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Sample records for tissues previous studies

  1. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  2. Effect of Previous Chemotherapy on the Quality of Cryopreserved Human Ovarian Tissue In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Asadi Azarbaijani

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been widely accepted as an option for fertility preservation among cancer patients. Some patients are exposed to chemotherapy prior to ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Consequently, assessment of the developmental capacity of human ovarian tissue after chemotherapy is of primary importance.In order to study the impact of previous chemotherapy on in vitro development and viability of ovarian follicles, quality control samples from 34 female cancer patients at median age of 15 years (range 1‒35, cryopreserved for fertility preservation before (n = 14 or after (n = 20 initiation of chemotherapy, were thawed and cultured for 7 days. The morphology and developmental stages of ovarian follicles were studied by light microscopy before and after culture. Possible associations between follicular densities, age and exposure to alkylating agents, expressed as cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED were tested.Exposure to chemotherapy significantly impaired the survival and development of ovarian follicles in culture. After seven days, significantly higher densities of intermediary, primary and secondary follicles and lower densities of atretic follicles was detected in the samples collected before chemotherapy. Increasing dose of alkylating agents was identified by multivariate linear regression analysis as an independent predictor of a higher density of atretic follicles, whereas increasing age of the patient predicted a better outcome with less follicle atresia and a higher density of maturing follicles.This study provides quantitative in vitro evidence of the impact of chemotherapy on developmental capacity of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. The results indicate that fertility preservation should be carried out, if possible, before initiation of alkylating agents in order to guarantee better in vitro survival of ovarian follicles. In addition, ovarian samples from younger girls show lower viability and fewer

  3. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  4. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  5. Rib cage deformity during two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction in patient with previous radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expander and a history of previous irradiation are predisposed to a various chest-wall deformations more than non-irradiated patients. If chest-wall depression with/without rib fracture is found intra-operatively, bigger implant should be used, with a subsequent radiologic evaluation. In the future, the development of a new, modified expander with a harder base could minimise such complications.

  6. DIEP flap customization using Fluobeam® indocyanine green tissue perfusion assessment with large previous abdominal scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fallucco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fluobeam® is a portable, near-infrared camera that is held and controlled by the surgeon to visualize tissue perfusion using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. This case report describes how data obtained from ICG imaging allows intraoperative customization in a previously surgically scarred abdomen during autologous Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP flap bilateral breast reconstruction. The outcome was successful breast mound recreation without fat necrosis.

  7. Implications of human tissue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole body contributions to the Transuranium Registry revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash fraction. The analysis of a whole body with a documented 241 Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies of the Registries are designed to evaluate in vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, compare results of animal experiments with human data, and reviw histopathologic slides for tissue toxicity that might be attributable to exposure to uranium and the transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the Registries are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, safety standards, and operational health physics practices

  8. Successful pregnancy in a woman previously suffering from β-thalassaemia following transplantation of ovarian tissue cryopreserved before puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Sara J; Picton, Helen M; Ernst, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian tissue removed from a nine year old girl suffering from thalassemia was kept deep- frozen for 14 years before being transplanted back to the now adult woman. Subsequently, she conceived following IVF treatment and delivered a healthy baby where the oocyte derived from the transplanted...... tissue. This is the first woman worldwide to have a baby where the ovarian tissue was frozen pre-pubertally and expand the therapeutic options for rare genetic diseases like thalassemia and girls who suffer from childhood cancer....

  9. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in

  10. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  11. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  12. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Dopaminergic Immunofluorescence Studies in Kidney Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, J J; Van Sciver, R E; McGrath, H E; Kemp, B A; Jose, P A; Carey, R M; Felder, R A

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a highly integrated system of specialized differentiated cells that are responsible for fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. While much of today's research focuses on isolated nephron segments or cells from nephron segments grown in tissue culture, an often overlooked technique that can provide a unique view of many cell types in the kidney is slice culture. Here, we describe techniques that use freshly excised kidney tissue from rats to perform a variety of experiments shortly after isolating the tissue. By slicing the rat kidney in a "bread loaf" format, multiple studies can be performed on slices from the same tissue in parallel. Cryosectioning and staining of the tissue allow for the evaluation of physiological or biochemical responses in a wide variety of specific nephron segments. The procedures described within this chapter can also be extended to human or mouse kidney tissue.

  14. A set of genes previously implicated in the hypoxia response might be an important modulator in the rat ear tissue response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgill Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounds are increasingly important in our aging societies. Pathologies such as diabetes predispose patients to chronic wounds that can cause pain, infection, and amputation. The vacuum assisted closure device shows remarkable outcomes in wound healing. Its mechanism of action is unclear despite several hypotheses advanced. We previously hypothesized that micromechanical forces can heal wounds. To understand better the biological response of soft tissue to forces, rat ears in vivo were stretched and their gene expression patterns over time obtained. The absolute enrichment (AE algorithm that obtains a combined up and down regulated picture of the expression analysis was implemented. Results With the use of AE, the hypoxia gene set was the most important at a highly significant level. A co-expression network analysis showed that important co-regulated members of the hypoxia pathway include a glucose transporter (slc2a8, heme oxygenase, and nitric oxide synthase2 among others. Conclusion It appears that the hypoxia pathway may be an important modulator of response of soft tissue to forces. This finding gives us insights not only into the underlying biology, but also into clinical interventions that could be designed to mimic within wounded tissue the effects of forces without all the negative effects that forces themselves create.

  15. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  16. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  17. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  18. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  19. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  20. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  1. Study on tissue culture for Gelidium seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lu-Qing; Luo, Qi-Jun; Fei, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Bin

    1996-06-01

    As seedling culture is a crucial factor for successful cultivation of Gelidium, the authors researched tissue culture technology for producing seedlings. The morphogeny and experimental ecology were observed and studied fully in 2 5 mm isolated tissue fragments. Regeneration, appearance of branching creepers and attaching structure and new erect seedlings production and development were studied. Fragments were sown on bamboo slice and vinylon rope. The seedlings were cultured 20 30 days indoor, then cultured in the sea, where the density of erect seedlings was 3 19 seedlings/cm2, growth rate was 3.84% day. The frond arising from seedlings directly was up to 10 cm per year. The ecological conditions for regenerated seedlings are similar to the natural ones. The regenerated seedlings are suitable for raft culture in various sea areas.

  2. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  3. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Safety of radiofrequency treatment over human skin previously injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials: a controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Levy, Ross; Pajvani, Urvi; Pavjani, Urvi; Ramierez, James A; Guitart, Joan; Veen, Heather; Gladstone, Hayes B

    2006-03-01

    Several soft-tissue augmentation materials are now available for reduction of nasolabial fold creases and perioral rhytides. Nasolabial folds and perioral rhytides can also be improved by skin tightening delivered by non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of RF treatment over skin areas recently injected with medium-term injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. Five subjects were assigned to the experimental arm (augmentation materials plus RF) and one to the control arm (augmentation materials alone). Each subject received injections of 0.3 mL of hyaluronic acid derivative (Restylane) and calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) 3 cm apart on the upper inner arm. Two weeks later, two non-overlapping passes of RF (Thermage ThermaCool TC) were delivered at 63.5 setting with medium-fast 1.5 cm2 tip over injected sites in all of the experimental subjects. Punch skin biopsies were obtained 3 days later from each of the two injection sites on each subject. Light microscopy and digital photomicrographs obtained at low, medium, and high power showed no difference between filler materials in experimental and control subjects. In both cases filler was evident at the deep dermal-subcutaneous junction. Nodule formation, foreign body extravasation, or hemorrhage/clot was not observed grossly or histologically. Subjects and physicians did not report any difference in signs and symptoms between the experimental and control arms. Slightly increased transitory pain was noted when RF was delivered over filler versus over normal skin. Applying RF treatment over the same area 2 weeks after deep dermal injection with hyaluronic acid derivatives or calcium hydroxylapatite does not appear to cause gross morphological changes in the filler material or surrounding skin. Further studies with different parameters are necessary to confirm these findings. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  6. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  8. Expression Analysis of Previously Verified Fecal and Plasma Dow-regulated MicroRNAs (miR-4478, 1295-3p, 142-3p and 26a-5p), in FFPE Tissue Samples of CRC Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Reza; Rezasoltani, Sama; Hashemi, Javad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Tahmasebifar, Arash; Arefian, Ehsan; Mobarra, Naser; Asadi, Jahanbakhsh; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Knuutila, Sakari; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early diagnosis of this neoplasm is critical and may reduce patients' mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules whose expression pattern can be altered in various diseases such as CRC. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of miR-142-3p, miR-26a-5p (their reduced expression in plasma samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed), miR-4478 and miR-1295-3p (their reduced expression in stool samples of CRC patients was previously confirmed) in tissue samples of CRC patients in comparison to healthy subjects. To achieve this purpose, total RNA including small RNA was extracted from 53 CRC and 35 normal subjects' Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples using the miRNeasy FFPE Mini Kit. The expression levels of these four selected miRNAs were measured using quantitative Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that the expression levels of miR-4478 and miR-1295b-3p (two previously down-regulated fecal miRNAs) were significantly decreased in FFPE samples of CRC patients compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, no significant differences were seen in expression levels of miR-142-3p and miR-26a-5p (two previously down-regulated circulating miRNAs) in FFPE samples between these two groups. Regarding current findings, it may be concluded that to diagnose CRC patients based on the miRNAs approach, stool samples are more likely preferable to plasma samples; nevertheless, additional studies with more samples are needed to confirm the results.

  9. Metabolomics studies in brain tissue: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riano, Carolina; Garcia, Antonia; Barbas, Coral

    2016-10-25

    Brain is still an organ with a composition to be discovered but beyond that, mental disorders and especially all diseases that curse with dementia are devastating for the patient, the family and the society. Metabolomics can offer an alternative tool for unveiling new insights in the discovery of new treatments and biomarkers of mental disorders. Until now, most of metabolomic studies have been based on biofluids: serum/plasma or urine, because brain tissue accessibility is limited to animal models or post mortem studies, but even so it is crucial for understanding the pathological processes. Metabolomics studies of brain tissue imply several challenges due to sample extraction, along with brain heterogeneity, sample storage, and sample treatment for a wide coverage of metabolites with a wide range of concentrations of many lipophilic and some polar compounds. In this review, the current analytical practices for target and non-targeted metabolomics are described and discussed with emphasis on critical aspects: sample treatment (quenching, homogenization, filtration, centrifugation and extraction), analytical methods, as well as findings considering the used strategies. Besides that, the altered analytes in the different brain regions have been associated with their corresponding pathways to obtain a global overview of their dysregulation, trying to establish the link between altered biological pathways and pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  11. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  12. Roentgenographic studies on the soft tissue profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1971-01-01

    Modern orthodontics implies not only occlusal excellence, but also the positioning of teeth to produce optimal facial harmony for the individual patients. Several methods have been used in the study of facial height, width and depth were made from living subjects. These methods, however, complicate to control the subjects, therefore many investigators have used profile cephalometric technics. Practically, cephalometric technics were used in orthodontic treatment, maxillo-facial surgery and anthropometric studies. Author was studied to investigate the normal standards of soft tissue profile in Korean adolescences. The subjects consisted of 53 males and 54 females from 17 to 22 years of age and with normal occlusion and acceptable profile. Aluminum filter was designed to obtain both hard and soft tissue structures on a single film. Eight profile landmarks were plotted and drawn on the tracings of all cephalograms and eighteen depth, height an d angles were measured from each landmarks of the cephalograms. The following conclusions were obtained from this studies; 1. Total facial convexity was 170.75 in males and females samples and lower facial and labiomandibular convexity were each of 141.44, 171.05. 2. Maxillary and mandibular sulcus angulations were 137.61, 129.52 and upper and lower lip inclinations were each of 12 3.26 and 49.56 in male and females. 3. Soft tissue depth of several points were as follows; Subnasale 18.74 mm in males and 16.65 mm in females Pogonion 13.40 mm in males and 13.07 mm in females upper lip 14.06 mm in males and 11.91 mm in females lower lip 15.46 mm, 13.63 in males and females 4. The protrusion of nose were 16.28 mm in males and 15.56 mm in females 5. The vertical length of upper and lower lips were 25.67 mm, 52.96 mm and the lip posture was indicated 93.43 per cent (closed state) in centric occlusions.

  13. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  14. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; De Bono, Johann; Sternberg, Cora; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Oudard, Stéphane; De Giorgi, Ugo; Krainer, Michael; Bergman, Andries; Hoelzer, Wolfgang; De Wit, Ronald; Bögemann, Martin; Saad, Fred; Cruciani, Giorgio; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Feyerabend, Susan; Miller, Kurt; Houédé, Nadine; Hussain, Syed; Lam, Elaine; Polikoff, Jonathan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Mainwaring, Paul; Ramies, David; Hessel, Colin; Weitzman, Aaron; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of kinases, including MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and has shown activity in men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This blinded phase III trial compared cabozantinib with prednisone in patients with mCRPC. Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to cabozantinib 60 mg once per day or prednisone 5 mg twice per day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Bone scan response (BSR) at week 12 as assessed by independent review committee was the secondary end point; radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and effects on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), bone biomarkers, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) were exploratory assessments. A total of 1,028 patients were randomly assigned to cabozantinib (n = 682) or prednisone (n = 346). Median OS was 11.0 months with cabozantinib and 9.8 months with prednisone (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06; stratified log-rank P = .213). BSR at week 12 favored cabozantinib (42% v 3%; stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P < .001). rPFS was improved in the cabozantinib group (median, 5.6 v 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.57; stratified log-rank P < .001). Cabozantinib was associated with improvements in CTC conversion, bone biomarkers, and post-random assignment incidence of SSEs but not PSA outcomes. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were higher with cabozantinib than with prednisone (71% v 56% and 33% v 12%, respectively). Cabozantinib did not significantly improve OS compared with prednisone in heavily treated patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. Cabozantinib had some activity in improving BSR, rPFS, SSEs, CTC conversions, and bone biomarkers but not PSA outcomes. © 2016 by

  16. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  17. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Armenian, Haroutune; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long in...

  18. A Review of Previous Studies on Information Processing in Career Decision Making among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 智子; Satoko, Ikeda

    2018-01-01

    This review of the researches of career choice of Japanese university students focused the studies on decision-making theory conducted in Japan. The present review suggested the necessity of examination of the effect of self-efficacy about career information search on the process of career choice. It is also needed to examine the relationship between specific self-efficacy about career information search and career decision-making self-efficacy, moreover, general self-efficacy.

  19. A Comment Upon Previous Studies on 3-D Boundary Layer Transition

    OpenAIRE

    ÇARPINLIOĞLU, Melda Özdinç

    2014-01-01

    The common feature of the experimental studies upon 3-D boundary layer development on swept flat plates cited in the available literature is the application of streamwise and/or spanwise pressure gradients. In fact; presence of the pressure gradients was suggested to be vital for having crossflow effective in 3-D boundary layer transition. In the presented paper here, this idea is questioned evaluating the results of an experimental investigation conducted on swept flat plates under the ab...

  20. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of...

  1. A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E M L; French, R A; Kennedy, R R

    2011-09-01

    Predicting workforce requirements is a difficult but necessary part of health resource planning. A 'snapshot' workforce survey undertaken in 2002 examined issues that New Zealand anaesthesia trainees expected would influence their choice of future workplace. We have restudied the same cohort to see if that workforce survey was a good predictor of outcome. Seventy (51%) of 138 surveys were completed in 2009 compared with 100 (80%) of 138 in the 2002 survey. Eighty percent of the 2002 respondents planned consultant positions in New Zealand. We found 64% of respondents were working in New Zealand (P New Zealand based respondents but only 40% of those living outside New Zealand agreed or strongly agreed with this statement (P New Zealand but was important for only 2% of those resident in New Zealand (P New Zealand were predominantly between NZ$150,000 and $200,000 while those overseas received between NZ$300,000 and $400,000. Of those that are resident in New Zealand, 84% had studied in a New Zealand medical school compared with 52% of those currently working overseas (P < 0.01). Our study shows that stated career intentions in a group do not predict the actual group outcomes. We suggest that 'snapshot' studies examining workforce intentions are of little value for workforce planning. However we believe an ongoing program matching career aspirations against career outcomes would be a useful tool in workforce planning.

  2. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  3. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  4. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  5. The architecture of gene regulatory variation across multiple human tissues: the MuTHER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C Nica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available While there have been studies exploring regulatory variation in one or more tissues, the complexity of tissue-specificity in multiple primary tissues is not yet well understood. We explore in depth the role of cis-regulatory variation in three human tissues: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL, skin, and fat. The samples (156 LCL, 160 skin, 166 fat were derived simultaneously from a subset of well-phenotyped healthy female twins of the MuTHER resource. We discover an abundance of cis-eQTLs in each tissue similar to previous estimates (858 or 4.7% of genes. In addition, we apply factor analysis (FA to remove effects of latent variables, thus more than doubling the number of our discoveries (1,822 eQTL genes. The unique study design (Matched Co-Twin Analysis--MCTA permits immediate replication of eQTLs using co-twins (93%-98% and validation of the considerable gain in eQTL discovery after FA correction. We highlight the challenges of comparing eQTLs between tissues. After verifying previous significance threshold-based estimates of tissue-specificity, we show their limitations given their dependency on statistical power. We propose that continuous estimates of the proportion of tissue-shared signals and direct comparison of the magnitude of effect on the fold change in expression are essential properties that jointly provide a biologically realistic view of tissue-specificity. Under this framework we demonstrate that 30% of eQTLs are shared among the three tissues studied, while another 29% appear exclusively tissue-specific. However, even among the shared eQTLs, a substantial proportion (10%-20% have significant differences in the magnitude of fold change between genotypic classes across tissues. Our results underline the need to account for the complexity of eQTL tissue-specificity in an effort to assess consequences of such variants for complex traits.

  6. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation

  7. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, Prabhjot, E-mail: Prabhjot.Juneja@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kirby, Anna M. [Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue

  8. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  9. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of this misclassification for analysing the risk of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prescription data were obtained from Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics and we applied various methods to approximate treatment episodes. We analysed the duration of HT episodes to study the ability to identify......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  10. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  11. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...... have allowed for in vivo determination of tissue concentrations and release rates of substances involved in metabolism, inflammation and collagen synthesis, together with the measurement of tissue blood flow and oxygenation in the peritendinous region around the Achilles tendon in humans during...... exercise. This coincides with a surprisingly marked drop in tissue pressure during contraction. With regards to both circulation, metabolism and collagen formation, peritendinous tissue represents a dynamic, responsive region that adapts markedly to acute muscular activity....

  12. The effect of hard tissue surgical changes on soft tissue displacement: a pilot CBCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Koerich

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: This pilot study had as main objective to test the reliability of a new method to evaluate orthognathic surgery outcomes and also, to understand the effect of hard tissue changes on soft tissue displacement. Methods: The sample consisted of eight patients that underwent bimaxillary advancement and had CBCT at two time points (before surgery and 6-8 months follow-up. Voxel-based cranial base superimposition was used to register the scans. A different technique of iterative closest point (ICP was used to measure and correlate the changes. The average displacement of 15 areas (4 hard tissue and 11 soft tissue were measured twice. Results: ICC was > 0.99 for all areas. Changes in the tip of the nose did not correlate with changes in any maxillary area, whereas soft tissue A point, A point and upper lips had correlation with several areas. The highest correlation for the maxilla was between the upper lip and the left/right supra cheilion (p< 0.001, r= 0.91 and p< 0.001, r= 0.93, respectively. In the mandible, the majority of the correlations involved soft tissue pogonion, pogonion and lower incisors, with the strongest one between pogonion and lower incisors (p< 0.001, r= 0.98. Conclusion: With the proper case selection, ICP is a reliable method that can be used to assess three-dimensional changes.

  13. Phytophthora ramorum tissue colonization studied with fluorescense microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Riedel; S. Wagner; M. Gotz; L. Belbahri; F. Lefort; S. Werres

    2009-01-01

    The proceeding worldwide spread and the expanding host spectrum of P. ramorum has become a serious threat to natural plant communities. To encounter this threat detailed knowledge about infection pathways and tissue colonization is essential. To analyze these issues, histological studies of infected tissue with epifluorescence microscopy have been...

  14. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in previously treated patients with diabetic macular edema : Subgroup analysis of the MEAD study

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, A.J.; Kuppermann, B.D.; Lanzetta, P.; Loewenstein, A.; Li, X.; Cui, H.; Hashad, Y.; Whitcup, S.M.; Abujamra, S.; Acton, J.; Ali, F.; Antoszyk, A.; Awh, C.C.; Barak, A.; Bartz-Schmidt, K.U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7?mg (DEX 0.7) was approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) after demonstration of its efficacy and safety in the MEAD registration trials. We performed subgroup analysis of MEAD study results to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEX 0.7 treatment in patients with previously treated DME. Methods Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled phase 3 study in patients with DME, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 34?68 Early Treatment...

  15. Youth suicide: an insight into previous hospitalisation for injury and sociodemographic conditions from a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Laflamme, Lucie; Spolaore, Paolo; Visentin, Cristiana; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent is a risk of subsequent youth suicide and whether this association is influenced by family socioeconomic status or economic stress. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted covering all Swedish subjects born between January 1977 and December 1991 (N=1,616,342, male/female ratio=1.05). The cohort subjects were followed-up from January 1998 to December 2003, when aged 7-26 years. Poisson regression and the likelihood ratio test (95% CI) were used to assess the age-adjusted effect of hospitalisation for injuries of various intent on youth suicide and its effect once adjusted for family sociodemographic and social circumstances. Each set of exposures was associated independently and significantly with suicide mortality. Being hospitalised for self-inflicted injuries or injuries of undetermined intent was associated with a risk of suicide 36 to 47 times, respectively, that of subjects never hospitalised in the period under study (95% CI 28.36 to 45.58 and 26.67 to 83.87 for self-inflicted injuries and for events of undetermined intent, respectively; overall psuicide (RR 3.08; 95% CI 2.26 to 4.19). These effects were solid and not substantially altered after adjustment for family demographic and socioeconomic circumstances. A strong association exists between previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent and youth suicide. The association is robust and unaltered by family socioeconomic circumstances.

  16. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  17. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  18. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  19. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  20. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  1. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  2. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  3. Comparative study of radiosensitivity of normal and regenerating tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalova, H.S.; Popova, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of radiosensitivity of cells of normal and regenerating tissues of bone marrow and spleen has demonstrated that single exposure to X-rays produces a lesser damaging effect on regenerating tissues than on normal ones. The data obtained indicate that the increase in radioresistance of the organism during active regeneration of the haemopoietic organs is due not merely to the increase in the dividing cell pool of these organs but also to qualitative changes in their functional state

  4. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  5. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  7. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  8. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  9. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  10. Roentgenographic study on maxillofacial soft tissue in the mixed dentition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hei; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain the cephalometric maxillofacial soft tissue measurements and to define the differences that exist between male and female on the soft tissue profile who had normal occlusion in mixed dentitions. For the object of this study, cephalometric radiographs were obtained from the centric occlusion with the relaxed lip position. Copper filter was designed to obtain both hard and soft tissue structure on the same film. The subjects consist of 100 male and 100 female from 8 to 12.4 years with the normal occlusion and acceptable profiles. The author measured facial depth, vertical height from the cephalometric soft tissue profiles in the mixed dentitions. The significant test was performed to compare male with females. The following results were obtained from the study 1. In facial convexity, much more larger female than that of male. 2. Inclination of the lip posture was more larger in maxilla (male) and in female more larger in the mandible. 3. The thickness of soft tissue was thicker in male, the height of nose was more prominent in female. 4. There were no significant differences in both sexes.

  11. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating

  12. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  13. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Autoradiographic studies of oleilanilide-3H distribution in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro Alvarez, M.J.; Saez Angulo, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the possibility that oleilanilides are involved in the pathgenesis of ''toxic syndrome'' is studied. Oleilanilide- 3 H labelled in the anilidi aromatic ring has been used to determine the distribution, localization and incorporation of that compound in several tissues of rats. Liquid scintillation counting for quantitative evaluation of the total radioactivity accumulated in the tissues, as well as autoradiographic techniques have been employed as analytical procedures. Results obtained from measurement of total radioactivity have shown accumulation of oleilanilide or its metabolites in all the studied tissues, mainly in the liver. No specific radioactivity localization has been detected by autoradiographic techniques, being the labelled molecules distributed in cytaplasm and cell interstice. (Author)

  15. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. PCNL - a comparative study in nonoperated and in previously operated (open nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy patients - a single-surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Re-procedure in patients with history of open stone surgery is usually challenging due to the alteration in the retroperitoneal anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of open renal surgery on the efficacy and morbidity of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 until September 2010, 120 patients underwent PCNL. Of these, 20 patients were excluded (tubeless or bilateral simultaneous PCNL. Of the remaining 100, 55 primary patients were categorized as Group 1 and the remaining (previous open nephrolithotomy as Group 2. Standard preoperative evaluation was carried out prior to intervention, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 11 with the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in demographic profile and stone burden. Attempts to access the PCS was less in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (1.2 + 1 2 vs 3 + 1.3 respectively and this was statistically significant (p < 0.04. However, the mean operative time between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.44. Blood transfusion rate was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.24. One patient in Group 2 developed hemothorax following a supra-11th puncture. Remaining complications were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with past history of renal stone surgery may need more attempts to access the pelvicaliceal system and have difficulty in tract dilation secondary to retroperitoneal scarring. But overall morbidity and efficacy is same in both groups.

  17. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] “top scoring pairs” polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible

  18. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  19. Studies of tissue colonization in Rhododendron by Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Stefan Wagner; Monika Götz; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Sabine Werres

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge on latency is of great importance to prevent the spread of Phytophthora ramorum with healthy looking plant material. To learn more about the tissue colonisation in Rhododendron, histological studies with epifluorescence microscopy have been started. Epifluorescence images showing P. ramorum structures in different...

  20. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  1. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  2. The national DBS brain tissue network pilot study: need for more tissue and more standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam-Mai, V; Krock, N; Ullman, M; Foote, K D; Shain, W; Smith, K; Yachnis, A T; Steindler, D; Reynolds, B; Merritt, S; Pagan, F; Marjama-Lyons, J; Hogarth, P; Resnick, A S; Zeilman, P; Okun, M S

    2011-08-01

    Over 70,000 DBS devices have been implanted worldwide; however, there remains a paucity of well-characterized post-mortem DBS brains available to researchers. We propose that the overall understanding of DBS can be improved through the establishment of a Deep Brain Stimulation-Brain Tissue Network (DBS-BTN), which will further our understanding of DBS and brain function. The objectives of the tissue bank are twofold: (a) to provide a complete (clinical, imaging and pathological) database for DBS brain tissue samples, and (b) to make available DBS tissue samples to researchers, which will help our understanding of disease and underlying brain circuitry. Standard operating procedures for processing DBS brains were developed as part of the pilot project. Complete data files were created for individual patients and included demographic information, clinical information, imaging data, pathology, and DBS lead locations/settings. 19 DBS brains were collected from 11 geographically dispersed centers from across the U.S. The average age at the time of death was 69.3 years (51-92, with a standard deviation or SD of 10.13). The male:female ratio was almost 3:1. Average post-mortem interval from death to brain collection was 10.6 h (SD of 7.17). The DBS targets included: subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus interna, and ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. In 16.7% of cases the clinical diagnosis failed to match the pathological diagnosis. We provide neuropathological findings from the cohort, and perilead responses to DBS. One of the most important observations made in this pilot study was the missing data, which was approximately 25% of all available data fields. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and utility of creating a National DBS-BTN resource for the scientific community. We plan to improve our techniques to remedy omitted clinical/research data, and expand the Network to include a larger donor pool. We will enhance sample preparation to

  3. Implications of human tissue studies for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTR) are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole-body contributions to the USTR revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash. The analysis of a whole body with significant 241 Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies with tissues obtained at autopsy suggest that existing biokinetic models for 238 Pu and 241 Am and the currently accepted models and limits on intake, which use these models as their basis, may be inaccurately implying that revisions of existing safety standards may be necessary. Other studies of the registries are designed to evaluate in-vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, to compare results of animal experiments with human data, and to review histopathologic slides for tissue changes that might be attributable to exposure to transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the registries is discussed from the standpoint of this potential effect on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, and safety standards and operational health physics practices

  4. Implications of human tissue studies for radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathren, R L

    1988-08-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTR) are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole-body contributions to the USTR revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash. The analysis of a whole body with significant 241Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies with tissues obtained at autopsy suggest that existing biokinetic models for 238Pu and 241Am and the currently accepted models and limits on intake, which use these models as their basis, may be inaccurately implying that revisions of existing safety standards may be necessary. Other studies of the registries are designed to evaluate in-vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, to compare results of animal experiments with human data, and to review histopathologic slides for tissue changes that might be attributable to exposure to transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the registries is discussed from the standpoint of this potential effect on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, and safety standards and operational health physics practices.

  5. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  6. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  7. Tissue Discrimination by Uncorrected Autofluorescence Spectra: A Proof-of-Principle Study for Tissue-Specific Laser Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Tangermann-Gerk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser surgery provides a number of advantages over conventional surgery. However, it implies large risks for sensitive tissue structures due to its characteristic non-tissue-specific ablation. The present study investigates the discrimination of nine different ex vivo tissue types by using uncorrected (raw autofluorescence spectra for the development of a remote feedback control system for tissue-selective laser surgery. Autofluorescence spectra (excitation wavelength 377 ± 50 nm were measured from nine different ex vivo tissue types, obtained from 15 domestic pig cadavers. For data analysis, a wavelength range between 450 nm and 650 nm was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA were used to discriminate the tissue types. ROC analysis showed that PCA, followed by QDA, could differentiate all investigated tissue types with AUC results between 1.00 and 0.97. Sensitivity reached values between 93% and 100% and specificity values between 94% and 100%. This ex vivo study shows a high differentiation potential for physiological tissue types when performing autofluorescence spectroscopy followed by PCA and QDA. The uncorrected autofluorescence spectra are suitable for reliable tissue discrimination and have a high potential to meet the challenges necessary for an optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery.

  8. Application of laboratory microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Anderson, P.; Wong, F.S.L.; Dowker, S.E.P.; Mercer, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The principles of microtomography are briefly presented and recent studies of mineralized tissues using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray sources are reviewed. Results are given of investigations undertaken with laboratory systems using either a 1 st generation (single beam of 15 mu m and energy dispersive detector) or a novel 4 th generation system with 2-D detector that can provide 3-D images with vowels of 38x38x38 mu m ''3 of specimens with diameter up to 40 mm. Studies include mineral concentration distributions in cortical bone trabecular structure in a human vertebral body, cracking of bone under compression in situ and root canal obturation and Er: YAG laser application to enamel and dentine. Future applications of microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues and their interaction with biomaterials are discussed.(Author) 31 refs

  9. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  10. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  11. Microangiographic study of the canine dental tissues: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Morgan, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A microangiographic study of the dental tissues was performed on one adult mongrel dog to examine the usefulness of the technique. This preliminary study used 30% wt/vol Micropaque suspension which was perfused into the common carotid arteries. After the complete perfusion, the specimen was fixed into a mixture of 10% buffered neutral formalin solution and 95% ethyl alcohol. The mandibular bone with teeth in situ was decalcified. The specimen was embedded in methyl methacrylate. One mm slab sections were made, and then the microangiographs were made. Adequate filling of arterioles was evident on the microangiographs. This technique is shown to be useful in characterizing the nature of the blood supply to the bone and teeth that might be involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury in the canine dental and periodontal tissues

  12. Exatecan in pretreated adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: results of a phase II--study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichardt, P; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Bauer, S

    2007-01-01

    No standard treatment is established for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after previous chemotherapy with anthracyclines and ifosfamide, given either in combination or sequentially. Exatecan (DX-8951f) is a totally synthetic analogue of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor camptothecin, which...... was synthesised to impart increased aqueous solubility, greater tumour efficacy, and less toxicity than camptothecin itself, topotecan or irinotecan. Since some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas, has been reported for topoisomerase I-inhibitors, a study with a new and more potent...... agent seemed justified. We report on a prospective multicentre phase II study of Exatecan in adult soft tissue sarcomas failing 1 or 2 lines of chemotherapy in advanced phase, performed within the STBSG of EORTC. Thirty-nine patients (16 leiomyosarcomas and 23 other histologies) were included in two...

  13. Necrotizing soft tissue infections - a multicentre, prospective observational study (INFECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.

    2018-01-01

    these to patient-important outcomes. With this protocol and statistical analysis plan we describe the methods used to obtain data and the details of the planned analyses. Methods: The INFECT study is a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study. Patients with NSTIs are enrolled in five Scandinavian......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...

  14. MicroRNA Expression in Laser Micro-dissected Breast Cancer Tissue Samples - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclaman, Edward; Narita, Diana; Anghel, Andrei; Cireap, Natalia; Ilina, Razvan; Sirbu, Ioan Ovidiu; Marian, Catalin

    2017-10-28

    Breast cancer continues to represent a significant public health burden despite outstanding research advances regarding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology, biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostic and therapeutic management of this disease. The studies of micro RNAs in breast cancer have underlined their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets; however most of these studies are still done on largely heterogeneous whole breast tissue samples. In this pilot study we have investigated the expression of four micro RNAs (miR-21, 145, 155, 92) known to be involved in breast cancer, in homogenous cell populations collected by laser capture microdissection from breast tissue section slides. Micro RNA expression was assessed by real time PCR, and associations with clinical and pathological characteristics were also explored. Our results have confirmed previous associations of miR-21 expression with poor prognosis characteristics of breast cancers such as high stage, large and highly proliferative tumors. No statistically significant associations were found with the other micro RNAs investigated, possibly due to the small sample size of our study. Our results also suggest that miR-484 could be a suitable endogenous control for data normalization in breast tissues, these results needing further confirmation by future studies. In summary, our pilot study showed the feasibility of detecting micro RNAs expression in homogenous laser captured microdissected invasive breast cancer samples, and confirmed some of the previously reported associations with poor prognostic characteristics of breast tumors.

  15. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  16. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  17. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, C. M.; Fritz, S.; Vollherbst, D.; Zelzer, S.; Wachter, M. F.; Bellemann, N.; Gockner, T.; Mokry, T.; Schmitz, A.; Aulmann, S.; Stampfl, U.; Pereira, P.; Kauczor, H. U.; Werner, J.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm 3 , and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver

  18. CT-guided Irreversible Electroporation in an Acute Porcine Liver Model: Effect of Previous Transarterial Iodized Oil Tissue Marking on Technical Parameters, 3D Computed Tomographic Rendering of the Electroporation Zone, and Histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fritz, S., E-mail: stefan.fritz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Vollherbst, D., E-mail: dominikvollherbst@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S., E-mail: s.zelzer@dkfz-heidelberg.de [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Wachter, M. F., E-mail: fredericwachter@googlemail.com; Bellemann, N., E-mail: nadine.bellemann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Gockner, T., E-mail: theresa.gockner@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Mokry, T., E-mail: theresa.mokry@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmitz, A., E-mail: anne.schmitz@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Aulmann, S., E-mail: sebastian.aulmann@mail.com [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Stampfl, U., E-mail: ulrike.stampfl@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P., E-mail: philippe.pereira@slk-kliniken.de [SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Kauczor, H. U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Werner, J., E-mail: jens.werner@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Visceral and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Radeleff, B. A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of previous transarterial iodized oil tissue marking (ITM) on technical parameters, three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided irreversible electroporation (IRE) in an acute porcine liver model as a potential strategy to improve IRE performance.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval was obtained, in five landrace pigs, two IREs of the right and left liver (RL and LL) were performed under CT guidance with identical electroporation parameters. Before IRE, transarterial marking of the LL was performed with iodized oil. Nonenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT examinations followed. One hour after IRE, animals were killed and livers collected. Mean resulting voltage and amperage during IRE were assessed. For 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, parameters for size and shape were analyzed. Quantitative data were compared by the Mann–Whitney test. Histopathological differences were assessed.ResultsMean resulting voltage and amperage were 2,545.3 ± 66.0 V and 26.1 ± 1.8 A for RL, and 2,537.3 ± 69.0 V and 27.7 ± 1.8 A for LL without significant differences. Short axis, volume, and sphericity index were 16.5 ± 4.4 mm, 8.6 ± 3.2 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for RL, and 18.2 ± 3.4 mm, 9.8 ± 3.8 cm{sup 3}, and 1.7 ± 0.3 for LL without significant differences. For RL and LL, the electroporation zone consisted of severely widened hepatic sinusoids containing erythrocytes and showed homogeneous apoptosis. For LL, iodized oil could be detected in the center and at the rim of the electroporation zone.ConclusionThere is no adverse effect of previous ITM on technical parameters, 3D CT rendering of the electroporation zone, and histopathology after CT-guided IRE of the liver.

  19. Ultrastructural study of tissues surrounding replanted teeth and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Takashi; Miake, Yasuo; Inoue, Sadayuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the dentogingival border at replanted teeth and implants. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into groups for replantation and implantation experiments. In the former, the upper right first molars were extracted and then immediately replanted. In the latter, pure titanium implants were used. All tissues were fixed, demineralized and embedded in epoxy resin for ultrastructural observations. One week after replantation, the junctional epithelium was lost, and the oral sulcular epithelium covered the enamel surface. The amount of the epithelium increased in 2 weeks, and resembled the junctional epithelium, and the internal basal lamina and hemidesmosomes were formed in 4 weeks. One week after implantation, peri-implant epithelium was formed, and in 2 and 4 weeks, this epithelium with aggregated connective tissue cells were observed. In 8 weeks, the peri-implant epithelium receded, and aligned special cells with surrounding elongated fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers appeared to seal the implant interface. In replantation of the tooth, the internal basal lamina remained at the surface of the enamel of the replanted tooth, which is likely to be related to regeneration of the junctional epithelium and the attachment apparatus at the epithelium-tooth interface. Following implantation, a layer of cells with characteristics of connective tissue cells, but no junctional epithelium and attachment apparatus, was formed to seal the site of the implant.

  20. Tissue integration of polyacrylamide hydrogel: an experimental study of periurethral, perivesical, and mammary gland tissue in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise H; Nielsen, John B; Mouritsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is a nondegradable water-based polymer with high viscoelasticity. The gel is used as a tissue filler, the only risk being prolonged infection with anaerobic, contaminating microorganisms if not treated early with broad-spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVE...... With silicone gel as reference, PAAG tissue integration and migration was studied in a longitudinal study of the pig. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-one pigs were used. PAAG and silicone gel were injected into mammary tissue, and PAAG was injected into urethral or bladder wall or the anal canal. Tissues...... and regional lymph nodes were examined at 1, 1 1/2, 3, 3 1/2, 6, 12, and 14 months, and other lymph nodes and organs were examined at 1, 6, 12, and 14 months. RESULTS PAAG was invaded by macrophages and giant cells that were gradually replaced by a network of fibrous tissue. Silicone gel was seen inside...

  1. Immunohistochemical Study of Expression of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in Normal Adult Human Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1 and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are specifically expressed in spermatogonia, prespermatogonia in male mice and oocytes of primordial and primary follicles in female mice. In this report, we studied the expression pattern of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in human adult tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 was performed in 5 samples of normal ovaries and testes, respectively. The results revealed that Sohlh genes are not only expressed in oocytes and spermatogonia, but also in granular cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, and in smooth muscles of blood vessel walls. To further investigate the expression of Sohlh genes in other adult human tissues, we collected representative normal adult tissues developed from three embryonic germ layers. Compared with the expression in mice, Sohlhs exhibited a much more extensive expression pattern in human tissues. Sohlhs were detected in testis, ovary and epithelia developed from embryonic endoderm, ectoderm and tissues developed from embryonic mesoderm. Sohlh signals were found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and also Leydig cells in testis, while in ovary, the expression was mainly in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, granular cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. Compared with Sohlh2, the expression of Sohlh1 was stronger and more extensive. Our study explored the expression of Sohlh genes in human tissues and might provide insights for functional studies of Sohlh genes.

  2. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  3. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  4. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  5. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  6. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike E. Morel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ for certain HPV assays is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Results: Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months’ stability at 18–25 °C, 2–8 °C, −20 °C and −80 °C; and at least 3 months’ stability at 40 °C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months’ stability at 18–25 °C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Conclusions: Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Keywords: HPV, Preservative, Sample stability, Automated HR HPV assay

  8. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-05-21

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at the University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties.

  9. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal breast tissue obtained from reduction surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; McCartney, Leah; Popovic, Dijana; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Magliocco, Anthony; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of emerging microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques will depend, in part, on the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue. However, knowledge of these properties at microwave frequencies has been limited due to gaps and discrepancies in previously reported small-scale studies. To address these issues, we experimentally characterized the wideband microwave-frequency dielectric properties of a large number of normal breast tissue samples obtained from breast reduction surgeries at University of Wisconsin and University of Calgary hospitals. The dielectric spectroscopy measurements were conducted from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. The tissue composition within the probe's sensing region was quantified in terms of percentages of adipose, fibroconnective and glandular tissues. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set obtained for each sample and determined median Cole-Cole parameters for three groups of normal breast tissues, categorized by adipose tissue content (0-30%, 31-84% and 85-100%). Our analysis of the dielectric properties data for 354 tissue samples reveals that there is a large variation in the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue due to substantial tissue heterogeneity. We observed no statistically significant difference between the within-patient and between-patient variability in the dielectric properties

  10. Phosphorus MRS study in bone and soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangke; Jiang Baoguo

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the metabolite changes in bone and soft-tissue tumors using phosphorus MRS for better understanding of the phospholipid metabolite and energy metabolite of tumors, which will provide more information for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods: Phosphorus MRS and MRI were performed in 14 bone and soft-tissue tumor patients (benign 6, malignant 8) and 19 healthy volunteers at 2.0 T. The areas under the peak of various metabolite in spectra were measured. The ratios of the other metabolite related to β-ATP, ATP, and Pcr were calculated. Intracellular pH was calculated according to the chemical shift change of Pi relative to Pcr. Results: The ratio of PME/β-ATP, PME/ATP, Pcr/PME in both benign and malignant group, intracellular pH in malignant group and LEP/Pcr in benign group were higher than that of the normal group significantly (P < 0.01). the ratios of Pi/Pcr in benign and malignant group, PDE/ATP, PDE/β-ATP, LET/Pcr, Pi/β-ATP in malignant group and LET/β-ATP in benign group were significantly different from that of the normal group (P < 0.05). Between benign and malignant tumors group, the ratios of Pcr/PME and Intracellular pH were different significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The in vivo phosphorus MRS can non-invasively find abnormal phospholipid metabolite, energy metabolite and pH changes in bone and soft tissue tumors

  11. Nonlinear scattering in hard tissue studied with ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, J.; Kim, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The back-scattered spectrum of ultrashort laser pulses (800 nm, 0.2 ps) was studied in human dental and other hard tissues in vitro below the ablation threshold. Frequency doubled radiation (SHG), frequency tripled radiation and two-photon fluorescence were detected. The relative yield for these processes was measured for various pulse energies. The dependence of the SHG signal on probe thickness was determined in forward and back scattering geometry. SHG is sensitive to linear polarization of the incident laser radiation. SHG in human teeth was studied in vitro showing larger signals in dentin than in cementum and enamel. In carious areas no SHG signal could be detected. Possible applications of higher harmonic radiation for diagnostics and microscopy are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Study into penetration speed during laser cutting of brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Z; Sami, M; Patiroglu, T

    1998-01-01

    The applications of CO2 continuous-wave lasers in neurosurgery have become important in recent years. Theoretical considerations of laser applicability in medicine are subsequently confirmed experimentally. To obtain precision operation in the laser cutting process, further theoretical developments and experimental studies need to be conducted. Consequently, in the present study, the heat transfer mechanism taking place during laser-tissue interaction is introduced using Fourier theory. The results obtained from the theoretical model are compared with the experimental results. In connection with this, an experiment is designed to measure the penetration speed during the laser cutting process. The measurement is carried out using an optical method. It is found that both results for the penetration speed obtained from the theory and experiment are in a good agreement.

  13. Biochemical and Tissue Studies on Post Irradiation Recovery in Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    three main studies were performed in this thesis, namely, mortality and survival study, biochemical studies, and studies on tissue alterations cobalt-60 gamma irradiation for low let was used for the external whole body irradiation of the irradiated animal groups. a total number of animals of 722 virgin female adult wister rats of approximately the same age and weight were used for the three studies that were performed, including the control and irradiated animal groups. the animals were housed and kept with special care at fixed temperature, humidity and diet. the study on mortality and survival included 370 animals divided into control and groups irradiated with 4,5,6,7,8 and 9 Gy. this study was followed up for one year to record the number and date of animal deaths for the different irradiated groups. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups the follow up ended after 12 weeks and 11 days respectively when animal mortality reached 100%. the maximum percent mortality was noted at the second week (3.3,8,14 and 29%) for the 4,5,6 and 7 Gy irradiated groups respectively. for the 8 and 9 Gy irradiated groups, the maximum percent mortality was noted at the first week (42.9 and 90% respectively). regression equations were applied for the percent of mortality of the 5-8 Gy irradiated groups to estimate the LD 50/30, which was found to be 6.4 Gy

  14. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  15. A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca

    1997-01-01

    A solid tissue phantom made of agar, Intralipid and black ink is described and characterized. The preparation procedure is fast and easily implemented with standard laboratory equipment. An instrumentation for time-resolved transmittance measurements was used to determine the optical properties of the phantom. The absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients are linear with the ink and Intralipid concentrations, respectively. A systematic decrease of the reduced scattering coefficient dependent on the agar content is observed, but can easily be managed. The phantom is highly homogeneous and shows good repeatability among different preparations. Moreover, agar inclusions can be easily embedded in either solid or liquid matrixes, and no artefacts are caused by the solid - solid or solid - liquid interfaces. This allows one to produce reliable and realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with known optical properties, particularly interesting for studies on optical imaging through turbid media. (author)

  16. Tissue engineering and surgery: from translational studies to human trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranckx Jan Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering was introduced as an innovative and promising field in the mid-1980s. The capacity of cells to migrate and proliferate in growth-inducing medium induced great expectancies on generating custom-shaped bioconstructs for tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering represents a unique multidisciplinary translational forum where the principles of biomaterial engineering, the molecular biology of cells and genes, and the clinical sciences of reconstruction would interact intensively through the combined efforts of scientists, engineers, and clinicians. The anticipated possibilities of cell engineering, matrix development, and growth factor therapies are extensive and would largely expand our clinical reconstructive armamentarium. Application of proangiogenic proteins may stimulate wound repair, restore avascular wound beds, or reverse hypoxia in flaps. Autologous cells procured from biopsies may generate an ‘autologous’ dermal and epidermal laminated cover on extensive burn wounds. Three-dimensional printing may generate ‘custom-made’ preshaped scaffolds – shaped as a nose, an ear, or a mandible – in which these cells can be seeded. The paucity of optimal donor tissues may be solved with off-the-shelf tissues using tissue engineering strategies. However, despite the expectations, the speed of translation of in vitro tissue engineering sciences into clinical reality is very slow due to the intrinsic complexity of human tissues. This review focuses on the transition from translational protocols towards current clinical applications of tissue engineering strategies in surgery.

  17. [FTIR study on the normal and cancerous stomach tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Y; Lin, Y

    2001-06-01

    Tissues of cancerous and corresponding normal stomach were studied by FTIR technique. The results showed that there are obvious differences between FTIR spectra of them in spectral parameters such as frequency, intensity and band shape etc. The changes involving the phosphate symmetric stretching nu s, PO2- and asymmetric stretching nu as, PO2- modes, the CH3 and CH2 groups stretching (nu s, CH2, nu as, CH3) and bending (delta CH2) modes and the C-O stretching nu C-O mode were discussed. In addition, the changes of structure of hydrogen-bonding of nucleic acid and cell proteins and the packing and the conformational structure of the membrance lipids were analysed further. The average wavenumber of band of nu s, PO2- shifted from 1,080.92 cm-1 to 1,085.93 cm-1 and that of nu as, PO2- shifted from 1,239.64 cm-1 to 1,238.73 cm-1 which indicated that the degree of hydrogen-bonding formed by oxygen atom of the phosphodiester groups of nucleic acids was increased. The average wavenumber of band of delta CH2 of membrance lipids shifted from 1,455.23 cm-1 to 1,457.37 cm-1 that suggested that the conformational structure of the methylene chains of membrance lipids is more disordered than in normal tissues. The shift of band of nu C-O of cell proteins from 1,166.08 cm-1 to 1,166.58 cm-1 indicated that the hydrogen-bond of cell proteins become weaker.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  19. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  20. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Francisco, J L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Experimental study and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human prolapsed vaginal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Estefania; Calvo, B; Martínez, M A; Martins, P; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M N; Ferreira, A; Doblaré, M

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of vaginal tissue are investigated. Using previous results of the authors on the mechanical properties of biological soft tissues and newly experimental data from uniaxial tension tests, a new model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human vaginal tissue is proposed. The structural model seems to be sufficiently accurate to guarantee its application to prediction of reliable stress distributions, and is suitable for finite element computations. The obtained results may be helpful in the design of surgical procedures with autologous tissue or prostheses.

  2. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  3. A Comparative Study of Rat Lung Decellularization by Chemical Detergents for Lung Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebyanian

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Decellularized lung tissue can be used in the laboratory to study various aspects of pulmonary biology and physiology and also, these results can be used in the continued improvement of engineered lung tissue.

  4. Determination and Distribution Study of Pogostone in Rat Tissues by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEH C18 column with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1 % formic acid (55:45, v/v) as the mobile phase, ... Keywords: Ultra-fast liquid chromatography, Tissue distribution, Pogostone, Honokiol, Rats .... sample extraction, storage, and intermittent.

  5. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate......Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  6. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 ± 0.87 mm, and 4.05 ± 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 ± 0.97 mm and 3.70 ± 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  7. A scalable platform for biomechanical studies of tissue cutting forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdastri, P; Tognarelli, S; Menciassi, A; Dario, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and scalable experimental platform for biomechanical analysis of tissue cutting that exploits a triaxial force-sensitive scalpel and a high resolution vision system. Real-time measurements of cutting forces can be used simultaneously with accurate visual information in order to extract important biomechanical clues in real time that would aid the surgeon during minimally invasive intervention in preserving healthy tissues. Furthermore, the in vivo data gathered can be used for modeling the viscoelastic behavior of soft tissues, which is an important issue in surgical simulator development. Thanks to a modular approach, this platform can be scaled down, thus enabling in vivo real-time robotic applications. Several cutting experiments were conducted with soft porcine tissues (lung, liver and kidney) chosen as ideal candidates for biopsy procedures. The cutting force curves show repeated self-similar units of localized loading followed by unloading. With regards to tissue properties, the depth of cut plays a significant role in the magnitude of the cutting force acting on the blade. Image processing techniques and dedicated algorithms were used to outline the surface of the tissues and estimate the time variation of the depth of cut. The depth of cut was finally used to obtain the normalized cutting force, thus allowing comparative biomechanical analysis

  8. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  9. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  10. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  11. Experimental study of apoptosis in the prostate tissue following castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Doustar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate gland is one of the accessory reproductive glands with important physiological functions necessary for successful reproduction. This gland depends on the presence of sex hormones including androgens for its natural function and normal growth and development. So in the case of hyperplasia, hypertrophy or other prostatic disease the most successful and efficient method of treatment is androgenic control that in some cases is unavoidable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of androgenic depletion states by means of castration on the induction of apoptosis in the epithelial glandular cells of the prostate tissue. Two groups of male dogs each containing 5 animals per group were used in this study. The dogs were under observation for 1 month to detect any possible diseases or disorders. After this period the dogs in the treatment group underwent open castration to decrease the levels of the androgenic hormones in the blood while the dogs in the control group were left intact. One week after surgery, the prostate glands of control and treatment animals were collected and used to prepare microscopic sections. The sections were evaluated following staining with TUNEL (TerminaldeoxyNucleotidyl (dUTP transferase-mediated End Labeling and H&E methods. The Mann – Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Histopathological studies in the treatment group revealed the presence of various forms of apoptotic cells in the glandular epithelium. Average number of apoptotic cells in ten microscopic fields were significantly higher in the treatment group compared with the control group (p

  12. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  13. An autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasubuchi, Yasuo; Mino, Masahiro; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tomoichi

    1979-01-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status. (author)

  14. Autoradiographic study of new fat cell formation in adipose tissue in adult mice during malnutrition and refeeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasubuchi, Y; Mino, M; Yoshioka, H; Kusunoki, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1979-10-01

    The renewal of adipose cells in adult mice has been autoradiographically studied. The number of adipose cells was diminished by eighty percent during malnutrition and the same number of adipose cells proliferated during the refeeding stage. The results of our study showed that adipose tissue, which had previously been believed to be stable in cell number, has the capacity for cell proliferation according to changes in nutritional status.

  15. Consent to tissue banking for research: qualitative study and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carmen; Tarrant, Carolyn; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To explore how families of children with cancer experience giving consent for tissue banking and to produce recommendations on good practice. 79 participants from 42 families (41 mothers, 18 fathers, 20 children and young people with cancer) took part in semistructured interviews to explore their experiences of being approached for consent to tissue banking. Tertiary care facilities for childhood cancer. Families are generally supportive of tissue banking, although they report that it may be difficult for them to consider all the implications when asked for consent. They typically do not want detailed information when consent is sought close to diagnosis, preferring to see tissue banking as part of routine practice. Families often recognise that their consent may not be fully informed, but are content to give consent based on their understanding at the time. Some may want a chance to go over the information and revisit their decision when things have settled. Families' views can inform practical recommendations for optimising the experience of consent for tissue banking. Current guidelines for obtaining consent should be revisited to take account of families' preferences.

  16. Connective tissue graft as a biological barrier for guided tissue regeneration in intrabony defects: a histological study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; da Silva, Vanessa Camila; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comelli; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio

    2015-06-01

    The use of the autogenous periosteal graft as biological barrier has been proposed for periodontal regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histometric findings of the subepithelial connective tissue graft as barrier in intrabony defects compared to a bioabsorbable membrane. Three-walled intrabony defects were created surgically in the mesial aspect of the right and left maxillary canines in five healthy mongrel dogs. The defects were chronified, and two types of barriers were randomly carried out for guided tissue regeneration in a split-mouth design: the test group with a subepithelial connective tissue graft and the control group with a bioabsorbable membrane. The specimens were processed for histometric analyses of the epithelium (E), connective tissue (CT), newly formed cementum (NC), new bone (NB), and total newly formed tissues (NFT). The test side showed smaller mean of NC (3.6 ± 1.2), NB (2.1 ± 0.7), and NFT (7.7 ± 0.8) than the control group (NC 7.3 ± 0.5; NB 5.3 ± 1.3; NFT 10.1 ± 2.2; P  0.05) and CT (test 2.5 ± 1.1; control 2.0 ± 0.5; P > 0.05) between groups. The bioabsorbable membrane was more effective in maintaining the space for periodontal regeneration than periosteal connective graft when used as barrier. The bioabsorbable membrane showed more favorable regenerative results in intrabony defects in dogs than the subepithelial connective tissue graft as biological barrier.

  17. Is email a reliable means of contacting authors of previously published papers? A study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, F

    2003-07-01

    To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.

  18. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  19. Nonviral transfection of adipose tissue stromal cells: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, T V; Kalinina, N I; Parfyonova, E V

    2009-04-01

    Delivery of plasmid DNA and interfering RNA into adipose tissue stromal cells was carried out by the methods of lipofection, calcium phosphate method, and by electroporation. The percent of transfected cells after delivery of plasmid DNA by the calcium phosphate method and lipofection was 0 and 15%, respectively, vs. more than 50% after electroporation. Similar results were obtained for delivery of short-strand RNA into cells. These data indicate that electroporation is the most effective method of nonviral transfection of adipose tissue stromal cells.

  20. Contribution of ultrasound forward scattering to tissue structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edee, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    In this paper, we show how to get useful information of tissue structure by merely interpreting some experimental graphs such as energy spectral density and autocorrelation function of an ultrasonic beam travelling through tissues. To support these interpretations, we needed just some well-known theorems rather than heavy and complicated mathematical equations, so we measured the dimensions of scatterers within specimens by using the graphical representation of autocorrelation function. We related these measurements to the scattered peaks which appear in energy density spectrum. The values we found were equal to those obtained from biologists within ∼ 15%. (author) 26 refs, 6 figs, tabs

  1. Magnetization transfer analysis of cartilage repair tissue: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, F.; Keyzer, F. de; Maes, F.; Breuseghem, I. van

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) after two different cartilage repair procedures, and to compare these data with the MTR of normal cartilage. Twenty-seven patients with a proven cartilage defect were recruited: 13 were treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and 14 were treated with the microfracture technique (MFR). All patients underwent MRI examinations with MT-sequences before the surgical treatment, after 12 months (26 patients) and after 24 months (11 patients). Eleven patients received a complete follow-up study at all three time points (five of the ACI group and six of the MFR group). All images were transferred to a workstation to calculate MTR images. For every MT image set, different ROIs were delineated by two radiologists. Means were calculated per ROI type in the different time frames and in both groups of cartilage repair. The data were analyzed with unpaired t- and ANOVA tests, and by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant differences were found in the MTR of fatty bone marrow, muscle and normal cartilage in the different time frames. There was a significant but small difference between the MTR of normal cartilage and the cartilage repair area after 12 months for both procedures. After 24 months, the MTR of ACI repaired cartilage (0.31±0.07) was not significantly different from normal cartilage MTR (0.34±0.05). The MTR of MFR repaired cartilage (0.28±0.02), still showed a significant difference from normal cartilage. The differences between damaged and repaired cartilage MTR are too small to enable MT-imaging to be a useful tool for postoperative follow-up of cartilage repair procedures. There is, however, an evolution towards normal MTR-values in the cartilage repair tissue (especially after ACI repair). (orig.)

  2. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Previous dropout from diabetic care as a predictor of patients' willingness to use mobile applications for self-management: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoko; Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Waki, Hironori; Nannya, Yasuhito; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Preventing dropout is crucial in managing diabetes. Accordingly, we investigated whether patients who had dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for the use of mobile technologies - such as smartphone applications - to support self-management (mHealth), which might help prevent dropout. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged 20 years or older who were clinically diagnosed as diabetic and who regularly visited the outpatient unit at the University of Tokyo Hospital were recruited between August 2014 and March 2015. Data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews, physical measurements and medical records. Participants were asked whether they were willing to use mHealth after being shown DialBetics - an mHealth application for diabetics - as an example, and about their history of dropout and previous mHealth experience. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. Of 307 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, 34 (11.1%) had previously dropped out from diabetic care. Multivariate analysis identified previous mHealth experience as a negative predictor of dropout (odds ratio 0.211, P = 0.023). Of those 34 patients, 27 (79.4%) expressed willingness to use mHealth, a significantly higher percentage than for those who had never dropped out (51.5%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, history of dropout remained a strong predictor of willingness (odds ratio 3.870, P = 0.004). Patients who previously dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for mHealth. Future studies must evaluate whether mHealth is effective for preventing repeated dropout and improving glycemic control among this population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Optical techniques for the study of living tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbás, E.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of light in diagnosis and therapy has been long recognised. With the advent of scientific progress in our understanding of light propagation and interaction with tissue and parallel major technological advances in how optical energy can be generated, detected and processed, this

  5. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  6. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 . To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p 0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  7. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Histopathological Study of Pulmonary Hypertension in Connective Tissue Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Connective tissue diseases (CTD, such as systemic sclerosis (SSc, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, develop pulmonary hypertension (PH. Generally all PH cases associated with any CTD are classified into the same PH group. However, histological examination shows both common and specific lesions for each disease. In patients with SLE, fibrosis is generally rare and mild. The findings of PH in SLE are similar to those in primary pulmonary hypertension. Many cases of SSc are accompanied by fibrosis. MCTD is rather close to SSc. Arterial and arteriolar lesions of MCTD are characterized by fibrous intimal thickening. In this review, we describe the pathological features of PH associated with each CTD.

  9. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  10. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  11. A strategy for extending the applicability of a validated plasma calibration curve to quantitative measurements in multiple tissue homogenate samples: a case study from a rat tissue distribution study of JI-101, a triple kinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Sandip Dhondiram; Jeniffer, Sherine; Punde, Ravindra; Gilibili, Ravindranath Reddy; Giri, Sanjeev; Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Mullangi, Ramesh

    2012-04-01

    A general practice in bioanalysis is that, whatever the biological matrix the analyte is being quantified in, the validation is performed in the same matrix as per regulatory guidelines. In this paper, we are presenting the applicability of a validated LC-MS/MS method in rat plasma for JI-101, to estimate the concentrations of JI-101 in various tissues that were harvested in a rat tissue distribution study. A simple protein precipitation technique was used to extract JI-101 and internal standard from the tissue homogenates. The recovery of JI-101 in all the matrices was found to be >70%. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a binary gradient using mobile phase A (acetonitrile) and B (0.2% formic acid in water) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min on a Prodigy ODS column with a total run time of 4.0 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 466.1 → 265 for JI-101 and 180.1 → 110.1 for internal standard. The linearity range was 5.02-4017 ng/mL. The JI-101 levels were quantifiable in the various tissue samples harvested in this study. Therefore, the use of a previously validated JI-101 assay in plasma circumvented the tedious process of method development/validation in various tissue matrices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Microfluidics Enables Small-Scale Tissue-Based Drug Metabolism Studies With Scarce Human Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Early information on the metabolism and toxicity properties of new drug candidates is crucial for selecting the right candidates for further development. Preclinical trials rely on cell-based in vitro tests and animal studies to characterize the in vivo behavior of drug candidates, although neither

  13. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  14. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  15. The impact of laser ablation on optical soft tissue differentiation for tissue specific laser surgery-an experimental ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzle Florian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical diffuse reflectance can remotely differentiate various bio tissues. To implement this technique in an optical feedback system to guide laser surgery in a tissue-specific way, the alteration of optical tissue properties by laser ablation has to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the general feasibility of optical soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy under the influence of laser ablation, comparing the tissue differentiation results before and after laser intervention. Methods A total of 70 ex vivo tissue samples (5 tissue types were taken from 14 bisected pig heads. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded before and after Er:YAG-laser ablation. The spectra were analyzed and differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA. To assess the potential of tissue differentiation, area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity was computed for each pair of tissue types before and after laser ablation, and compared to each other. Results Optical tissue differentiation showed good results before laser exposure (total classification error 13.51%. However, the tissue pair nerve and fat yielded lower AUC results of only 0.75. After laser ablation slightly reduced differentiation results were found with a total classification error of 16.83%. The tissue pair nerve and fat showed enhanced differentiation (AUC: 0.85. Laser ablation reduced the sensitivity in 50% and specificity in 80% of the cases of tissue pair comparison. The sensitivity of nerve–fat differentiation was enhanced by 35%. Conclusions The observed results show the general feasibility of tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy even under conditions of tissue alteration by laser ablation. The contrast enhancement for the differentiation between nerve and fat tissue after ablation is assumed to be due to laser removal of the

  16. Simulation study of pO2 distribution in induced tumour masses and normal tissues within a microcirculation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Li, Yan; Wen, Peng Paul

    2014-01-01

    The biological microenvironment is interrupted when tumour masses are introduced because of the strong competition for oxygen. During the period of avascular growth of tumours, capillaries that existed play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to both tumourous and healthy cells. Due to limitations of oxygen supply from capillaries, healthy cells have to compete for oxygen with tumourous cells. In this study, an improved Krogh's cylinder model which is more realistic than the previously reported assumption that oxygen is homogeneously distributed in a microenvironment, is proposed to describe the process of the oxygen diffusion from a capillary to its surrounding environment. The capillary wall permeability is also taken into account. The simulation study is conducted and the results show that when tumour masses are implanted at the upstream part of a capillary and followed by normal tissues, the whole normal tissues suffer from hypoxia. In contrast, when normal tissues are ahead of tumour masses, their pO2 is sufficient. In both situations, the pO2 in the whole normal tissues drops significantly due to the axial diffusion at the interface of normal tissues and tumourous cells. As the existence of the axial oxygen diffusion cannot supply the whole tumour masses, only these tumourous cells that are near the interface can be partially supplied, and have a small chance to survive.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  18. Is chronic fatigue syndrome a connective tissue disorder? A cross-sectional study in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, E. M.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P. M.; Bots, M. L.; Kuis, W.; Kimpen, J. L. L.; Engelbert, R. H. H.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether constitutional laxity of the connective tissues is more frequently present in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) than in healthy controls. Increased joint hypermobility in patients with CFS has been previously described, as has lower blood pressure in fatigued

  19. Microstructural White Matter Tissue Characteristics Are Modulated by Homocysteine: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Leu, Jyu-Gang; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Viergever, Max A.; Leemans, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine level can lead to adverse effects on the brain white matter through endothelial dysfunction, microstructural inflammation, and neurotoxin effects. Despite previously observed associations between elevated homocysteine and macroscopic structural brain changes, it is still unknown whether microstructural associations of homocysteine on brain tissue properties can be observed in healthy subjects with routine MRI. To this end, we investigated potential relationships between homocyste...

  20. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  1. Immersion radiography for enhancement of soft tissue contrast - experimental study and clinical application -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan

    1986-01-01

    Detection and evaluation of early soft tissue changes are important in rheumatoid arthritis or other joint diseases. The most important factors for radiologic demonstration of soft tissue changes are resolving power and the optimization of contrast differences between structures representing skin and subcutaneous tissue densities. Phantom study was done by using combination of immersion technique and mammography to get the most reliable method for improvement of soft tissue contrast without deterioration of resolution. Clinical application was also done in 5 normal volunteers and 5 rheumatoid patients. The results indicate that soft tissue contrast, especially between skin and subcutaneous tissues can be significantly improved with combination of immersion technique and mammography with 50% ethanol in both phantom and clinical study.

  2. Biomechanical study of the bone tissue with dental implants interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátil P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the stress-strain analysis of human mandible in the physiological state and after the dental implant application. The evaluation is focused on assessing of the cancellous bone tissue modeling-level. Three cancellous bone model-types are assessed: Non-trabecular model with homogenous isotropic material, nontrabecular model with inhomogeneous material obtained from computer tomography data using CT Data Analysis software, and trabecular model built from mandible section image. Computational modeling was chosen as the most suitable solution method and the solution on two-dimensional level was carried out. The results show that strain is more preferable value than stress in case of evaluation of mechanical response in cancellous bone. The non-trabecular model with CT-obtained material model is not acceptable for stress-strain analysis of the cancellous bone for singularities occurring on interfaces of regions with different values of modulus of elasticity.

  3. Studies on the concentration of antibiotics in tissues, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Incorporation of an antibiotic, Cefotetan (CTT), into the serum and oral cavity following irradiation was pharmacokinetically examined in rats. One shot of 100 mg/kg of CTT was given to the caudal vein at Day 3 to 28 following a single electron beam irradiation of 10 Gy to the mandible. The concentrations of CTT in the serum, tongue, and submandibular gland were serially determined using high performance liquid chromatography 5 to 60 min after injection. The minimum biological half-life of CTT in the serum was attained at Day 14 postirradiation. The concentrations of CTT in tissues increased and biological half-life prolonged up to Day 14 postirradiation. These values tended to return to the control values up to Day 28. There was serial correlation between a decrease in serum protein mass up to Day 21 and biological half-life of serum CTT. (N.K.)

  4. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  5. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  7. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on tissue compensator thickness ratio and an application for 4MV X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Bum; Kwon, Young Ho; Jung, Hee Young; Kim, You Hyun

    1996-01-01

    A radiation beam incident on irregular or sloping surface produces an inhomogeneity of absorbed dose. The use of a tissue compensator can partially correct this dose inhomogeneity. The tissue compensator should be made based on experimentally measured thickness ratio. The thickness ratio depends on beam energy, distance from the tissue compensator to the surface of patient, field size, treatment depth, tissue deficit and other factors. In this study, the thickness ratio was measured for various field size of 5cm x 5cm, 10cm x 10cm, 15cm x 15cm, 20 x 20cm for 4MV X-ray beams. The distance to the compensator from the X-ray target was fixed, 49cm, and measurement depth was 3, 5, 7, 9 cm. For each measurement depth, the tissue deficit was changed from 0 to(measurement depth-1)cm by 1cm increment. As a result, thickness ratio was decreased according to field size and tissue deficit was increased. Use of a representative thickness ratio for tissue compensator, there was 10% difference of absorbed dose but use of a experimentally measured thickness ratio for tissue compensator, there was 2% difference of absorbed dose. Therefore, it can be concluded that the tissue compensator made by experimentally measured thickness ratio can produce good distribution with acceptable inhomogeneity and such tissue compensator can be effectively applied to clinical radiotherapy.

  9. Rapid tissue regeneration induced by intracellular ATP delivery-A preliminary mechanistic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Sarojini

    Full Text Available We have reported a new phenomenon in acute wound healing following the use of intracellular ATP delivery-extremely rapid tissue regeneration, which starts less than 24 h after surgery, and is accompanied by massive macrophage trafficking, in situ proliferation, and direct collagen production. This unusual process bypasses the formation of the traditional provisional extracellular matrix and significantly shortens the wound healing process. Although macrophages/monocytes are known to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of wound healing, their in situ proliferation and direct collagen production in wound healing have never been reported previously. We have explored these two very specific pathways during wound healing, while excluding confounding factors in the in vivo environment by analyzing wound samples and performing in vitro studies. The use of immunohistochemical studies enabled the detection of in situ macrophage proliferation in ATP-vesicle treated wounds. Primary human macrophages and Raw 264.7 cells were used for an in vitro study involving treatment with ATP vesicles, free Mg-ATP alone, lipid vesicles alone, Regranex, or culture medium. Collagen type 1α 1, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were determined by ELISA of the culture supernatant. The intracellular collagen type 1α1 localization was determined with immunocytochemistry. ATP-vesicle treated wounds showed high immunoreactivity towards BrdU and PCNA antigens, indicating in situ proliferation. Most of the cultured macrophages treated with ATP-vesicles maintained their classic phenotype and expressed high levels of collagen type 1α1 for a longer duration than was observed with cells treated with Regranex. These studies provide the first clear evidence of in situ macrophage proliferation and direct collagen production during wound healing. These findings provide part of the explanation for the extremely rapid tissue regeneration, and this treatment may hold

  10. Study of Zoonotic Tissue Parasites (Hydatid Cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis in Hamadan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Zoonotic parasites are large groups of zoonoses among which the most important are hydatid cyst, liver trematodes and sarcocystis.These zoonoses are of considerable importance regarding both human health and economy. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of tissue zoonotic parasites and their epidemiologic status in Hamadan and to estimate the health and medical burden they impose on the society.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, viscera (including liver, lung, kidney, heart,… and muscles of 2590 sheep, 420 cattle, and 490 goats were macroscopically inspected for hydatid cysts, liver flukes, cysticercus , and microscopically (for Sarcocystis in the Hamadan abattoir. The data were presented by descriptive tables and analyzed by 2 statistical test. Results: The infection rate for hydatid cyst, Fasciola, Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found 12.3%, 4.9%, 6.5%, and 5.5% respectively. The high infection rates for hydatid cyst and Fasciola were found in cattle (16.2% and 9.5% and for Dicrocoelium and Sarcocystis were found in sheep (6.9%. Infection rate of lungs was higher (41.2% than liver (36.6% and liver and lung simultaneously were 22.2% in the infected animals. Infection to Sarcocystis and Cysticercus were not found in the cattle. Conclusion: This study indicated that infection rate of tissue zoonotic parasites are relatively high in the domestic animals of Hamadan , however, the rate is lower in comparison to the previous studies. These parasites had imposed considerable economic burden on the society through reduction in the dairy production and increased the risk of infection in the population as well. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 5-12

  11. A probable risk factor of female breast cancer: study on benign and malignant breast tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sohaila; Husnain, Syed M

    2014-01-01

    The study reports enhanced Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in breast tissues, a probable risk factor of breast cancer in females. Forty-one formalin-fixed breast tissues were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twenty malignant, six adjacent to malignant and 15 benign tissues samples were investigated. The malignant tissues samples were of grade 11 and type invasive ductal carcinoma. The quantitative comparison between the elemental levels measured in the two types of specimen (benign and malignant) tissues (removed after surgery) suggests significant elevation of these metals (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the malignant tissue. The specimens were collected just after mastectomy of women aged 19 to 59 years from the hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan. Findings of study depict that these elements have a promising role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (229 ± 121 mg/L) in malignant breast tissue samples of patients (p factor of breast cancer. In order to validate our method of analysis, certified reference material muscle tissue lyophilized (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for metal studied. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Asymmetric concentration distribution for Fe, Cu, and Zn was observed in both malignant and benign tissue samples.

  12. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  13. Technical and economic feasibility study for the creation of a tissue bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncomilla Sandoval, Andrea Rosi; Mendez Guerra, Karina Angelica

    2006-01-01

    The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungi or bacteria coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allograft must be sterilized. The work presented is a Technical and economic Feasibility Study for the creation of a Tissue Bank in Chile, considering the fact of lacking of such institutions in our country and the need to satisfy the population that requires tissues. It is shown the processes involved and the characteristics of a tissue bank, and also a market survey in order to meet the demand, supply, technical requirements, competitors, opportunities and legal aspects of the process. Finally, it was examined the economic feasibility at which defines the investment, financing and business projections to determine the profitability of the project

  14. The study on the effect of low-temperature heat treatment on tissue dehydration fish pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is studied thermo-moisture treatment of carp on the provisional application of vacuum packaging. The degree of hydration of the carp meat tissues equally depends on the prepackaging, as well as the characteristics of the fluid in the chamber system. With increasing temperature the degree of hydration of meat carp tissue decreases with the reduction of the difference in its numerical values of packed and unpacked samples. Obtained a graph of depence dependence of the speed of carp meat tissue dehydration of the processing temperature. Revealed that the presence of plastic packaging, as well as wetting fluid help reduce the dehydration speed of carp meat tissues.

  15. Full experimental modelling of a liver tissue mimicking phantom for medical ultrasound studies employing different hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Sergio; Conversano, Francesco; Musio, Stefano; Casciaro, Ernesto; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Tissue mimicking phantoms have been widely reported to be an important tool for development, optimisation and performance testing of ultrasound-based diagnostic techniques. In particular, modern applications of tissue mimicking phantoms often include characterisation of the nonlinear behaviour of experimental ultrasound contrast agents. In such cases, the tissue-mimicking materials should be chosen not only based on the values of their density, speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, but also considering their effect on the appearance of "native harmonics" due to nonlinear distortion of ultrasound signal during propagation. In a previous paper it was demonstrated that a cellulose-based hydrogel is suitable to simulate nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue for thicknesses up to 8 cm. In this paper we present the experimental characterisation of the nonlinear acoustical behaviour of a different polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel, in order to assess whether and how it can improve the performances and overcome some limitations of the cellulose-based hydrogel as liver tissue-mimicking material. Samples of pig liver tissue, cellulose-based hydrogel and PEGDA-based hydrogel were insonified in a through-transmission set-up, employing 2.25-MHz pulses with different mechanical index (MI) values. Second harmonic and first harmonic amplitudes were extracted from the spectra of received signals and their difference was then used to compare sample behaviours. Obtained results show how a new more accurate and combined experimental model of linear and nonlinear acoustical behaviour of liver tissue is feasible. In fact, a further confirmation of the cellulose-based hydrogel effectiveness to precisely simulate the liver tissue for penetration depths up to 8 cm was provided, and it was also shown that the employment of the PEGDA-based hydrogel can extend the range of useful tissue-mimicking material thicknesses up to 11 cm, moreover allowing a

  16. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Waterjet cutting of periprosthetic interface tissue in loosened hip prostheses: an in vitro feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Gert; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Dankelman, Jenny; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; Valstar, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Waterjet cutting technology is considered a promising technology to be used for minimally invasive removal of interface tissue surrounding aseptically loose hip prostheses. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of waterjet cutting of interface tissue membrane. Waterjets with 0.2

  18. Comparison of plasma input and reference tissue models for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, Ursula M. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Comans, Emile F.; Zuketto, Cassandra; Yaqub, Maqsood; Mourik, Jurgen E. M.; Lubberink, Mark; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2008-01-01

    A single-tissue compartment model with plasma input is the established method for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil ([(11)C]FMZ) studies. However, arterial cannulation and measurement of metabolites are time-consuming. Therefore, a reference tissue approach is appealing, but this approach has not been

  19. Hard and soft tissue correlations in facial profiles: a canonical correlation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamlan MA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manal A Shamlan,1 Abdullah M Aldrees2 1Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2Division of Orthodontics, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between facial hard and soft tissues in normal Saudi individuals by studying the canonical correlation between specific hard tissue landmarks and their corresponding soft tissue landmarks. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was designed, with a sample size of 60 Saudi adults (30 males and 30 females who had a class I skeletal and dental relationship and normal occlusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the study sample were investigated using a series of 29 linear and angular measurements of hard and soft tissue features. The measurements were calculated electronically using Dolphin® software, and the data were analyzed using canonical correlation. Results: Eighty-four percent of the variation in the soft tissue was explained by the variation in hard tissue. Conclusion: The position of the upper and lower incisors and inclination of the lower incisors influence upper lip length and lower lip position. The inclination of the upper incisors is associated with lower lip length. Keywords: facial profile, hard tissue, soft tissue, canonical correlation

  20. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  1. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P weight change (P weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  2. Sensitivity of HER-2/neu antibodies in archival tissue samples: potential source of error in immunohistochemical studies of oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, M F; Hung, G; Godolphin, W; Slamon, D J

    1994-05-15

    HER-2/neu oncogene amplification and overexpression of breast cancer tissue has been correlated with poor prognosis in women with both node-positive and node-negative disease. However, several studies have not confirmed this association. Review of these studies reveals the presence of considerable methodological variability including differences in study size, follow-up time, techniques and reagents. The majority of papers with clinical follow-up information are immunohistochemical studies using archival, paraffin-embedded breast cancers, and a variety of HER-2/neu antibodies have been used in these studies. Very little information, however, is available about the ability of the antibodies to detect overexpression following tissue processing for paraffin-embedding. Therefore, a series of antibodies, reported in the literature or commercially available, were evaluated to assess their sensitivity and specificity as immunohistochemical reagents. Paraffin-embedded samples of 187 breast cancers, previously characterized as frozen specimens for HER-2/neu amplification by Southern blot and for overexpression by Northern blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, were used. Two multitumor paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were prepared from the previously analyzed breast cancers as a panel of cases to test a series of previously studied and/or commercially available anti-HER-2/neu antibodies. Immunohistochemical staining results obtained with 7 polyclonal and 21 monoclonal antibodies in sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of these breast cancers were compared. The ability of these antibodies to detect overexpression was extremely variable, providing an important explantation for the variable overexpression rate reported in the literature.

  3. Exploratory Studies on Biomarkers: An Example Study on Brown Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    In mammals, two kinds of adipose tissue are known to exist, i.e., white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue. The physiological role of WAT is storage of excess energy as fat, whereas that of BAT is the expenditure of excess energy as heat. The uncoupling protein UCP1, which is specifically expressed in brown fat mitochondria, dissipates the proton electrochemical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane, known as a driving force of ATP synthesis, and thus it dissipates excess energy in a form of heat. Because deficiency in effective expenditure of excess energy causes accumulation of this energy in the form of fat (i.e., obesity), it is very important to understand the energy metabolism in this tissue for the development of anti-obesity drugs. In this article, in addition to providing a brief introduction to the functional properties of BAT and UCP1, the results of our exploratory studies on protein components involved in the energy-dissipating function in BAT.

  4. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  6. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazebnik, Mariya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Popovic, Dijana [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCartney, Leah [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Watkins, Cynthia B [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lindstrom, Mary J [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sewall, Sarah [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ogilvie, Travis [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Breslin, Tara M [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Temple, Walley [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mew, Daphne [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Booske, John H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Okoniewski, Michal [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hagness, Susan C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-10-21

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  7. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M.; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H.; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C.

    2007-10-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  8. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B; Lindstrom, Mary J; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C

    2007-01-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%

  9. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  10. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  12. Comparative studies on the distribution of rhodanese in different tissues of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlari, M; Gilanpour, H

    1991-01-01

    1. The activity of rhodanese in different tissues of some domestic animals was measured. 2. Rhodanese was present in all tissues studied. 3. The activity of rhodanese in most tissues of sheep was higher than other animals studied. 4. In sheep and cattle the epithelium of rumen, omasum and reticulum were the richest sources of rhodanese. Significant activity of rhodanese was also present in liver and kidney. 5. In camel the liver contained the highest level of rhodanese followed by lung and rumen epithelium. Camel liver contained a third of the activity of sheep liver. 6. Equine liver had a third of the activity of sheep liver. Other tissues showed low levels of rhodanese activity. 7. Dog liver contained only 4% of the activity of sheep liver. In this animal, brain was the richest source of rhodanese. 8. The results are discussed in terms of efficacy of different tissues of animals in cyanide detoxification.

  13. Studying the distribution of deep Raman spectroscopy signals using liquid tissue phantoms with varying optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Martha Z; Gardner, Benjamin; Stone, Nicholas; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-08-07

    In this study we employed large volume liquid tissue phantoms, consisting of a scattering agent (Intralipid), an absorption agent (Indian ink) and a synthesized calcification powder (calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP)) similar to that found in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast and prostate), to simulate human tissues. We studied experimentally the magnitude and origin of Raman signals in a transmission Raman geometry as a function of optical properties of the medium and the location of calcifications within the phantom. The goal was to inform the development of future noninvasive cancer screening applications in vivo. The results provide insight into light propagation and Raman scattering distribution in deep Raman measurements, exploring also the effect of the variation of relative absorbance of laser and Raman photons within the phantoms. Most notably when modeling breast and prostate tissues it follows that maximum signals is obtained from the front and back faces of the tissue with the central region contributing less to the measured spectrum.

  14. Applications of NMR to studies of tissue metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avison, M.J.; Hetherington, H.P.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    From its beginnings as a tool for the elucidation of biochemical pathways and bioenergetic status in unicellular organisms, the field of NMR studie in vivo has grown to encompass not only the study of isolated perfused organs, but also the study of various aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology of these same organs in the intact animal. In recent years several groups have begun to extend the techniques developed in animals to the study of clinically relevant conditions in humans. A comprehensive review of all areas of NMR studies in vivo would be either unacceptably long or very superficial. For this reason the authors have restricted this review to studies published since 1980, except where an earlier study is particularly relevant to the topic under discussion. Furthermore, they have concentrated on areas that have been extending the scope of NMR in vivo. One specific omission is review of NMR studies of tumors, since a comprehensive review has recently appeared

  15. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  16. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over 10 years concerning the prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between methods of torture and prevalent pain at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: 139 refugees previous...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee

    2000-01-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m 2 (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  19. Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Xuyang; Shi Xuetao; You Fusheng; Fu Feng; Liu Ruigang; Tang Chi; Dong Xiuzhen; Lu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes. (paper)

  20. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90{sup o} (x=0.99 A{sup -1}). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z{sub eff} of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  1. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 o (x=0.99 A -1 ). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Z eff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon (Z=6) and oxygen (Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  2. Study of effective atomic number of breast tissues determined using the elastic to inelastic scattering ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A. L. C.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we have measured Compton and Rayleigh scattering radiation from normal (adipose and fibroglandular), benign (fibroadenoma) and malignant (ductal carcinoma) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90° ( x=0.99 Å -1). A practical method using the area of Rayleigh and Compton scattering was used for determining the effective atomic number ( Zeff) of the samples, being validated through measurements of several reference materials. The results show that there are differences in the distributions of Zeff of breast tissues, which are mainly related to the elemental composition of carbon ( Z=6) and oxygen ( Z=8) of each tissue type. The results suggest that is possible to use the method to characterize the breast tissues permitting study histological features of the breast tissues related to their elemental composition.

  3. A comparative study on microwave and routine tissue processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mahesh Babu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The individual scores by different observers regarding the various parameters included in the study were statistically insignificant, the overall quality of microwave-processed and microwave-stained slides appeared slightly better than conventionally processed and stained slides.

  4. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  6. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  7. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  8. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  9. A study on alfalfa-dodder relationships by 14C-sucrose incorporation in their tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Plant-parasite relationships between lesser-dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) are investigated. 14 C-sucrose was incorporated via the cut stems of host and parasite into their tissues and the content of the free sugars, keto acids and free amino acids are determined. 14 C-sucrose was introduced also in lesser-dodder previously taken from the host-plant and immersed directly into radioactive sucrose. It is shown that the parasite intensively absorbs sucrose from the host-plant tissues using it as a source of energy and as a substrat for different synthetic processes. In the case when the parasite was previously taken away from the host-plant 14 C-sucrose taken up directly from the solution was used for the synthesis of various compounds (carbohydrates, amino- and keto acids). The suggestion was made that the respective enzyme systems are present in dodder tissues. The 14 C-glucose and 14 C-fructose content is an evidence for high invertase hydrolytic activity. The presence of 14 C-keto acids shows that the 14 C-sucrose incorporated in lesser-dodder tissues without the mediation of the host-plant was used as a respiratory substrate by the degradation following Krebs cycle. (author)

  10. Study of distribution of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissue by macroautoradiography. Comparison between viable tumor tissue and necrotic tumor tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Doishita, K; Ando, I

    1977-01-01

    The localization of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In in tumor tissues was determined macroautoradiographically. /sup 169/Yb-citrate, /sup 67/Ga-citrate and /sup 111/In-citrate were injected intravenously into rats which had received subcutaneously transplantations of Yoshida sarcoma, and were injected intraperitoneally to the mice which had received subcutaneous transplantations of Ehrlich tumor. These animals were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours after injection. The tumor tissues were frozen in n-hexane (-70/sup 0/C) cooled with dry ice-acetone. After this, the frozen tumor tissues were cut into thin serial sections (10 ..mu..m) in a cryostat (-20/sup 0/C). One of these sections was then placed on x-ray film, and this film was developed after exposure of several days. The next slice of each of these sections were stained using the hematoxylin and eosin. From the observations of these autoradiogram and H-E stained slice, the following results were obtained. Concentration of /sup 169/Yb, /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In was predominant in viable tumor tissue rather than in necrotic tumor tissue, regardless of time after administration. /sup 67/Ga and /sup 111/In were distributed uniformly in viable tumor tissue, but there was greater deposition of /sup 169/Yb in viable tumor tissue neighboring the necrotic tumor.

  11. Study of the optical properties of solid tissue phantoms using single and double integrating sphere systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monem, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available light propagation mechanisms inside the tissues. In this work, two calibration models based on measurements adopting integrating sphere systems have been used to determine the optical properties of the studied solid phantoms. Integrating sphere...

  12. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A tool to facilitate clinical biomarker studies - a tissue dictionary based on the Human Protein Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Caroline

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complexity of tissue and the alterations that distinguish normal from cancer remain a challenge for translating results from tumor biological studies into clinical medicine. This has generated an unmet need to exploit the findings from studies based on cell lines and model organisms to develop, validate and clinically apply novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment predictive markers. As one step to meet this challenge, the Human Protein Atlas project has been set up to produce antibodies towards human protein targets corresponding to all human protein coding genes and to map protein expression in normal human tissues, cancer and cells. Here, we present a dictionary based on microscopy images created as an amendment to the Human Protein Atlas. The aim of the dictionary is to facilitate the interpretation and use of the image-based data available in the Human Protein Atlas, but also to serve as a tool for training and understanding tissue histology, pathology and cell biology. The dictionary contains three main parts, normal tissues, cancer tissues and cells, and is based on high-resolution images at different magnifications of full tissue sections stained with H & E. The cell atlas is centered on immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy images, using different color channels to highlight the organelle structure of a cell. Here, we explain how this dictionary can be used as a tool to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the use of tissue histology and cancer pathology in diagnostics and biomarker studies.

  14. Studies of cartilaginous tissue using Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Pavel E.; Timchenko, Elena V.; Volova, Larisa T.; Dolgyshkin, Dmitry A.; Markova, Maria D.; Kylabyhova, A. Y.; Kornilin, Dmitriy V.

    2016-10-01

    The work presents the results of studies of samples of human articular surface of the knee joint, obtained by Raman spectroscopy implementedduring endoprosthesis replacement surgery . The main spectral characteristics of articular surface areas with varying degrees of cartilage damage were detected at 956 cm-1, 1066 cm-1 wavenumbers, corresponding to phosphate and carbonate, and at 1660 cm-1, 1271 cm-1 wavenumbers, corresponding to amide I and amide III. Criteria allowing to identify the degree of articular hyaline cartilage damage were introduced.

  15. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: ► Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. ► Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. ► The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. ► Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. ► Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  16. Fish quality – linking previous infections to the quality of consumers’ fillet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological factors. In the present study it has been established that previous infections by Vibrio anguillarum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) influence the quality of the fish meat (fillet) at slaughter more...... than after the fish have recovered from the infection. The texture of the fillet analysed by sensory analysis showed changes, which could be explained by previous tissue damage caused by the infection. These changes indicated formation of scars in affected tissue during the processes of tissue repair......, which gave rise to a more fibrous, tougher and flaky texture of the fillets....

  17. Impact of dental implant insertion method on the peri-implant bone tissue: Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatović Novak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The function of dental implants depends on their stability in bone tissue over extended period of time, i.e. on osseointegration. The process through which osseointegration is achieved depends on several factors, surgical insertion method being one of them. The aim of this study was to histopathologically compare the impact of the surgical method of implant insertion on the peri-implant bone tissue. Methods. The experiment was performed on 9 dogs. Eight weeks following the extraction of lower premolars implants were inserted using the one-stage method on the right mandibular side and two-stage method on the left side. Three months after implantation the animals were sacrificed. Three distinct regions of bone tissue were histopathologically analyzed, the results were scored and compared. Results. In the specimens of one-stage implants increased amount of collagen fibers was found in 5 specimens where tissue necrosis was also observed. Only moderate osteoblastic activity was found in 3 sections. The analysis of bone-to-implant contact region revealed statistically significantly better results regarding the amount of collagen tissue fibers for the implants inserted in the two-stage method (Wa = 59 105, α = 0.05. No necrosis and osteoblastic activity were observed. Conclusion. Better results were achieved by the two-stage method in bone-to-implant contact region regarding the amount of collagen tissue, while the results were identical regarding the osteoblastic activity and bone tissue necrosis. There was no difference between the methods in the bone-implant interface region. In the bone tissue adjacent to the implant the results were identical regarding the amount of collagen tissue, osteoblastic reaction and bone tissue necrosis, while better results were achieved by the two-stage method regarding the number of osteocytes.

  18. NANIVID: A New Research Tool for Tissue Microenvironment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem K.

    Metastatic tumors are heterogeneous in nature and composed of subpopulations of cells having various metastatic potentials. The time progression of a tumor creates a unique microenvironment to improve the invasion capabilities and survivability of cancer cells in different microenvironments. In the early stages of intravasation, cancer cells establish communication with other cell types through a paracrine loop and covers long distances by sensing growth factor gradients through extracellular matrices. Cellular migration both in vitro and in vivo is a complex process and to understand their motility in depth, sophisticated techniques are required to document and record events in real time. This study presents the design and optimization of a new versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Imaging Device), developed using advanced Nano/Micro fabrication techniques. The current version of this device has been demonstrated to form a stable (epidermal growth factor) EGF gradient in vitro (2D and 3D) while a miniaturized size of NANIVID is used as an implantable device for intravital studies of chemotaxis and to collect cells in vivo. The device is fabricated using microfabrication techniques in which two substrates are bonded together using a thin polymer layer creating a bonded device with one point source (approximately 150 im x 50 im) outlet. The main structures of the device consist of two transparent substrates: one having etched chambers and channel while the second consists of a microelectrode system to measure real time cell arrival inside the device. The chamber of the device is loaded with a growth factor reservoir consisting of hydrogel to sustain a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for long periods of time and establishing a concentration gradient from the device. The focus of this study was to design and optimize the new device for cell chemotaxis studies in breast cancer cells in cell culture. Our results

  19. A 3D Human Lung Tissue Model for Functional Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braian, Clara; Svensson, Mattias; Brighenti, Susanna; Lerm, Maria; Parasa, Venkata R

    2015-10-05

    Tuberculosis (TB) still holds a major threat to the health of people worldwide, and there is a need for cost-efficient but reliable models to help us understand the disease mechanisms and advance the discoveries of new treatment options. In vitro cell cultures of monolayers or co-cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) environment and tissue responses. Herein, we describe an innovative in vitro model of a human lung tissue, which holds promise to be an effective tool for studying the complex events that occur during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The 3D tissue model consists of tissue-specific epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which are cultured in a matrix of collagen on top of a porous membrane. Upon air exposure, the epithelial cells stratify and secrete mucus at the apical side. By introducing human primary macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis to the tissue model, we have shown that immune cells migrate into the infected-tissue and form early stages of TB granuloma. These structures recapitulate the distinct feature of human TB, the granuloma, which is fundamentally different or not commonly observed in widely used experimental animal models. This organotypic culture method enables the 3D visualization and robust quantitative analysis that provides pivotal information on spatial and temporal features of host cell-pathogen interactions. Taken together, the lung tissue model provides a physiologically relevant tissue micro-environment for studies on TB. Thus, the lung tissue model has potential implications for both basic mechanistic and applied studies. Importantly, the model allows addition or manipulation of individual cell types, which thereby widens its use for modelling a variety of infectious diseases that affect the lungs.

  20. Finite element model to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pardasani, K R

    2016-12-01

    The temperature of body tissues is viewed as an indicator of tissue response in clinical applications since ancient times. The tissue temperature depends on various physical and physiological parameters like blood flow, metabolic heat generation, thermal conductivity of tissues, shape and size of organs etc. In this paper a finite element model has been proposed to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs. The geometry of human limb is taken as elliptical tapered shape. It is assumed that outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment. The appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on physical conditions of the problem. The model has been developed for a three dimensional steady state case. Hexahedral circular sectoral elements are used to discretize the region. The results have been computed to obtain temperature profiles and study the relation of tissue temperature with the parameters like atmospheric temperature, rate of evaporation, thickness of tissues layers and shape of the limb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Injectable silk-based biomaterials for cervical tissue augmentation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph E; Partlow, Benjamin P; Berman, Alison M; House, Michael D; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-01

    Cerclage therapy is an important treatment option for preterm birth prevention. Several patient populations benefit from cerclage therapy including patients with a classic history of cervical insufficiency; patients who present with advanced cervical dilation prior to viability; and patients with a history of preterm birth and cervical shortening. Although cerclage is an effective treatment option in some patients, it can be associated with limited efficacy and procedure complications. Development of an alternative to cerclage therapy would be an important clinical development. Here we report on an injectable, silk protein-based biomaterial for cervical tissue augmentation. The rationale for the development of an injectable biomaterial is to restore the native properties of cervical tissue. While cerclage provides support to the tissue, it does not address excessive tissue softening, which is a central feature of the pathogenesis of cervical insufficiency. Silk protein-based hydrogels, which are biocompatible and naturally degrade in vivo, are suggested as a platform for restoring the native properties of cervical tissue and improving cervical function. We sought to study the properties of an injectable, silk-based biomaterial for potential use as an alternative treatment for cervical insufficiency. These biomaterials were evaluated for mechanical tunability, biocompatibility, facile injection, and in vitro degradation. Silk protein solutions were cross-linked by an enzyme catalyzed reaction to form elastic biomaterials. Biomaterials were formulated to match the native physical properties of cervical tissue during pregnancy. The cell compatibility of the materials was assessed in vitro using cervical fibroblasts, and biodegradation was evaluated using concentrated protease solution. Tissue augmentation or bulking was demonstrated using human cervical tissue from nonpregnant hysterectomy specimens. Mechanical compression tests measured the tissue stiffness as a

  3. Surgical considerations when reporting MRI studies of soft tissue sarcoma of the limbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Hoz Polo, Marcela [Kings College Hospital, Radiology Department, London, Brixton (United Kingdom); Dick, Elizabeth [St Mary' s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Bhumbra, Rej [Newham and The Royal London Hospitals, Trauma and Orthopaedic Department, Barts Health Orthopaedic Centre, London, Whitechapel (United Kingdom); Pollock, Rob [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Trauma and Orthopaedic Department, Stanmore (United Kingdom); Sandhu, Ranbir [University Hospitals Birmingham, Radiology Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology Department, Stanmore (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare tumours that require prompt diagnosis and treatment at a specialist centre. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the modality of choice for identification, characterisation, biopsy planning and staging of soft tissue masses. MRI enables both the operating surgeon and patient to be optimally prepared prior to surgery for the likelihood of margin-negative resection and to anticipate possible sacrifice of adjacent structures and consequent loss of function. The aim of this review is to aid the radiologist in performing and reporting MRI studies of soft tissue sarcomas, with particular reference to the requirements of the surgical oncologist. (orig.)

  4. Spectroscopic techniques in the study of human tissues and their components. Part I: IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsztyńska-Janus, Sylwia; Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Walski, Tomasz; Komorowska, Małgorzata; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Pezowicz, Celina; Kobielarz, Magdalena; Szotek, Sylwia

    2012-01-01

    Among the currently used methods of monitoring human tissues and their components many types of research are distinguished. These include spectroscopic techniques. The advantage of these techniques is the small amount of sample required, the rapid process of recording the spectra, and most importantly in the case of biological samples - preparation of tissues is not required. In this work, vibrational spectroscopy: ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy will be used. Studies are carried out on tissues: tendons, blood vessels, skin, red blood cells and biological components: amino acids, proteins, DNA, plasma, and deposits.

  5. Correlation study of trace metals in malignant and normal breast tissues by AAS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The study reports the application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for quantification of Fe, Cu and Zn in forty one formalin-fixed biopsy breast carcinoma tissue and adjoining fifteen normal tissue samples. These tissues samples were of category two breast carcinoma patients and of normal subjects. The qualitative comparison between the elements levels measured in the two types of specimens suggests significant elevation of these metals in the histopathological samples of carcinoma tissue. The samples were collected from women aged 19-51 years. Most of the patients belong to urban areas of Pakistan and middle to high socioeconomic status with the exception of few. Findings of study depicts that these elements have an important role in the initiation and development of carcinoma as consistent pattern of elevation for Fe, Cu and Zn was observed. The results showed the excessive accumulation of Fe (166.9 mg/L) in tissue samples of breast carcinoma patients (p < 0.01) than that in normal tissues samples (23.5 mg/L). In order to validate our method of analysis certified reference material Muscle Tissue Lyophilised (IAEA) MA-M-2/TM was analyzed for Fe, Cu and Zn. Determined concentrations were in good agreement with certified levels. The concentration distribution of trace elements Cu, Zn and Fe measured in the malignant tissues were found to be higher when compared to benign tissues, indicating the involvement of these metals in the breast malignancy. Results also indicate that excess iron may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. (Orig./A.B.)

  6. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Ghinai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  7. Clinical Presentation of Soft-tissue Infections and its Management: A Study of 100 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baldev; Singh, Sukha; Khichy, Sudhir; Ghatge, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue infections vary widely in their nature and severity. A clear approach to the management must allow their rapid identification and treatment as they can be life-threatening. Clinical presentation of soft-tissue infections and its management. A prospective study based on 100 patients presenting with soft-tissue infections was done. All the cases of soft-tissue infections were considered irrespective of age, sex, etiological factors, or systemic disorders. The findings were evaluated regarding the pattern of soft-tissue infections in relation to age and sex, clinical presentation, complications, duration of hospital stay, management, and mortality. The most commonly involved age group was in the range of 41-60 years with male predominance. Abscess formation (45%) was the most common clinical presentation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common associated comorbid condition. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common culture isolate obtained. The most common complication seen was renal failure. Patients with surgical site infections had maximum duration of stay in the hospital. About 94% of the cases of soft-tissue infections were managed surgically. Mortality was mostly encountered in the cases of complications of cellulitis. Skin and soft-tissue infections are among the most common infections encountered by the emergency physicians. Ignorance, reluctance to treatment, economic constraints, and illiteracy delay the early detection and the initiation of proper treatment. Adequate and timely surgical intervention in most of the cases is of utmost importance to prevent the complications and reduce the mortality.

  8. Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we selected a group of 525 pre-menopausal lymph node-positive patients (adjuvant treatment: CMF, 324 patients; anthracycline-based, 99 patients; no adjuvant chemotherapy, 102 patients). TIMP-1 levels were measured using ELISA in cytosolic extracts of frozen primary tumors. TIMP-1 was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a dichotomized one using the median TIMP-1 concentration as a cut point between high and low TIMP-1 groups. We analyzed the benefit of adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines in univariate and multivariable survival models; endpoints were disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this selected cohort of high-risk patients, and in the subgroup of patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, TIMP-1 was not associated with prognosis. In the subgroup of patients treated with anthracyclines, when analyzed as a continuous variable we observed a tendency for increasing TIMP-1 levels to be associated with shorter DFS (multivariable analysis, HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.00-3.07, P = 0.05) and a significant association between increasing TIMP-1 and shorter OS in both univariate (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.54-8.06, P = 0.003) and multivariable analyses (HR 4.19, 95% CI 1.67-10.51, P = 0.002). No statistically significant association between TIMP-1 and DFS was observed in the CMF-treated patients although high TIMP-1 was associated with shorter OS when analyzed as a dichotomized variable (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02-2.65, P

  9. Significance of internal mammary lymph nodes in patients after mastectomy with tissue-expander reconstruction: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewlai, R., E-mail: rathachai@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Digumarthy, S.R. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Smith, B.L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Corben, A.D. [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Austen, W.G. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Shepard, J.-A.O.; Sharma, A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Aim: To retrospectively assess the frequency of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in patients after mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction. Materials and methods: Statistical analysis was performed for all available data in patients with mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction from 2004-2007 (study group). The data were compared with that of a control population with mastectomy who did not have reconstruction (control group). Patients with recurrent breast cancers, previous breast reconstruction, surgeries performed at outside hospitals, no available pre- or postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, or inadequate imaging follow-up were excluded. Results: There were eight patients in the study group (median age 50.5 years, seven breast cancers), and eight patients in the control group (median age 52 years, seven breast cancers). No patients had IMNs on their preoperative imaging examinations. New IMNs were present in postoperative imaging in seven of eight patients (7/8, 87.5%) in the study group. All of them were stable or decreased in size on subsequent imaging examinations. None of the patients in the control group had IMNs (0/8). Conclusion: IMNs are common on imaging after mastectomy and tissue-expander placement. The IMNs decreased or remained stable on follow-up imaging and may represent reactive nodes.

  10. Significance of internal mammary lymph nodes in patients after mastectomy with tissue-expander reconstruction: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewlai, R.; Digumarthy, S.R.; Smith, B.L.; Corben, A.D.; Austen, W.G.; Shepard, J.-A.O.; Sharma, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To retrospectively assess the frequency of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) in patients after mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction. Materials and methods: Statistical analysis was performed for all available data in patients with mastectomy and tissue-expander reconstruction from 2004-2007 (study group). The data were compared with that of a control population with mastectomy who did not have reconstruction (control group). Patients with recurrent breast cancers, previous breast reconstruction, surgeries performed at outside hospitals, no available pre- or postoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, or inadequate imaging follow-up were excluded. Results: There were eight patients in the study group (median age 50.5 years, seven breast cancers), and eight patients in the control group (median age 52 years, seven breast cancers). No patients had IMNs on their preoperative imaging examinations. New IMNs were present in postoperative imaging in seven of eight patients (7/8, 87.5%) in the study group. All of them were stable or decreased in size on subsequent imaging examinations. None of the patients in the control group had IMNs (0/8). Conclusion: IMNs are common on imaging after mastectomy and tissue-expander placement. The IMNs decreased or remained stable on follow-up imaging and may represent reactive nodes.

  11. Optical signature of nerve tissue-Exploratory ex vivo study comparing optical, histological, and molecular characteristics of different adipose and nerve tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthasar, Andrea J R; Bydlon, Torre M; Ippel, Hans; van der Voort, Marjolein; Hendriks, Benno H W; Lucassen, Gerald W; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; van Kleef, Maarten; van Dijk, Paul; Lataster, Arno

    2018-05-14

    During several anesthesiological procedures, needles are inserted through the skin of a patient to target nerves. In most cases, the needle traverses several tissues-skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels-to reach the target nerve. A clear identification of the target nerve can improve the success of the nerve block and reduce the rate of complications. This may be accomplished with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) which can provide a quantitative measure of the tissue composition. The goal of the current study was to further explore the morphological, biological, chemical, and optical characteristics of the tissues encountered during needle insertion to improve future DRS classification algorithms. To compare characteristics of nerve tissue (sciatic nerve) and adipose tissues, the following techniques were used: histology, DRS, absorption spectrophotometry, high-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and solution 2D 13 C- 1 H heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectroscopy. Tissues from five human freshly frozen cadavers were examined. Histology clearly highlights a higher density of cellular nuclei, collagen, and cytoplasm in fascicular nerve tissue (IFAS). IFAS showed lower absorption of light around 1200 nm and 1750 nm, higher absorption around 1500 nm and 2000 nm, and a shift in the peak observed around 1000 nm. DRS measurements showed a higher water percentage and collagen concentration in IFAS and a lower fat percentage compared to all other tissues. The scattering parameter (b) was highest in IFAS. The HR-MAS NMR data showed three extra chemical peak shifts in IFAS tissue. Collagen, water, and cellular nuclei concentration are clearly different between nerve fascicular tissue and other adipose tissue and explain some of the differences observed in the optical absorption, DRS, and HR-NMR spectra of these tissues. Some differences observed between fascicular

  12. Studies of Bystander Effects in 3-D Tissue Systems Using a Low-LET Microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-01-01

    It is now accepted that biological effects may occur in cells that were not themselves traversed by ionizing radiation but are close to those that were. Little is known about the mechanism underlying such a bystander effect, although cell-to-cell communication is thought to be important. Previous work demonstrated a significant bystander effect for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation in C3H 10T(1/2) cells. Additional studies were undertaken to assess the importance of the degree of cell-to-cell contact at the time of irradiation on the magnitude of this bystander effect by varying the cell density. When 10% of cells were exposed to a range of 2-12 alpha particles, a significantly greater number of cells were inactivated when cells were irradiated at high density than at low density. In addition, the oncogenic transformation frequency was significantly higher in high-density cultures. These results suggest that when a cell is hit by radiation, the transmission of the bystander signal through cell-to-cell contact is an important mediator of the effect, implicating the involvement of intracellular communication through gap junctions. Additional studies to address the relationship between the bystander effect and the adaptive response were undertaken. A novel apparatus, where targeted and non-targeted cells were grown in close proximity, was used to investigate these. It was further examined whether a bystander effect or an adaptive response could be induced by a factor(s) present in the supernatants of cells exposed to a high or low dose of X-rays, respectively. When non-hit cells were co-cultured for 24 h with cells irradiated with 5 Gy alpha-particles, a significant increase in both cell killing and oncogenic transformation frequency was observed. If these cells were treated with 2 cGy X-rays 5 h before co-culture with irradiated cells, approximately 95% of the bystander effect was cancelled out. A 2.5-fold decrease in the oncogenic transformation

  13. Linking ontogeny and tissue regeneration: a study on tissue damage and wound healing in carp in connection to the developmental stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Schmidt, Jacob; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    regeneration since its genome is well-described and it is easy visually to follow the wound healing. In this study, carps were physically damaged in the musculature using sterile needles at day 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 post hatch. Muscle tissue samples were subsequently taken at day 1, 3 and 7 post damage...... healing and tissue regeneration, the developmental stage of the individual may influence the immune reaction initiated following damage and thus the proliferative responses, which usually cross-talk with the immune system. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an excellent fish specie to study tissue...

  14. Towards modular bone tissue engineering using Ti-Co-doped phosphate glass microspheres: cytocompatibility and dynamic culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticone, Carlotta; De Silva Thompson, David; Owens, Gareth J; Kim, Hae-Won; Micheletti, Martina; Knowles, Jonathan C; Wall, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    The production of large quantities of functional vascularized bone tissue ex vivo still represent an unmet clinical challenge. Microcarriers offer a potential solution to scalable manufacture of bone tissue due to their high surface area-to-volume ratio and the capacity to be assembled using a modular approach. Microcarriers made of phosphate bioactive glass doped with titanium dioxide have been previously shown to enhance proliferation of osteoblast progenitors and maturation towards functional osteoblasts. Furthemore, doping with cobalt appears to mimic hypoxic conditions that have a key role in promoting angiogenesis. This characteristic could be exploited to meet the clinical requirement of producing vascularized units of bone tissue. In the current study, the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was cultured on phosphate glass microspheres doped with 5% mol titanium dioxide and different concentrations of cobalt oxide (0%, 2% and 5% mol), under static and dynamic conditions (150 and 300 rpm on an orbital shaker). Cell proliferation and the formation of aggregates of cells and microspheres were observed over a period of two weeks in all glass compositions, thus confirming the biocompatibility of the substrate and the suitability of this system for the formation of compact micro-units of tissue. At the concentrations tested, cobalt was not found to be cytotoxic and did not alter cell metabolism. On the other hand, the dynamic environment played a key role, with moderate agitation having a positive effect on cell proliferation while higher agitation resulting in impaired cell growth. Finally, in static culture assays, the capacity of cobalt doping to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation by osteoblastic cells was observed, but was not found to increase linearly with cobalt oxide content. In conclusion, Ti-Co phosphate glasses were found to support osteoblastic cell growth and aggregate formation that is a necessary precursor to tissue

  15. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Sloth Madsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    . Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.......A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B......-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imaging (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence...

  16. Study on the neutron dosimetric characteristics of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunomiya, T.; Kim, E.; Kurosawa, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Tsujimura, N.; Momose, T.; Shinohara, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Environment and Safety Division, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The neutron dosimetric characteristics of TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter) has been investigated under a cooperative study between Tohoku University and JNC since 1997. This TEPC is a spherical, large volume, single-wire proportional counter (the model LETSW-5, manufactured by Far West Technology, Inc.) and filled with a tissue equivalent gas in a spherical detector of the A-150 tissue equivalent plastic. The TEPC can measure the spectra of absorbed dose in LET and easily estimate the tissue equivalent dose to neutron. This report summarizes the dosimetric characteristics of TEPC to the monoenergetic neutrons with energy from 8 keV to 15 MeV. It is found that TEPC can estimate the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), with an accuracy from 0.9 to 2 to the neutron above 0.25 MeV and TEPC has a good counting efficiency enough to measure neutron doses with low dose rate at the stray neutron fields. (author)

  17. Bioprinting of Micro-Organ Tissue Analog for Drug Metabolism Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei

    An evolving application of tissue engineering is to develop in vitro 3D cell/tissue models for drug screening and pharmacological study. In order to test in space, these in vitro models are mostly manufactured through micro-fabrication techniques and incorporate living cells with MEMS or microfluidic devices. These cell-integrated microfluidic devices, or referred as microorgans, are effective in furnishing reliable and inexpensive drug metabolism and toxicity studies [1-3]. This paper will present an on-going research collaborated between Drexel University and NASA JSC Radiation Physics Laboratory for applying a direct cell printing technique to freeform fabrication of 3D liver tissue analog in drug metabolism study. The paper will discuss modeling, design, and solid freeform fabrication of micro-fluidic flow patterns and bioprinting of 3D micro-liver chamber that biomimics liver physiological microenvironment for enhanced drug metabolization. Technical details to address bioprinting of 3D liver tissue analog, integration with a microfluidic device, and basic drug metabolism study for NASA's interests will presented. 1. Holtorf H. Leslie J. Chang R, Nam J, Culbertson C, Sun W, Gonda S, "Development of a Three-Dimensional Tissue-on-a-Chip Micro-Organ Device for Pharmacokinetic Analysis", the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, DC, December 1-5, 2007. 2. Chang, R., Nam, J., Culbertson C., Holtorf, H., Jeevarajan, A., Gonda, S. and Sun, W., "Bio-printing and Modeling of Flow Patterns for Cell Encapsulated 3D Liver Chambers For Pharmacokinetic Study", TERMIS North America 2007 Conference and Exposition, Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto, Canada, June 13-16, 2007. 3.Starly, B., Chang, R., Sun, W., Culbertson, C., Holtorf, H. and Gonda, S., "Bioprinted Tissue-on-chip Application for Pharmacokinetic Studies", Proceedings of World Congress on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 24-27, 2006.

  18. Iodine-enhanced micro-CT imaging: methodological refinements for the study of the soft-tissue anatomy of post-embryonic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Paul M; Kley, Nathan J

    2014-05-01

    The now widespread use of non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and micro-CT (µCT) has greatly augmented our ability to comprehensively detail and quantify the internal hard-tissue anatomy of vertebrates. However, the utility of X-ray imaging for gaining similar insights into vertebrate soft-tissue anatomy has yet to be fully realized due to the naturally low X-ray absorption of non-mineralized tissues. In this study, we show how a wide diversity of soft-tissue structures within the vertebrate head-including muscles, glands, fat deposits, perichondria, dural venous sinuses, white and gray matter of the brain, as well as cranial nerves and associated ganglia-can be rapidly visualized in their natural relationships with extraordinary levels of detail using iodine-enhanced (i-e) µCT imaging. To date, Lugol's iodine solution (I2 KI) has been used as a contrast agent for µCT imaging of small invertebrates, vertebrate embryos, and certain isolated parts of larger, post-embryonic vertebrates. These previous studies have all yielded promising results, but visualization of soft tissues in smaller invertebrate and embryonic vertebrate specimens has generally been more complete than that for larger, post-embryonic vertebrates. Our research builds on these previous studies by using high-energy µCT together with more highly concentrated I2 KI solutions and longer staining times to optimize the imaging and differentiation of soft tissues within the heads of post-embryonic archosaurs (Alligator mississippiensis and Dromaius novaehollandiae). We systematically quantify the intensities of tissue staining, demonstrate the range of anatomical structures that can be visualized, and generate a partial three-dimensional reconstruction of alligator cephalic soft-tissue anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A systematic study of head tissue inhomogeneity and anisotropy on EEG forward problem computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashar, M.R.; Li, Y.; Wen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we propose a stochastic method to analyze the effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue conductivity on electroencephalogram (EEG) in forward computation. We apply this method to an inhomogeneous and anisotropic spherical human head model. We apply stochastic finite element method based on Legendre polynomials, Karhunen-Loeve expansion and stochastic Galerkin methods. We apply Volume and Wang's constraints to restrict the anisotropic conductivities for both the white matter (WM) and the skull tissue compartments. The EEGs resulting from deterministic and stochastic FEMs are compared using statistical measurement techniques. Based on these comparisons, we find that EEGs generated by incorporating WM and skull inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue properties individually result in an average of 56.5 and 57.5% relative errors, respectively. Incorporating these tissue properties for both layers together generate 43.5% average relative error. Inhomogeneous scalp tissue causes 27% average relative error and a full inhomogeneous anisotropic model brings in an average of 45.5% relative error. The study results demonstrate that the effects of inhomogeneous anisotropic tissue conductivity are significant on EEG.

  20. Effect of MELT method on thoracolumbar connective tissue: The full study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjana, Faria; Chaudhry, Hans; Findley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Altered connective tissue structure has been identified in adults with chronic low back pain (LBP). A self-care treatment for managing LBP is the MELT method. The MELT method is a hands-off, self-treatment that is said to alleviate chronic pain, release tension and restore mobility, utilizing specialized soft treatments balls, soft body roller and techniques mimicking manual therapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue and biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of myofascial tissue in the low back region change in subjects with chronic LBP as a result of MELT. This study was designed using a quasi experimental pre-post- design that analyzed data from subjects who performed MELT. Using ultrasound imaging and an algorithm developed in MATLAB, thickness of thoracolumbar connective tissue was analyzed in 22 subjects. A hand-held digital palpation device, called the MyotonPRO, was used to assess biomechanical properties such as stiffness, elasticity, tone and mechanical stress relaxation time of the thoracolumbar myofascial tissue. A forward bending test assessing flexibility and pain scale was added to see if MELT affected subjects with chronic LBP. A significant decrease in connective tissue thickness and pain was observed in participants. Significant increase in flexibility was also recorded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of electrical characteristics of body tissues for computational dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rafael Monteiro da Cruz; Domingues, Luis Adriano M.C.; Neto, Athanasio Mpalantinos; Barbosa, Carlos Ruy Nunez

    2008-01-01

    Increasing public concern about human exposure to electromagnetic fields led to the development of International Exposure Standards, which reflect the actual scientific knowledge on this subject. Existing exposure limits (reference levels), are based on maximum admissible fields or induced currents densities inside human bodies, called basic restrictions. Since those physical quantities can not be readily measured, they must be estimated using techniques of computational dosimetry. These techniques rely on accurate computational modelling of human bodies to establish the relation of external field (electric / magnetic) to induced current (internal field). Nowadays the models available for human body simulation (FEM, FDM,...) are quite accurate, specially when using geometric discretization obtained from medical imaging techniques, however the determination of tissues characteristics (permittivity and conductivity) is still an issue to be dealt with. In current studies the electrical characteristics (permittivity and conductivity) of body tissues are based on values which were obtained from measurements done on tissue simples obtained from dead bodies. However those values may not represent adequately the behaviour of living tissues. In this paper a research designed to characterize the permittivity of human body tissues is presented, consisting of measurements and simulations designed to determine, using indirect methods, the electrical behaviour of living tissues. A study of exposure assessment on a real high voltage transmission line in Brazil, using measured permittivity values combined with a finite element model of the human body is presented in the panel. (author)

  2. Overview of osseous tissue findings from the lifespan carcinogenesis studies: From whole animals to molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Bruenger, F.B.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.

    1991-01-01

    This summary presents some of the findings from the 226 Ra and 239 Pu lifespan carcinogenesis studies in Beagle dogs and discusses these findings relative to the tissue, cellular and molecular biology of osseous tissues. This report attempts to integrate some of the dosimetric and pathological findings with current understanding of the factors that may influence carcinogenesis (and non-carcinogenic pathologies) at the various levels of biological organization. Emphasis is placed on the findings from the 226 Ra study, as this study has recently been completely reviewed and verified

  3. Esthetic outcome and alterations of soft tissue around single implant crowns: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying-Xin; Shi, Jun-Yu; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Xu, You-You; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the esthetic outcome and alterations of peri-implant soft tissue using tissue-level implants. Furthermore, the influencing factors, including grafting and gingival biotype, of esthetic outcome of peri-implant soft tissue were also evaluated. Of 38 patients with single missing anterior tooth in maxilla were treated with a Straumann (®) Standard Plus SLA implant. Bone augmentation was performed in 24 patients. Follow-up was conducted at 12 and 24 months after definitive crowns placement. Esthetic outcome using the pink esthetic score/white esthetic score (PES/WES) and clinical parameters were evaluated. The mean PES/WES value at baseline, 1-year, and 2-year examination was 13.79, 14.87, and 14.96. Significant improvement was found between baseline and 1-year examination (P esthetic area. Favorable short-term esthetic outcome and stability of soft tissue around single implant crowns can be expected in patients with or without graft. However, graft procedures might have an unfavorable effect on the esthetic outcome. Gingival biotype can be considered as prognostic factor for esthetic outcome. RCTs with long-term follow-up are needed to provide evidence for the long-term stability of peri-implant soft tissue using tissue-level implant systems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Glucose diffusion in colorectal mucosa—a comparative study between normal and cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sónia; Gueiral, Nuno; Nogueira, Elisabete; Henrique, Rui; Oliveira, Luís; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-09-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a major health concern worldwide and its high incidence and mortality require accurate screening methods. Following endoscopic examination, polyps must be removed for histopathological characterization. Aiming to contribute to the improvement of current endoscopy methods of colorectal carcinoma screening or even for future development of laser treatment procedures, we studied the diffusion properties of glucose and water in colorectal healthy and pathological mucosa. These parameters characterize the tissue dehydration and the refractive index matching mechanisms of optical clearing (OC). We used ex vivo tissues to measure the collimated transmittance spectra and thickness during treatments with OC solutions containing glucose in different concentrations. These time dependencies allowed for estimating the diffusion time and diffusion coefficient values of glucose and water in both types of tissues. The measured diffusion times for glucose in healthy and pathological mucosa samples were 299.2±4.7 s and 320.6±10.6 s for 40% and 35% glucose concentrations, respectively. Such a difference indicates a slower glucose diffusion in cancer tissues, which originate from their ability to trap far more glucose than healthy tissues. We have also found a higher free water content in cancerous tissue that is estimated as 64.4% instead of 59.4% for healthy mucosa.

  5. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G.A.V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P.V.B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors

  6. Diode laser-induced tissue effects: in vitro tissue model study and in vivo evaluation of wound healing following non-contact application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Miriam; Betz, Christian S; Leunig, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    The basic difference between the various common medical laser systems is the wavelength of the emitted light, leading to altered light-tissue interactions due to the optical parameters of the tissue. This study examines laser induced tissue effects in an in vitro tissue model using 1,470 nm diode laser compared to our standard practice for endonasal applications (940 nm diode laser) under standardised and reproducible conditions. Additionally, in vivo induced tissue effects following non-contact application with focus on mucosal healing were investigated in a controlled intra-individual design in patients treated for hypertrophy of nasal turbinate. A certified diode laser system emitting the light of λ = 1470 nm was evaluated with regards to its tissue effects (ablation, coagulation) in an in vitro setup on porcine liver and turkey muscle tissue model. To achieve comparable macroscopic tissue effects the laser fibres (600 µm core diameter) were fixed to a computer controlled stepper motor and the laser light was applied in a reproducible procedure under constant conditions. For the in vivo evaluation, 20 patients with nasal obstruction due to hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinates were included in this prospective randomised double-blinded comparative trial. The endoscopic controlled endonasal application of λ = 1470 nm on the one and λ = 940 nm on the other side, both in 'non-contact' mode, was carried out as an outpatient procedure under local anaesthesia. The postoperative wound healing process (mucosal swelling, scab formation, bleeding, infection) was endoscopically documented and assessed by an independent physician. In the experimental setup, the 1,470 nm laser diode system proved to be efficient in inducing tissue effects in non-contact mode with a reduced energy factor of 5-10 for highly perfused liver tissue to 10-20 for muscle tissue as compared to the 940 nm diode laser system. In the in vivo evaluation scab formation

  7. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  8. Implementation of an electronic medical record system in previously computer-naïve primary care centres: a pilot study from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoutis, George; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kounalakis, Dimitris K; Zachariadou, Theodora; Philalithis, Anastasios; Lionis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    The computer-based electronic medical record (EMR) is an essential new technology in health care, contributing to high-quality patient care and efficient patient management. The majority of southern European countries, however, have not yet implemented universal EMR systems and many efforts are still ongoing. We describe the development of an EMR system and its pilot implementation and evaluation in two previously computer-naïve public primary care centres in Cyprus. One urban and one rural primary care centre along with their personnel (physicians and nurses) were selected to participate. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools were used during the implementation phase. Qualitative data analysis was based on the framework approach, whereas quantitative assessment was based on a nine-item questionnaire and EMR usage parameters. Two public primary care centres participated, and a total often health professionals served as EMR system evaluators. Physicians and nurses rated EMR relatively highly, while patients were the most enthusiastic supporters for the new information system. Major implementation impediments were the physicians' perceptions that EMR usage negatively affected their workflow, physicians' legal concerns, lack of incentives, system breakdowns, software design problems, transition difficulties and lack of familiarity with electronic equipment. The importance of combining qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools is highlighted. More efforts are needed for the universal adoption and routine use of EMR in the primary care system of Cyprus as several barriers to adoption exist; however, none is insurmountable. Computerised systems could improve efficiency and quality of care in Cyprus, benefiting the entire population.

  9. A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of Tamil population for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachiappan, S; Tharanikumar, S; Chandran, Ajay; Anusudha, P; Nandini, G D; Balasubramaniam, Murali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this study is to compare, the cephalometric hard tissue profile values and analysis between Tamil and Caucasian population. The study also aims to create a better understanding in the facial proportions of Tamil Nadu population and to have better diagnosis and treatment planning for orthognathic surgery for Tamil population in Tamil Nadu.

  10. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  11. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  12. Dimensional Changes of Fresh Sockets With Reactive Soft Tissue Preservation: A Cone Beam CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparé, Paolo; Crespi, Giovanni; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Gherlone, Enrico Felice

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dimensional changes of the fresh sockets grafted with collagen sheets and maintenance of reactive soft tissue, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Tooth extractions were performed with maximum preservation of the alveolar housing, reactive soft tissue was left into the sockets and collagen sheets filled bone defects. Cone beam computed tomography were performed before and 3 months after extractions. One hundred forty-five teeth, 60 monoradiculars and 85 molars, were extracted. In total, 269 alveoli were evaluated. In Group A, not statistically significant differences were found between monoradiculars, whereas statistically significant differences (P 0.05) for all types of teeth. This study reported an atraumatic tooth extraction, reactive soft tissue left in situ, and grafted collagen sponge may be helpful to reduce fresh socket collapse after extraction procedures.

  13. Pulmonary ultrasound elastography: a feasibility study with phantoms and ex-vivo tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Minh; Xie, Hua; Paluch, Kamila; Stanton, Douglas; Ramachandran, Bharat

    2013-03-01

    Elastography has become widely used for minimally invasive diagnosis in many tumors as seen with breast, liver and prostate. Among different modalities, ultrasound-based elastography stands out due to its advantages including being safe, real-time, and relatively low-cost. While lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among both men and women, the use of ultrasound elastography for lung cancer diagnosis has hardly been investigated due to the limitations of ultrasound in air. In this work, we investigate the use of static-compression based endobronchial ultrasound elastography by a 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer for lung cancer diagnosis. A water-filled balloon was designed to 1) improve the visualization of endobronchial ultrasound and 2) to induce compression via pumping motion inside the trachea and bronchiole. In a phantom study, we have successfully generated strain images indicating the stiffness difference between the gelatin background and agar inclusion. A similar strain ratio was confirmed with Philips ultrasound strain-based elastography product. For ex-vivo porcine lung study, different tissue ablation methods including chemical injection, Radio Frequency (RF) ablation, and direct heating were implemented to achieve tumor-mimicking tissue. Stiff ablated lung tissues were obtained and detected with our proposed method. These results suggest the feasibility of pulmonary elastography to differentiate stiff tumor tissue from normal tissue.

  14. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  15. Modeling an Excitable Biosynthetic Tissue with Inherent Variability for Paired Computational-Experimental Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay A Gokhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand how excitable tissues give rise to arrhythmias, it is crucially necessary to understand the electrical dynamics of cells in the context of their environment. Multicellular monolayer cultures have proven useful for investigating arrhythmias and other conduction anomalies, and because of their relatively simple structure, these constructs lend themselves to paired computational studies that often help elucidate mechanisms of the observed behavior. However, tissue cultures of cardiomyocyte monolayers currently require the use of neonatal cells with ionic properties that change rapidly during development and have thus been poorly characterized and modeled to date. Recently, Kirkton and Bursac demonstrated the ability to create biosynthetic excitable tissues from genetically engineered and immortalized HEK293 cells with well-characterized electrical properties and the ability to propagate action potentials. In this study, we developed and validated a computational model of these excitable HEK293 cells (called "Ex293" cells using existing electrophysiological data and a genetic search algorithm. In order to reproduce not only the mean but also the variability of experimental observations, we examined what sources of variation were required in the computational model. Random cell-to-cell and inter-monolayer variation in both ionic conductances and tissue conductivity was necessary to explain the experimentally observed variability in action potential shape and macroscopic conduction, and the spatial organization of cell-to-cell conductance variation was found to not impact macroscopic behavior; the resulting model accurately reproduces both normal and drug-modified conduction behavior. The development of a computational Ex293 cell and tissue model provides a novel framework to perform paired computational-experimental studies to study normal and abnormal conduction in multidimensional excitable tissue, and the methodology of modeling

  16. Clinical presentation of soft-tissue infections and its management: A study of 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldev Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soft-tissue infections vary widely in their nature and severity. A clear approach to the management must allow their rapid identification and treatment as they can be life-threatening. Objective: Clinical presentation of soft-tissue infections and its management. Materials and Methods: A prospective study based on 100 patients presenting with soft-tissue infections was done. All the cases of soft-tissue infections were considered irrespective of age, sex, etiological factors, or systemic disorders. The findings were evaluated regarding the pattern of soft-tissue infections in relation to age and sex, clinical presentation, complications, duration of hospital stay, management, and mortality. Results: The most commonly involved age group was in the range of 41–60 years with male predominance. Abscess formation (45% was the most common clinical presentation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common associated comorbid condition. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common culture isolate obtained. The most common complication seen was renal failure. Patients with surgical site infections had maximum duration of stay in the hospital. About 94% of the cases of soft-tissue infections were managed surgically. Mortality was mostly encountered in the cases of complications of cellulitis. Conclusion: Skin and soft-tissue infections are among the most common infections encountered by the emergency physicians. Ignorance, reluctance to treatment, economic constraints, and illiteracy delay the early detection and the initiation of proper treatment. Adequate and timely surgical intervention in most of the cases is of utmost importance to prevent the complications and reduce the mortality.

  17. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  18. Prevalence of Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors inExtremities: An Epidemiological Study in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Reshadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Although the majority of soft tissue masses are benign, it is important to consider malignancy in differential diagnoses. Because most soft tissue sarcomas present as a painless mass, clinicians must watch for signs suggestive of malignancy, including large size, rapid growth, and site deep into the deep fascia.The purpose of this study was to determine the relative prevalence according to sex and age, site of tumor, skeletal distribution, and treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy before and after surgery, and ascertain the relative frequency of these tumors in specific anatomic sites and age groups based on pathological studies. Methods: A total of 308 patients, with a musculoskeletal tumor were evaluated retrospectively. All of the patients enrolled into this study were referred to the Beirouni Hospital of Damascus University with a proven diagnosis of alignant soft tissue tumors from the beginning of January 2008 until the end of 2010. The prevalence of the malignant soft tissue tumors in these patients was analyzed. For purposes of analysis, all lesions were placed in 1 of 9 categories: hand and wrist, forearm, humorous (arm, proximal limb girdle (axilla and shoulder, foot and ankle, thigh, hip and buttocks region, trunk, and other lesions. Age and sex also were recorded. Results: Malignant tumors consisted of seven diagnostic categories: malignant fibrous histiocytoma (23%, liposarcoma (22%, rhabdomyosarcoma (9%, leiomyosarcoma (8%, malignant schwannoma (5%, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (5%, synovial sarcoma (10%, fibrosarcoma (13%, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (1%, and extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (4%. Conclusions: Despite the multitude of pathologic possibilities, most malignant soft-tissue tumors are classified into a small number of diagnoses. These may be further defined when the site of the lesion and the age of the patient are considered. Knowledge of tumor prevalence will assist radiologists in

  19. Prevalence of Malignant Soft Tissue Tumors inExtremities: An Epidemiological Study in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Reshadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Although the majority of soft tissue masses are benign, it is important to consider malignancy in differential diagnoses. Because most soft tissue sarcomas present as a painless mass, clinicians must watch for signs suggestive of malignancy, including large size, rapid growth, and site deep into the deep fascia.The purpose of this study was to determine the relative prevalence according to sex and age, site of tumor, skeletal distribution, and treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy before and after surgery, and ascertain the relative frequency of these tumors in specific anatomic sites and age groups based on pathological studies. Methods: A total of 308 patients, with a musculoskeletal tumor were evaluated retrospectively. All of the patients enrolled into this study were referred to the Beirouni Hospital of Damascus University with a proven diagnosis of alignant soft tissue tumors from the beginning of January 2008 until the end of 2010. The prevalence of the malignant soft tissue tumors in these patients was analyzed. For purposes of analysis, all lesions were placed in 1 of 9 categories: hand and wrist, forearm, humorous (arm, proximal limb girdle (axilla and shoulder, foot and ankle, thigh, hip and buttocks region, trunk, and other lesions. Age and sex also were recorded. Results: Malignant tumors consisted of seven diagnostic categories: malignant fibrous histiocytoma (23%, liposarcoma (22%, rhabdomyosarcoma (9%, leiomyosarcoma (8%, malignant schwannoma (5%, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (5%, synovial sarcoma (10%, fibrosarcoma (13%, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (1%, and extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (4%. Conclusions: Despite the multitude of pathologic possibilities, most malignant soft-tissue tumors are classified into a small number of diagnoses. These may be further defined when the site of the lesion and the age of the patient are considered. Knowledge of tumor prevalence will assist radiologists in

  20. A prospective study of proton reirradiation for recurrent and secondary soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, David M; Frick, Melissa A; Carmona, Ruben; Deville, Curtiland; Levin, William P; Berman, Abigail T; Chinniah, Chidambaram; Hahn, Stephen M; Plastaras, John P; Simone, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Proton reirradiation for sarcoma has not been previously described. We hypothesized that this strategy would provide favorable toxicity and survival outcomes. Patients with soft tissue sarcoma in a previously-irradiated field were enrolled on a prospective trial of proton reirradiation. The primary endpoint was provider-reported acute toxicity. Secondary endpoints included late toxicities, local control, and overall survival. 23 patients underwent proton reirradiation. Median time between radiation courses was 40.7months (range 10-272). No grade 4-5 toxicities were observed. One patient (4%) experienced acute grade 3 dysphagia. Common grade 2 acute toxicities were fatigue (26%), anorexia (17%), and urinary incontinence (13%). There were two grade 3 late wound infections (10%) and one grade 3 late wound complication (5%). Grade 2 late complications included lymphedema (10%), fracture (5%), and fibrosis (5%). At a median follow-up of 36months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 41% (95% CI [20-63%]). Median overall survival and progression-free survival were 44 and 29months, respectively. In extremity patients, amputation was spared in 7/10 (70%). Proton reirradiation of recurrent/secondary soft tissue sarcomas is well tolerated. While longer follow-up is needed, early survival outcomes in this high-risk population are encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Waterjet cutting of periprosthetic interface tissue in loosened hip prostheses: an in vitro feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Gert; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Dankelman, Jenny; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Valstar, Edward R

    2015-02-01

    Waterjet cutting technology is considered a promising technology to be used for minimally invasive removal of interface tissue surrounding aseptically loose hip prostheses. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of waterjet cutting of interface tissue membrane. Waterjets with 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm diameter, a stand-off distance of 5 mm, and a traverse speed of 0.5 mm/s were used to cut interface tissue samples in half. The water flow through the nozzle was controlled by means of a valve. By changing the flow, the resulting waterjet pressure was regulated. Tissue sample thickness and the required waterjet pressures were measured. Mean thickness of the samples tested within the 0.2 mm nozzle group was 2.3 mm (SD 0.7 mm) and within the 0.6 mm nozzle group 2.6 mm (SD 0.9 mm). The required waterjet pressure to cut samples was between 10 and 12 MPa for the 0.2 mm nozzle and between 5 and 10 MPa for the 0.6 mm nozzle. Cutting bone or bone cement requires about 3 times higher waterjet pressure (30-50 MPa, depending on used nozzle diameter) and therefore we consider waterjet cutting as a safe technique to be used for minimally invasive interface tissue removal. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An experimental study: evaluating the tissue structure of penis with 2D-ShearWave™ Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X-H; Zhang, J-J; Gao, F; Li, F; Liu, Y; Xing, L-X; Du, L-F; Xing, J-F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two-dimensional-ShearWave™ Elastography (2D-SWE) on evaluating the change of tissue structure of penis. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into penis-developed group (PDG, 52 weeks) and penis-underdeveloped group (PUDG, 5 weeks). The ultrafast ultrasound device-Aixplorer® (SuperSonic Imagine) was used for 2D-SWE imaging of the penis, the measurement index was shear wave stiffness (SWS, kPa). All rat penises were cut off immediately after ultrasonic examination. After paraffin embedding, slicing and hematoxylin-eosin staining, the tissue structure of the penis was observed under light microscope. SWS of all rat penises were measured successfully. The results showed that SWS of PDG was significantly lower than PUDG (P=0.008). At the same time, the pathological results found that there were significant differences in the tissue structures (sinusoids, smooth muscle cells and fibrocytes) of the penises between the two groups. These results suggest that there are significant differences in SWS between different tissue structures of penis. 2D-SWE is expected to be used on the etiological diagnosis of erectile dysfunction by serving as a new noninvasive method of evaluating the change of tissue structure of penis.

  3. Angiofibroma of soft tissue: clinicopathologic study of 2 cases of a recently characterized benign soft tissue tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Ke; Li, Changshui; Zheng, Jiangjiang; Yu, Jingjing; Jin, Jie; Xia, Wenping

    2013-01-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a very recently characterized, histologically distinctive benign mesenchymal neoplasm of unknown cellular origin composed of 2 principal components, the spindle cell component and very prominent stromal vasculatures. It usually occurs in middle-aged adults, with a female predominance. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathologic details of 2 other examples of this benign tumor. Both patients were middle-aged male and presented with a slow-growing, painless mass located in the deep-seated soft tissue of thigh and left posterior neck region, respectively. Grossly, both tumors were well-demarcated, partial encapsulated of a grayish-white color with firm consistence. Histologically, one case showed morphology otherwise identical to those have been described before, whereas the other case showed in areas being more cellular than most examples of this subtype tumor had, with the lesional cells frequently exhibiting short fascicular, vaguely storiform and occasionally swirling arrangements, which posed a challenging differential diagnosis. Immunostains performed on both tumors did not confirm any specific cell differentiation with lesional cells only reactive for vimentin and focally desmin and negative for all the other markers tested. This report serves to broaden the morphologic spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tumor. Awareness of this tumor is important to prevent misdiagnosis as other more aggressive soft tissue tumor.

  4. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  5. [Fuzzing pattern recognition study on Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhao, Yuan-li; Ge, Xiang-hong; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Hao, Zhi-fang; Lü, Jing

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of some theories about fuzzing pattern recognition, the present article studied the data preprocessing of the Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue, and feature extraction and selection. According to these features the authors improved the leaning towards the bigger membership function of trapezoidal distribution. The authors built the membership function of Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue which belongs to malignant tumor on the basis of 40 specimens, and designed the classifier. The test of other 40 specimens showed that the discrimination of malignant tumor is 82.4%, while that of beginning tumor is 73.9%.

  6. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implant via guided tissue regeneration. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørting-Hansen, E; Helbo, M; Aaboe, M

    1995-01-01

    The principle of guided tissue regeneration was applied in an attempt to generate bone to cover a subperiosteal implant. Titanium frame works, casted on individual impressions of the anterior surface of the tibia of 4 Copenhagen White rabbits, were stabilized to the tibia by microscrews, and half...... of them were covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene augmentation membrane. The observation period was 12 weeks. Guided bone regeneration partly covering the implants was seen at all experimental sides; on the control sides the implants were mainly embedded in fibrous tissue. Studies...... are in progress with the aim of reducing marked marrow space formation observed in all the regenerated areas....

  7. Theoretical study of the fibrous capsule tissue growth around a disk-shaped implant

    KAUST Repository

    Djellouli, Rabia; Mahserejian, Shant; Mokrane, A.; Moussaoui, Mohand; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical properties of the fibrous capsule tissue concentration around a disk-shaped implant. We establish stability estimates as well as monotonicity results that illustrate the sensitivity of this growth to the biocompatibility index parameters of the implant. In addition, we prove that the growth of the tissue increases exponentially in time toward an asymptotic regime. We also study the mathematical properties of the solution of the inverse problem consisting in the determination of the values of the biocompatibility index parameters from the knowledge of some fibrous capsule tissue measurements. We prove that this model calibration problem admits a unique solution, and establish a characterization of the index parameters. Furthermore, we demonstrate analytically that such a solution is not continuous with respect to the data, and therefore the considered inverse problem is ill-posed due to the lack of the stability requirement. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Theoretical study of the fibrous capsule tissue growth around a disk-shaped implant

    KAUST Repository

    Djellouli, Rabia

    2012-08-19

    We analyze the mathematical properties of the fibrous capsule tissue concentration around a disk-shaped implant. We establish stability estimates as well as monotonicity results that illustrate the sensitivity of this growth to the biocompatibility index parameters of the implant. In addition, we prove that the growth of the tissue increases exponentially in time toward an asymptotic regime. We also study the mathematical properties of the solution of the inverse problem consisting in the determination of the values of the biocompatibility index parameters from the knowledge of some fibrous capsule tissue measurements. We prove that this model calibration problem admits a unique solution, and establish a characterization of the index parameters. Furthermore, we demonstrate analytically that such a solution is not continuous with respect to the data, and therefore the considered inverse problem is ill-posed due to the lack of the stability requirement. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M.; Pozzi, E.; Nigg, D.W.; Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J.; Nievas, S.I.; Aromando, R.F.; Itoiz, M.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  10. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  11. Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; for the EURAMIC Study Group

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of adipose tissue alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and toenail selenium and their determinants. Design: Control subjects from multicentre case-control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction and cancer of the breast. Subjects and setting: 686 male and 339

  12. Study of the equivalent dose distribution in organs and tissues using periapical odontological radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, H.F.S.; Cipeli, J.F.; Fortes, M.A.B.; Federico, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article presents a study of the doses obtained in periapical odontological radiography in main tissues of the head, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of type TLD-700H applied to a anthropomorphic simulator. The results indicate that the skin and salivary glands received the highest doses and the risk of calculated injury was 1.44 x 10 -6 Sv -1 per radiograph

  13. A study of tooth brushing pattern and its effects on dental tissues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of non carious cervical lesion was 3% and these lesions were found in males only. Conclusion: The pattern of tooth brushing was correct in 51.7% of the respondents as reported. However the effect on dental tissues though present is not exaggerated when compared to other studies done in other parts of ...

  14. Histopathological and Ultrastructural Studies of Liver Tissue from TCDD-Exposed Beach Mice (Peromyscus polionotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    TQuantitative ultrastructural studies were conducted on liver tissue f ran beach Lj mice, Per~ ascus polionotus, exposed to the toxin 2,3, 7f8...weights per se was not attempted since the ages of the beach mice were not known and the animals could only be classified by sex and treatment. The

  15. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.; Acha, Moshe Ray; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Pfeufer, Arne; Lyneh, Stacey N.; Olesen, Soren-Peter; Brunak, Soren; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Trompet, Stella; Ford, Ian; Macfarlane, Peter W.; Krijthe, Bouwe P.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Daly, Mark J.; Asselbergs, Ikea W.; van der Harst, Pim; Milan, David J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lage, Kasper; Olsen, Jesper V.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes

  16. Bone tissue engineering for spine fusion : An experimental study on ectopic and orthotopic implants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, SM; Dhert, WJA; van den Muysenberg, A; Oner, FC; van Blitterswijk, C; Verbout, AJ; de Bruijn, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Alternatives to the use of autologous bone as a bone graft in spine surgery are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine tissue-engineered bone constructs in comparison with control scaffolds without cells in a posterior spinal implantation model in rats. Syngeneic bone marrow cells were

  17. Ostomy creation with fewer sutures using tissue adhesives (cyanoacrylates) in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, M; Ikeuchi, H; Bando, T; Sasaki, H; Chohno, T; Horio, Y; Takesue, Y

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Fistula formation around the ostomy site is a stoma-related complication often requiring surgical intervention. This complication may be caused by sutures or may develop as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Before conducting a clinical trial, we set out to investigate the safety of ostomy creation with fewer sutures using tissue adhesives in this pilot study. Methods Patients with inflammatory bowel disease who required surgery with ostomy creation at the Hyogo College of Medicine between January 2014 and December 2015 were enrolled. Safety was assessed by evaluating the incidence of stoma-related complications. Ostomy was restricted to loop ileostomy and was created with two sutures and tissue adhesives. Results A total of 14 patients were enrolled. Mean body mass index was 18.9 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 . There were no cases of ostomy retraction and no severe adverse events were observed. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates that ostomy creation using tissue adhesives is safe. Although retraction and adverse events were not observed, even in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who generally exhibit delayed wound healing, the body mass index was extremely low in this series. This study does not strongly recommend ostomy creation with tissue adhesives; further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of the procedure.

  18. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  19. SU-D-BRC-04: Development of Proton Tissue Equivalent Materials for Calibration and Dosimetry Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, E [Gainesville, FL (United States); Flampouri, S [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Lipnharski, I [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop new proton tissue equivalent materials (PTEM), urethane and fiberglass based, for proton therapy calibration and dosimetry studies. Existing tissue equivalent plastics are applicable only for x-rays because they focus on matching mass attenuation coefficients. This study aims to create new plastics that match mass stopping powers for proton therapy applications instead. Methods: New PTEMs were constructed using urethane and fiberglass resin materials for soft, fat, bone, and lung tissue. The stoichiometric analysis method was first used to determine the elemental composition of each unknown constituent. New initial formulae were then developed for each of the 4 PTEMs using the new elemental compositions and various additives. Samples of each plastic were then created and exposed to a well defined proton beam at the UF Health Proton Therapy Institute (UFHPTI) to validate its mass stopping power. Results: The stoichiometric analysis method revealed the elemental composition of the 3 components used in creating the PTEMs. These urethane and fiberglass based resins were combined with additives such as calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, and phenolic micro spheres to achieve the desired mass stopping powers and densities. Validation at the UFHPTI revealed adjustments had to be made to the formulae, but the plastics eventually had the desired properties after a few iterations. The mass stopping power, density, and Hounsfield Unit of each of the 4 PTEMs were within acceptable tolerances. Conclusion: Four proton tissue equivalent plastics were developed: soft, fat, bone, and lung tissue. These plastics match each of the corresponding tissue’s mass stopping power, density, and Hounsfield Unit, meaning they are truly tissue equivalent for proton therapy applications. They can now be used to calibrate proton therapy treatment planning systems, improve range uncertainties, validate proton therapy Monte Carlo simulations, and assess in-field and out

  20. Hole Burning Imaging Studies of Cancerous and Analogous Normal Ovarian Tissues Utilizing Organelle Specific Dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation is the successful demonstration that nonphotochemical hole burning (NPWB) imaging can be used to study in vitro tissue cellular systems for discerning differences in cellular ultrastructures due to cancer development. This has been accomplished with the surgically removed cancerous ovarian and analogous normal peritoneal tissues from the same patient and the application of a fluorescent mitochondrion specific dye, Molecular Probe MitoFluor Far Red 680 (MF680), commonly known as rhodamine 800, that has been proven to exhibit efficient NPHB. From the results presented in Chapters 4 and 5 , and Appendix B, the following conclusions were made: (1) fluorescence excitation spectra of MF680 and confocal microscopy images of thin sliced tissues incubated with MF680 confirm the site-specificity of the probe molecules in the cellular systems. (2) Tunneling parameters, {lambda}{sub 0} and σΛ, as well as the standard hole burning parameters (namely, γ and S), have been determined for the tissue samples by hole growth kinetics (HGK) analyses. Unlike the preliminary cultured cell studies, these parameters have not shown the ability to distinguish tissue cellular matrices surrounding the chromophores. (3) Effects of an external electric (Stark) field on the nonphotochemical holes have been used to determine the changes in permanent dipole moment (fΔμ) for MF680 in tissue samples when burn laser polarization is parallel to the Stark field. Differences are detected between fΔμs in the two tissue samples, with the cancerous tissue exhibiting a more pronounced change (1.35-fold increase) in permanent dipole moment change relative to the normal analogs. It is speculated that the difference may be related to differences in mitochondrial membrane potentials in these tissue samples. (4) In the HGK mode, hole burning imaging (HBI) of cells adhered to coverslips and cooled to liquid helium temperatures in the complete absence of

  1. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  2. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  3. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Impact of anesthesia and euthanasia on metabolomics of mammalian tissues: studies in a C57BL/6J mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia.

  5. Impact of Anesthesia and Euthanasia on Metabolomics of Mammalian Tissues: Studies in a C57BL/6J Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmyer, Katherine A.; Thonusin, Chanisa; Qi, Nathan R.; Burant, Charles F.; Evans, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia. PMID:25658945

  6. The effect of tissue decalcification on mRNA retention within bone for in-situ hybridization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Freemont, A J; Hoyland, J A

    1993-06-01

    Tissue decalcification is a routine part of the preparation of bone tissue for histological studies. Although in-situ hybridization has been employed to localize mRNA of collagenous and non-collagenous bone related proteins in skeletal tissue, little is known regarding the effects of decalcifying agents on mRNA retention within tissue. In this study in-situ hybridization using an oligonucleotide probe (i.e. a poly d(T) probe) to detect total messenger RNA has been employed to investigate the effects of the decalcifying agents nitric acid, formic acid and EDTA on mRNA retention compared to undeacalcified tissue. The results show that formalin fixation and EDTA decalcification preserve substantial amounts of mRNA within the tissue. In particular, this study illustrates that it is possible to perform in-situ hybridization on formalin fixed decalcified paraffin embedded tissue.

  7. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes After Placement of Essure Microinserts in Patients With Hydrosalpinges Who Previously Failed In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo B; Bouaziz, Jerome; Schiff, Eyal; Simon, Alexander; Nadjary, Michel; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Orvieto, Raoul; Revel, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion with Essure microinserts (Conceptus Inc.; Bayer, AG, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) can improve pregnancy rates in patients with hydrosalpinges who had failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A prospective cohort study. University-affiliated tertiary centers. Twenty-four consecutive women with hydrosalpinges who had failed IVF treatment were included. Hysteroscopic placement of Essure microinserts for hydrosalpinx blockage followed by IVF treatment. Ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were recorded. Of the 24 patients undergoing a total of 42 IVF cycles after Essure insertion, 18 (75% of patients and 42.8% of IVF cycle attempts) conceived and 16 delivered live births (66.6% of patients and 38.1% of IVF cycle attempts). Hysteroscopic proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges with Essure microinserts is a valuable alternative to laparoscopic salpingectomy, resulting in reasonable pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The effect of milk on plasmatic and tissue levels of macrolides: in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Groppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The ingestion of milk with drugs, particularly some antibiotics, is frequently recommended in order to decrease possible gastrointestinal discomfort. The objective of this study was to assess the interference of milk in the absorption and tissue levels of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Forty female rats received surgicallyimplanted PVC sponges on their backs. One week later, granulomatous tissue was observed and the animals were divided into eight groups, which received erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin with and without milk. One hour after administration of antibiotic, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and tissue samples were submitted to microbiological assay with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, in order to determine drug concentration. Milk did not cause any reduction in the serum and tissue levels of azithromycin and clarithromycin (p>0.05,t-test. However, ingestion of milk reduced by approximately 28.7% the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and by 34.1% the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t test serum concentrations. Similar effects were observed on tissue levels. Milk ingestion caused a reduction of approximately 20.8% in the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and 40% in the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t-test tissue levels. We concluded that erythromycin and roxithromycin should be not administered with milk. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, macrolides, milk, serum concentration

  10. Evaluation of collagen in connective tissue walls of odontogenic cysts--a histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Ruchieka; Vij, Hitesh; Rao, Nirmala N

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature of collagen in the connective tissue walls of odontogenic cysts, like the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst using picrosirius red stained sections. Furthermore, it was intended to assess if the capsular connective tissue can affect the nature of overlying epithelium, thus emphasizing the role of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in biological behaviour of the cysts. The material for the study included 51 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (15 odontogenic keratocyst, 15 dentigerous cysts, 15 radicular cysts and four normal mucosa and two dental follicular tissue as controls), retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MCODS, Manipal. Tissue blocks were sectioned at 5-μm thickness, stained with picrosirius red stain and observed with polarization and light microscopy. Few sections of OKC and dentigerous cyst exhibited greenish-yellow birefringence in sub-epithelial region, whereas others showed a yellowish-orange birefringence under polarization microscopy. Most radicular cysts had yellowish-orange to orange birefringence. Shift in colour in case OKC and dentigerous cyst was attributed to the presence of inflammation in those sections. These regions also exhibited either a change in phenotype or thickness of overlying epithelium. This technique can be used to study the nature of collagen fibres in odontogenic cyst walls. Further studies with an increased sample size and using various epithelial and mesenchymal markers and ssDNA antibodies should be carried out to confirm the effect of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions on the nature of epithelium of odontogenic cysts. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  12. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  13. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m 2 on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An exploratory study of relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication in requests for tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation.

  15. Study of human breast tissues biochemistry by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Renata A.; Jara, Walter Andres A.; Netto, Mário M.; Martinho, Herculano; Ramalho, Leandra Náira Z.; Martin, Airton A.

    2006-02-01

    In this work we employ the Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy to study the human breast tissues, both normal and pathological. In the present study we analyze 194 Raman spectra from breast tissues that were separated into 9 groups according to their corresponding histopathological diagnosis, which are as follows: Normal breast tissue, Fibrocystic condition, In Situ Duct Carcinoma, In Situ Duct Carcinoma with Necrosis, Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Inflammatory Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Medullar Carcinoma, Infiltrating Duct Colloid Carcinoma, and Infiltrating Lobule Carcinoma. We found a strong lipids Raman band, and this structure was identified as abundant in the normal breast tissue spectra. The primary structure of proteins was identified through the shift of the amine acids bands. The identification of the secondary structure of proteins occurred through the peptide bands (Amide I and Amide III). In relation to the carbohydrates, the spectra of duct infiltrating colloid carcinoma, fibrocystic condition, and infiltrating duct carcinoma have been compared and identified. We observed an increase in the intensity of the 800-1200 cm -1 spectral region. This fact could indicate the presence of liquid cystic. We also notice alterations in the peaks in the region of 500 to 600 cm -1 and 2000 to 2100 cm -1 that may suggest changes in the nucleic acids of the cells.

  16. Oral soft tissue disorders are associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Nakatani, Eiji; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Kanno, Takahiro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Yoshino, Aya; Vieth, Michael; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Sekine, Joji

    2017-08-07

    Dental erosion (DE), one of oral hard tissue diseases, is one of the extraoesophageal symptoms defined as the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, no study evaluated the relationship between GERD and oral soft tissues. We hypothesized that oral soft tissue disorders (OSTDs) would be related to GERD. The study aimed to investigate the association OSTDs and GERD. GERD patients (105 cases), older and younger controls (25 cases each) were retrospectively examined for oral symptoms, salivary flow volume (Saxon test), swallowing function (repetitive saliva swallowing test [RSST]), teeth (decayed, missing, and filled [DMF] indices), and soft tissues (as evaluation of OSTDs, gingivitis; papillary, marginal, and attached [PMA] gingival indexes, simplified oral hygiene indices [OHI-S], and inflammatory oral mucosal regions). Clinical histories, which included body mass index [BMI], the existence of alcohol and tobacco use, and bruxism, were also investigated. A P value of bruxism, as an exacerbation factor of periodontal disease, in the GERD patients was significantly more frequent than in either control group (P = 0.041). OSTDs were associated with GERD, which was similar to the association between DE and GERD.

  17. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  19. Quantitative redox imaging biomarkers for studying tissue metabolic state and its heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including flavin–adenine–dinucleotide (FAD and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr. Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH]+[Fp], [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1 tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies; (2 tumor metastatic potential; (3 tumor glucose uptake; (4 tumor p53 status; (5 PI3K pathway activation in pre-malignant tissue; (6 therapeutic effects on tumors; (7 embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8 the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal

  20. Simulation studies of optimum energies for DXA: dependence on tissue type, patient size and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a well established technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). However, in recent years DXA is increasingly being used to measure body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass. DXA scanners must also determine the soft tissue baseline value from soft-tissue-only regions adjacent to bone. The aim of this work is to determine, using computer simulations, the optimum x- ray energies for a number of dose models, different tissues, i.e. bone mineral, average soft tissue, lean soft tissue and fat; and a range of anatomical sites and patient sizes. Three models for patient dose were evaluated total beam energy, entrance exposure and absorbed dose calculated by Monte Carlo modelling. A range of tissue compositions and thicknesses were chosen to cover typical patient variations for the three sites femoral neck, PA spine and lateral spine. In this work, the optimisation of the energies is based on (1) the uncertainty that arises from the quantum statistical nature of the number of x-rays recorded by the detector, and (2) the radiation dose received by the patient. This study has deliberately not considered other parameters such as detector response, electronic noise, x-ray tube heat load etc, because these are technology dependent parameters, not ones that are inherent to the measuring technique. Optimisation of the energies is achieved by minimisation of the product of variance of density measurement and dose which is independent of the absolute intensities of the x-ray beams. The results obtained indicate that if solving for bone density, then E-low in the range 34 to 42 keV, E-high in the range 100 to 200 keV and incident intensity ratio (low energy/high energy) in the range 3 to 10 is a reasonable compromise for the normal range of patient sizes. The choice of energies is complicated by the fact that the DXA unit must also solve for fat and lean soft tissue in soft- tissue-only regions adjacent to the bone. In this

  1. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Garde, E.; Skimminge, A.; Siebner, H.; Waldemar, G.; Ylikoski, R.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Barkhof, F.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is associated

  2. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P; Rao, D.G; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. The effects of thyroid hormones on brown adipose tissue in humans: a PET-CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongyue; Miao, Qing; Ye, Hongying; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Zuo, Chuantao; Hua, Fengchun; Guan, Yihui; Li, Yiming

    2014-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for energy expenditure through thermogenesis, although its regulatory factors are not well known in humans. There is evidence suggesting that thyroid hormones affect BAT functions in some mammals, but the effects of thyroid hormones on BAT activity in humans are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thyroid hormones on glucose metabolism of BAT and other organs in humans. Nine Graves' disease-caused hyperthyroid patients who were newly diagnosed and untreated were studied. Putative brown adipose tissue activity was determined by the integrated ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT). All hyperthyroid patients were treated with methimazole and had been monitored until their symptoms disappeared and thyroid hormone levels returned to normal. At the end, a second PET-CT scan was performed. The average follow-up period was 77 days. Meanwhile, compared with a group of seventy-five brown adipose tissue-negative controls, thyroid hormones of seventy-five BAT-positive healthy subjects were measured. Active brown adipose tissue was not present in any of the hyperthyroid patients. However, one patient with normalized thyroid function showed active BAT after therapy. The free T3 levels and free T4 levels were significantly lower in the 75 BAT-positive subjects than in the BAT-negative subjects. All hyperthyroid patients showed symmetrically increased uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in skeletal muscles before treatment, whereas, the standardized uptake value was substantially decreased after treatment. Abnormally high circulating thyroid hormone levels may not increase brown adipose tissue activity, which may be limited by the increased obligatory thermogenesis of muscle in adult humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hydrogel based tissue mimicking phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agents studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Sergio; Distante, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound medical imaging (UMI) is the most widely used image analysis technique, and often requires advanced in-vitro set up to perform morphological and functional investigations. These studies are based on contrast properties both related to tissue structure and injectable contrast agents (CA). In this work, we present a three-dimensional structure composed of two different hydrogels reassembly the microvascular network of a human tissue. This phantom was particularly suitable for the echocontrastographic measurements in human microvascular system. This phantom has been characterized to present the acoustic properties of an animal liver, that is, acoustic impedance (Z) and attenuation coefficient (AC), in UMI signal analysis in particular; the two different hydrogels have been selected to simulate the target organ and the acoustic properties of the vascular system. The two hydrogels were prepared starting from cellulose derivatives to simulating the target organ parenchyma and using a PEG-diacrylate to reproduce the vascular system. Moreover, harmonic analysis was performed on the hydrogel mimicking the liver parenchyma hydrogel to evaluate the ultrasound (US) distortion during echographic measurement. The phantom was employed in the characterization of an experimental US CA. Perfect agreement was found when comparing the hydrogel acoustical properties materials with the corresponding living reference tissues (i.e., vascular and parenchimal tissue).

  5. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  6. Study of the argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue after exposure to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletskij, V.K.; Beletskaya, L.V.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii)

    1980-01-01

    Studied are argyrophil structures of thymus connective tissue - histiocytes (appendiculate macrophages) and reticuline fibers after the bulk of lymphoid cells has migrated from the organ due to irradiation of animals with X-rays. 10 intact and 16 experimental guinea pigs subjected to the whole-body irradiation with X-rays in the dose of 1000-3000 rad have been used for investigations. It is shown that argyrophil stroma elements of thymus connective tissue, histiocytes and reticular cells, are rather resistant to X-rays and preserve their argyrophily property in the irradiation with high doses, as well as the epithelial cells of the organ. Paraplastic structures in irradiated animals are expressed more completely being demasked as a result of lymphocyte migration and death. The expressed hypertrophy and proliferation of reticular cells and appendiculate macrophages are probably the response to the alternative process in the organ tissues caused by irradiation. A close structural connection of reticular and epithelial tissues on the territory of both layers of thymus sections is noted

  7. High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance angiography: a feasibility study on biological and medical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boel Lene WT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biomedical sciences, ex vivo angiography is a practical mean to elucidate vascular structures three-dimensionally with simultaneous estimation of intravascular volume. The objectives of this study were to develop a magnetic resonance (MR method for ex vivo angiography and to compare the findings with computed tomography (CT. To demonstrate the usefulness of this method, examples are provided from four different tissues and species: the human placenta, a rice field eel, a porcine heart and a turtle. Results The optimal solution for ex vivo MR angiography (MRA was a compound containing gelatine (0.05 g/mL, the CT contrast agent barium sulphate (0.43 mol/L and the MR contrast agent gadoteric acid (2.5 mmol/L. It was possible to perform angiography on all specimens. We found that ex vivo MRA could only be performed on fresh tissue because formalin fixation makes the blood vessels permeable to the MR contrast agent. Conclusions Ex vivo MRA provides high-resolution images of fresh tissue and delineates fine structures that we were unable to visualise by CT. We found that MRA provided detailed information similar to or better than conventional CTA in its ability to visualize vessel configuration while avoiding interfering signals from adjacent bones. Interestingly, we found that vascular tissue becomes leaky when formalin-fixed, leading to increased permeability and extravascular leakage of MR contrast agent.

  8. Dynamics of soft tissue healing at implants and teeth: a study in a dog model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukekava, Flávia; Pannuti, Claudio M; Lima, Luiz A; Tormena, Mariana; Araújo, Mauricio G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and to compare some characteristics of the soft tissue healing process around teeth and implants after flap surgery. Five adult beagle dogs had their third and fourth lower premolars extracted. After 3 months, four implants per dog were placed on the healed alveolar ridge and allowed to heal non-submerged during 3 months. After 3 months, four regions characterized by one implant and one adjacent tooth were identified in each dog. One region was randomly selected and soft tissue ressective flap surgery was performed at its buccal aspect. The remaining three regions were randomly treated in an identical manner, and the dogs were sacrificed to provide biopsies representing healing intervals of 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The biopsies were prepared for histological and morphological analyses. Morphometric and histometric analyses have shown that the gingival tissues surrounding teeth were completely healed after a 4-week interval. However, it took from 4 to 12 weeks for the peri-implant mucosa to heal completely. The healing process around teeth and implants follows a similar sequence of events. Nevertheless, the complete process of healing and maturation of the peri-implant tissues takes longer than around teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Positron range in tissue-equivalent materials: experimental microPET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Sánchez, H.; Quintana-Bautista, C.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Ávila-Rodríguez, M. A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work an experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect that positron range has over positron emission tomography (PET) scans through measurements of the line spread function (LSF) in tissue-equivalent materials. Line-sources consisted of thin capillary tubes filled with 18F, 13N or 68Ga water-solution inserted along the axis of symmetry of cylindrical phantoms constructed with the tissue-equivalent materials: lung (inhale and exhale), adipose tissue, solid water, trabecular and cortical bone. PET scans were performed with a commercial small-animal PET scanner and image reconstruction was carried out with filtered-backprojection. Line-source distributions were analyzed using radial profiles taken on axial slices from which the spatial resolution was determined through the full-width at half-maximum, tenth-maximum, twentieth-maximum and fiftieth-maximum. A double-Gaussian model of the LSFs was used to fit experimental data which can be incorporated into iterative reconstruction methods. In addition, the maximum activity concentration in the line-sources was determined from reconstructed images and compared to the known values for each case. The experimental data indicates that positron range in different materials has a strong effect on both spatial resolution and activity concentration quantification in PET scans. Consequently, extra care should be taken when computing standard-uptake values in PET scans, in particular when the radiopharmaceutical is taken up by different tissues in the body, and more even so with high-energy positron emitters.

  11. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, G; Foltán, R; Burian, M; Horká, E; Adámek, S; Hejčl, A; Hanzelka, T; Sedý, J

    2011-08-01

    Piezosurgery is a promising meticulous system for bone cutting, based on ultrasound microvibrations. It is thought that the impact of piezosurgery on the integrity of soft tissue is generally low, but it has not been examined critically. The authors undertook an experimental study to evaluate the brain tissue response to skull bone removal using piezosurgery compared with a conventional drilling method. In Wistar male rats, a circular bone window was drilled to the parietal bone using piezosurgery on one side and a conventional bone drill on the other side. The behavioural performance of animals was evaluated using the motor BBB test and sensory plantar test. The brains of animals were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The results of MRI showed significantly increased depth and width of the brain lesion in the region of conventional drilling compared with the region where piezosurgery was used. Cresylviolet and NF 160 staining confirmed these findings. There was no significant difference in any of the behavioural tests between the two groups. In conclusion, piezosurgery is a safe method for the performance of osteotomy in close relation to soft tissue, including an extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as brain. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The irradiation action on human dental tissue by X-rays and electrons. A nanoindenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenzel, Wolfgang [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Gerlach, Reinhard [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy

    2009-07-01

    It is known that ionizing radiation is used in medicine for Roentgen diagnostics and for radiation therapy. The radiation interacts with matter, in particular with biological one, essentially by scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production. To what extent the biological material is changed thereby, depends on the type and the amount of radiation energy, on the dose and on the tissue constitution. In modern radiation therapy two different kinds of radiation are used: high energy X-rays and electron radiation. In the case of head-neck tumors the general practice is an irradiation with high energy X-rays with absorbed dose to water up to 70 Gy. Teeth destruction has been identified as a side effect during irradiation. In addition, damage to the salivary glands is often observed which leads to a decrease or even the complete loss of the salivary secretion (xerostomia). This study shows how the different energy and radiation types damage the tooth tissue. The effects of both, high X-ray energy and high energy electrons, on the mechanical properties hardness and elasticity of the human dental tissue are measured by the nanoindentation technique. We compare these results with the effect of the irradiation of low X-ray energy on the dental tissue. (orig.)

  13. The irradiation action on human dental tissue by X-rays and electrons. A nanoindenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Gerlach, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    It is known that ionizing radiation is used in medicine for Roentgen diagnostics and for radiation therapy. The radiation interacts with matter, in particular with biological one, essentially by scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton effect and pair production. To what extent the biological material is changed thereby, depends on the type and the amount of radiation energy, on the dose and on the tissue constitution. In modern radiation therapy two different kinds of radiation are used: high energy X-rays and electron radiation. In the case of head-neck tumors the general practice is an irradiation with high energy X-rays with absorbed dose to water up to 70 Gy. Teeth destruction has been identified as a side effect during irradiation. In addition, damage to the salivary glands is often observed which leads to a decrease or even the complete loss of the salivary secretion (xerostomia). This study shows how the different energy and radiation types damage the tooth tissue. The effects of both, high X-ray energy and high energy electrons, on the mechanical properties hardness and elasticity of the human dental tissue are measured by the nanoindentation technique. We compare these results with the effect of the irradiation of low X-ray energy on the dental tissue. (orig.)

  14. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R 2 =0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10 -15 mol/L, 1.429×10 -12 mol/L, 6.613×10 -14 mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10 4 , 2.89×10 3 and 9.76×10 4 . These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Alister J; Sandison, Ann; Quinn, Paul; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Sampson, Barry; Atkinson, Kirk D; Skinner, John A; Goode, Angela; Powell, Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  16. Microfocus study of metal distribution and speciation in tissue extracted from revised metal on metal hip implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Alister J [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Sandison, Ann [Department of Histopathology, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Quinn, Paul; Mosselmans, J Frederick W [Science Division, Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Sampson, Barry [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Imperial College and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital Campus, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Kirk D [8 Nuclear Department Defence Academy College of Management and Technology HMS Sultan Military Road Gosport PO12 3BY (United Kingdom); Skinner, John A [Department of Orthopaedics, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Goode, Angela [Dept of Materials, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Powell, Jonathan J, E-mail: Paul.Quinn@diamond.ac.u [Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research Centre, Cambridge CB1 9NL (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Unexplained tissue inflammation in metal-on-metal hip replacements is suspected to be caused by implant-derived nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the metal particles in tissue surrounding metal-on-metal (MOM) hips that has been extracted during revision. Mapping of tissue surrounding the failed MOM hips was performed using microfocus X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). This revealed mainly Cr which was localized to the cellular regions. There was co-localisation of Co, were present, to areas of high Cr abundance. XANES of the tissue and appropriate standards revealed that the most common species were Cr(III) and Co(II). EXAFS analysis of the tissue and various metal standards revealed that the most abundant implant-related species was Cr(III) phosphate. Different tissue preparation methods, including frozen sectioning, were examined but were found not to affect the distribution or speciation of the metals in the tissue.

  17. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  18. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  19. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  20. Rapidly dissociated autologous meniscus tissue enhances meniscus healing: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpaisal, Piya-On; Rothrauff, Benjamin B; Gottardi, Riccardo; Chien, Chung-Liang; Tuan, Rocky S

    Treatment of meniscus tears is a persistent challenge in orthopedics. Although cell therapies have shown promise in promoting fibrocartilage formation in in vitro and preclinical studies, clinical application has been limited by the paucity of autologous tissue and the need for ex vivo cell expansion. Rapid dissociation of the free edges of the anterior and posterior meniscus with subsequent implantation in a meniscus lesion may overcome these limitations. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of rapidly dissociated meniscus tissue in enhancing neotissue formation in a radial meniscus tear, as simulated in an in vitro explant model. All experiments in this study, performed at minimum with biological triplicates, utilized meniscal tissues from hind limbs of young cows. The effect of varying collagenase concentration (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% w/v) and treatment duration (overnight and 30 minutes) on meniscus cell viability, organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and gene expression was assessed through a cell metabolism assay, microscopic examination, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Thereafter, an explant model of a radial meniscus tear was used to evaluate the effect of a fibrin gel seeded with one of the following: (1) fibrin alone, (2) isolated and passaged (P2) meniscus cells, (3) overnight digested tissue, and (4) rapidly dissociated tissue. The quality of in vitro healing was determined through histological analysis and derivation of an adhesion index. Rapid dissociation in 0.2% collagenase yielded cells with higher levels of metabolism than either 0.1% or 0.5% collagenase. When seeded in a three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel, both overnight digested and rapidly dissociated cells expressed greater levels of collagens type I and II than P2 meniscal cells at 1 week. At 4 and 8 weeks, collagen type II expression remained elevated only in the rapid dissociation group. Histological

  1. Study of electron densities of normal and neoplastic human breast tissues by Compton scattering using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Electron densities of 33 samples of normal (adipose and fibroglangular) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) human breast tissues were determined through Compton scattering data using a monochromatic synchrotron radiation source and an energy dispersive detector. The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of the samples. Adipose tissue exhibits the lowest values of electron density whereas malignant tissue the highest. The relationship with their histology was discussed. Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron density of normal and neoplastic breast tissues was measured using Compton scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to obtain the Compton scattering data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area of Compton peaks was used to determine the electron densities of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose tissue shows the lowest electron density values whereas the malignant tissue the highest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with previous results showed differences smaller than 4%.

  2. Sarcoglycans in the normal and pathological breast tissue of humans: an immunohistochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Alba; Favaloro, Angelo; Gioffrè, Mara; Santoro, Giuseppe; Speciale, Francesco; Vermiglio, Giovanna; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The sarcoglycan complex, consisting of α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ε-sarcoglycans, is a multimember transmembrane system providing a mechanosignaling connection from the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Whereas the expression of α- and γ-sarcoglycan is restricted to striated muscle, other sarcoglycans are widely expressed. Although many studies have investigated sarcoglycans in all muscle types, insufficient data are available on the distribution of the sarcoglycan complex in nonmuscle tissue. On this basis, we used immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques to study preliminarily the sarcoglycans in normal glandular breast tissue (which has never been studied in the literature on these proteins) to verify the effective wider distribution of this complex. Moreover, to understand the role of sarcoglycans, we also tested samples obtained from patients affected by fibrocystic mastopathy and breast fibroadenoma. Our data showed, for the first time, that all sarcoglycans are always detectable in all normal samples both in epithelial and myoepithelial cells; in pathological breast tissue, all sarcoglycans appeared severely reduced. These data demonstrated that all sarcoglycans, not only β-, δ-, and ε-sarcoglycans, have a wider distribution, implying a new unknown role for these proteins. Moreover, in breast diseases, sarcoglycans containing cadherin domain homologs could provoke a loss of strong adhesion between epithelial cells, permitting and facilitating the degeneration of these benign breast tumors into malignant tumors. Consequently, sarcoglycans could play an important and intriguing role in many breast diseases and in particular in tumor progression from benign to malignant. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab and Radiotherapy for Resectable Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sam S.; Duda, Dan G.; Karl, Daniel L.; Kim, Tae-Min; Kambadakone, Avinash R.; Chen, Yen-Lin; Rothrock, Courtney; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Nielsen, G. Petur; Kirsch, David G.; Choy, Edwin; Harmon, David C.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan; Ancukiewicz, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that angiogenesis inhibitors can increase the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). We sought to examine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab (BV) and RT in soft tissue sarcomas and explore biomarkers to help determine the treatment response. Methods and Materials: Patients with ≥5 cm, intermediate- or high-grade soft tissue sarcomas at significant risk of local recurrence received neoadjuvant BV alone followed by BV plus RT before surgical resection. Correlative science studies included analysis of the serial blood and tumor samples and serial perfusion computed tomography scans. Results: The 20 patients had a median tumor size of 8.25 cm, with 13 extremity, 1 trunk, and 6 retroperitoneal/pelvis tumors. The neoadjuvant treatment was well tolerated, with only 4 patients having Grade 3 toxicities (hypertension, liver function test elevation). BV plus RT resulted in ≥80% pathologic necrosis in 9 (45%) of 20 tumors, more than double the historical rate seen with RT alone. Three patients had a complete pathologic response. The median microvessel density decreased 53% after BV alone (p <.05). After combination therapy, the median tumor cell proliferation decreased by 73%, apoptosis increased 10.4-fold, and the blood flow, blood volume, and permeability surface area decreased by 62–72% (p <.05). Analysis of gene expression microarrays of untreated tumors identified a 24-gene signature for treatment response. The microvessel density and circulating progenitor cells at baseline and the reduction in microvessel density and plasma soluble c-KIT with BV therapy also correlated with a good pathologic response (p <.05). After a median follow-up of 20 months, only 1 patient had developed local recurrence. Conclusions: The results from the present exploratory study indicated that BV increases the efficacy of RT against soft tissue sarcomas and might reduce the incidence of local recurrence. Thus, this regimen warrants

  4. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in bovine muscular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunner Susana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RTqPCR is a technique used to measure mRNA species copy number as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. However, the expression level of these key genes may vary among tissues or cells not only as a consequence of differential expression but also due to different factors, including choice of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of the target genes; thus the selection of reference genes is critical for expression studies. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in bovine muscular tissue. Results The value of stability of ten candidate reference genes included in three groups was estimated: the so called 'classical housekeeping' genes (18S, GAPDH and ACTB, a second set of genes used in expression studies conducted on other tissues (B2M, RPII, UBC and HMBS and a third set of novel genes (SF3A1, EEF1A2 and CASC3. Three different statistical algorithms were used to rank the genes by their stability measures as produced by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The three methods tend to agree on the most stably expressed genes and the least in muscular tissue. EEF1A2 and HMBS followed by SF3A1, ACTB, and CASC3 can be considered as stable reference genes, and B2M, RPII, UBC and GAPDH would not be appropriate. Although the rRNA-18S stability measure seems to be within the range of acceptance, its use is not recommended because its synthesis regulation is not representative of mRNA levels. Conclusion Based on geNorm algorithm, we propose the use of three genes SF3A1, EEF1A2 and HMBS as references for normalization of real-time RTqPCR in muscle expression studies.

  5. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  6. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  7. [Study of methods of decalcification for making united slices of tooth and affiliated periodontic tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mu, Ya-bing; Miao, Lei-ying; Sun, Hong-chen; Li, Cheng-ku

    2007-03-01

    To study the methods of decalcification for making united slices of tooth and affiliated periodontic tissues. Twenty-one samples containing dog molars and affiliated periodontic tissues were divided into seven mean groups. The pH value of solution, time of decalcification, weight and volume of samples, and content of decalcified calcium were detected. The slices were observed by HE, specific, and immunohistochemical stain. The velocity of decalcification increased with decrease of solution pH. The weight of samples lightened by 37.61%, the volume reduced by 25.97% on average, and calcium decalcified was 174.49 mg per gram humid samples. The EDTA decalcification was slowest, but it was best. Decalcification was fast in Plank-Rycho solution while the section was worst, and faster in the formyl solution containing aluminium chloride than in EDTA, and the section was better. The 50% formyl solution containing aluminium chloride is an ideal decalcifying solution.

  8. Wear measurement of dental tissues and materials in clinical studies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfman, C; Koenig, V; Mainjot, A K

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to systematically review the different methods used for wear measurement of dental tissues and materials in clinical studies, their relevance and reliability in terms of accuracy and precision, and the performance of the different steps of the workflow taken independently. An exhaustive search of clinical studies related to wear of dental tissues and materials reporting a quantitative measurement method was conducted. MedLine, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases were used. Prospective studies, pilot studies and case series (>10 patients), as long as they contained a description of wear measurement methodology. Only studies published after 1995 were considered. After duplicates' removal, 495 studies were identified, and 41 remained for quantitative analysis. Thirty-four described wear-measurement protocols, using digital profilometry and superimposition, whereas 7 used alternative protocols. A specific form was designed to analyze the risk of bias. The methods were described in terms of material analyzed; study design; device used for surface acquisition; matching software details and settings; type of analysis (vertical height-loss measurement vs volume loss measurement); type of area investigated (entire occlusal area or selective areas); and results. There is a need of standardization of clinical wear measurement. Current methods exhibit accuracy, which is not sufficient to monitor wear of restorative materials and tooth tissues. Their performance could be improved, notably limiting the use of replicas, using standardized calibration procedures and positive controls, optimizing the settings of scanners and matching softwares, and taking into account unusable data. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Larin, Kirill V; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young’s modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. (paper)

  10. Study of dosimetric effects due to metallic heterogeneity of tissue expanders in post-mastectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Rosa, Luiz A.R. da

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In each year approximately 20% of the new cases of cancer in women are breast cancers. Despite the increase in the use of breast-conserving treatment, some women still require mastectomy as their primary surgical management. A large part of these women, whom undergo a mastectomy, realize a breast reconstruction afterwards. The most common options for reconstruction include autogenous tissue techniques and tissue expansion followed by breast implant placement. Many trials have demonstrated a survival benefit associated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy mainly if the treatment starts right after the mastectomy. In such case patients whom were realizing the breast reconstruction using tissue expanders can be irradiated using this. These patients posses a material with high atomic number within the irradiated area, so this metallic port becomes an heterogeneity which can modify the calculated doses distribution for the treatment. The study was due through the quantification of the relative transmission of 6MV and 15MV radiotherapy beam, making use of computer simulations with Monte Carlo method implemented by the MCNPX code. The results show that the presence of this metallic heterogeneity changes the transmission of the beam, causing a reduction up to 13% in the geometric shadowed region. According to dosimetric protocols, which recommend that the reduction in the dose should be bellow of 5%, the difference found in the study could be significant. (author)

  11. Lewis x is highly expressed in normal tissues: a comparative immunohistochemical study and literature revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, María V; Isla-Larrain, Marina; Rabassa, Martín E; Demichelis, Sandra; Colussi, Andrea G; Crespo, Marina; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Segal-Eiras, Amada

    2007-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis was employed to determine the expression of carbohydrate antigens associated to mucins in normal epithelia. Tissue samples were obtained as biopsies from normal breast (18), colon (35) and oral cavity mucosa (8). The following carbohydrate epitopes were studied: sialyl-Lewis x, Lewis x, Lewis y, Tn hapten, sialyl-Tn and Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen. Mucins were also studied employing antibodies against MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC6 and also normal colonic glycolipid. Statistical analysis was performed and Kendall correlations were obtained. Lewis x showed an apical pattern mainly at plasma membrane, although cytoplasmic staining was also found in most samples. TF, Tn and sTn haptens were detected in few specimens, while sLewis x was found in oral mucosa and breast tissue. Also, normal breast expressed MUC1 at a high percentage, whereas MUC4 was observed in a small number of samples. Colon specimens mainly expressed MUC2 and MUC1, while most oral mucosa samples expressed MUC4 and MUC1. A positive correlation between MUC1VNTR and TF epitope (r=0.396) was found in breast samples, while in colon specimens MUC2 and colonic glycolipid versus Lewis x were statistically significantly correlated (r=0.28 and r=0.29, respectively). As a conclusion, a defined carbohydrate epitope expression is not exclusive of normal tissue or a determined localization, and it is possible to assume that different glycoproteins and glycolipids may be carriers of carbohydrate antigens depending on the tissue localization considered.

  12. Assessment of three types of spaceflight hardware for tissue culture studies: Comparison of skeletal tissue growth and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, B.J. [Space Medicine and Life Sciences Research Center Department of Anatomy Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. SW Atlanta, Georgia30310-1495 (United States); Spooner, B.S. [NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training Division of Biology Ackert Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas66506 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Three different types of spaceflight hardware, the BioProcessing Module (BPM), the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA), and the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA), were assessed for their ability to support pre-metatarsal growth and differentiation in experiments conducted on five space shuttle flights. BPM-cultured pre-metatarsal tissue showed no difference in flight and ground control lengths. Flight and ground controls cultured in the MDA grew 135 {mu}m and 141 {mu}m, respectively, in an 11 day experiment. Only five control rods and three flight rods mineralized. In another MDA experiment, pre-metatarsals were cultured at 4{degree}C (277K) or 20{degree}C (293K) for the 16 day mission, then cultured an additional 16 days in laboratory dishes at 37{degree}C (310K). The 20{degree}C (293K) cultures died post-flight. The 4{degree}C (277K) flight pre-metatarsals grew 417 {mu}m more than the 4{degree}C (277K) ground controls post-flight. In 5 and 6 day experiments done in FPAs, flight rods grew longer than ground control rods. In a 14 day experiment, ground control and flight rods also expanded in length, but there was no difference between them. The pre-metatarsals cultured in the FPAs did not mineralize, or terminally differentiate. These experiments demonstrate, that while supporting pre-metatarsal growth in length, the three types of hardware are not suitable to support routine differentiation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. A review of contributions of human tissue studies to biokinetics, bio-effects and dosimetry of plutonium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contributions made by human tissue studies to improved understanding of the biokinetics, dosimetry and potential bio-effects of plutonium in man. It includes consideration of tissue donations from both environmental and occupational populations, along with a brief history of human experience with plutonium and consideration of the bio-ethical aspects of post-mortem human tissue sampling. (authors)

  14. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic Studies on Broiler Chicken Tissue Suitable for the Development of Practical Phantoms in Multifrequency EIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essential for assessing the system performance in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Saline phantoms with insulator inhomogeneity fail to mimic the physiological structure of real body tissue in several aspects. Saline or any other salt solutions are purely resistive and hence studying multifrequency EIT systems cannot be assessed with saline phantoms because the response of the purely resistive materials do not change over frequency. Animal tissues show a variable response over a wide band of signal frequency due to their complex physiological and physiochemical structures and hence they can suitably be used as bathing medium and inhomogeneity in the phantoms of multifrequency EIT system. An efficient assessment of a multifrequency EIT system with real tissue phantom needs a prior knowledge of the impedance profile of the bathing medium as well as the inhomogeneity. In this direction Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS of broiler chicken muscle tissue paste and broiler chicken fat tissue is conducted from 10 Hz to 2 MHz using an impedance analyzer and their impedance profiles are thoroughly studied. Results show that the broiler chicken muscle tissue paste is less resistive than the fat tissue and hence it can be successfully used as the bathing medium of the phantoms for resistivity imaging in multifrequency EIT. Fat tissue is found more resistive than the muscle tissue which makes it more suitable for the inhomogeneity in phantoms of resistivity imaging study. doi:10.5617/jeb.174 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 48-63, 2011

  15. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  16. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  17. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  18. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  19. The experimental study of radiation injury on bile duct and liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guiwen; Wang Bin; Sun Yequan; Shao Xueye; Ning Houfa; Sui Shouguang; Wang Xiuchun; Bai Xuming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety, acceptance and the effective extent of 192 Ir-internal irradiation, providing theoretical guidelines for HC. Methods: Sixteen male healthy hybrid dogs enrolled in the experiment were divided into 4 groups of 4 each. The brachytherapy applicator was introduced from gall bladder into the convergence of cystic duct with common hepatic duct during the operation and a small chip of 1 cm 3 liver tissue was cut off and taken for control later on. The animals in group A-D were irradiated by 192 Ir-internal irradiation with 30 Gy, 40 Gy, 50 Gy arid 60 Gy at the correlative dose points respectively. Animals were put to death after 10 days subsequently, with sampling specimens obtained from radiation cystic duct and the in between liver tissue with the distant cystic duct. The radiation injury of the cystic duct and liver tissue near bile ducts were observed and studied by light microscope and transmission election microscope. Results: By the limit of the safest endurance dose(50 Gy) of Bile duct, unreversed injury of the nuclei of liver cells occurred at 0 to 15 mm from bile duct revealed by transmission electron microscope and light microscope. The whole biliary duct wall would be undergone necrosis with irradiation dose over 60 Gy. Conclusions: Normal bile duct possesses good endurance to 192 Ir-internal irradiation. Within the safest endurance limit of 50 Gy the effective irradiation field could reach 15 mm from the involved bile duct. (authors)

  20. Effective atomic numbers of some tissue substitutes by different methods: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic numbers of some human organ tissue substitutes such as polyethylene terephthalate, red articulation wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2, bolus, pitch, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyvinylchloride, and modeling clay have been calculated by four different methods like Auto-Z eff, direct, interpolation, and power law. It was found that the effective atomic numbers computed by Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were in good agreement for intermediate energy region (0.1 MeV < E < 5 MeV where the Compton interaction dominates. A large difference in effective atomic numbers by direct method and Auto-Z eff was observed in photo-electric and pair-production regions. Effective atomic numbers computed by power law were found to be close to direct method in photo-electric absorption region. The Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were found to be in good agreement for computation of effective atomic numbers in intermediate energy region (100 keV < E < 10 MeV. The direct method was found to be appropriate method for computation of effective atomic numbers in photo-electric region (10 keV < E < 100 keV. The tissue equivalence of the tissue substitutes is possible to represent by any method for computation of effective atomic number mentioned in the present study. An accurate estimation of Rayleigh scattering is required to eliminate effect of molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of the atom for estimation of gamma interaction parameters.

  1. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret; Loai, Yasir; Beaumont, Marine; Farhat, Walid A

    2010-08-01

    Bladder acellular matrices (ACMs) derived from natural tissue are gaining increasing attention for their role in tissue engineering and regeneration. Unlike conventional scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers or gels, ACMs possess native biomechanical and many acquired biologic properties. Efforts to optimize ACM-based scaffolds are ongoing and would be greatly assisted by a noninvasive means to characterize scaffold properties and monitor interaction with cells. MRI is well suited to this role, but research with MRI for scaffold characterization has been limited. This study presents initial results from quantitative MRI measurements for bladder ACM characterization and investigates the effects of incorporating hyaluronic acid, a natural biomaterial useful in tissue-engineering and regeneration. Measured MR relaxation times (T(1), T(2)) and diffusion coefficient were consistent with increased water uptake and glycosaminoglycan content observed on biochemistry in hyaluronic acid ACMs. Multicomponent MRI provided greater specificity, with diffusion data showing an acellular environment and T(2) components distinguishing the separate effects of increased glycosaminoglycans and hydration. These results suggest that quantitative MRI may provide useful information on matrix composition and structure, which is valuable in guiding further development using bladder ACMs for organ regeneration and in strategies involving the use of hyaluronic acid.

  2. MR muscle tractography study on VX2 soft-tissue tumor in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Guo Liang; Xie Daohai; Hu Chunhogn; Guo Maofeng; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Wang Renfa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and muscle fiber tracts of muscle disease are feasible. Methods: Twenty Newzealand white rabbits were implanted with 0.2 ml VX 2 tumor tissue suspension in the right proximal thighs. MRI and DTI were performed on these rabbits and DTI of muscle fiber tracts in the muscles around the lesions were reconstructed. The fractional anisotropy(FA) and volume ratio anisotropy(VrA) of the tumor and the normal muscle were analyzed. The correlation study between MRI and pathological findings was done. Results: All experimental animal models of rabbit VX 2 soft tissue tumors were successfully established. The difference of FA between the central parenchyma area and the necrosis area, the peripheral area of the tumor, the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was statistically significant (P 0.05). The difference of FA and VrA between the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The arrangement of normal muscle was regular on DTI of muscle tract. The muscle around the tumor lesions was infiltrated and destructed, which demonstrated irregular and interrupted muscle fiber on muscle tractography. Conclusion: DTI is advantageous to demonstrate the structure of soft tissue tumors and its border, which should be helpful in the structure and function research of muscle, as well as in the diagnosis of muscle diseases. (authors)

  3. Diabetes and necrotizing soft tissue infections-A prospective observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, A; Arnell, P; Madsen, M B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rare but carry a high morbidity and mortality. The multicenter INFECT project aims to improve the understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and prognosis of NSTIs. This article describes the study outline and...... with diabetes type 1 and 2 as well as between insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated diabetes patients will be made. Clinical data for diabetic patients with NSTI will be reported. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important data on patients with NSTI and diabetes....

  4. Study of non-thermal effects from laser radiation on live tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, M.A.

    1987-02-01

    The functional biological effects related to the irradiation of live tissues with low power lasers, called non-thermal effects were theoretical and experimentally studied. For the experimental part, a device which allows to: irradiation lesions artificially created on the back of rats by a He-Ne laser, or put a moving ground glass in front of the laser beam, by irradiation of this same laser with its coherence degree decreased. The relevance of the radiation coherence in the lesion cicatrization process was shown. The electrical field distribution and the intensity distribution on a surface with micro-roughness when irradiated by coherent light are theoretically studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. The formation of human auricular cartilage from microtic tissue: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mohamad Fikeri bin; See, Goh Bee; Hui, Chua Kien; Abdullah, Asma bt; Saim, Lokman bin; Saim, Aminuddin bin; Idrus, Ruszymah bt Haji

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate, culture-expand and characterize the chondrocytes isolated from microtic cartilage and evaluate its potential as a cell source for ear cartilage reconstruction. Specific attention was to construct the auricular cartilage tissue by using fibrin as scaffold. Cell culture experiment with the use of microtic chondrocytes. Cell culture experiment with the use of microtic chondrocytes. After ear reconstructive surgery at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, chondrocytes were isolated from microtic cartilage. Chondrocytes isolated from the tissue were cultured expanded until passage 4 (P4). Upon confluency at P4, chondrocytes were harvested and tissue engineered constructs were made with human plasma polymerized to fibrin. Constructs formed later is implanted at the dorsal part of nude mice for 8 weeks, followed by post-implantation evaluation with histology staining (Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Safranin O), immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for chondrogenic associated genes expression level. Under gross assessment, the construct after 8 weeks of implantation showed similar physical characteristics that of cartilage. Histological staining showed abundant lacunae cells embedded in extracellular matrix similar to that of native cartilage. Safranin O staining showed positive staining which indicates the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the strong positive staining for collagen type II, the specific collagen type in the cartilage. Gene expression quantification showed no significant differences in the expression of chondrogenic gene used which is collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan core protein (ACP), elastin and sox9 genes when compared to construct formed from normal auricular tissue. Chondrocytes isolated from microtia cartilage has the potential to be used as an alternative cell source for external ear reconstruction in future clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  6. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  7. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  8. A Study on Biocompatibility of Three Endodontic Sealers: Intensity and Duration of Tissue Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Gomes Moura, Camilla; Cristina Cunha, Thais; Oliveira Crema, Virgínia; Dechichi, Paula; Carlos Gabrielli Biffi, João

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have evaluated the inflammatory reaction triggered by Epiphany (EPH), a contemporary endodontic sealer. However, they used conventional parameters, which need additional analysis to better understand the reactions induced by this sealer compared to other traditional sealers. Methods and Materials: The intensity and time span of tissue irritations for three endodontic sealers were assessed by inflammatory reactions, fibrous capsule measurement and mast cell counts. Tubes containing freshly mixed EPH, AH plus (AHP) and Endofill (ENF) were subcutaneously implanted into the backs of 28 Wistar rats. The side wall of the tube was used as the control. At 14, 21, 42 and 60 days, the connective tissue surrounding the implants (n=7) was stained for histopathological analysis. The Friedman test was applied to compare the results. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: At days 14 and 21, a significant difference among the groups was observed, with the ENF showing the worst tissue response (P<0.001). ENF remained the most aggressive sealer at 42 and 60 days, compared with EPH (P<0.05). No differences were found for the fibrous capsule thicknesses among the groups in each period. The number of mast cells per field did not show difference among the sealers at 21 and 60 days. Conclusions: EPH and AHP elicited similar patterns of irritation, as demonstrated by the inflammatory scores and fibrous capsule thicknesses. ENF caused the highest degree of tissue damage. The increase in mast cell counts observed during the early and late periods shows the possibility of late hypersensitivity to the test materials. PMID:24688584

  9. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Lindner

    Full Text Available The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22 and pathological (n = 2 human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs' at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC and oxygen saturation (StO2. DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI. Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s, while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%, yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening.

  10. Four different diode lasers comparison on soft tissues surgery: a preliminary ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Michele; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Poli, Federica; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry had several advantages, principally consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibbers. Up today only the wavelengths around 810 and 980 nm were the most utilized in oral surgery but recently more different lasers had been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four diode laser wavelengths (810, 980, 1470 and 1950 nm) for the ablation of soft tissues. Material and methods: Specimens were surgically collected from the dorsal surface of four bovine tongues and irradiated by four different diode wavelengths. Thermal increase was measured by two thermocouples, the first at a depth of 0.5 mm, and the second at a depth of 2 mm. Initial and final surface temperatures were recorded by IR thermometer. Epithelial changes, connective tissue modifications, presence of vascular modification and incision morphology were histologically evaluated by two blind pathologists. Results: The time necessary to perform the excision varied between 271 seconds (808 nm, 2W) and 112 seconds (1950 nm, 4W). Temperature increase superficial level varied from 16.3° (980 nm, 4W) and 9.2° (1950 nm, 2 W). The most significant deep temperature increase was recorded by 980 nm, 4 W (17.3°) and the lowest by 1950 nm, 2 W (9.7°). The width of epithelial tissue injuries varied between 74 pm from 1950 nm diode laser at 2 W to 540 pm for 1470 nm diode laser at 4 W. Conclusion: The quality of incision was better and the width of overall tissue injuries was minor in the specimens obtained with higher wavelength (1950 nm) at lower power (2W). PMID:27721562

  11. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  12. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p 3 H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  13. Impact of anesthesia and euthanasia on metabolomics of mammalian tissues: studies in a C57BL/6J mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Overmyer

    Full Text Available A critical application of metabolomics is the evaluation of tissues, which are often the primary sites of metabolic dysregulation in disease. Laboratory rodents have been widely used for metabolomics studies involving tissues due to their facile handing, genetic manipulability and similarity to most aspects of human metabolism. However, the necessary step of administration of anesthesia in preparation for tissue sampling is not often given careful consideration, in spite of its potential for causing alterations in the metabolome. We examined, for the first time using untargeted and targeted metabolomics, the effect of several commonly used methods of anesthesia and euthanasia for collection of skeletal muscle, liver, heart, adipose and serum of C57BL/6J mice. The data revealed dramatic, tissue-specific impacts of tissue collection strategy. Among many differences observed, post-euthanasia samples showed elevated levels of glucose 6-phosphate and other glycolytic intermediates in skeletal muscle. In heart and liver, multiple nucleotide and purine degradation metabolites accumulated in tissues of euthanized compared to anesthetized animals. Adipose tissue was comparatively less affected by collection strategy, although accumulation of lactate and succinate in euthanized animals was observed in all tissues. Among methods of tissue collection performed pre-euthanasia, ketamine showed more variability compared to isoflurane and pentobarbital. Isoflurane induced elevated liver aspartate but allowed more rapid initiation of tissue collection. Based on these findings, we present a more optimal collection strategy mammalian tissues and recommend that rodent tissues intended for metabolomics studies be collected under anesthesia rather than post-euthanasia.

  14. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Hu Weixing; Zu Qingquan; Lu Shanshan; Xu Xiaoquan; Sun Lei; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm 3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm 3 , respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  15. Effect of antiseptic irrigation on infection rates of traumatic soft tissue wounds: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B; Neuenschwander, R; Brill, F; Wurmitzer, F; Wegner, C; Assadian, O; Kramer, A

    2017-03-02

    Acute traumatic wounds are contaminated with bacteria and therefore an infection risk. Antiseptic wound irrigation before surgical intervention is routinely performed for contaminated wounds. However, a broad variety of different irrigation solutions are in use. The aim of this retrospective, non-randomised, controlled longitudinal cohort study was to assess the preventive effect of four different irrigation solutions before surgical treatment, on wound infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. Over a period of three decades, the prophylactic application of wound irrigation was studied in patients with contaminated traumatic wounds requiring surgical treatment, with or without primary wound closure. The main outcome measure was development of wound infection. From 1974-1983, either 0.04 % polihexanide (PHMB), 1 % povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 4 % hydrogen peroxide, or undiluted Ringer's solution were concurrently in use. From 1984-1996, only 0.04 % PHMB or 1 % PVP-I were applied. From 1997, 0.04 % PHMB was used until the end of the study period in 2005. The combined rate for superficial and deep wound infection was 1.7 % in the 0.04 % PHMB group (n=3264), 4.8 % in the 1 % PVP-I group (n=2552), 5.9 % in the Ringer's group (n=645), and 11.7 % in the 4 % hydrogen peroxide group (n=643). Compared with all other treatment arms, PHMB showed the highest efficacy in preventing infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds (p<0.001). However, compared with PVP-I, the difference was only significant for superficial infections. The large patient numbers in this study demonstrated a robust superiority of 0.04 % PHMB to prevent infection in traumatic soft tissue wounds. These retrospective results may further provide important information as the basis for power calculations for the urgently needed prospective clinical trials in the evolving field of wound antisepsis.

  16. Temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of cardiac tissue: an in vitro study of the impact of electrode orientation, electrode tissue contact pressure and external convective cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A

    1999-01-01

    A variety of basic factors such as electrode tip pressure, flow around the electrode and electrode orientation influence lesion size during radiofrequency ablation, but importantly is dependent on the chosen mode of ablation. However, only little information is available for the frequently used...... temperature-controlled mode. The purpose of the present experimental study was to evaluate the impact during temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation of three basic factors regarding electrode-tissue contact and convective cooling on lesion size....

  17. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  18. Enhancing tissue integration and angiogenesis of a novel nanocomposite polymer using plasma surface polymerisation, an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle F; Palgrave, Robert G; Seifalian, Alexander M; Butler, Peter E; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2016-01-01

    Current surgical reconstruction of facial defects including nose or ear involves harvesting patient's own autologous tissue, causing donor site morbidity and is limited by tissue availability. The use of alternative synthetic materials is also limited due to complications related to poor tissue integration and angiogenesis, which lead to extrusion of implants and infection. We intend to meet this clinical challenge by using a novel nanocomposite called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU), which has already been successfully taken to the clinical bench-side as a replacement for trachea, tear duct and vascular by-pass graft. In this study, we aimed to enhance tissue integration and angiogenesis of POSS-PCU using an established surface treatment technique, plasma surface polymerisation (PSP), functionalising the surface using NH2 and COOH chemical groups. Physical characterisation of scaffolds was achieved by using a number of techniques, including water contact angle, SEM, AFM and XPS to study the effects of PSM modification on the POSS-PCU nanocomposite in detail, which has not been previously documented. Wettability evaluation confirmed that scaffolds become hydrophilic and AFM analysis confirmed that nano topographical alterations resulted as a consequence of PSP treatment. Chemical functionalisation was confirmed using XPS, which suggested the presence of NH2 and COOH functional groups on the scaffolds. The modified scaffolds were then tested both in vitro and in vivo to investigate the potential of PSP modified POSS-PCU scaffolds on tissue integration and angiogenesis. In vitro analysis confirmed that PSM modification resulted in higher cellular growth, proliferation and ECM production as assessed by biochemical assays and immunofluorescence. Subcutaneous implantation of modified POSS-PCU scaffolds was then carried out over 12-weeks, resulting in enhanced tissue integration and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). This study

  19. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  20. Tissue Engineering of the Urethra: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegden, L.R.; Jonge, P. de; Hout, J. in't; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Oosterwijk, E.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Vries, R.B.M. de; Daamen, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Urethra repair by tissue engineering has been extensively studied in laboratory animals and patients, but is not routinely used in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy of tissue engineering for urethra repair in order

  1. Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gantz, Madeleine; Chen, Jun; Punyanitya, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Grunfeld, Carl

    2012-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD. In the present study we investigated the relationship between pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT with hip and lumbar spine BMD in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) sample with adjustment for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured VAT, SAT, and skeletal muscle. T1-weighted MRI was acquired for 210 healthy African-American and Caucasian men and women (age 38-52 yr). Hip and lumbar spine BMD were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pelvic, hip, and lumbar spine BMAT had negative correlations with hip and lumbar spine BMD (r = -0.399 to -0.550, P BMAT and BMD remained strong after adjusting for demographics, weight, skeletal muscle, SAT, VAT, total adipose tissue (TAT), menopausal status, lifestyle factors, and inflammatory markers (standardized regression coefficients = -0. 296 to -0.549, P BMAT (standardized regression coefficients = 0.268-0.614, P BMAT and hip and lumbar spine BMD independent of demographics and body composition. These observations support the growing evidence linking BMAT with low bone density.

  2. Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eunhee S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal immune responses are believed to be highly relevant in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Dendritic cells provide a critical checkpoint for immunity by their capacity to both induce and suppress immunity. Although evident that cigarette smoke, the primary cause of COPD, significantly influences dendritic cell functions, little is known about the roles of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of COPD. Methods The extent of dendritic cell infiltration in COPD tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemical localization of CD83+ cells (marker of matured myeloid dendritic cells, and CD1a+ cells (Langerhans cells. The extent of tissue infiltration with Langerhans cells was also determined by the relative expression of the CD207 gene in COPD versus control tissues. To determine mechanisms by which dendritic cells accumulate in COPD, complimentary studies were conducted using monocyte-derived human dendritic cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE, and dendritic cells extracted from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Results In human COPD lung tissue, we detected a significant increase in the total number of CD83+ cells, and significantly higher amounts of CD207 mRNA when compared with control tissue. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to CSE (0.1-2% exhibited enhanced survival in vitro when compared with control dendritic cells. Murine dendritic cells extracted from mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks, also demonstrated enhanced survival compared to dendritic cells extracted from control mice. Acute exposure of human dendritic cells to CSE induced the cellular pro-survival proteins heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and B cell lymphoma leukemia-x(L (Bcl-xL, predominantly through oxidative stress. Although activated human dendritic cells conditioned with CSE expressed diminished migratory CCR7 expression, their migration towards the CCR7 ligand CCL21 was not

  3. Utility of bone scintigraphy in the study of hereditary disorders of the connective tissues (HDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, J.F; Arteaga M P; Coelho, L

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Collagen fiber genetic alterations predispose to pain and instability of joints, with a tendency to osteoarthritis, and may also cause fragility of other tissues. Objective: To demonstrate that Bone Scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissues (HDCT). Material and methods: We studied the scintigraphic changes of wrists, carpal bones and hands of 22 adult patients with HDCT who were diagnosed clinically using both the Brighton Criteria(1), as well as own criteria**. We compared them to 22 controls with similar age and sex, who had a bone scintigram done for other purposes. Results: Statistically significant scintigraphic positivity was found in the areas studied in the patients as compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05), with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 73%. There was no correlation of the degree of positivity with age, sex or type of HDCT studied. A scintigraphic positivity was seen both in patients with lax joints, as well as in those with a lesser degree of joint mobility. Conclusions: We concluded that bone scintigraphic studies are useful in the diagnosis of adult HDCT patients (including Benign Joint Hyper mobility Syndrome (BJHS) and other forms of Ehlers-Danlos). We suggest that not only hypermobility of joints, but also cartilage fragility are important pathogenic factors in the genesis of these alterations. We formulate a new hypothesis of the importance of low folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a cause for mutations that would give rise to HDCT (Au)

  4. Utility of bone scintigraphy in the study of hereditary disorders of the connective tissues (HDCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, J F; P, Arteaga M; Coelho, L [Departments of Rheumatology and Nuclear Medicine. Clinica Arauco. Santiago (Chile)

    2003-10-01

    Introduction: Collagen fiber genetic alterations predispose to pain and instability of joints, with a tendency to osteoarthritis, and may also cause fragility of other tissues. Objective: To demonstrate that Bone Scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissues (HDCT). Material and methods: We studied the scintigraphic changes of wrists, carpal bones and hands of 22 adult patients with HDCT who were diagnosed clinically using both the Brighton Criteria(1), as well as own criteria**. We compared them to 22 controls with similar age and sex, who had a bone scintigram done for other purposes. Results: Statistically significant scintigraphic positivity was found in the areas studied in the patients as compared to controls (p {<=} 0.05), with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 73%. There was no correlation of the degree of positivity with age, sex or type of HDCT studied. A scintigraphic positivity was seen both in patients with lax joints, as well as in those with a lesser degree of joint mobility. Conclusions: We concluded that bone scintigraphic studies are useful in the diagnosis of adult HDCT patients (including Benign Joint Hyper mobility Syndrome (BJHS) and other forms of Ehlers-Danlos). We suggest that not only hypermobility of joints, but also cartilage fragility are important pathogenic factors in the genesis of these alterations. We formulate a new hypothesis of the importance of low folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a cause for mutations that would give rise to HDCT (Au)

  5. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal alveolar volume deficiencies in single implants.

  6. Exercise and Cardiac Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Gowsini; Sogaard, Peter; Nielsen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    diastolic (e') and late diastolic (a') velocities were measured by color TDI. Longitudinal displacement (LD) was calculated from the velocity curve during ejection. Statistical tests were performed by linear univariate and multivariable regression analyses, in relation to age groups (lt;50years, 50-65 years......Introduction: TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction and mortality in heart disease and in the general population. Regular physical activity is associated with risk reduction in coronary heart disease and mortality. There is a need for studies to clarify...

  7. Exercise and Cardiac Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Gowsini; Sogaard, Peter; Nielsen, Gitte

    diastolic (e') and late diastolic (a') velocities were measured by color TDI. Longitudinal displacement (LD) was calculated from the velocity curve during ejection. Statistical tests were performed by linear univariate and multivariable regression analyses, in relation to age groups (lt;50years, 50-65 years......Introduction: TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction and mortality in heart disease and in the general population. Regular physical activity is associated with risk reduction in coronary heart disease and mortality. There is a need for studies to clarify...

  8. A comparative study of recombinant and native frutalin binding to human prostate tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Lucília

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies indicate that cancer cells present an aberrant glycosylation pattern that can be detected by lectin histochemistry. Lectins have shown the ability to recognise these modifications in several carcinomas, namely in the prostate carcinoma, one of the most lethal diseases in man. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate if the α-D-galactose-binding plant lectin frutalin is able to detect such changes in the referred carcinoma. Frutalin was obtained from different sources namely, its natural source (plant origin and a recombinant source (Pichia expression system. Finally, the results obtained with the two lectins were compared and their potential use as prostate tumour biomarkers was discussed. Results The binding of recombinant and native frutalin to specific glycoconjugates expressed in human prostate tissues was assessed by using an immuhistochemical technique. A total of 20 cases of prostate carcinoma and 25 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia were studied. Lectins bound directly to the tissues and anti-frutalin polyclonal antibody was used as the bridge to react with the complex biotinilated anti-rabbit IgG plus streptavidin-conjugated peroxidase. DAB was used as visual indicator to specifically localise the binding of the lectins to the tissues. Both lectins bound to the cells cytoplasm of the prostate carcinoma glands. The binding intensity of native frutalin was stronger in the neoplasic cells than in hyperplasic cells; however no significant statistical correlation could be found (P = 0.051. On the other hand, recombinant frutalin bound exclusively to the neoplasic cells and a significant positive statistical correlation was obtained (P Conclusion Native and recombinant frutalin yielded different binding responses in the prostate tissues due to their differences in carbohydrate-binding affinities. Also, this study shows that both lectins may be used as histochemical biomarkers for the prostate

  9. Soft Tissue Behavior During Limb Lengthening: An Experimental Study in Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Albarova, J. (Jorge); Melgosa, M. (Margarita); Gil-Albarova, Ó. (Óscar); Cañadell, J.M. (J. M.)

    1997-01-01

    The effect of femoral elongation on skeletal muscle, nerves, and vessels was studied. Three groups of five lambs were used. After the intervention, the animals were killed at 2, 3, and 4 months. A left femoral elongation of 6 cm was practiced on all of them by means of callotasis, with a distraction rate of 0.5 mm every 12 hours. The femoral elongation process was evaluated by monthly x-ray films. The nucleic acid and protein levels in the muscular tissue were quantified at the level of the e...

  10. Reference tissue modeling with parameter coupling: application to a study of SERT binding in HIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Christopher J; Pomper, Martin G [Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A, E-mail: endres@jhmi.edu [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health/Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-04-21

    When applicable, it is generally preferred to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) studies using a reference tissue-based approach as that avoids the need for invasive arterial blood sampling. However, most reference tissue methods have been shown to have a bias that is dependent on the level of tracer binding, and the variability of parameter estimates may be substantially affected by noise level. In a study of serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in HIV dementia, it was determined that applying parameter coupling to the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) reduced the variability of parameter estimates and yielded the strongest between-group significant differences in SERT binding. The use of parameter coupling makes the application of SRTM more consistent with conventional blood input models and reduces the total number of fitted parameters, thus should yield more robust parameter estimates. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of the application of parameter constraint and parameter coupling to [{sup 11}C]DASB PET studies. Five quantitative methods, including three methods that constrain the reference tissue clearance (k{sup r}{sub 2}) to a common value across regions were applied to the clinical and simulated data to compare measurement of the tracer binding potential (BP{sub ND}). Compared with standard SRTM, either coupling of k{sup r}{sub 2} across regions or constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate improved the sensitivity of SRTM to measuring a significant difference in BP{sub ND} between patients and controls. Parameter coupling was particularly effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates, which was less than 50% of the variance obtained with standard SRTM. A linear approach was also improved when constraining k{sup r}{sub 2} to a first-pass estimate, although the SRTM-based methods yielded stronger significant differences when applied to the clinical study. This work shows that parameter coupling reduces the

  11. Determination of 6258-70, a new semi-synthetic taxane, in rat plasma and tissues: Application to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study

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    Simin Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of death all over the world. Among the chemotherapy drugs, taxanes play an important role in cancer treatment. 6258-70 is a new semi-synthetic taxane which has a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. A fast and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for quantification of 6258-70 in rat plasma and tissues in this paper. After extraction by liquid-liquid extraction method with methyl tert-butyl ether, the samples were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm, 2.6 µm, Phenomenex, USA within 3 min. The method was fully validated with the matrix effect between 87.7% and 99.5% and the recovery ranging from 80.3% to 90.1%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 9.5% and the accuracy ranged from −3.8% to 6.5%. The reliable method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution studies of 6258-70 after intravenous administration in rats. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the pharmacokinetic behavior of 6258-70 in rats was in accordance with linear features within tested dosage of 1 to 4 mg/kg, and there was no significant difference between the two genders. The tissue distribution study showed that 6258-70 had an effective penetration, spread widely and rapidly and could cross blood-brain barrier. The results of pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution may provide a guide for future study.

  12. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  13. Mouse pancreas tissue slice culture facilitates long-term studies of exocrine and endocrine cell physiology in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marciniak

    Full Text Available Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ.

  14. Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Andy L; Marsal, Elia; Planell, Josep A; Lacroix, Damien

    2009-10-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

  15. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  16. Fibrinogen Demonstration in Oral Lichen Planus: An Immunofluorescence Study on Archival Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirol, Pallavi D; Naik, Veena; Kale, Alka

    2015-10-01

    Lichen planus is a premalignant condition with minimal diagnostic aids. This study is an attempt to use paraffin embedded sections of lichen planus with immunofluorescein stain and to evaluate the immunofluorescent sections to establish pattern of fibrinogen deposition. Thirty-five paraffin embedded sections of old and new cases of oral lichen planus (study group) and five normal oral mucosa (control group) were chosen. Two sections of each (H & E) case were taken, one was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and another with fluorescein isothiocynate conjugate (FITC) polyclonal rabbit antibody against fibrinogen. Fluorescent findings were examined with a fluorescent microscope. A high statistical significant correlation was found in respect to fluorescence positivity, intensity of fluorescence and distribution of fluorescence each with p < 0.0001 and fluorescence at blood vessel walls (p = 0.0003). This study suggested that paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining in routine set up where only formalin fixed tissues are received. Paraffin embedded sections can be successfully used in direct immunofluorescence staining when only formalin fixed tissues are received.

  17. YAP expression in normal and neoplastic breast tissue: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; López-Márquez, Francisco C; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional factor involved in normal cell proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis; however, its contribution to breast cancer (BC) is still controversial. We undertook this study to compare the expression of YAP by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in normal breast tissue of women without breast cancer (BC) (controls), non-neoplastic breast tissue in women with cancer (internal controls) and in four different subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma. There were 17 controls and 105 tumor cases (53 luminal A, 15 luminal B, 20 overexpression of HER2 and 17 triple negative cases) studied by IHC. Statistical analysis included χ(2) for linear trend (Extended Mantel-Haenszel). There were 40% of internal controls that showed expression of YAP in myoepithelial cells, whereas in controls expression was 100%. In controls, 3/17 (17.6%) showed cytoplasmic staining in luminal cells. There was a significant difference in nuclear expression between the ductal BC subtypes. Luminal A had 4% of positive cases with <10% of cells affected in each case; in contrast, there were 17-20% of positive cases in the other groups with 50% or more of stained cells. YAP expression in stromal cells was not observed in controls or in triple-negative cases, and luminal B pattern had the highest YAP nuclear expression (20%). YAP showed decreased expression in tumor cells compared with normal breast tissue. These findings are consistent with a role of YAP as a suppressor gene in BC and show differences in YAP expression in different patterns of ductal BC. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1989-01-01

    Till now, there is no consensus about appropriate contrast agents for use in clinical investigation in suspected perforation of the esophagus. Gastrografin, most widely used water soluble contrast agent, is less sensitive in detection of fistulous tract and can induce pulmonary edema, leading to death occasionally, if aspirated. Barium sulphate has been contraindicated without actual evaluation of its effect on mediastinum by experimental and clinical study. The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate the type of tissue reaction and its severity in mediastinum and, as a result, to propose appropriate contrast agents in various clinical situations of suspected esophageal leakage. Barium sulphate, Hytrat, Gastrografin, Telebrix, Hexabrix, Amipaque, Niopam, and Ultravist were injected into mediastinum of 20 rats in each. The tissue reaction of injection sites were examined microscopically and graded according severity of inflammatory reaction with serial follow up from 1 day to 8 weeks after injection. The results are as follows, 1. Barium sulphate and Hytrast produced highly significant (p<0.01) tissue reaction compared to saline group and early inflammatory reaction was more severe in Hytrast. 2. Water soluble agents produced no significant reaction in mediastinum compared to saline control group and proved to be safe in the situation of leakage into mediastinum. 3. Injected barium caused no death during 8 week follow up in spite of large injected amount and histologically produced localized indolent granuloma after 4 weeks which is expected not to cause any delayed complications. In consideration of above results, superior physical characteristics of barium sulphate and drawbacks of Gastrografin, we concluded as follows. 1. For postoperative assessment of esophageal anastomosis, Barium sulphate is the contrast agent of choice

  19. Is human blood a good surrogate for brain tissue in transcriptional studies?

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    van den Berg Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since human brain tissue is often unavailable for transcriptional profiling studies, blood expression data is frequently used as a substitute. The underlying hypothesis in such studies is that genes expressed in brain tissue leave a transcriptional footprint in blood. We tested this hypothesis by relating three human brain expression data sets (from cortex, cerebellum and caudate nucleus to two large human blood expression data sets (comprised of 1463 individuals. Results We found mean expression levels were weakly correlated between the brain and blood data (r range: [0.24,0.32]. Further, we tested whether co-expression relationships were preserved between the three brain regions and blood. Only a handful of brain co-expression modules showed strong evidence of preservation and these modules could be combined into a single large blood module. We also identified highly connected intramodular "hub" genes inside preserved modules. These preserved intramodular hub genes had the following properties: first, their expression levels tended to be significantly more heritable than those from non-preserved intramodular hub genes (p -90; second, they had highly significant positive correlations with the following cluster of differentiation genes: CD58, CD47, CD48, CD53 and CD164; third, a significant number of them were known to be involved in infection mechanisms, post-transcriptional and post-translational modification and other basic processes. Conclusions Overall, we find transcriptome organization is poorly preserved between brain and blood. However, the subset of preserved co-expression relationships characterized here may aid future efforts to identify blood biomarkers for neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases when brain tissue samples are unavailable.

  20. A STUDY OF MUCOCUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS IN AUTOIMMUNE CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jethwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Our aim was to study the clinical and immunological profile of patients with newly detected connective tissue disease presented to a tertiary care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved 51 patients with newly-detected Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE (fulfilling the revise SLICC criteria for SLE and Systemic Sclerosis (SS, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD, etc. attending Sir. T. Hospital, Bhavnagar, between January 2013 and December 2016. All patients were assessed for clinical features and immunological profile. RESULTS Out of the 51 patients, 30 having SLE, 10 having SS, 9 with MCTD, 1 with dermatomyositis and 1 with Rowell’s syndrome. Among them, 47 were females and 4 were males. The mean age at presentation was between 15-25 years. The LE-specific skin lesions were noted as malar rash in 25 patients (83%, subacute and acute lupus rashes (80% and discoid rash (13%. Among LE-nonspecific lesions, non-scarring alopecia was most common followed by oral ulcers, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint pain, scarring alopecia, erythema multiforme, livedo reticularis, vasculitic lesions, urticaria and calcinosis cutis were seen. In MCTD, muscle weakness was common finding. In systemic sclerosis, hide-bound skin and decreases mouth opening were seen in all cases and Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint pain, hair loss, calcinosis cutis and respiratory system involvement were other features. Serum ANA was positive in 76% while negative in 3.8% of individuals. The most common pattern observed in ANA profile was speckled (56% followed by homogenous (32% and nucleolar (28%. CONCLUSION There is diversity in clinical presentation of autoimmune connective tissue disease with regards to their genetic and environmental backgrounds. Cutaneous features are utmost important having diagnostic and prognostic value as well.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza Atomic Center, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Rio Negro (Argentina); Nievas, S.I. [Department of Chemistry, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  2. A study about trace element distribution in cancer tissue and serum of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Eun Joo; Jung, Young Joo

    1993-01-01

    Authers analyzed the trace element distribution of cancer tissue and its corresponding normal tissue and serum of preoperative and postoperative stage in gastric, colon, breast cancer patients. Zinc and rubidium were higher in concentration in breast cancer tissue than in normal tissue. As for the distribution of trace element in serum, bromine became about 10 times higher after gastric resection. This result can be applied to experimental carcinogenesis and to relationship with other prognostic factors. (Author)

  3. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  4. Tissue sources of serum alkaline phosphatase in 34 hyperthyroid cats: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D J; Thoday, K L

    2000-02-01

    The concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in hyperthyroid cats. Agarose gel electrophoresis, in tris -barbital-sodium barbital buffer, with and without the separation enhancer neuraminidase, was used to investigate the sources of the constituent isoenzymes of SALP in serum samples from 34 hyperthyroid cats, comparing them to sera from five healthy cats and to tissue homogenates from liver, kidney, bone and duodenum. Contrary to previous reports, treatment of serum with neuraminidase made differentiation of the various isoenzymes more difficult to achieve. A single band corresponding to the liver isoenzyme (LALP) was found in 100 per cent of healthy cats. Eighty-eight per cent of the hyperthyroid cats showed two bands, corresponding to the liver and bone (BALP) isoenzymes while 12 per cent showed a LALP band alone. In hyperthyroid cats, there was a significant correlation between the serum L-thyroxine concentrations and the SALP concentrations. These findings suggest pathological changes in both bone and liver in most cases of feline thyrotoxicosis. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers LtdCopyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair

  6. Accuracy of identification of tissue types in endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies used for molecular biology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plauto Beck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Plauto Beck1, George C Mayne1, David Astill2, Tanya Irvine1, David I Watson1, Willem A Dijckmeester1, Bas PL Wijnhoven1, Damian J Hussey11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, Flinders University, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, AustraliaObjectives: To determine if histopathologic assessment of esophageal biopsies harvested for research study is justified due to the heterogeneity of tissues in the esophagus, and the consequent histopathologic mis-matches with the clinical histopathology of biopsies taken at the same level.Methods: Since 2004, patients undergoing upper endoscopy for a variety of clinical conditions were invited to provide additional esophageal biopsies; those were collected for research purpose at the same level as biopsies collected for clinical histopathology. Research biopsies were cut in two parts: one part was submitted to research histopathology and the other stored for molecular analysis. Results of clinical histopathology for each patient were summarized per biopsy level and compared to results obtained from research biopsies at the corresponding level.Results: A total of 377 level summaries were obtained from 137 patients. Clinical histopathology summaries classified 123 levels (32.6% as squamous epithelium, 84 levels (22.3% as metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, 135 levels (35.8% as columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia, 30 levels (8% as dysplasia, and 5 levels (1.3% as adenocarcinoma. Research histopathology matched to clinical summaries on 120 of 123 (97.5% levels for squamous epithelium, 52 of 84 (61.9% for metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium, and 94 of 135 (69.5% for columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. There were no matches for dysplasia between the groups; however, they agreed on all five cases of AC. On 59 (70.2% metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium levels and on 62 (46% columnar-lined epithelium with intestinal metaplasia levels

  7. Evaluation of dose components for healthy tissue tolerance studies on dogs at the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, P.; Moss, R.L.; Siefert, A.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P.; Konijnenberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    Before the start of clinical trails of BNCT on glioma patients at the Petten reactor, certain preconditions must be determined. In particular the tolerance of healthy brain tissue exposed to the epithermal neutron beam requires investigation. In these studies, beagle dogs have been subjected to different levels of irradiation and 10 B, the latter in the form of BSH. To support this work a treatment planning tool is being developed to predict the various dose components within the treatment volume. A Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used to simulate the particle transport and to predict the different dose rate distributions. The doses rates generated by MCNP are manipulated with a processing code, TREAT, to give irradiation times, peak dose positions and to display the required data in a graphical format. This paper explains the basic methodology used in the system and a practical case is presented for one of the healthy tissue tolerance dogs. Doses, both physical and RBE weighted, have been produced for pre-treatment planning studies

  8. Studies on salt and drought tolerance of lavender using tissue culture and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essam, K.E.; El-Sharnoby, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the propagation and chemical composition of Lavandula spica using different cytokinins (BA, Ki and 2ip) on MS medium,, besides medium strength. Also, GA3 concentrations, auxin types, gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Krad), different concentrations of mannitol (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/l) as well as different salinity concentrations of CaCl 2 or NaCl or both at levels 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm were used in the study. Maximum proliferation parameter was produced on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BA than other cytokinin types. Growing the explant of Lavandula. spica on MS medium, containing 3 mg/l BA, gave the highest proliferation, growth and greening parameters. However, using MS medium at half strength supplemented with 3 mg/l BA resulted in significant increase in both shoot elongation and greening parameters as compared with the other medium strengths, while 4 mg/l GA induced the best shoot elongation. Adding 1 mg/l IBA enhanced rooting and also the obtained results showed that increasing gamma irradiation decreased growth and proliferation parameters. Moreover, increasing drought stress induced an adverse effect on tissue culture parameter while some chemical analysis parameters were increased to maximum degree of their tolerance to drought stress. Also, using different salinity treatment by NaCl, CaCl 2 and their combinations showed adverse effects on tissue culture parameters chemical composition

  9. A comparative study of the 90Sr/Ca ratio in human diet and bone tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Madelmont, C.

    1969-01-01

    A comparative study of both the evolution of strontium-90 content in the bones of individuals of different ages for the period 1962-1967 as related to calcium, and the corresponding diets allowed to establish the relationship between food contribution and the resulting bone burden. The study is mainly devoted to the group of adults for which a mathematical expression is proposed which allows for the exchangeable form of a skeletal calcium fraction turned over in less than a year from the dietary calcium, and the stabilized form constituting the larger part of bone tissue characterized by a slow turnover. Both the amount of the exchangeable fraction and the turnover rate of the stabilized fraction are determined for vertebrae and ribs. At birth, bone levels indicate that the calcium used for skeleton modelling during foetal life originates from both maternal diet and bone tissue and a value is given, to their relative significance. There appears a good relationship between bone levels in infants from 6 months to 1 year of age and their diets. The physiological parameters particular to this age are quantified. (authors [fr

  10. Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slice Culture Facilitates Long-Term Studies of Exocrine and Endocrine Cell Physiology in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To ove...

  11. The study regarding effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in kidney tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasnezhad1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 14 July, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Paraoxon is the active form of parathion, which is an organophosphate pesticide (OP. The toxic effects of some OPs are not limited to inhibition of cholinesterase, they are capable to produce free radicals and induce disturbance in body antioxidant systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of paraoxon on oxidative stress index in the kidney of rat.Materials and methods: Wistar male rats were randomly divided in four groups including: control (corn oil as paraoxon solvent and three paraoxon groups receiving different doses (0.3, 0.7 and 1mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. 24 hours after injection, animal was given anesthesia and kidney tissue removed. After kidney tissue hemogenation, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and glutathione S- transferase (GST activities, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined by biochemical methods.Results: At doses higher than 0.3 mg/kg paraoxon, kidney SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased, comparing with the control, while GSH level was significantly decreased. There were no significant changes observed in GST, LDH activities and MDA levels.Conclusion: The results suggest that paraoxon induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney of rats probably was a function of the increased detoxification capacity. Depletion of tissue GSH is a prime factor, which can impair the cell’s defense against the toxic actions of free radicals.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 17-26 (Persian.

  12. Cellular and molecular screening of connective tissue dysplasia in adolescent athletes (pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Dvornichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the cellular and molecular parameters of bone remodeling in the blood as potential markers of undifferentiated forms of connective tissue dysplasiaMaterials and methods. The structural and functional status of cellular elements of in vitro culturing of mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood in adolescent athletes connected with phenotypic manifestations of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UCTD were investigated. 25 pupils of sport schools from 10–14 years old (main disciplines: figure skating, gymnastics, athletics were examined with the help of express analysis. The average age of the examined adolescents was (12,0 ± 1,7 years. Clinical examination of adolescents allowed ranking the UCTD signs on a scale of 4–11,5 points.Results. A comparison of questionnaire survey results and an evaluation of bone remodeling distant markers allowed the revelation of 2 groups in the distribution of adolescent athletes: those with minimal signs of UCTD (scores lesser than 7 points – 10 pupils, and those with expressed UCTD phenotype (scores are equal or more than 7 points –15 pupils. Significant statistical decrease in the content of collagen type I degradation products (CrossLaps (by 80% and ionized calcium (by 5% has been determined in the peripheral blood of adolescent athletes with expressed UCTD phenotype. In conditions of short-term 72-h cultivation of mononuclear leukocytes in the presence of a 3D matrix imitating the properties of the mineral substance of the regenerating bone tissue, morphofunctional features of cellular reaction in adolescent athletes with clinical manifestations of UCTD, as well the heterogeneity of the cell population associated with the appearance of cells with an osteoblast-like phenotype in the blood have been revealed. The results of investigation propose the use of distant cellular and molecular parameters of bone remodeling to screen the mechanisms and dynamics

  13. Feasibility of using tissue microarray cores of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue for measurement of gene expression: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne; Salter, Janine; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven; Dowsett, Mitch

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether 0.6 mm cores of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, as commonly used to construct immunohistochemical tissue microarrays, may be a valid alternative to tissue sections as source material for quantitative real-time PCR-based transcriptional profiling of breast cancer. Four matched 0.6 mm cores of invasive breast tumour and two 10 microm whole sections were taken from eight FFPE blocks. RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed, and TaqMan assays were performed on the 21 genes of the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer assay. Expression of the 16 recurrence-related genes was normalised to the set of five reference genes, and the recurrence score (RS) was calculated. RNA yield was lower from 0.6 mm cores than from 10 microm whole sections, but was still more than sufficient to perform the assay. RS and single gene data from cores were highly comparable with those from whole sections (RS p=0.005). Greater variability was seen between cores than between sections. FFPE sections are preferable to 0.6 mm cores for RNA profiling in order to maximise RNA yield and to allow for standard histopathological assessment. However, 0.6 mm cores are sufficient and would be appropriate to use for large cohort studies.

  14. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  15. Studies on the use of gamma irradiation and tissue culture in improving brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedr, E.K.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to:1- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on some growth and yield component traits of three Brassica napus cultivars (Serow6, Serow4 and Pactol) during four consecutive generations aiming to create new genotypes characterized with high yielding traits. 2- Studying the effect of different doses of gamma rays on in vitro biotechnology technique (tissue culture) used in improving Brassica napus. Seeds of three Brassica napus cultivars were irradiated with different gamma ray doses then sown for four consecutive seasons. Data were collected and recorded to clarify the effect gamma irradiation on some yield component traits which were days to flowering , plant height, number of main branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, weight of 1000-seed, weight of grain yield/plant and oil content of seeds). Results showed that high doses of gamma radiation had enhanced all of the studied traits for each of the three tested cultivars (except the plant height trait for Serow6 and Pactol cultivars). Seven new mutant lines were selected for their superiority in one or more of the studied yield component traits. Regarding the effect of gamma rays on tissue culture techniques, the applied gamma radiation doses did not affect the percentage of seed germination of the three studied cultivars, whereas the percentage of callus induction decreased by increasing the dose of gamma rays for each of the three cultivars and in both types of explants (hypocotyl and cotyledons) used in this experiment.

  16. Visualizing feasible operating ranges within tissue engineering systems using a "windows of operation" approach: a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ryan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-12-01

    Tissue engineering approaches to developing functional substitutes are often highly complex, multivariate systems where many aspects of the biomaterials, bio-regulatory factors or cell sources may be controlled in an effort to enhance tissue formation. Furthermore, success is based on multiple performance criteria reflecting both the quantity and quality of the tissue produced. Managing the trade-offs between different performance criteria is a challenge. A "windows of operation" tool that graphically represents feasible operating spaces to achieve user-defined levels of performance has previously been described by researchers in the bio-processing industry. This paper demonstrates the value of "windows of operation" to the tissue engineering field using a perfusion-scaffold bioreactor system as a case study. In our laboratory, perfusion bioreactor systems are utilized in the context of bone tissue engineering to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of cell-seeded scaffolds. A key challenge of such perfusion bioreactor systems is to maximize the induction of osteogenesis but minimize cell detachment from the scaffold. Two key operating variables that influence these performance criteria are the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate. Using cyclooxygenase-2 and osteopontin gene expression levels as surrogate indicators of osteogenesis, we employed the "windows of operation" methodology to rapidly identify feasible operating ranges for the mean scaffold pore size and flow-rate that achieved user-defined levels of performance for cell detachment and differentiation. Incorporation of such tools into the tissue engineer's armory will hopefully yield a greater understanding of the highly complex systems used and help aid decision making in future translation of products from the bench top to the market place. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  18. Experimental comparison study of the tissue characteristics in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and vascular stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qin; An Yanli; Deng Gang; Fang Wen; Zhu Guangyu; Niu Huanzhang; Yu Hui; Li Guozhao; Teng Gaojun; Wang Zhen; Wei Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the tissue characteristics within vascular stent and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) on swine and to provide more information for the understanding and prevention of vascular stent and TIPS restenosis. Methods: Animal models for TIPS were built in 6 swine and vascular stents were implanted in iliac veins simultaneously. 14-28 days after the operation, the 6 swine were killed to remove the TIPS and vascular stent and the pathological examinations were performed on the tissues within the shunt and stent. The similarities and differences of the tissues within the shunt and stent were analyzed with Krttskal Wallis test. Results: Restenosis of TIPS occurred in 4 models and complete occlusion were seen in 2, while all vascular stents were patent and coated with a thin layer of intimal tissue. Electron microscopic results showed that the tissues in restenotic TIPS were loose and with more extra matrix and fibers, and less smooth muscle, fibroblastic and myofibroblastic cells with different and irregular shape and rich secretory granules. The tissues in patent TIPS contained more extra fibers, smooth muscle and fibroblastic cells with normal organelle. The intimal tissues in vascular stent contained more fibers and fibroblasts cells, less smooth muscle cells. On immunohistochemical staining, the tissues in restenotic and patent TIPS as well as the intimal tissues in vascular stent had strong positive expression for anti-SMC- actin-α, the expression were gradually weakened for PCNA, the intimal tissues in vascular stent had a strong positive expression for vimentin, while the expression of the tissues in restenotic and patent TIPS were weakened gradually. For myoglobulin, the tissues in restenotic TIPS had weakly positive expression, the expression in patent TIPS and vascular stent were almost negative. Western blot results for TGF-β showed that the absorbance ratios of the intima tissues in vascular stent, normal vascular

  19. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatter, J.G. [Pharmacia Corp., Peapack, NJ (United States); Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A. [Pharmacia Corp., Kalamazoo, MI (United States)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [{sup 14}C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [{sup 14}C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. After 7 daily [{sup 14}C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C{sub max} and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  20. Assessment of radioactive residues arising from radiolabel instability in a multiple dose tissue distribution study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatter, J.G.; Sams, J.P.; Easter, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Our study objectives were to quantitatively determine the effect of radiolabel instability on terminal phase radioactive tissue residues in a multiple dose tissue distribution study, to quantitatively compare tissue residue artifacts (non drug-related radioactivity) from two chemically-distinct radiolabel locations, and to conduct a definitive multiple dose tissue distribution study using the better of the two radiolabeled compounds. We compared the excretion and tissue distribution in rats of [ 14 C]linezolid, radiolabeled in two different locations, after 7 consecutive once daily [ 14 C] oral doses. The radiolabels were in the acetamide (two carbon) and oxazolidinone (isolated carbon) functional groups. Terminal phase tissue residue and excretion data were compared to data from rats dosed orally with [ 14 C]sodium acetate. Drug-related radioactivity was excreted rapidly over 24 h. After a single dose, the acetamide and oxazolidinone radiolabel sites both gave 3% of dose as exhaled 14 CO 2 . After 7 daily [ 14 C] oral doses, terminal phase radioactive tissue residues were higher from the acetamide radiolabel, relative to the oxazolidinone radiolabel, and were primarily not drug-related. In the definitive tissue distribution study, low concentrations of drug-related radioactivity in skin and thyroid were observed. We conclude that although small amounts of radiolabel instability do not significantly affect single dose tissue radioactivity C max and area under the curve (AUC), artifacts arising from radiolabel instability can prolong the apparent terminal phase half life and complicate study data interpretation. When possible, it is always preferable to use a completely stable radiolabel site. (author)

  1. Risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in TGFB1, SOD2, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX and ATM - a study based on DNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In two previously published studies, associations with risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis were found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TGFB1 (transforming growth factor beta 1 gene), XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 gene), XRCC3 (X-ray repair cross...... the influence of genetic variation upon normal tissue radiosensitivity...

  2. Immunohistochemical and Morphofunctional Studies of Skeletal Muscle Tissues with Electric Nerve Stimulation by In Vivo Cryotechnique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Yuki; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Saigusa, Takeshi; Arita, Jun; Ohno, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction

  3. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Study on Material Parameters Identification of Brain Tissue Considering Uncertainty of Friction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Accurate material parameters are critical to construct the high biofidelity finite element (FE) models. However, it is hard to obtain the brain tissue parameters accurately because of the effects of irregular geometry and uncertain boundary conditions. Considering the complexity of material test and the uncertainty of friction coefficient, a computational inverse method for viscoelastic material parameters identification of brain tissue is presented based on the interval analysis method. Firstly, the intervals are used to quantify the friction coefficient in the boundary condition. And then the inverse problem of material parameters identification under uncertain friction coefficient is transformed into two types of deterministic inverse problem. Finally the intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the two types of deterministic inverse problems quickly and accurately, and the range of material parameters can be easily acquired with no need of a variety of samples. The efficiency and convergence of this method are demonstrated by the material parameters identification of thalamus. The proposed method provides a potential effective tool for building high biofidelity human finite element model in the study of traffic accident injury.

  5. Optimization of scaffold design for bone tissue engineering: A computational and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marta R; Guedes, José M; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Fernandes, Paulo R

    2014-04-01

    In bone tissue engineering, the scaffold has not only to allow the diffusion of cells, nutrients and oxygen but also provide adequate mechanical support. One way to ensure the scaffold has the right properties is to use computational tools to design such a scaffold coupled with additive manufacturing to build the scaffolds to the resulting optimized design specifications. In this study a topology optimization algorithm is proposed as a technique to design scaffolds that meet specific requirements for mass transport and mechanical load bearing. Several micro-structures obtained computationally are presented. Designed scaffolds were then built using selective laser sintering and the actual features of the fabricated scaffolds were measured and compared to the designed values. It was possible to obtain scaffolds with an internal geometry that reasonably matched the computational design (within 14% of porosity target, 40% for strut size and 55% for throat size in the building direction and 15% for strut size and 17% for throat size perpendicular to the building direction). These results support the use of these kind of computational algorithms to design optimized scaffolds with specific target properties and confirm the value of these techniques for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation and customization of biosynthetic excitable tissues for electrophysiological studies and cell-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung X; Kirkton, Robert D; Bursac, Nenad

    2018-05-01

    We describe a two-stage protocol to generate electrically excitable and actively conducting cell networks with stable and customizable electrophysiological phenotypes. Using this method, we have engineered monoclonally derived excitable tissues as a robust and reproducible platform to investigate how specific ion channels and mutations affect action potential (AP) shape and conduction. In the first stage of the protocol, we combine computational modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophysiological techniques to derive optimal sets of mammalian and/or prokaryotic ion channels that produce specific AP shape and conduction characteristics. In the second stage of the protocol, selected ion channels are stably expressed in unexcitable human cells by means of viral or nonviral delivery, followed by flow cytometry or antibiotic selection to purify the desired phenotype. This protocol can be used with traditional heterologous expression systems or primary excitable cells, and application of this method to primary fibroblasts may enable an alternative approach to cardiac cell therapy. Compared with existing methods, this protocol generates a well-defined, relatively homogeneous electrophysiological phenotype of excitable cells that facilitates experimental and computational studies of AP conduction and can decrease arrhythmogenic risk upon cell transplantation. Although basic cell culture and molecular biology techniques are sufficient to generate excitable tissues using the described protocol, experience with patch-clamp techniques is required to characterize and optimize derived cell populations.

  7. [Study of near infrared spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection methods for endometrial cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ting; Xiang, Yu-Hong; Dai, Yin-Mei; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to measure the tissue slice of endometrial tissues for collecting the spectra. A total of 154 spectra were obtained from 154 samples. The number of normal, hyperplasia, and malignant samples was 36, 60, and 58, respectively. Original near infrared spectra are composed of many variables, for example, interference information including instrument errors and physical effects such as particle size and light scatter. In order to reduce these influences, original spectra data should be performed with different spectral preprocessing methods to compress variables and extract useful information. So the methods of spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection have played an important role in near infrared spectroscopy technique. In the present paper the raw spectra were processed using various preprocessing methods including first derivative, multiplication scatter correction, Savitzky-Golay first derivative algorithm, standard normal variate, smoothing, and moving-window median. Standard deviation was used to select the optimal spectral region of 4 000-6 000 cm(-1). Then principal component analysis was used for classification. Principal component analysis results showed that three types of samples could be discriminated completely and the accuracy almost achieved 100%. This study demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy technology and chemometrics method could be a fast, efficient, and novel means to diagnose cancer. The proposed methods would be a promising and significant diagnosis technique of early stage cancer.

  8. 23Na+- and 39K+-NMR studies of cation-polyanion interactions in vascular connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.; Walter, A.; Bostanjoglo, M.

    1987-01-01

    The ion binding properties of vascular connective tissue as well as of substances derived therefrom were studied in dependence on cation concentration by NMR and atomic absorption techniques. 16 refs.; 8 figs

  9. Anterior wrist and medial malleolus as the novel sites of tissue selection: a retrospective study on electric shock death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangtao; Su, Ruibing; Lv, Junyao; Hu, Bo; Gu, Huan; Li, Xianxian; Gu, Jiang; Yu, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that characteristic changes could occur in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus in electric deaths through the hand-to-foot electric circuit pathway in an electric shock rat model. However, whether the same phenomenon occurs in humans is unknown. The aim of the present retrospective study was to ascertain whether the anterior wrist and medial malleolus could also be selected as the promising and significant sites in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. Nineteen human cases from the autopsy and one clinical survivor who sustained a severe electric shock through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway were analyzed. Additional ten autopsy patients who died from traffic accidents and sudden cardiac attacks were used as the control group. Histopathological changes in the soft tissues of the anterior wrist and medial malleolus in all autopsy patients, as well as the electric current pathway of the survivor, were observed. The results showed that the nuclear polarizations in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus soft tissues of the electric death were extremely noticeable as compared with the controls. The most severe electrical injury in the survivor occurred in the anterior wrist. These findings suggest that the soft tissues of the anterior wrist and/or the medial malleolus as the narrowest parts of the limbs could be used as the complementary sites for tissue selection and considered as necessary locations for examinations to assess the electric death in medicolegal identification.

  10. Leptine: an hormone secreted by adipose tissue. First study in Uruguayan population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisabarro, Raul; Irrazabal, Ernesto; Recalde, Alicia; Barrios, Enrique; Arocena, Beatriz; Garcia Loriente, Jose Maria; Lorenzo Bonifazio, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of leptine, an hormone secreted by adipose tissue which modulates the energetic expenditure has signified a gigantic advance in studying obesity facts. In spite of a recent description of absence of leptine in humans, the obesity human model answers to leptine resistance. In this paper, we revise the actual concepts and show leptine values of a sample of 101 middle aged uruguayans, male and female, of normal weight and over weighted (table 1), correlated with corporal mass index (CMI) as an indirect measure of total body fat and waist diameter as an indirect measure of visceral fat, and hips (periferical fat). Bioimpedance studies were carried out to get the corporal composition. Results: good correlation between corporal fat and leptine, but fat distribution was not found representative. All in all, this data set confirms the correlation between leptine and total body fat mass

  11. Study on rapid propagation of Zanhuang Chinese jujube by tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Wang Yu; Tian Yanting

    2002-01-01

    Zanhuang jujube is a very precious and rare variety of Chinese jujube. Its development was restricted by the under-developed propagate technique in history. The rapid propagation by tissue culture was studied and the optimum media were screened out. Through studying the condition of initial, proliferating, acclimatizing and rooting culture, 4 media, MS +6-BA 0.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1 mg/L, MS+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+IBA 0.1-0.2 mg/L, MS+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L and 1/2 MS+IBA 0.6 mg/L+NAA 0.2-0.3 mg/L were selected respectively

  12. Elemental imbalance studies by INAA on extra neural tissues from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney and liver tissues were studied for generalized elemental imbalances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Iron was significantly increased (p<0.05) in ALS kidneys and Co and Fe (marginal, p<0.10) were increased in ALS liver compared with their respective controls. Mercury values were almost two-fold higher for ALS kidney and 17% higher for ALS liver as compared with their respective controls, However, the Hg data exhibited large variations and ALS-control differences were not significant. Data from the present study are discussed with reference to the role of metallothioneins (MT) in ALS, and a possible linkage between a free radical mediated mechanism and degeneration of cells in ALS is also explored. (author). 43 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Application of SEM and EDX in studying biomineralization in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Kirilak, Yaowanuj

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes protocols using formalin-acetic acid-alcohol (FAA) to fix plant tissues for studying biomineralization by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). Specimen preparation protocols for SEM and EDX mainly include fixation, dehydration, critical point drying (CPD), mounting, and coating. Gold-coated specimens are used for SEM imaging, while gold- and carbon-coated specimens are prepared for qualitative X-ray microanalyses separately to obtain complementary information on the elemental compositions of biominerals. During the specimen preparation procedure for SEM, some biominerals may be dislodged or scattered, making it difficult to determine their accurate locations, and light microscopy is used to complement SEM studies. Specimen preparation protocols for light microscopy generally include fixation, dehydration, infiltration and embedding with resin, microtome sectioning, and staining. In addition, microwave processing methods are adopted here to speed up the specimen preparation process for both SEM and light microscopy.

  14. Morphological study of the radioprotective effect of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopheryl) in tissue reparation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzi, Flavio Ricardo; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Tuji, Fabricio Mesquita

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the action of the vitamin E as a radioprotective agent in the process of tissue reparation in rats submitted to a surgical procedure, which consisted of a wound done in the fore dorsal area. The animals were divided into five groups: group C (controls) - wound; group VE - previous treatment with vitamin E (90 UI); group IR - wound and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery; group VEIR - previous treatment with 90 UI of the vitamin E and irradiation of the borders three days after the surgery; group OIR - previous treatment with olive oil and irradiation of the borders three days after surgery. The radioprotective effect of the vitamin E was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens in order to identify granulation tissue, at 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgical procedures. The results showed that 6 Gy of electron irradiation with a beam of 6 MeV caused retardation of the tissue repairing process and that vitamin E was effective as a radioprotective agent. (author)

  15. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Functional Outcomes in Patients with Limb Salvage Surgery for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsun Oh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have reported on the surgical outcomes of soft tissue sarcoma. However, there was no longitudinal cohort study. Because time is the most valuable factor for functional recovery, adjusting time value was the key for finding the causal relationship between other risk factors and postoperative function. Therefore, existing cross-sectional studies can neither fully explain the causal relationship between the risk factors and the functional score nor predict functional recovery. The aim of this study was to determine important predictive factors that affect postoperative functional outcomes and longitudinal changes in functional outcomes in patients who had undergone limb-sparing surgery (LSS for soft tissue sarcoma (STS. Methods. Between January 2008 and December 2014, we retrospectively enrolled 150 patients who had undergone LSS for STS and had been assessed for postoperative functional outcomes with questionnaires. To evaluate functional outcomes, we used the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS. Multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE analysis was used to identify the predictive factors, including size, stage, and anatomic location of tumor, bone resection, flap reconstruction, age, and time after surgery. Each continuous variable such as age and time after surgery was explored for statistically significant cutoff points using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results. Functional scores significantly improved until the second year after surgery and plateaued for the rest of the 5-year period. Age p<0.0001, bone resection p=0.0004, and time after surgery p<0.0001 were identified as significant predictive factors. The functional score was significantly higher in patients younger than 47 years old. Conclusions. Functional outcomes can improve until the second year after surgery. Patients who were older than 47 and underwent bone resection may have poor final functional

  17. Exenatide improves both hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance: A dynamic positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gaggini, Melania; Daniele, Giuseppe; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Iozzo, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1-RAs) act on multiple tissues, in addition to the pancreas. Recent studies suggest that GLP-1-RAs act on liver and adipose tissue to reduce insulin resistance (IR). Thus, we evaluated the acute effects of exenatide (EX) on hepatic (Hep-IR) and adipose (Adipo-IR) insulin resistance and glucose uptake. Fifteen male subjects (age = 56 ± 8 years; body mass index = 29 ± 1 kg/m 2 ; A1c = 5.7 ± 0.1%) were studied on two occasions, with a double-blind subcutaneous injection of EX (5 μg) or placebo (PLC) 30 minutes before a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). During OGTT, we measured hepatic (HGU) and adipose tissue (ATGU) glucose uptake with [ 18 F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose/positron emission tomography, lipolysis (RaGly) with [U- 2 H 5 ]-glycerol, oral glucose absorption (RaO) with [U- 13 C 6 ]-glucose, and hepatic glucose production (EGP) with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]-glucose. Adipo-IR and Hep-IR were calculated as (FFA 0-120min ) × (Ins 0-120min ) and (EGP 0-120min ) × (Ins 0-120min ), respectively. EX reduced RaO, resulting in reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentration from 0 to 120 minutes postglucose ingestion. EX decreased Hep-IR (197 ± 28 to 130 ± 37; P = 0.02) and increased HGU of orally administered glucose (23 ± 4 to 232 ± 89 [μmol/min/L]/[μmol/min/kg]; P = 0.003) despite lower insulin (23 ± 5 vs. 41 ± 5 mU/L; P < 0.02). EX enhanced insulin suppression of RaGly by decreasing Adipo-IR (23 ± 4 to 13 ± 3; P = 0.009). No significant effect of insulin was observed on ATGU (EX = 1.16 ± 0.15 vs. PLC = 1.36 ± 0.13 [μmol/min/L]/[μmol/min/kg]). Acute EX administration (1) improves Hep-IR, decreases EGP, and enhances HGU and (2) reduces Adipo-IR, improves the antilipolytic effect of insulin, and reduces plasma free fatty acid levels during OGTT. (Hepatology 2016;64:2028-2037). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Use of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose for soft-tissue augmentation: preliminary clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Leonardis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis1, Andrea Palange2, Rodrigo FV Dornelles3, Felipe Hund41Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Núcleo de Plástica Avançada, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Consultorio de Cirurgia Plastica, Criciuma, SC, BrazilPurpose: The continual search for new products for soft-tissue augmentation has in recent years led to the introduction of long lasting alternatives to hyaluronic acids and collagen that are composed of other polymers able to improve clinical persistence over time. This is the first report in which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been chemically treated by the cross-linking process and thus used as a hydrogel for soft-tissue augmentation through injection with thin needles. The study evaluates, from a clinical point of view, the behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel used in the aesthetic field and its side effects so as to check the safety and performance of the polymer following intradermal injections.Patients and methods: This work shows the preliminary results of an ongoing clinical study conducted between 2006 and 2009, performed on 84 healthy volunteers (62 females, 22 males aged between 18 and 72 years, for the treatment of 168 nasolabial folds, 45 perioral wrinkles, and 39 lip volume.Results: Study results show an excellent correction of facial defects. Tolerance and aesthetic quality of the correction obtained indicate considerable safety features and absence of side effects. From a clinical point of view, hydrogel is gradually absorbed into the injection site without migration issues.Conclusion: Cross-linked CMC hydrogel proves to be an ideal agent for soft tissue augmentation with regard to safety and ease of application. It did not cause infection, extrusion, migration, or adverse reactions in the patients who have been

  19. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  20. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  1. Cytogenetic studies on stevia rebaudiana produced by tissue culture and affected by gamma rays and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, A.S.A

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was under taken to carry out in the laboratories of the Natural Products Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy authority, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of gamma radiation doses, osmostress and the combined effects between them on tissue culture, some biochemical analysis and molecular genetic marker in stevia rebaudiana bertoni. The results obtained were: Tissue culture 1- micropropagation media: stevia rebaudiana plantlets cultured on MS medium hormones free for micropropagation.Hormones such as BAP and NAA with different concentrations induced callus formation and give slight growth.Study the effect of gamma radiation, osmostress and the combined effects between them : 1)The effect of gamma radiation on buds survival: Gamma radiation doses (10, 20 and 30 Gy) induced decreasing in bud survival percentage with increasing radiation dose in stevia rebaudiana. The dose 30 Gy was induced 60% mortality.2) Study the effect of gamma radiation on some biochemical analysis: Gamma radiation doses induced increase in the total carbohydrate with doses (20 and 30 Gy) but decreased with dose 10 Gy. Proline contents increased in plantlets with increasing doses . The total protein was increased with doses (10 and 20 Gy), but the dose 30 Gy induced decrease in total protein. Gamma radiation doses induced decreasing in total DNA while, the nucleic acid RNA increased.3) The effect of osmostress on buds survival: The concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) from sucrose or sorbitol decreased the bud survival and shoot length in stevia plantlets with increasing sucrose or sorbitol levels. 4) The effect of osmostress on some biochemical analysis: Sucrose and sorbitol concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) caused decrease in total carbohydrate.

  2. Study of tissue engineered bone nodules by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Halil Murat; Hu, Bin; Suso, Josep Sulé; El Haj, Alicia; Yang, Ying

    2011-02-21

    The key criteria for assessing the success of bone tissue engineering are the quality and quantity of the produced minerals within the cultured constructs. The accumulation of calcium ions and inorganic phosphates in culture medium serves as nucleating agents for the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is the main inorganic component of bone. Bone nodule formation is one of the hallmarks of mineralization in such cell cultures. In this study, we developed a new two-step procedure to accelerate bone formation in which mouse bone cell aggregates were produced first on various chemically treated non-adhesive substrates. After this step, the bone cells' growth and mineralization were followed in conventional culture plates. The number and size of cell aggregates were studied with light microscopy. The minerals' formation in the form of nodules produced by the cell aggregates and the bone crystal quality were studied with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of the ash specimens (mineral phase only) from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) provided valuable information of the quality of the minerals. The υ(4) PO(4) region (550-650 cm(-1)), which reveals apatitic and non-apatitic HPO(4) or PO(4) environments, and phosphate region (910-1180 cm(-1)) were examined for the minerals produced in the form of nodules. The peak position and intensity of the spectra demonstrate that the quality of the bone produced by cell aggregates, especially from the bigger ones, which were formed on Plunoric treated substrates, exhibit a composition more similar to that of native bone. This work establishes a new protocol for high quality bone formation and characterization, with the potential to be applied to bone tissue engineering.

  3. The impact of detergents on the tissue decellularization process: A ToF-SIMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Taylor, Adam J; Faulk, Denver M; Keane, Timothy J; Saldin, Lindsey T; Reing, Janet E; Swinehart, Ilea T; Turner, Neill J; Ratner, Buddy D; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-03-01

    Biologic scaffolds are derived from mammalian tissues, which must be decellularized to remove cellular antigens that would otherwise incite an adverse immune response. Although widely used clinically, the optimum balance between cell removal and the disruption of matrix architecture and surface ligand landscape remains a considerable challenge. Here we describe the use of time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to provide sensitive, molecular specific, localized analysis of detergent decellularized biologic scaffolds. We detected residual detergent fragments, specifically from Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in decellularized scaffolds; increased SDS concentrations from 0.1% to 1.0% increased both the intensity of SDS fragments and adverse cell outcomes. We also identified cellular remnants, by detecting phosphate and phosphocholine ions in PAA and CHAPS decellularized scaffolds. The present study demonstrates ToF-SIMS is not only a powerful tool for characterization of biologic scaffold surface molecular functionality, but also enables sensitive assessment of decellularization efficacy. We report here on the use of a highly sensitive analytical technique, time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to characterize detergent decellularized scaffolds. ToF-SIMS detected cellular remnants and residual detergent fragments; increased intensity of the detergent fragments correlated with adverse cell matrix interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of maintaining a balance between cell removal and detergent disruption of matrix architecture and matrix surface ligand landscape. This study also demonstrates the power of ToF-SIMS for the characterization of decellularized scaffolds and capability for assessment of decellularization efficacy. Future use of biologic scaffolds in clinical tissue reconstruction will benefit from the fundamental results described in this work. Copyright © 2016 Acta

  4. Protein biomarkers on tissue as imaged via MALDI mass spectrometry: A systematic approach to study the limits of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Stephanie M W Y; Bemis, Kyle D; Lau, Kenneth; Adusumilli, Ravali; Kota, Uma; Stolowitz, Mark; Vitek, Olga; Mallick, Parag; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-06-01

    MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is emerging as a tool for protein and peptide imaging across tissue sections. Despite extensive study, there does not yet exist a baseline study evaluating the potential capabilities for this technique to detect diverse proteins in tissue sections. In this study, we developed a systematic approach for characterizing MALDI-MSI workflows in terms of limits of detection, coefficients of variation, spatial resolution, and the identification of endogenous tissue proteins. Our goal was to quantify these figures of merit for a number of different proteins and peptides, in order to gain more insight in the feasibility of protein biomarker discovery efforts using this technique. Control proteins and peptides were deposited in serial dilutions on thinly sectioned mouse xenograft tissue. Using our experimental setup, coefficients of variation were biomarkers and a new benchmarking strategy that can be used for comparing diverse MALDI-MSI workflows. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  6. Study of biocompatible properties of polymeric scaffolds derived from vegetable oils for application in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have as main objective the morphologic/functional reestablishment of injured tissues and organs using cells, scaffolds, stem cells and control of immunological/biochemical responses promoted by the body. In addition, materials science seeks to develop biocompatible biomaterials that do not promote unwanted immune responses and provide the re-establishment of the functions of the tissue/organ. Polymers of natural origin stand out as biomaterials to resemble biological macromolecules, similarity to the extracellular matrix, reduced chance of inflammation and chronic pacing low or no toxicity. This study aimed the development of macromolecular arrays originated from epoxidized soybean oil (OSE), analyzing the relationship between the chemical structure/biological activity of the macromolecular arrays for use as biomaterials in tissue engineering. The synthesis of OSE was performed through the oil chemical route, whose efficiency was determined by infrared spectroscopy and the reaction yield of 85%, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. From the analysis by differential scanning calorimetry, it was detected a decrease of the glass transition temperature of the epoxidized soybean oil polymer (POSE) compared with OSE, suggesting an increase of the growth of polymer chains of POSE. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to define the OSE degradation profile, which degrades in two steps. The POSE degrades in just one step and shows higher thermal stability by the increased molecular interactions. The hydrophilicity and crosslinking of POSE was promoted by the addition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with the monomer grafting by gamma irradiation. The results showed an increased mechanical stability, gelation and water absorption with the HEMA content increasing. Finally, the degree of crystallinity for such polymers grafted with HEMA was 27.5%, estimated by X-ray diffractometry. The second stage was

  7. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study.We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status.Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women.Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex and menopause-status differences that may mediate

  8. Study of the agroindustrial alterations induced by the irradiated tissue culture in sugar cane, variety NA 56-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo Junior, O.

    1991-01-01

    The use of plant tissue culture and the application of gamma radiation as mutation inducing agents, in the sugar cane plant, variety NA 5679, are studied. The variation in the contents of brix, pol, fiber, purity, extraction, phosphorus, nitrogen, reducing sugars as well as the morphological characteristics are analysed. The 'callus' obtained by the tissue culture were irradiated with 20, 40, and 60 Gy doses. The statistical analysis indicated that the method of tissue culture may, eventually, increase the contents of the technological parameters and the dosages of gamma radiation were not efficient for such purpose. (M.A.C.)

  9. Use of radioisotopes in the study of permeability of hard dental tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjan, I.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey. According to in vivo experiments 32 P, 131 I and 45 Ca penetrate dental enamel and dentine. In vitro studies revealed that the healthy enamel and that damaged by caries and dentine are penetrable by 22 Na and 24 Na both in centripetal and in centrifugal directions. 32 P, 18 F and urea, labelled with 14 C penetrate healthy hard dental tissue. 45 CaCl 2 , 110 AgNO 3 , 111 AgNO 3 , 103 PdCl 2 , 64 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 , 63 ZnCl 2 , 65 ZnCl 2 and glucose, labelled with 14 C penetrate enamel defects, lamellas and caries areas. 239 Pu citrate complex links to the surface of enamel and cement, but does not penetrate them. (author)

  10. Effect of decimeter waves on brain and surrounding tissue temperature (experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikova, S.N.; Malyshev, V.L.; Balakyreva, V.N.; Gorban' , L.G.

    Temperature changes in brain and surrounding tissue evoked by decimeter waves (DMW) were studied on phantoms (wood shavings wetted with physiological solution), rabbits and dogs under light nembutal anesthesia and on animal cadavers. The data obtained showed that living organisms, in contrast to phantoms, exhibited a response to heat generation of DMW; this was manifested by maintenance of the temperature at certain level or by a tendency to lower it after about a 10 min exposure to DMW. Thus it was shown that there is a functional cooling system in living organisms: increased local blood flow and a specialized cooling system for the brain. Rabbits showed considerably higher brain temperature elevation than the experimental dogs. Overall, the brain temperature upon exposure to DMW depended on the intensity and duration of DMW action as well as on the state of circulating cooling system of the animals. 4 references, 4 figures.

  11. A novel approach for studying programmed cell death in living plant tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina

    to traditional approaches. Future applications of this type of setup could be used for other types of plant tissues such as leaves or germinating embryos for studying the effects of e.g. biotic and abiotic stresses or for screening of compounds for biological effects. Due to the ease of use and many......Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are killed as part of developmental programmes or as defence mechanisms against pathogens, but the process is less well understood in plant cells compared to animal cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD...... in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCDhas not yet been fully elucidated due to the involvement of complex signalling networks. Elucidation of these mechanisms and signalling pathways will allow manipulation of cell death in plants, which could help to improve yield...

  12. STUDY OF HEARING OUTCOMES IN SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS TREATED WITH TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSHNL is a clinical condition that requires immediate management. There are many treatment options, which may not always revert the hearing to normal. Not only recording the degree of hearing loss, but also establishing the concurrent dysfunction of saccule by VEMP has facilitated a new approach to treatment strategy. Recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator ((rtPA proved its efficacy in stroke and subsequently considered an option in the management of ISSNHL. The curren t study, conducted at different centres, on 15 patients utilized rtPA. The results showed a promising trend when saccular pathology is also evident by VEMP in association with Hearing loss. We recommend use of rtPA as primary modality in cases of ISSNHL wi th Saccular involvement.

  13. Bone tissue ultrastructural defects in a mouse model for osteogenesis imperfecta: a Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsoching; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.

    2004-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is genetic defect in which the genes that code for the α1(I) or α2(I) chains of type I collagen are defective. The defects often result in substitution of a bulky amino acid for glycine, causing formation of collagen that can not form the normal triple helix. Depending on the details of the defects, the outcomes range from controllable to lethal. This study focuses on OI type IV, a more common and moderately severe form of the disease. People with the disease have a substantial increase in the risk and rate of fracture. We examine the spectroscopic consequences of these defects, using a mouse model (BRTL) that mimics OI type IV. We compare Raman images from tibial cortical tissue of wild-type mice and BRTL mice with single copy of mutation and show that both mineral to matrix ratios and collagen inter-fibril cross-links are different in wild-type and mutant mice.

  14. Experimental study of the tritium uptake in mammal tissues and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, P.; Lambotte, J.M.; Lafontaine, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the tritium-labelling of ADN in rabbits who receive the tritium as HTO in their drinking water during periods of one to three months. On the basis of the MPC for tritium (according to the belgian legislation, 30 μCi/l in drinking water of occupational workers for 168 h/week exposure) it is stated that for rabbits, this value of continuous impregnation by drinking water must be exceeded by a factor 100 to observe a measurable tritium activity in the ADN, isolated from tissue with fast turnover rate, such as bone marrow. The structural molecules proteins, lipids and carbon hydrates of different organs are labelled with tritium at 5 MPC, th lowest examined concentration. These statements do not evaluate whether the observed phenomenon of tritium labelling is hazardous or not, but rather tend to establish an order of magnitude

  15. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance studies on normoxic and ischemic cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, D G; Hoult, D I; Radda, G K; Seeley, P J; Chance, B; Barlow, C

    1976-12-01

    The intact heart of a young rat was excised rapidly and cooled to 0 degree C; its energy-rich compounds were examined by 31P Fourier Transform nuclear magnetic resonance. The heart showed the characteristic spectrum of sugar phosphates, inorganic phosphate, phosphocreatine, and magniesium phates, inorganic phosphate, phosphocreatine, and magnesium ATP, characteristics of the energizing state of the nonbeating tissue. Warming to 30 degrees C imposes an energy load upon the heart consistent with short-term resumption of beating, concomitant intracellular acidosis, and decomposition of all detectable energy-rich compounds. The intracellular acidity causes a shift from pH 7.0 to 6.0. The effects of possible interferences with this pH measurement are considered. The method appears to have wide usefulness in cardiac infarct models for detecting the fraction of the total volume occupied by the infarct and for studying the effect of various proposed therapies upon this infarcted volume.

  16. Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Steffensen, Annette B.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes...... involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LOTS). We integrated the LOTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LOTS protein...... network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy...

  17. Development of a tissue engineered heart valve for pediatrics: a case study in bioengineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryman, W David

    2008-03-01

    The following hypothetical case study was developed for bioengineering students and is concerned with choosing between two devices used for development of a pediatric tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV). This case is intended to elicit assessment of the devices, possible future outcomes, and ramifications of the decision making. It is framed in light of two predominant ethical theories: utilitarianism and rights of persons. After the case was presented to bioengineering graduate students, they voted on which device should be released. The results revealed that these bioengineering students preferred the more reliable (and substantially more expensive) design, though this choice precludes the majority of the world from having access to this technology. This case is intended to examine and explore where the balance lies between design, cost, and adequate distribution of biomedical devices.

  18. Modelling of Cortical Bone Tissue as a Fluid Saturated Double-Porous Material - Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana TURJANICOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cortical bone tissue is considered as a poroelastic material with periodic structure represented at microscopic and mesoscopic levels. The pores of microscopic scale are connected with the pores of mesoscopic scale creating one system of connected network filled with compressible fluid. The method of asymptotic homogenization is applied to upscale the microscopic model of the fluid-solid interaction under a static loading. Obtained homogenized coefficients describe material properties of the poroelastic matrix fractured by fluid-filled pores whose geometry is described at the mesoscopic level. The second-level upscaling provides homogenized poroelastic coefficients relevant on the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, we study the dependence of these coefficients on geometrical parameters on related microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  19. How to measure propagation velocity in cardiac tissue: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre C. Linnenbank

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To estimate conduction velocities from activation times in myocardial tissue, the average vector method computes all the local activation directions and velocities from local activation times and estimates the fastest and slowest propagation speed from these local values. The single vector method uses areas of apparent uniform elliptical spread of activation and chooses a single vector for the estimated longitudinal velocity and one for the transversal. A simulation study was performed to estimate the influence of grid size, anisotropy, and vector angle bin size. The results indicate that the average vector method can best be used if the grid- or bin-size is large, although systematic errors occur. The single vector method performs better, but requires human intervention for the definition of fiber direction. The average vector method can be automated.

  20. Use of radioisotopes in the study of permeability of hard dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjan, I [Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary)

    1978-04-01

    A literature survey. According to in vivo experiments /sup 32/P, /sup 131/I and /sup 45/Ca penetrate dental enamel and dentine. In vitro studies revealed that the healthy enamel and that damaged by caries and dentine are penetrable by /sup 22/Na and /sup 24/Na both in centripetal and in centrifugal directions. /sup 32/P, /sup 18/F and urea, labelled with /sup 14/C penetrate healthy hard dental tissue. /sup 45/CaCl/sub 2/, /sup 110/AgNO/sub 3/, /sup 111/AgNO/sub 3/, /sup 103/PdCl/sub 2/, /sup 64/Cu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, /sup 63/ZnCl/sub 2/, /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and glucose, labelled with /sup 14/C penetrate enamel defects, lamellas and caries areas. /sup 239/Pu citrate complex links to the surface of enamel and cement, but does not penetrate them.

  1. Nanotechnology and picotechnology to increase tissue growth: a summary of in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ece Alpaslan,1 Thomas J Webster1,21Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: The aim of tissue engineering is to develop functional substitutes for damaged tissues or malfunctioning organs. Since only nanomaterials can mimic the surface properties (ie, roughness of natural tissues and have tunable properties (such as mechanical, magnetic, electrical, optical, and other properties, they are good candidates for increasing tissue growth, minimizing inflammation, and inhibiting infection. Recently, the use of nanomaterials in various tissue engineering applications has demonstrated improved tissue growth compared to what has been achieved until today with our conventional micron structured materials. This short report paper will summarize some of the more relevant advancements nanomaterials have made in regenerative medicine, specifically improving bone and bladder tissue growth. Moreover, this short report paper will also address the continued potential risks and toxicity concerns, which need to be accurately addressed by the use of nanomaterials. Lastly, this paper will emphasize a new field, picotechnology, in which researchers are altering electron distributions around atoms to promote surface energy to achieve similar increased tissue growth, decreased inflammation, and inhibited infection without potential nanomaterial toxicity concerns.Keywords: nanomaterials, tissue engineering, toxicity

  2. The magnetization transfer characteristics of human breast tissues: an in vitro NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, C.; Thomas, J. M.; Goode, A. W.

    1999-05-01

    A series of freshly excised human breast tissues was analysed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and then subjected to routine histopathology examination. Tissues comprised normal parenchymal, adipose, fibrocystic, fibroadenoma and malignant types. An inversion-recovery sequence performed both with and without magnetization transfer allowed T1, T1, and values to be obtained. From this information, the magnetization transfer rate constant, K, was calculated for each tissue sample. These data show that T1 provided greater discrimination between neoplasic and normal tissues than did T1. However, neither T1 nor K values provided a means of discriminating between benign and malignant disease.

  3. The magnetization transfer characteristics of human breast tissues: an in vitro NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callicott, C.; Thomas, J.M.; Goode, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    A series of freshly excised human breast tissues was analysed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and then subjected to routine histopathology examination. Tissues comprised normal parenchymal, adipose, fibrocystic, fibroadenoma and malignant types. An inversion-recovery sequence performed both with and without magnetization transfer allowed T1, T1 5 , M o and M 5 values to be obtained. From this information, the magnetization transfer rate constant, K, was calculated for each tissue sample. These data show that T1 5 provided greater discrimination between neoplasic and normal tissues than did T1. However, neither T1 5 nor K values provided a means of discriminating between benign and malignant disease. (author)

  4. Thermal Stability and Surface Wettability Studies of Polylactic Acid/Halloysite Nanotube Nanocomposite Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, M. Mohd; Hamzah, M. S. A.; Razak, S. I. Abd; Mat Nayan, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the preliminary study about the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNT) into polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold to improve the thermal resistance and surface wettability properties. The fabrication of the porous scaffold requires a simple yet effective technique with low-cost materials within freeze extraction method. The thermal stability of PLA/HNT scaffold compared to neat PLA scaffold achieved with increased content of HNT by 5 wt%. Moreover, the surface wettability of the scaffold also shows a positive impact with high content of HNT by 5 wt%. This new nanocomposite scaffold may have high potential as a suitable template for tissue regeneration.

  5. Increased Inhibitor of Differentiation 4 (Id4 Expression in Glioblastoma: A Tissue Microarray Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifin Zeng, Elisabeth J. Rushing, Daniel P. Hartmann, Norio Azumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding protein family (Id1-4 is involved in cell cycle control, tumorigenesis and angiogenesis through the negative regulation of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Of these proteins, Id4 is known to play an important role in neural stem cell differentiation, and deregulation has been implicated in glial neoplasia. However, the expression and significance of Id4 in astrocytomas has not been fully addressed. Herein we report the differential expression of Id4 in astrocytomas of various grades using tissue microarrays (TMA and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Design: The GBM TMA was constructed from 53 archival cases at Georgetown University Hospital and a TMA with normal brain controls and grades II-III astrocytoma was obtained from Cybrdi (Rockville, MD. TMA sections were stained with Id4 antibody and the slides were scored according to the percentage of staining astrocytic nuclei (<9% -, 10-50% +, >51% ++. The Fisher Exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results: Nuclear staining for Id4 was seen in 73.58% GBMs, 25% grade III, and 12.5% grade II astrocytomas; staining was absent in normal brain tissue. There was a statistically significant difference between GBM and grades II, III astrocytoma (p <0.01. Significant Id4 expression was not detected in normal brain. Conclusions: Our study confirms the frequent upregulation of Id4 expression in GBM, which lends support to its role in tumorigenesis, possibly in the transformation of low to high-grade astrocytoma (i.e. GBM. Further studies are warranted to determine the precise role of Id4 in glial neoplasia and its potential use in targeted therapy for GBM.

  6. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  7. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  8. SOFT TISSUE SARCOMAS – A CROS S SECTIONAL STUDY AT MNJIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are an uncommon group of cancers with a wide distribution in the various anatomical regions of the body and even wider and confusing range of histopathological diagnosis. AIMS: To study the mode of presentation, histology, treatment modalities use d and outcomes both in terms of function and disease free survivals of all patients treated in the Department of surgical oncology in our Institute. MATERIALS & METHODS: All patients of soft tissue sarcoma presenting to out department were studied and data collected in a proforma. Histology was established by Trucut/open biopsy. Patients after clinical examination were evaluated f or distant disease in lungs by x - ray chest followed by CT scan . RESULTS: Symptomatology and anatomical location in our study was similar to world literature but stage of presentation and tumour size is advanced in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in our study presented late, probably due to lack of access to medical care, delay in diagnosis and delay in referral. Hence higher incidence of amputations and also higher incidence of need for reconstruction. Successful utilization of multi - modality treatment and availability of good reconstruction ensured good functional outcome.

  9. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  10. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hauner, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  11. Serum adipokines and adipose tissue distribution in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric; Grandclément, Emilie; Gaugler, Béatrice; Michel, Fabrice; Wendling, Daniel; Saas, Philippe; Dumoulin, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are inflammatory rheumatic diseases that may modify body composition. Adipose tissue has the ability to release a wide range of products involved in physiologic functions, but also in various pathological processes, including the inflammatory/immune response. RA and AS are both associated with the development of cardiovascular complications. It is has been established that central/abdominal, and particularly intra-abdominal or visceral adiposity is closely linked to cardiovascular events. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the body composition of patients with RA or AS compared to healthy controls (HC), with a special emphasis on the visceral region. In parallel, we measured adipose products or adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and its high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, resistin, and ghrelin, a gastric peptide that plays a role in energetic balance. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and atherogenic index were used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. One hundred and twelve subjects were enrolled (30 patients with RA, 31 with AS, and 51 HC). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine total fat mass and lean mass, adiposity, fat in the android and gynoid regions, and visceral fat. Patients and HC did not differ in terms of body mass index. On the contrary, adiposity was increased in RA (p = 0.01) while visceral fat was also increased, but only in women (p = 0.01). Patients with AS tended to have lower total fat mass (p = 0.07) and higher lean mass compared to HC (p = 0.07). Leptin and leptin/fat mass were decreased in male patients with AS (p ghrelin in any group of patients. HOMA-IR and the atherogenic index were not modified in RA and AS. These results confirm that body composition was altered in RA and AS, affecting distinct soft tissue compartments. The effect of the increased visceral adipose tissue on

  12. Experimental study on ablating goat liver tissue with ultrasound imaging guided percutaneous irreversible electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying LIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the proper method of percutaneous irreversible electroporation(IRE to ablate goat liver tissue under ultrasonic guidance,and observe the features of ultrasound imaging and histological changes.Methods The pulse electric fields(PEFs with permanent duration(100 μs,frequency(1Hz,voltage(2000V and pulses(120 pieces were applied to the electrodes,and the electrodes were placed into goats’ liver under ultrasound guidance through the animal skin to the target area.The treated area was observed by real-time ultrasound scanning,and the histopathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE staining under light microscope at the time of 0h and 24h after IRE ablation.The circumscribed ablated area was compared with that of finite element modeling(FEM calculation method.Results Ultrasound imaging guidance was accurate in focusing on the target area.Imaging captured by the ultrasound after IRE procedure was quite differen