. One remarkable illustration of this process can be seen by tracing the evolution of specific international treaties on the rights of the child. Although developments in national legislation inspired the authors of these treaties, it was through…

  19. The Lisbon Treaty and the role of the European Parliament in the European Atomic Energy Community; Der Vertrag von Lissabon (EUV) und die Rolle des Europaeischen Parlaments im Rahmen der Europaeischen Atomgemeinschaft (EURATOM / EAGV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Staatskanzlei des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In June 2007, the European Council commissioned an intergovernmental conference to draft a 'treaty of reform' of the European Union. The wording of the treaty was signed by the heads of state and government of the member countries on December 13, 2007. The ongoing process of ratification in the 27 EU member countries is to be completed before the next elections to the European Parliament in June 2009. The treaty is now referred to as 'Lisbon Treaty'. The Lisbon Treaty (Treaty Amending the Treaty about the European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community) does not replace the European Treaties currently in force, but merely amends them. Also the 'Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)' is amended in this way. On the basis of the contributions about 'The German Presidency Program of the Council Working Group on Nuclear Issues - an Interim Report' (W. Sandtner and S. Thomas) and 'Euratom Treaty and Intergovernmental Conference' (S. Thomas), current links to the Euratom Treaty with potential amendments are presented and commented upon. (orig.)

  20. Integrated Optimization of Long-Range Underwater Signal Detection, Feature Extraction, and Classification for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuma, M.; Rorbech, V.; Prior, M.; Igel, C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed and jointly optimized an integrated signal processing chain for detection and classification of long-range passive-acoustic underwater signals recorded by the global geophysical monitoring network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Starting at the level of raw

  1. (Inter)Temporal Considerations in the Interpretative Process of the VCLT : Do Treaties Endure, Perdure or Exdure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2014-01-01

    When interpreted, sometimes treaties have to go through a trial by fire and are found either to be ‘living instruments’ evolving alongside the relevant changes both in law and in facts or to have a ‘fixed’ meaning. The aim of the present article is to examine how temporal considerations find their

  2. 1995 review and extension conference of the parties to the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 19 July 1995, the Director General received a letter, addressed to him by the Alternate Resident Representative of Canada to the International Atomic Energy Agency, concerning 1995 review and extension conference of the parties to the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

  3. Hydrological assessment of the 1973 treaty on the transboundary Helmand River, using the SWAT model and a global climate database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajihosseini, H.; Hajihosseini, M.; Morid, S.; Delavar, M.; Booij, Martijn J.

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of the water resources of the Helmand River has been challenging for Iran and Afghanistan. Debates on this issue finally led to a treaty in 1973 between the two countries, in which a total amount of 26 m3/s water from the Helmand River should be delivered to Iran in a normal (or an

  4. The IAEA nuclear safety conventions: an example of successful ''treaty management''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear safety conventions represent an advance in bringing national nuclear power activities within the ambition of international legal safety norms. They introduce a novel measure of international legal accountability for the safety of commercial nuclear power operations. But whether this system represents a successful example of treaty management defies an easy answer. Certainly, it is beyond doubt that the peer review process combines aspects of law application(enforcement/control of implementation and compliance) with lawmaking. The nuclear safety convention bear the characteristics of a political compromise that affects effectiveness. For the time being it remains unclear whether this compromise will prove acceptable in the long run or how the tension between the two contending perspectives is likely to resolve itself. (N.C.)

  5. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  6. Automated granularity to integrate digital information: the "Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database" case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.

  7. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  8. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  9. India and the fissile material cut-off treaty: policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayan, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The international community inside and outside the Conference of Disarmament is underscoring the need for concluding a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT). The Indian government, for a long period, has been sponsoring the idea. Notwithstanding the international stagnation, the issue has been instigating periodic debate in India on the Indian approach. The periodic revival of the issue requires that India revisit its policy on fissile material production as well as its approach towards a possible EVICT. This article examines the question: should India's approach to conclude an FMCT be within the UN institutional framework? The new international reality is pushing for a new context, new realignments and a fresh outlook for an FMCT. India should take its own time to support conclusion of an FMCT so that its national interests and security are not adversely affected. (author)

  10. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF THE REINSURANCE COVERAGE FOR EXCESS OF LOSS TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal reinsurance coverage, selected by the cedent, influenced by a number of internal, external, objective and subjective factors. Their accounting or ignoring depends on the individual conditions of the insurer, knowledge of the specific risk profiles of professional experience and decision-makers about the forms and methods of reinsurance coverage. Justified the selection criteria of reinsurance protection for the treaty excess of loss. Using these criteria makes it possible not only to optimize the reinsurance protection, but also to ensure a balance of interests in the long-term relationship of the cedent company and the reinsurer. The article also provides examples of how classes of insurance is advisable to use the obligatory contract portfolio sexcess of loss.

  11. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty; Tratado Sobre La Zona Desnuclearizada Del Pacifico Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-15

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [Spanish] El 6 de agosto de 1985 el Foro del Pacifico Sur, organo compuesto por los paises independientes y autonomos del Pacifico Sur (Australia, Fiji, Islas Cook, Islas Salomon, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Nueva Zelandia, Papua Nueva Guinea, Samoa Occidental, Tonga, Tuvalu, y Vanuatu), aprobo el texto del Tratado sobre la Zona Desnuclearizada del Pacifico-Sur y lo abrio a la firma.

  12. The Montreal Protocol treaty and its illuminating history of science-policy decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as one of the most effective environmental treaties of all time, has a thirty year history of science-policy decision-making. The partnership between Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its technical assessment panels serve as a basis for understanding successes and evaluating stumbles of global environmental decision-making. Real-world environmental treaty negotiations can be highly time-sensitive, politically motivated, and resource constrained thus scientists and policymakers alike are often unable to confront the uncertainties associated with the multitude of choices. The science-policy relationship built within the framework of the Montreal Protocol has helped constrain uncertainty and inform policy decisions but has also highlighted the limitations of the use of scientific understanding in political decision-making. This talk will describe the evolution of the scientist-policymaker relationship over the history of the Montreal Protocol. Examples will illustrate how the Montreal Protocol's technical panels inform decisions of the country governments and will characterize different approaches pursued by different countries with a particular focus on the recently adopted Kigali Amendment. In addition, this talk will take a deeper dive with an analysis of the historic technical panel assessments on estimating financial resources necessary to enable compliance to the Montreal Protocol compared to the political financial decisions made through the Protocol's Multilateral Fund replenishment negotiation process. Finally, this talk will describe the useful lessons and challenges from these interactions and how they may be applicable in other environmental management frameworks across multiple scales under changing climatic conditions.

  13. Fundamental Rights and the EU Internal Market: Just how Fundamental are the EU Treaty Freedoms?
    A Normative Enquiry Based on John Rawls’ Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik J. de Boer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach priority to certain rights and which rights should therefore be considered fundamental rights. On this basis it is argued that we should recognise two main types of fundamental rights, namely basic rights and liberties associated with Rawls' first principle of justice and the rights associated with the principle of fair equality of opportunity. This is followed by an analysis of the interpretation that the European Court of Justice (CJEU gives to the Treaty freedoms. On the basis of the normative framework, it is argued that the Treaty freedoms can be seen as fundamental rights insofar as they embody the value of equality of opportunity. Nonetheless, the CJEU increasingly seems to rely on a broader market access approach rather than an equal treatment approach in interpreting the Treaty freedoms. It is argued that where equal treatment is not at stake, the Treaty freedoms should not be seen as fundamental rights. Therefore, in cases where there is a conflict between a fundamental right and a Treaty freedom the CJEU should carefully distinguish between these two different interpretations of the Treaty freedoms. In cases where it is merely market access that is at stake, the CJEU should regard the protection of fundamental rights as more important, and be very careful in allowing a restriction of fundamental rights in order to protect the exercise of the Treaty freedom. On the other hand, in cases where the Treaty freedoms can be seen as protecting equality of opportunity and where they conflict with other fundamental rights, the Court is justified in construing the conflict as a right-right conflict in which a fair balance has to be sought.

  14. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  15. The text of the Agreement of 22 February 1978 between Paraguay and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The full text of the agreement between Paraguay and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America is presented

  16. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

  17. Between Shadow and Light: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Biad

    2010-01-01

    The NPT was negotiated during the Cold War period to prevent the emergence of new nuclear players by distinguishing between 'nuclear-weapon states' (NWS) which had carried out nuclear testing before 1 January 1967, that is the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China, and 'non-nuclear-weapon states' (NNWS). Under the NPT, the two groups of states commit to comply with a series of commitments formulated around 'three pillars': 1 - Non-proliferation: the NWSs undertake under Article I not to transfer nuclear weapons or control over such weapons and not in any way to assist, encourage or induce any NNWS to acquire them, while the NNWSs are bound under Article II to neither develop or acquire nuclear weapons or 'other nuclear explosive devices' nor to receive any assistance in that connection. 2 - Peaceful use of nuclear energy: Article IV guarantees the 'inalienable right' to 'develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination'. 3 - Nuclear disarmament: each state party to the treaty undertakes under Article VI 'to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament'. The treaty entered in force in March 1970 and has since become universal, with 189 states parties in May 2010. At five-year intervals, parties to the treaty convene review conferences in order to review the operation of the treaty, Article VIII(3). The 1975, 1985 and 2000 review conferences culminated in the adoption of a final declaration and the 1995 review conference decided to extend the treaty indefinitely. The preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the 2010 review conference, which met from April 2007 to May 2009, did not adopt any recommendations, in absence of a consensus on essential issues concerning the operation of the treaty. Hence the importance of this 8. review conference of the parties held in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010 in a

  18. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  19. Safeguard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de.

    1979-01-01

    The historical aspects of the International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA-and the European Atomic Energy Community EURATOM foundations are presented. Besides abrief description of the Tlatelolco Treaty given. The IAEA and EURATOM purposes and activities are also emphasized. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  20. Overview of water resources in and near Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Marvin M.; Tortorelli, R.L.; Becker, M.F.; Trombley, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is an overview of water resources in and near the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes treaty lands in western Oklahoma. The tribal treaty lands are about 1,140 square miles and are bordered by the Canadian River on the north, the Washita River on the south, 98? west longitude on the east, and 98? 40' west longitude on the west. Seventy percent of the study area lies within the Washita River drainage basin and 30 percent of the area lies within the Canadian River drainage basin. March through June are months of greatest average streamflow, with 49 to 57 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these four months. November through February, July, and August have the least average streamflow with only 26 to 36 percent of the annual streamflow occurring in these six months. Two streamflow-gaging stations, Canadian River at Bridgeport and Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb, indicated peak streamflows generally decrease with regulation. Two other streamflow-gaging stations, Washita River at Carnegie and Washita River at Anadarko, indicated a decrease in peak streamflows after regulation at less than the 100-year recurrence and an increase in peak streamflows greater than the 100-year recurrence. Canadian River at Bridgeport and Washita River at Carnegie had estimated annual low flows that generally increased with regulation. Cobb Creek near Fort Cobb had a decrease of estimated annual low flows after regulation. There are greater than 900 ground-water wells in the tribal treaty lands. Eighty percent of the wells are in Caddo County.The major aquifers in the study area are the Rush Springs Aquifer and portions of the Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers. The Rush Springs Aquifer is used extensively for irrigation as well as industrial and municipal purposes, especially near population centers.The Canadian River and Washita River valley alluvial aquifers are not used extensively in the study area. Well yields from the Rush Springs Aquifer ranged from

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Iran and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the agreement between Iran and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Iran and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-13

    The text of the agreement between Iran and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-17

    The text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Bulgaria and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-13

    The text of the Agreement between Bulgaria and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-19

    The text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-22

    The text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  8. The text of the Agreement between Turkey and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The full text of the agreement between Turkey and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is presented

  9. The Text of the Agreement between Iran and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the agreement between Iran and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  10. The Rise and Fall of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: A Study of U.S. Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Thomas P

    2003-01-01

    .... Arms control advocates throughout Russia, Europe, and the U.S. had routinely referred to the ABM Treaty as the "cornerstone" of strategic stability and had predicted abrogation would trigger a new nuclear arms race...

  11. The Text of the Agreement between Bulgaria and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Bulgaria and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. The Text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  13. Provisions on waiting periods in international investment protection treaties and their impact on the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Provisions on so-called waiting periods in international investment protection treaties give an investor from one contracting state an opportunity to initiate arbitration against the host state provided that the time designated by the treaty from the date on which the dispute arose has elapsed. The aim of those provisions is to enable parties to the dispute to use this time for consultations and attempt to reach a negotiated settlement. The paper analyzes the attitude of contemporary arbitral practice towards the legal nature and effect of those provisions on tribunals' jurisdiction in investment disputes. The analysis shows gradual and clear shift of position taken by the tribunals in cases in which claimants did not comply with waiting periods. Because arbitral tribunals today are more resolved to penalize premature submission of the dispute to arbitration than they were one decade ago, in the future one can expect much more cautious conduct of potential claimants in this regard.

  14. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  15. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-Site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-BanTreaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Haas, D. A.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; Orrell, J. L.; Seifert, A.; Woods, V. T.

    2011-10-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced by neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca( n, α) 37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45 mBq/SCM in wholeair.

  16. An analysis on the impact of the 1972 ABM Treaty and its affect on the procurement of a National Missile Defense System

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Donald B.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For the last thirty years, many strategists have considered the 1972 Anti-ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty as the foundation for arms control. Others have insisted that its existence perpetuates American vulnerability to a ballistic missile attack. Since its inception, the ABM Treaty has been amended only once, but the geopolitical structure of the world has changed dramatically. The Cold War has ended and many new threats have emerged. ...

  17. The Applicability of Tax Treaties in Respect of Income Distributed by Luxembourgian SIF and SICAR Private Equity Funds and the Tax Consequences for Finnish Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    In a globalized market for private equity investments, the risk for international double taxation has made the applicability of tax treaties all the more important. The study is concerned with private equity fund structures, where a Luxembourgian SIF or SICAR is used as fund vehicle, where the investor is resident in Finland and where the target company is resident in a third state. In such triangular investment structures the determination of the applicable tax treaty may not always be clear...

  18. The Treaty of Tordesillas and the (reInvention of International Law in the Age of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Waisberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate some of the main features of sixteenth century international law in order to challenge traditional international law foundations. By exploring concrete cases, and indicating situations in which state and non-state actors resorted to international norms in order to promote trade and celebrate peace treaties, it is inquired whether some pre-Westphalia international trade and warfare practices may be defined as the beginning of “modern” international law.

  19. The new generation of nuclear submarines: in violation of the non proliferation treaty - Booklet No. 3, June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The Observatory of French nuclear weapons looks forwards to the elimination of nuclear weapons in conformity with the aims of the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty. The object of this booklet of the Observatory of French nuclear weapons about the program of new generation missile-launching nuclear submarines is to show the amplitude of this program that is going to mobilize considerable industrial resources and energies to the detriment of other security alternatives

  20. Tax-Response Heterogeneity and the Effects of Double Taxation Treaties on the Location Choices of Multinational Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Simon; Wamser, Georg

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines location choices of multinational enterprises (MNEs). We particularly focus on the consequences of double taxation treaties (DTTs) and corporate profit taxes on the probability to choose a location. DTTs have become a key policy instrument used by countries to regulate international tax issues related to the cross-border activities of MNEs. Based on three alternative location choice models, which all allow parameter estimates to vary randomly across firms, we show that fir...

  1. Problems in future negotiations for a treaty on the cut-off of fissile material for nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treaty to end the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, the so-called cutoff, is one of the most important next steps on the disarmament agenda.' But meanwhile, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is deadlocked, and confidence in negotiations taking place in the near future is replaced by bewilderment at the inaction. The underlying conflict of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation. The same conflict is now blocking progress with negotiations in the CD on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). Nevertheless, the cut-off would be the major policy driver to insert transparency and irreversibility into the disarmament process,' and we need to harness all our efforts to overcome the current difficulties. The CTBT can be regarded as a tool to cap the qualitative nuclear arms race, for example to hinder the future development of qualitatively new nuclear explosives, and an FMCT can be seen as its quantitative counterpart, capping the amount of material available for new nuclear weapons. The complex questions involve political, technical, legal, and economic aspects and constitute a challenge for diplomats and decision makers

  2. Yakama Indian Nation Treaty rights and development of cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, R.; Barry, B.

    1995-01-01

    The Yakama Indian Nation (YIN) is a sovereign government located in the Northwestern United States. In 1855, the US government recognized Yakama Nation dominion on 12.2 million acres of land, or more than one-quarter of present-day Washington State. In the Treaty of 1855 between US and Yakama representatives, the YIN ceded control on 10.8 million acres of its ancestral land to the US government, but retained certain perpetual rights to that land. The Hanford Nuclear Site is located on Yakama ceded land, upon which the YIN retains rights to fish, hunt, gather roots and berries, and to pasture horses and cattle. The YIN has been recognized by the US Department of Energy as having regulatory authority concerning Hanford operations. This authority requires incorporation of YIN Treaty rights in the development of environmental cleanup standards for D and D and ER actions. The legal and policy framework upon which YIN environmental protection standards are based includes protection of the health, safety and well-being of YIN Tribal members, protection of the environment necessary to support Treaty protected resources, and preservation of the culture which sustains the unique YIN lifestyle and religion. The basis for Yakama cleanup standards will address risk, environmental, and cultural factors. It is recognized that the unique Yakama lifestyle and diet create specific exposure pathways for hazardous and radioactive materials which are not routinely factored into risk models used to calculate doses

  3. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Verification research in support of non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linger, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits nuclear weapons testing at any yield. The detection and positive identification of any evasive test presents a challenge to the technical community, however. Low yield testing can be masked by normal background seismic noise or permissible chemical explosions for mining or other purposes. Cavity decoupling can reduce the seismic signal from the nuclear explosion by a factor of 50 or more. The combination of decoupling and high explosive masking represents a particular technical challenge for positive identification. To address this problem, a technical program in cooperation with the Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center has been initiated to conduct a series of tests in the Balapan area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site to provide fundamental data on the depth of burial effects on seismic signals emanating from an explosion. If the depth of burial can be positively determined from the characteristics of the seismic waveform, near-surface mining blasts can be distinguished from deep underground evasive nuclear explosions, thus eliminating the capability to easily mask the nuclear event. This paper will briefly describe the basic concepts of some evasive nuclear testing options and discuss the cooperative test program that is being carried out to improve the capability to positively identify such tests. The paper will also discuss possible additional cooperative tests that might be done in 1998 to further improve the identification capability

  4. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J., E-mail: trevor_stocki@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie [School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of {sup 131m}Xe, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  5. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Safety controls according to the non-proliferation treaty in EC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pander, J. von.

    1978-01-01

    Above all, content and extent of the duty conferred upon the IAEA according to article III, paragraph 1 of the NP treaty which implies the conducting of safety controls and the consequences resulting here from are examined. Including the peaceful use of nuclear energy developing under international law the agreement on safety control signed on 5th April 1973 between IAEA and EURATOM as well as its seven non-nuclear-weapon member states is discussed, along with its technical and its implicit legal problems. In detail the manifold technical and judicial problems of IAEA safety controls are shown, their realization requiring a well-working cooperation between IAEA and the European Communities. As only the non-nuclear-weapon member states of the EC are subject to the IAEA safety control system within the frame of this agreement the following questions are discussed: 1. effects on the member status after the signing of the EURATOM contract and 2. granting the principle of equal treatment for all member states as against the nuclear-weapon member states of the EC, France and the United Kingdom. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Automated aerosol sampling and analysis for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Bowyer, S.M.; Hubbard, C.W.; McKinnon, A.D.; Perkins, R.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Warner, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Detecting nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon exploded in or substantially vented to the Earth's atmosphere constitutes the most certain indication that a violation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has occurred. For this reason, a radionuclide portion of the International Monitoring System is being designed and implemented. The IMS will monitor aerosols and gaseous xenon isotopes to detect atmospheric and underground tests, respectively. An automated system, the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA), has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to meet CTBT aerosol measurement requirements. This is achieved by the use of a novel sampling apparatus, a high-resolution germanium detector, and very sophisticated software. This system draws a large volume of air (∼ 20,000 m 3 /day), performs automated gamma-ray spectral measurements (MDC( 140 Ba) 3 ), and communicates this and other data to a central data facility. Automated systems offer the added benefit of rigid controls, easily implemented QA/QC procedures, and centralized depot maintenance and operation. Other types of automated communication include pull or push transmission of State-Of-Health data, commands, and configuration data. In addition, a graphical user interface, Telnet, and other interactive communications are supported over ordinary phone or network lines. This system has been the subject of a USAF commercialization effort to meet US CTBT monitoring commitments. It will also be available to other CTBT signatories and the monitoring community for various governmental, environmental, or commercial needs. The current status of the commercialization is discussed

  8. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  9. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  10. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  11. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratt, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.) [de

  12. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Ungar, R. Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of 131m Xe, 133 Xe, 133m Xe, and 135 Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  13. Reform by subtraction: the path of denunciation of international drug treaties and reaccession with reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2012-09-01

    Almost all countries are parties to the international drug conventions of 1961, 1971 and 1988. These strongly bind parties with respect to their domestic regulation of controlled substances, including requirements that possession, growing or use be a criminal offense and that any regulated market in the substances be limited to use only for medical or scientific purposes. Even where countries have argued they have "wiggle room", reform within the bounds of the conventions has often resulted in "net-widening" which nullifies the intent of the reform. Among the options for effective reform, probably the most immediately viable is the route of denunciation and reaccession with reservations--the route which Bolivia has now taken in order to legalise a regulated domestic market in coca leaves for chewing. The paper considers the existing record of reservations (by more than 30 parties to each of the conventions). Also discussed are the options for response to the reservations by other parties, which vary between the treaties, and how pursuing the option of denunciation and reaccession with reservation might potentially play out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Collective Security Treaty Organization: Origins of the Multidimensional Mandate and Modern Means for its Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the historically contradictory development of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO following its 15th anniversary, and evaluates its political potential from the point of view of its assigned mandate. The evolution of international stability at the beginning of the century forced the contracting parties of the CSTO to formalize their mainly declarative interactions through the creation of a valid regional security organization. This new collective security forum enriched the cooperation mandate by establishing additional areas for mutual coordination including counterterrorism activities, measures to combat illegal migration and drug trafficking, strategies to respond to natural disasters and cybersecurity. The creation of the multitasking Collective Rapid Reaction Forces was the first significant step on the way to the practical realization of the CSTO. The Collective Security Strategy for the period ending in 2025 organizes the CSTO instruments of international cooperation within the CSTO crisis management framework and thus works to reduce the fragmentary nature of the CSTO. Despite the availability of the Collective Rapid Reaction Forces and the Collective Peace-Keeping Forces, the CSTO’s crisis management approach gives priority to political approaches and negotiation. Consequently, the multifunctional mandate of the CSTO predetermines its strategic role in Eurasia and allows it to achieve its political goals related to conservation of the common military and strategic area, the creation of a constraining effect, the facilitation of cooperation among law enforcement and intelligence agencies and the ability to contribute to the settlement of regional and local conflicts.

  15. THE OBSERVATION OF THE HUMAN BEING DIGNITY, AS MIRRORED IN CONVENTIONS, TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Laura (MIREA SAVA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the concept of human dignity in conventions, treaties and other international documents, starting from the 13th century, when we meet different references to the human rights in the English Charter from 1215 –Magna Charta, and continuing with the American Declaration of Independence from 1776, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen from 1789 etc. In present times, the most important and relevant documents are The Charter of the United Nations, signed at San Francisco, California, on the 26th of June 1945, The European Convention of Human Rights, signed at Rome, on the 5th of November 1950, the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted in 1963, The Charter of Paris, called “For a new Europe” – 1989, The Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, signed at San José, in Costa Rica, on the 22nd of November 1969, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted during the Conference for Organisation of African Unity (OAU, on the 27th of June 1981, The Asian Human Rights Charter, elaborated by the Asian Human Rights Commission and proclaimed on the 17th of May 1998 etc.

  16. Politics of motherhood: the case of Women Strike for Peace and the test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative history and organizational study of the formative years of Women Strike for Peace (1961-1963) and its campaign for a nuclear test ban treaty. WSP, a grass roots, participatory movement of American Women, was born on November 1, 1961 when an estimated 50,000 women in 60 communities across the nation walked out of their kitchens and off their jobs in a one day protest against Russian and American nuclear policies. In the process of transforming this one day strike into a national woman's movement, WSP developed a feminine political style characterized by an anti-heirarchical, anti-organizational format, simple, womanly rhetoric, and spontaneous, innovative national and international direct action. At a time when foreign policy dissenters were dismissed by the press and the public either as commies or kooks, the image that WSP projected to respectable middle-class, middle-aged peace mothers wearing white gloves and flowered hats while picketing the White House to save their children from nuclear holocaust caught the favorable attention of large sections of the media, the public, and even the President. Through an investigation of the program, internal debates, rhetoric, organizational structure, and tactics of WSP, along with the backgrounds of its leaders and members, this study uncovers the political and gender consciousness of the women who joined the movement

  17. Application of the nuclide identification system SHAMAN in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    SHAMAN is an expert for qualitative and quantitative radionuclide identification in gamma spectrometry. SHAMAN requires as input the calibrations, peak search, and fitting results from reliable spectral analysis software, such as SAMPO. SHAMAN uses a comprehensive reference library with 2600 radionuclides and 80 000 gamma-lines, as well as a rule base consisting of sixty inference rules. Identification results are presented both via an interactive graphical interface and in the form of configurable text reports. An organization has been established for monitoring the recent Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. For radionuclide monitoring, 80 stations will be set up around the world. Air-filter gamma-spectra will be collected from these stations on a daily basis and they will need to be reliably analyzed with minimum turnaround time. SHAMAN is currently being evaluated within the prototype monitoring system as an automated radionuclide identifier, in parallel with existing radionuclide identification software. In air-filter monitoring, very low concentrations of radionuclides are measured from bulky sources in close geometry and with long counting time. In this case true coincidence summing and self-absorption become important factors. SHAMAN is able to take into account these complicated phenomena, and the results it produces have been found to be very reliable and accurate. (author)

  18. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of El Salvador and the International Atomic Energy Agency in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 23 September 2002. It was signed on 5 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 24 May 2004, the date on which Agency received from El Salvador written notification that El Salvador's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  19. Bill authorizing the ratification of the protocol amending the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community; Projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole modifiant le protocole sur les dispositions transitoires annexe au traite sur l'Union europeenne, au traite sur le fonctionnement de l'Union europeenne et au traite instituant la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After an indication of the European Parliament composition, this text describes the transitional provisions adopted as the Lisbon Treaty did not come into effect before the European elections held in June 2009. The document also provides the protocol text signed by the Members States and which amended the protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The last part of the document discusses the administrative and legal consequences of this protocol. It also recalls the history of the negotiations and indicates the present status of signatures and ratifications

  20. Report made on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project nr 2932 authorizing the ratification of the protocol modifying the protocol on transitory dispositions attached to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union, and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes and comments the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty in terms of composition for the European Parliament, and more particularly the debate about the design of an efficient and representative parliament, the election mode and the seat distribution. Then, it describes how the modification protocol has been elaborated, its content (general architecture, eighteen additional seats for twelve member States and their election modalities), and its implementation (agenda and method)

  1. Decree number 1.246 of September 16, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Promulgates the Treaty for Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean - Tlatelolco Treaty, held in Mexico City in February 14, 1967 an the Resolutions numbers 267(E-V), of July 3, 1990, 268 (XII), of May 10, 1991 and 290 (VII), of August 26, 1992, all of them adopted by the General Conference of the Organism for the Proscription of Nuclear Weapon in Latin America and Caribbean (OPANAL) in Mexico City

  2. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA) [fr

  3. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  4. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  5. The Lisbon Treaty and Changes in the Legal Rules on the Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janků Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU Lisbon Treaty 2007 (LT brings some changes for the common commercial policy (CCP and the decision-making processes related to it. CCP is newly included in the one area with all the external activities of the EU, with foreign and security policy, international environmental policy, development aid and economic, financial and technical cooperation with third countries. The fundamental areas of the CCP have been expanded to include foreign direct investment, services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. The EU’s exclusive competence for external negotiation of agreements in areas of exclusive competence and internal CCP regarding their implementation were confirmed. The changes affect the role of the European Parliament and also the functioning of the European Council, the Council, and competences of the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and the European External Action Service. Together with these changes, there will be also changes in procedures within the European Union. A number of aspects of the decision-making process are not yet entirely clarified, and only the practice of the participation of the EU Member States and the European Parliament in the formation of the common commercial policy will bring more meaningful conclusions. The changes brought by the LT will affect not only the extent of the influence of EU Member States on the common commercial policy, but they can also affect the position of the EU in the context of international trade, particularly in the area of negotiating commitments and rules of multilateral and bilateral trade and investment agreements.

  6. Airborne radionuclides of concern and their measurement in monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.W.; Miley, H.S.; Hensley, W.K.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting radioanalytical developmental programs with the goal of providing near-real-time analysis technology for airborne signature radionuclides which are indicative of a nuclear weapons test in any of the earth's environments. If a test were conducted in the atmosphere or above the atmosphere, then the full spectrum of fission and activation products, together with residues from the device would be dispersed in the atmosphere. However, if a nuclear test were conducted underground or under water, the emission could range from a major to a very minor vent, and the material released would likely consist mainly of noble gas radionuclides and the radioiodines. Since many of the noble gases decay to form particulate radionuclides, these may serve as the more sensitive signatures. For example, Ba-140 is a daughter of Xe-140 (13.6 s), and Cs-137 is a daughter of Xe-137 (3.82 min). Both of these have been observed in large amounts relative to other fission products in dynamic venting of U.S. underground nuclear detonations. Large amounts of radionuclides are produced from even a comparatively small nuclear detonation. For example, a 10-KT fission device will produce approximately a megacurie of Ba-140 and of several other radionuclides with half-lives of days to weeks. If such a device were detonated in the atmosphere at midlatitude, it would easily be observable at downwind monitoring sites during its first and subsequent circumnavigations of the earth. Efficient and practical methods for the near-real-time analysis of both particulate and gaseous radionuclides are important to an effective monitoring and attribution program in support of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); methods for this purpose are being pursued

  7. The Fiscal Governance Treaty - the Recent Act in the European Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new paradigm that affects the current doctrine is particularly focused on building a strong community and it is also motivated by the intention of saving the Lisbon Treaty with its establishing the European Constitution. In the series of the numerous leading up steps required to achieve this goal, approaches the studies on the concept of sovereignty are necessary for clarification, given that in this way only the Union can be setup as a person - on the one hand, and - on the other hand, this is the basis of ensuring coherence between European political order and sovereignty / autonomy of national institutions. Bitter experiences of radical nationalism which culminated in the disasters of the Second World War led to the conceptual reconfiguration of the sovereignty, gradually replaced with a new expression, the super nationalism. Moreover, in order to hindering the possible future recurrence and the temptation to concentrate all the available powers at certain national governments’ disposal only, a comprehensive course of division of sovereignty was designed, as an optimal strategic alternative in ensuring the durability and sustainability of the European federalist model. In terms of economic integration and trade globalization, the taxation of a state has a rapid impact on another state, so that the rapprochement of the global tax policy, as well as the need to harmonize tax systems across countries are increasingly spoken about. Although that these measures can upset all tax systems deeply changing the approaches regarding both fiscal and political states’ sovereignty, in the current situation, such an unforeseen development is inherent. Therefore, each step meant to approach the full integration of the community raises special efforts for consensus actions and strongly motivated as well, by a very special interest at the highest level of the macroeconomic and political decision.

  8. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  9. THE TERMS OF INHERITANCE LAW IN RUSSIA-BYZANTIUM TREATIES AND RUSSKAYA PRAVDA: THE PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONAL SEMANTICS AND DERIVATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirzhaeva Vera Petrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the functional-and-semantic and derivational relations of the inheritance law terms in the Russia-Byzantium treaties and in Russkaya Pravda Legal Code as well as in the wide-spread Church Slavonic law regulators that appeared in Rus after adoption of Christianity. The research results attest that the inheritance law terminology in treaties includes designation of inheritance, will and heirs. There is a special term chast ('part' that denotes a share of inheritance in the Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts. However, chast as a 'part' (share is a characteristic of the Russkaya Pravda legal texts only. In Church Slavonic it is used in treaties for nominating the property in general. A similar lack of strict distribution between inheritance law terms zadnitsa and dom, presented in Old Russian texts, was noted in Church Slavonic treaties. Various derivatives of the root *rÌd- are used to denote the will in all texts under analysis; the terms pisati employed only in treaties and church law regulators to denote a written will or procedures of its preparation. The derivatives of the root *bliz- nominate the heirs in both text systems. A loan translation of the terminological word group malye / milye blizhnie / blizhiki dated to the year 911 is not viewed as a translators' experiment with the Greek terms, because it reflects a steady lexical distribution of adjectives malye / milye and the terms of relations in the Russian language. The results of the study testify some inheritance law terms correlation between Russia-Byzantium treaties, Russkaya Pravda and Church Slavonic legal texts, their translation in the treaties was not entirely artificial. The Church Slavonic and Old Russian terminological systems were open to these interferences in some ways.

  10. Statement to the Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Vienna, 3 September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is being held at a time of major challenges to the nuclear arms control and disarmament regime. A verified, permanent, global ban on all types of nuclear explosive tests has been a key item on the international security agenda for nearly half a century. More than 2,000 nuclear explosive detonations have taken place since 1945, with the most recent ones in 1998. The CTBT has been characterized as the longest sought, hardest fought prize in the history of arms control. The Treaty, when implemented, will prohibit all nuclear explosions, in all environments, for all time. It will curb the development and testing of new, more advanced and more dangerous nuclear weapons, and will limit the possibilities for further nuclear proliferation. The Treaty will lead to the establishment of a comprehensive International Monitoring System to provide independent, impartial verification of compliance. The CTBT, along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and a future Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices (FMCT), forms an essential element of a network of negotiated, global treaties that will strengthen international efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons and to promote nuclear disarmament leading in time hopefully to a world without nuclear weapons. In the meantime, with the early entry into force of the CTBT, it would indeed be a significant achievement if this new century were to remain free of any nuclear test explosions. In this context, I encourage all signatory States to ratify the CTBT, and all those States that have yet to sign to do so and to ratify the Treaty, as soon as possible - so that another crucial pillar can be raised to support the edifice of global nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament norms. (IAEA)

  11. ''Brexit means Brexit''. Also a British withdrawal of the EURATOM treaty?; ''Brexit means Brexit''. Exit auch fuer den EURATOM-Vertrag?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-08-15

    In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9 % of the British voters decided to leave the EU. The question did not include explicitly the exit from the EURATOM Treaty (EAV). Since the 2009 Lisbon Treaty the Euratom Community is a supranational organisation of the new EU. This raises the question whether the exit of Britain from the EU also means an exit from the Euratom treaty.

  12. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. 2005 review conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 2 May 2005, United Nations, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    The core of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons can be summed up in two words: 'Security' and 'Development'. While the States Party to this Treaty hold differing priorities and views, I trust that all share these two goals: development for all through advanced technology; and security for all by reducing - and ultimately eliminating - the nuclear threat. These shared goals were the foundation on which the international community, in 1970, built this landmark Treaty. They agreed to work towards a world free of nuclear weapons. They agreed, while working towards this goal, to prevent the acquisition of nuclear weapons by additional States. And they agreed to make the peaceful applications of nuclear energy available to all. Folded together, these agreements, these commitments, are mutually reinforcing. They are as valid today as when they were first made - and even more urgent. What should be all too evident is that, if we cannot work together, each acknowledging the development priorities and security concerns of the other, then the result of this Conference will be inaction. In five years, since the 2000 NPT Review Conference the world has changed. Our fears of a deadly nuclear detonation, whatever the cause, have been reawakened. These realities have heightened the awareness of vulnerabilities in the NPT regime. The Treaty has served us well for 35 years. But unless we regard it as part of a living, dynamic regime - capable of evolving to match changing realities, it will fade into irrelevance and leave us vulnerable and unprotected. The expectations from this Conference are to: re-affirm the goals established in 1970; strengthen the IAEA's verification authority; control over proliferation sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle (activities that involve uranium enrichment and plutonium separation); secure and control nuclear material; show the world that our commitment to nuclear disarmament is firm; back the verification efforts by an

  13. THE TREATY OF GULISTAN: 200 YEARS AFTER (THE RUSSO-PERSIAN WAR OF 1804-1813 AND THE TREATY OF GULISTAN IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS 200TH ANNIVERSARY)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The author looks at the causes and some of the aspects and repercussions of the Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813 and the Treaty of Gulistan that ended it in the context of the rivalry between the Russian and the British Empire for geopolitical domination in Central Asia and the Caucasus, which went down to history as the Great Game or the Tournament of Shadows. This approach, which blends historical and political scientific slants, sheds new light on certain aspects of the history of Azeri stat...

  14. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  15. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  16. Human Rights Treaties Are an Important Part of the "International Health Instrumentariam" Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-10-02

    In their commentary, Haik Nikogosian and Ilona Kickbusch argue for the necessity of new binding international legal instruments for health to address complex health determinants and offer a cogent analysis of the implications of such treaties for future global health governance. Yet in doing so they pay no attention to the existing instrumentarium of international legally binding treaties relevant to health, in the form of human rights treaties. International human rights law has entrenched individual entitlements and state obligations in relation to individual and public health through iterative human rights treaties since 1946. These treaties offer normative specificity, institutional monitoring and the possibility of enforcement and accountability. If we are to build a new 'international health instrumentariam' we should not ignore existing and important tools that can assist in this endeavor. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. The United Nations and disarmament since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the United Nations, the combined efforts of Governments at global, regional and bilateral levels have led to a body of important agreements, treaties and conventions committing their parties to various arms limitation and disarmament measures. The multilateral instruments concluded so far are as follows: The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Test in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (partial test-ban Treaty); The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (outer space Treaty); The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (non-proliferation Treaty); The Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (sea-bed Treaty); The Antarctic Treaty of 1959, for the demilitarization of Antarctica; The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco); The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga); The Vienna Document 1990 on confidence- and security-building measures, and a number of bilateral agreements, including: The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear-Weapon Tests; The Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes; The Agreement on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for teh Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002 [fr

  19. Text of the Agreement of 2 March 1978 between Peru and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The text of the Agreement of 2 March 1978 between Peru and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 1 August 1979.

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for teh Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002 [es

  1. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [ru

  2. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Guatemala and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin-America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Guatemala and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 29 November 2001. It was signed in Guatemala City on 14 December 2001

  3. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for teh Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 June 2002

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 20 September 2007

  5. Agreement of 12 July 1973 between Costa Rica and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Costa Rica to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Costa Rica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  6. The Text of the Agreement of 28 February 1975 between Nicaragua and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Nicaragua to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  7. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Dominican Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  8. Agreement of 12 July 1973 between Costa Rica and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Costa Rica to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Costa Rica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  9. The Text of the Agreement of 28 February 1975 between Nicaragua and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Nicaragua to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  10. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  11. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [fr

  12. The Text of the Agreement of 28 February 1975 between Nicaragua and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Republic of Nicaragua to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Nicaragua and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  13. Agreement of 6 November 1978 between Jamaica and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Jamaica to rescind the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to rescind the Protocol to the Agreement between Jamaica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 20 September 2007 [es

  15. Agreement of 9 September 1996 between Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Antigua and Barbuda to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Antigua and Barbuda and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  16. Agreement of 18 April 1975 between Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Agreement by Exchange of Letters with Honduras to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 18 April 1975 between the Republic of Honduras and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  17. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  18. Agreement of 6 November 1978 between Jamaica and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Jamaica to rescind the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to rescind the Protocol to the Agreement between Jamaica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  19. Agreement of 2 October 1974 between Ecuador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with Ecuador to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement of 2 October 1974 between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

  20. The energy title in the Lisbon Treaty. Old wine in new bottles; Der Energietitel im Vertrag von Lissabon. Alter Wein in neuen Schlaeuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenkort, Katja [Bundesministerium des Innern, Berlin (Germany); Wellershoff, Jan-Kristof [Sozietaet Gleiss Lutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union establishes the first ever explicit title of competence in the history of European community law authorising the promulgation of measures in the energy sector. Since the expiry of the ECSC Treaty, and with the exception of the regulations contained in the Euroatom Treaty, there has been no competence title authorising the European Union to enact regulations in the area of energy policy. Although such measures were taken nonetheless, they were enacted by the European Community on the basis of various unspecific competence titles. This gave currency to the expression of ''patchwork competence'' in regard to Europe's authority in the energy sector. This article analyses the new title of competence, marking it off against other regulations relating to the energy sector.

  1. Transit of Natural Gas. Monitoring Report on the Implementation of the Transit Provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Natural gas is transported over increasingly large distances from producers to consumers. Most of this transportation takes place by pipelines and often involves crossing multiple national borders. Recent events demonstrated that disputes over energy transit can quickly have multilateral implications for gas supply, demonstrating the need for a framework for reliable cross-border gas flows. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) provides a set of binding rules that cover the entire energy chain, including the terms to transport energy across various national jurisdictions. The transit provisions of the Treaty support the reliability of established flows and the creation of new transport capacity, thus contributing to the reliability of gas transit. The Energy Charter's Group on Trade and Transit monitors and assists in the implementation of the ECT and its instruments on trade and transit and suggests improvements of implementation. The present report monitors the implementation of the Energy Charter transit principles for natural gas by giving an analysis of its legislative and practical aspects in selected member countries of the ECT constituency

  2. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. The Effects Of The Yenikoy Treaty On The Armenians And The Russian-Armenian Collaboration In World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Ottoman Empire lost the first Balkan war, its situation changed drastically. All the weaknesses of the army and the administration came into notice. The issue of the Armenian reforms resulted in the interfering of the Great Powers in the empire’s internal affairs. With the Yenikoy treaty signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire on February 9th, 1914, the reform demands of the Armenians were met. After that treaty, though, it had been observed that the Armenians started losing allegiance to the state and began arming themselves. Moreover, the Russian pressure on the Ottoman Empire also increased. After the bursting out of the World War I, Armenians thought that they could gain independence from the state with the help of Russia and the other Allied Powers. Therefore, Armenian National Delegacy started recruiting Armenian volunteers to fight in the Russian army. These volunteers were organized as separate units by the Russians. Their duties were to conduct intelligence duties for the Russians and opening the frontiers for the Russian army by performing guerilla wars. Armenians successfully conducted their duties, which resulted in the retreatment of the Turkish army from lots of places, even including Van. However, the Turkish army also put some effort in band activities. In this study, both the effects of Russia and the other Allied Powers on the Armenians and their standpoints towards the Ottoman Empire will be investigated.

  4. European Union’s integration issues after the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty. A Neo-Gramscian anaylsis (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mădălina BONCILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper we have tried to question the reality of EU’ s integration and to identify the factors that shaped it. The complexity of this process led to multiple perspectives of analyzing it. We believe that Neo- Gramscian theory of European integration, although not so well-known, can be considered the most appropriate methodological support in explaining the events that have redefined the European integration: the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty, the financial crisis and the emergence of the Lisbon Treaty. We started from the assumption that the EU has obvious neo-liberal connotations, which led to the emergence of functional obstacles difficult to overcome, especially when it comes to the social dimension of the EU. Therefore, we divided the work into two basic parts, the first explains the methodology used, the main concepts, what neo-liberalism is and which are the EU’ s neo-liberal expressions and in the second part we focused on the social dimension of the EU, talking about the lack of substance that we found in the rhetoric of Fundamental Rights. Using the trade unions we have exemplified the inability of the EU to cope with social challenges, especially since there are forms of skepticism focused strictly on social discontent. The conclusions confirm that the Neo-Gramscian theory is the most suitable methodological support in an attempt to capture the nuances of EU’ s neo-liberal expressions.

  5. Text of the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The document informs that the Czech Republic succeeded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons on 1 January 1993 and to the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the above treaty

  6. Text of the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The document informs that the Slovak Republic succeeded to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons on 1 January 1993 and to the agreement between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the above treaty

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Greece and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-11-17

    The text of the Agreement between the Kingdom of Greece and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Cyprus and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Cyprus and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  10. The Text of the Agreement between Greece and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Kingdom of Greece and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  11. The Text of the Agreement between Uruguay and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between the Eastern Republic of Uruguay and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  12. The Text of the Agreement between Romania and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III, (I) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Protocol Additional thereto, entered into force for Romania on 1 May 2010 [es

  13. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-15

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

  14. The Text of the Agreement between Denmark and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-09

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Denmark and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  15. The Text of the Agreement between Malaysia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-05-18

    The text of the Agreement. and of the Protocol thereto, between Malaysia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Cyprus and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-07-03

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Cyprus and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Ireland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-06-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the two Protocols thereto, between Ireland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Norway and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-11

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Norway and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Nepal and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-06-29

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Nepal and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Yugoslavia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-06-10

    The text of the Agreement between Yugoslavia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 28 December 1973, pursuant to Article 25.

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Australia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-13

    The text of the Agreement between Australia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 10 July 1974, pursuant to Article 26.

  2. The Text of the Agreement between Mongolia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-06-22

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Mongolia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Uruguay and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-03-24

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between the Eastern Republic of Uruguay and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  4. The Text of the Agreement between Lebanon and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-07-10

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Lebanon and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  5. The Text of the Agreement between Yugoslavia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Yugoslavia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 28 December 1973, pursuant to Article 25.

  6. The Text of the Agreement between Australia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Australia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 10 July 1974, pursuant to Article 26.

  7. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  8. The Treaty of Peace with Japan and the Korean truce negotiations Book Reviews%对日和约与朝鲜停战谈判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志华

    2007-01-01

    The outbreak of the Korean War caused the U.S.A.to become determined in excluding the People's Republic of China(PRC)from the Treaty of Peace with Japan,the signing of which is hoped to be hastened by winning the Korean War.Before the signing of the treaty,the U.S.A.intentionally delayed the Korean truce negotiations in order to prevent the PRC from attending the San Francisco Peace Conference.After the signing,the U.S.A.preferred an immediate cessation of hostilities in Korea,whereas the Soviet Union and the PRC,bogged down in the Far East by the terms of the treaty,were determined to take a hard-line stance,hoping that the U.S.A.would become tied down and drained on the Korean battlefield.Thus,there was a subtle relationship between the treaty and the negotiations in the context of the Cold War.

  9. Fundamental rights and the EU internal market: just how fundamental are the EU treaty freedoms? A normative enquiry based on John Rawls' political philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach

  10. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-06-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  11. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-05-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [es

  12. French and German students at CERN in the framework of 50th anniversary of the franco-german Treaty - Microcosm garden BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.

  13. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [ru

  14. The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Board of Governors has requested the Director General to use the material reproduced in this booklet as the basis for negotiating safeguards agreements between the Agency and non-nuclear-weapon States party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  15. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  16. The Text of the Agreement between Ireland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the two Protocols thereto, between Ireland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Lebanon and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Lebanon and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. The Text of the Agreement between Mongolia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Mongolia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Norway and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Norway and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Nepal and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement and of the Protocol thereto, between Nepal and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  1. The Text of the Agreement between Denmark and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Denmark and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  2. Breakout Session: International Treaties, Copyright Law, and the Future of the U.S.A. Presented by Kenneth D. Crews, attorney, Gipson Hoffman and Pancione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posie Aagaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly every nation in the world enacts laws that explicitly govern domestic copyright, dictating rights reserved for authors and specifying other important legal terms. Both geographical borders and the less well-defined borders of the internet affect determinations of copyright. On a global scale, nations enact international copyright treaties to achieve harmonization of certain aspects of copyright law that would otherwise create challenges or conflicts in enforcement of policies between individual nations. However, member nations may need to adjust domestic laws to bring them into alignment with the terms of the international treaties. International law expert Dr. Kenneth Crews discussed the evolution of copyright law and described how precedents set by some nations historically influenced geographic and sociopolitical peers. He also discussed how existing international copyright treaties address issues that continue to reveal weaknesses or compelling needs that cannot easily be served through existing copyright law. Lastly, Dr. Crews provided an update on the landmark 2013 Marrakesh VIP Treaty, which establishes special copyright provisions to accommodate individuals with print disabilities, and reported on his work commissioned by WIPO to study the status of copyright law exceptions in nations around the world.

  3. The Text of the Agreement between Malaysia and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement. and of the Protocol thereto, between Malaysia and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. SECURITY STRATEGIES OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FROM THE LISBON TREATY AND THE EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO RIVAS PARDO

    2017-09-01

    in mind, it is possible to study the variability of the Security Strategy in relation to four strategic guidelines: strategic self-perception, the necessity to tune these postulates with the common objectives of the European Union, the statement of threats and finally the actions projected by these strategies to face the changing environment of international security. This variability will seek the fact of the existence or nonexistence of tuning and consistency between the Security Strategies and the community positions in the matter of security and defense. The selected countries are those who have published their documents after the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon and the publication of the European Security Strategy, in other words, after2009: Austria, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Holland, Hungary, Lithuania, UK and the Czech Republic.

  5. Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocki, T.J.; Blanchard, X.; D'Amours, R.; Ungar, R.K.; Fontaine, J.P.; Sohier, M.; Bean, M.; Taffary, T.; Racine, J.; Tracy, B.L.; Brachet, G.; Jean, M.; Meyerhof, D.

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Systeme de Prelevement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of 131m,133m,133,135 Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to discern nuclear explosions from nuclear industry xenon emissions. Ambient radon background, which may adversely impact analyser sensitivity, is discussed. Upper concentration limits are reported for the apparently radioxenon free Tahiti environment. Ottawa has a complex radioxenon background due to proximity to nuclear reactors and medical isotope facilities. Meteorological models suggest that, depending on the wind direction, the radioxenon detected in Ottawa can be characteristic of the normal radioxenon background in the Eastern United States, Europe, and Japan or distinctive due to medical isotope production

  6. Understanding the Public Service Obligation in the Electricity Sector. Lessons for the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karova, R. [Energy Community Secretariat, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    The paper underlines that the EU energy acquis does not simply require the Contracting Parties to the Energy Community Treaty to liberalize their electricity markets, but it also provides for a 'safety net' to ensure the available of public services through the imposition of Public Service Obligations (PSO). Nevertheless, the paper points out that the present understanding of the PSOs in the Contracting Parties is not in compliance with the conditions provided byArtide 3 of the Electricity Directive. Therefore, it includes some policy recommendations and a proposal for introducing a duty of notification, which should be instructive for the Contracting Parties to improve their understanding of PSO in line with EU law, by thus effectively safeguarding the availability of public services in the electricity sector to their citizens without jeopardizing the effective electricity market liberalization.

  7. Proceedings of the symposium on the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE): Results and implications for test ban treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, M.D.; Stull, S.P. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    The large amounts of chemical explosives used worldwide in mining, quarrying, and civil engineering projects presents a challenge for policy makers molding a test ban, since their use could provide the necessary cover for a clandestine nuclear test. The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) seeks to measure certain differences between an underground nuclear test and a chemical explosion in the same geology. Two chemical explosions were detonated at the Nevada Test Site to compare their signatures with previous nuclear tests. This conference presents results of these tests and discusses implications for test ban treaties. Conference papers are divided into the following sections: Background; Test preparations; EOS and code simulations; Rainier Mesa structure; Ground motion measurements; Non-seismic technologies; On-site inspection technologies; and a panel discussion. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; Subkritiske tester - kjernevaapentesting under avtalen om fullstendig proevestans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeibraaten, S

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments.

  9. Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, T J; Blanchard, X; D'Amours, R; Ungar, R K; Fontaine, J P; Sohier, M; Bean, M; Taffary, T; Racine, J; Tracy, B L; Brachet, G; Jean, M; Meyerhof, D

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty, automated radioxenon monitoring is performed in two distinctive environments: Ottawa and Tahiti. These sites are monitored with SPALAX (Systeme de Prelevement d'air Automatique en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons) technology, which automatically extracts radioxenon from the atmosphere and measures the activity concentrations of (131m,133m,133,135)Xe. The resulting isotopic concentrations can be useful to discern nuclear explosions from nuclear industry xenon emissions. Ambient radon background, which may adversely impact analyser sensitivity, is discussed. Upper concentration limits are reported for the apparently radioxenon free Tahiti environment. Ottawa has a complex radioxenon background due to proximity to nuclear reactors and medical isotope facilities. Meteorological models suggest that, depending on the wind direction, the radioxenon detected in Ottawa can be characteristic of the normal radioxenon background in the Eastern United States, Europe, and Japan or distinctive due to medical isotope production.

  10. The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty revisited: The case for data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Bowyer, Theodore W; Cameron, Ian M

    2018-09-01

    The International Monitoring System of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) uses a global network of radionuclide monitoring stations to detect evidence of a nuclear explosion. The two radionuclide technologies employed-particulate and noble gas (radioxenon) detection-have applications for data fusion to improve detection of a nuclear explosion. Using the hypothetical 0.5 kT nuclear explosive test scenario of the CTBTO 2014 Integrated Field Exercise, the intrinsic relationship between particulate and noble gas signatures has been examined. This study shows that, depending upon the time of the radioxenon release, the particulate progeny can produce the more detectable signature. Thus, as both particulate and noble gas signatures are inherently coupled, the authors recommend that the sample categorization schemes should be linked. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty revisited: the case for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Cameron, Ian M.

    2018-04-18

    The International Monitoring System of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) uses a global network of radionuclide monitoring stations to detect evidence of a nuclear explosion. The two radionuclide technologies employed—particulate and noble gas (radioxenon) detection—have applications for data fusion to improve detection of a nuclear explosion. Using the hypothetical 0.5 kT nuclear explosive test scenario of the CTBTO 2014 Integrated Field Exercise, the intrinsic relationship between particulate and noble gas signatures has been examined. This study shows that, depending upon the time of the radioxenon release, the particulate progeny can produce the more detectable signature. Thus, as both particulate and noble gas signatures are inherently coupled, the authors recommend that the sample categorization schemes should be linked.

  12. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  13. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcos Valle Machado da

    2010-01-01

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  14. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  15. The legal regime of nuclear materials supply and international safeguards laid down in the EURATOM treaty, and how it has been modified by subsequent practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manig, W.

    1993-01-01

    Practice deviating from the authentic text of the EURATOM treaty is lawful only when based on official and accepted interpretation of the EURATOM treaty, or on amendment by accepted practice. According to Art. 204 of the Constituent Act, amendments require governmental consent and ratification. The chapters of the EURATOM treaty dealing with nuclear materials supply and nuclear safeguards have been made subject to simplified procedures of revision. The procedures of revision stipulated in the treaty do not altogether rule out amendment based on principles other than those stipulated. The European Communities do not have the status of a federation, so that Member States have a vital say in procedures for revision of the Communities' constituent acts. They have the right to initiate and adopt amendments by procedures not mentioned in the treaty. Constituent acts of international organisations, particularly of those endowed with supranational authority, like EURATOM, may only be modified if the interests of the organisation, normally safeguarded by its bodies, are left untouched. Amendments must not be put down in writing. There is the possibility of tacit amendment, if the common practice reflects a consensus among all parties concerned about the particular amendment. Such amendment by continuous, common practice is subject to the general constraints governing amendment of the constituent acts of the three European Communities (participation of the bodies of the organisation, acquis communautaire). The amendments relating to nuclear materials supply and the international safeguards which have been created by practice are in line with these provisions, as the Commission, the Council, Member States and the supply agency are practising the amended procedures, so that the amendments of chapters VI and VII of the Constituent Act of EURATOM, as expressed in practice, are legally effective. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  17. Proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Ecuador and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 20 September 1999. It was signed in Vienna on 1 October 1999

  19. The Text of the Agreement of 22 April 1975 between El Salvador and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of the Agreement of 22 April 1975, and of the Protocol thereto, between El Salvador and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 22 April 1975, pursuant to Article 24. The Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  20. The Text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between The Netherlands and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Respect to The Netherlands Antilles in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Additional Protocol 1 to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-09

    The text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973, and of the two Protocols thereto, between The Netherlands and the Agency for the application of safeguards with respect to The Netherlands Antilles in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and with Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement and the two Protocols thereto entered into force on 5 June 1975, pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement and to Article II of each of the Protocols.