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Sample records for tissue fatty acid

  1. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  2. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  3. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  5. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

  6. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance: the DIOGENES study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunesova, M.; Hlavaty, P.; Tvrzicka, E.; Stankova, B.; Kalouskova, P.; Viguerie, N.; Larsen, T.M.; van Baak, M.A.; Jebb, S.A.; Martinez, J.A.; Pfeiffer, A.F.; Kafatos, A.; Handjieva Darlenska, T.; Hill, M.; Langin, D.; Zak, A.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. To assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES

  7. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7......), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower...

  8. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  9. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may prov...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  10. Maternal adipose tissue becomes a source of fatty acids for the fetus in fasted pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-11-10

    The utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by the fetus may exceed its capacity to synthesize them from essential fatty acids, so they have to come from the mother. Since adipose tissue lipolytic activity is greatly accelerated under fasting conditions during late pregnancy, the aim was to determine how 24 h fasting in late pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions affects maternal and fetal tissue fatty acid profiles. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given isoenergetic diets containing 10% palm-, sunflower-, olive- or fish-oil. Half the rats were fasted from day 19 of pregnancy and all were studied on day 20. Triacylglycerols (TAG), glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed by enzymatic methods and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fasting caused increments in maternal plasma NEFA, glycerol and TAG, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolytic activity. Maternal adipose fatty acid profiles paralleled the respective diets and, with the exception of animals on the olive oil diet, maternal fasting increased the plasma concentration of most fatty acids. This maintains the availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during brain development. The results show the major role played by maternal adipose tissue in the storage of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy, thus ensuring adequate availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during late pregnancy, even when food supply is restricted.

  11. Fatty Acids and NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammation in Metabolic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Jessica C; Lyons, Claire L; Kennedy, Elaine B; Kirwan, Anna M; Roche, Helen M

    2017-08-21

    Worldwide obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions and significantly contribute to the growing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Chronic low-grade inflammation, a hallmark of obesity, involves immune cell infiltration into expanding adipose tissue. In turn, obesity-associated inflammation can lead to complications in other metabolic tissues (e.g., liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas) through lipotoxicity and inflammatory signaling networks. Importantly, although numerous signaling pathways are known to integrate metabolic and inflammatory processes, the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is now noted to be a key regulator of metabolic inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome can be influenced by various metabolites, including fatty acids. Specifically, although saturated fatty acids may promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have recently been shown to impede NLRP3 activity. Therefore, the NLRP3 inflammasome and associated metabolic inflammation have key roles in the relationships among fatty acids, metabolites, and metabolic disease. This review focuses on the ability of fatty acids to influence inflammation and the NLRP3 inflammasome across numerous metabolic tissues in the body. In addition, we explore some perspectives for the future, wherein recent work in the immunology field clearly demonstrates that metabolic reprogramming defines immune cell functionality. Although there is a paucity of information about how diet and fatty acids modulate this process, it is possible that this will open up a new avenue of research relating to nutrient-sensitive metabolic inflammation.

  12. Nitro-fatty acid pharmacokinetics in the adipose tissue compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Jorkasky, Diane K; Li, Lihua; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A

    2017-02-01

    Electrophilic nitro-FAs (NO 2 -FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports posttranslational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO 2 -FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael addition with cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein, we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[ 14 C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over 2 weeks. To better define the metabolism and incorporation of NO 2 -FAs and their metabolites in adipose tissue lipids, adipocyte cultures were supplemented with 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO 2 -OA), nitro-stearic acid, nitro-conjugated linoleic acid, and nitro-linolenic acid. Then, quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed on adipocyte neutral and polar lipid fractions, both before and after acid hydrolysis of esterified FAs. NO 2 -FAs preferentially incorporated in monoacyl- and diacylglycerides, while reduced metabolites were highly enriched in triacylglycerides. This differential distribution profile was confirmed in vivo in the adipose tissue of NO 2 -OA-treated mice. This pattern of NO 2 -FA deposition lends new insight into the unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacologic actions that could be expected for this chemically-reactive class of endogenous signaling mediators and synthetic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  14. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  15. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  16. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from...

  17. Tissue Fatty Acid Profile is Differently Modulated from Olive Oil and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in ApcMin/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutino, Valeria; Caruso, Maria G; De Leonardis, Giampiero; De Nunzio, Valentina; Notarnicola, Maria

    2017-11-16

    Fatty acid profile can be considered an appropriate biomarker for investigating the relations between the patterns of fatty acid metabolism and specific diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to test the effects of diets enriched with olive oil and omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid profile in intestinal tissue of ApcMin/+ mice. Three groups of animals were considered: control group, receiving a standard diet; olive oilgroup, receiving a standard diet enriched with olive oil; omega-3 group, receiving a standard diet enriched with salmon fish. Tissue fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography method. Olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs in the diet differently affect the tissue fatty acid profile. Compared to control group, the levels of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) were lower in olive oil group, while an increase of SFAs was found in omega-3 group. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) levels were enhanced after olive oil treatment, and in particular, a significant increase of oleic acid levels was detected; MUFAs levels were instead reduced in omega-3 group in line with the decrease of oleic acid levels. The total PUFAs levels were lower in olive oil respect to control group. Moreover, a significant induction of Saturation Index (SI) levels was observed after omega-3 PUFAs treatment, while its levels were reduced in mice fed with olive oil. Our data demonstrated a different effect of olive oil and omega-3 PUFAs on tissue lipid profile in APCMin/+ mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Metabolic adaptations during lactogenesis. Fatty acid synthesis in rabbit mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenberger, R. W.; Bauman, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    1. Mammary tissue was obtained from rabbits at various stages of pregnancy and lactation and used for tissue-slice incubations (to measure the rate of fatty acid synthesis and CO2 production) and to determine relevant enzymic activities. A biphasic adaptation in fatty acid synthetic capacity during lactogenesis was noted. 2. The first lactogenic response occurred between day 15 and 24 of pregnancy. Over this period fatty acid synthesis (from acetate) increased 14-fold and the proportions of fatty acids synthesized changed to those characteristic of milk fat (77–86% as C8:0+C10:0 acids). 3. The second lactogenic response occurred post partum as indicated by increased rates of fatty acid synthesis and CO2 production (from acetate and glucose) and increased enzymic activities. 4. Major increases in enzymic activities between mid-pregnancy and lactation were noted for ATP citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.8), acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2), fatty acid synthetase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.44). Smaller increases in activity occurred with glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8) and NADP+–isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) and the activity of NADP+–malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.40) was negligible at all periods tested. 5. During pregnancy and lactation there was a close temporal relationship between fatty acid synthetic capacity and the activities of ATP citrate lyase (r=0.94) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (r=0.90). PMID:4154742

  19. Fatty acids of polar lipids in heart tissue are good taxonomic markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid profiles in total, neutral and polar lipids in the heart tissues of five freshwater fish species (Nile perch Lates niloticus, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, marbled lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus, Bagrus docmak and African catfish Clarias gariepinus) from Lakes Victoria and Kyoga were determined ...

  20. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  1. Fatty acid oxidation is required for active and quiescent brown adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic programing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2 A-/- ), that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243) or thyroid hormone (GC-1) agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C) stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2 A-/- adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2 A-/- mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2 A-/- BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2 A-/- mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  2. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  3. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  4. Metabolic adaptations during lactogenesis. Fatty acid and lactose synthesis in cow mammary tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenberger, R W; Bauman, D E; Nelson, D R

    1973-11-01

    1. Mammary-tissue biopsies were obtained from multiparous cows at 30 and 7 days pre partum and 7 and 40 days post partum. Investigations of the effect of lactogenesis on fatty acid and lactose synthesis involved measurements of biosynthetic capacity (tissue-slice incubations in vitro) and activities of relevant enzymes. 2. Fatty acid synthesis from acetate increased over 20-fold from 30 days pre partum to 40 days post partum. Changes in the lipogenic capacity of mammary-tissue slices more closely paralleled increases in the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.1) than of other enzymes involved in acetate incorporation into fatty acids or in NADPH generation. 3. Lactose biosynthesis by mammary-tissue slices, lactose synthetase activity (EC 2.4.1.22) and alpha-lactalbumin concentration were all negligible at 30 days pre partum but increased 2.5-4-fold between 7 days pre partum and 40 days post partum. Phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9) and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2) had substantial activities at 30 days pre partum and increased less dramatically during lactogenesis. 4. Results are consistent with acetyl-CoA carboxylase and perhaps acetyl-CoA synthetase representing the regulatory enzyme(s) in fatty acid synthesis, with lactose synthetase (alpha-lactalbumin) serving a similar function in lactose biosynthesis.

  5. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  6. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Böhm

    Full Text Available Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

  7. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were......Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...

  8. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam

    2013-01-01

    .77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.10) of marine n-3 PUFA compared with the lowest tertile. Similar trends, but also not statistically significant, were found separately for eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant association between the content......OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study...

  9. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  10. Habitual dietary intake of fatty acids are associated with leptin gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of patients without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hosein; Samadi, Mohammad; Yuzbashian, Emad; Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshafrooz, Afsoon; Mirmiran, Parvin; Khalaj, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by Real-Time PCR. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and insulin, energy-adjusted dietary intake of SFA was positively and MUFA and n-3 fatty acids were negatively associated with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues leptin gene expression. Besides, a significant negative association of PUFA, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids with leptin mRNA from visceral adipose tissue were observed. In order to better interpretations of the results, the participants were allocated two groups including non-obese (BMI fatty acids had a negative association with visceral leptin gene expression. Habitual intake of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, suggesting an important role of quality and quantity of fatty acids intake in adipose tissue to regulate leptin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acid alterations caused by PCBs (Aroclor 1242) and copper in adipose tissue around lymph nodes of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, R.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid composition was determined in adipose tissue surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 1 mg Aroclor 1242 in food day -1 for 28 days) and/or copper (62 mg kg -1 food). These specific adipose tissues are known to have functional relationships with lymphocytes, and proliferation of cultured lymphocytes is influenced by the quality of fatty acids available in media. In six experimental groups the diet was based on freshwater fish, and in two groups it was based on marine fish. These basal diets differed in terms of fatty acid composition and content of fat-soluble vitamins A 1 and E. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids (PL) responded to PCBs more than that of triacylglycerols (TG). The effects of copper were small. In female minks fed a diet of freshwater fish, the proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL decreased by 5 wt.% due to PCBs, and the acids seemed to be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids (9 wt.% increase of total). This decrease of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL was milder in minks on the marine fish diet rich in fat-soluble vitamins. In TG of minks on the marine diet, however, PCBs decreased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The possibility that these alterations in the fatty acid metabolism of adipose tissue supporting the lymph nodes affect immune function during PCB exposure should be studied further. Interestingly, the quality of the fish diet affected the magnitude of the alterations. The fatty acid responses may also differ between males and females. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids promote fatty acid utilization and production of pro-resolving lipid mediators in alternatively activated adipose tissue macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rombaldová, Martina; Janovská, Petra; Kopecký, Jan; Kuda, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 490, č. 3 (2017), s. 1080-1085 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05151S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTAUSA17173 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue * macrophages * omega-3 PUFA * fatty acid re-esterification * lipolysis * lipid mediators Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  13. Parenteral lipid emulsions in guinea pigs differentially influence plasma and tissue levels of fatty acids, squalene, cholesterol, and phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kevin; Xu, Zhidong; Walker, Candace; Pavlina, Thomas; McGrath, Sheila; Zaloga, Gary; Siddiqui, Rafat

    2014-08-01

    Lipid emulsions are made by mixing vegetable and/or fish oils with egg yolk and contain different types and amounts of fatty acids and sterols. This study assessed the effects of oral diet, soybean oil (SO)-, fish oil (FO)-, a mixture of olive and soybean oil (OOSO)-, and a mixture of fish, olive, coconut, and soybean oil (FOCS)-based emulsions on plasma triacylglycerols and plasma and tissue fatty acid and sterol content following acute and chronic intravenous administration in the guinea pig. Upon acute administration, peak triacylglycerols were highest with SO and lowest with OOSO. Upon chronic administration, the plasma triglyceride levels did not increase in any group over that of the controls. Fatty acid levels varied greatly between organs of animals on the control diets and organs of animals following acute or chronic lipid administration. Squalene levels increased in plasma following acute administration of OOSO, but plasma squalene levels were similar to control in all emulsion groups following chronic administration. Total plasma phytosterol levels were increased in the SO, OOSO, and FOCS groups following both acute and chronic infusions, whereas phytosterols were not increased following FO infusion. Total phytosterol levels were higher in liver, lung, kidney and adipose tissue following SO and OOSO. Levels were not increased in tissues after FO and FOCS infusion. These results indicate that fatty acid and sterol contents vary greatly among organs and that no one tissue reflects the fatty acid or sterol composition of other tissues, suggesting that different organs regulate these compounds differently.

  14. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  15. Adipose tissue fatty acids present in dairy fat and risk of stroke: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-01-01

    of adipose tissue biopsies was determined by gas chromatography and specific fatty acids were expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Stroke cases were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and the diagnoses were individually verified. We recorded 2108 stroke cases of which 1745 were......The role of dairy fat for the risk of stroke is not yet clear. Adipose tissue reflects long-term fatty acid intake and metabolism. We, therefore, investigated associations for percentages of adipose tissue fatty acids, for which dairy products are a major source (12:0, 14:0, 14:1 cis-9, 15:0, 17......:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), with incident total stroke and stroke subtypes. We conducted a case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including all incident stroke cases (n = 2108) and a random sample of the total cohort (n = 3186). The fatty acid composition...

  16. Effects of male hypogonadism on regional adipose tissue fatty acid storage and lipogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Santosa

    Full Text Available Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1 underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2 consumed an experimental meal containing [(3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation; 3 received infusions of [U-(13C]palmitate and [1-(14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (FFA storage (adipose biopsies. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS, and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05. Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans.

  17. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Rapeseed and Linseed Oil on the Composition of Fatty Acids in Porcine Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with rapeseed and linseed oils on changes of the fatty acid profile in porcine meat. The research was conducted on 45 fattening pigs divided into three groups. Group 1 was given a diet with 2% of sunflower oil, group 2 was given a diet with 2% of rapeseed oil and group 3 was given a diet supplemented with 2% of linseed oil. The highest content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the most favourable ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA was determined in the meat of pigs that were fed diets with linseed oil (P < 0.001, whereas the meat of pigs that were fed diets with sunflower oil had an unfavourable ratio of these acids. The results point out the necessity of finding out optimal portions of forages rich in PUFA to improve the ratio of fatty acids in porcine muscle tissue.

  18. Adipose tissue omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid content and breast cancer in the euramic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, N.; Veer, P. van 't; Strain, J.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Huttunen, J.K.; Navajas, J.F.-C.; Martin, B.C.; Thamm, M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kohlmeier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid content of adipose tissue in postmenopausal breast cancer cases and controls from five European countries in the European Community Multicenter Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer (EURAMIC) breast cancer study (1991-1992) was used to explore the hypothesis that

  19. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows

  20. Similar mechanisms of fatty acid transfer from human anal rodent fatty acid-binding proteins to membranes: liver, intestine, heart muscle, and adipose tissue FABPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storch, J.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Hsu, K.T.

    2002-01-01

    The mammalian fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are thought to be important for the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in numerous cell types. The transfer of FA from different members of the FABP family to membranes has been shown to occur by two distinct mechanisms, an aqueous

  1. On the role of catalase in the oxidation of tissue fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, D.; Masters, C.

    1984-01-01

    The role of catalase in lipid metabolism has been studied by means of a comparison of the turnover characteristics of the major lipid classes in the normal mouse with those of animals in which the catalase activity had been inhibited and blocked by aminotriazole and allylisopropylacetamide. Double isotope ratios were determined in the lipid fractions of several tissues following the injection of labeled glycerol, and a number of significant differences were identified between these treatments. Since catalase is recognized as an integral component of the peroxisomal pathway of fatty acid oxidation, these results may be taken as indicating that interruption of the process of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in this manner cause extensive perturbations of lipid metabolism in the living animal, and these perturbations extend well beyond those tissues where the predominant localization of these organelles occurs. The concept which derives from these data--that of a significant regulatory role of peroxisomes in relation to the overall balance of lipid metabolism in the animal body--is described and discussed

  2. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumalla, Ravi Kumar; Gunasekaran, Manoj Kumar; Padhan, Jibesh Kumar; Bencharif, Karima; Gence, Lydie; Festy, Franck; Césari, Maya; Roche, Régis; Hoareau, Laurence

    2012-12-21

    On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid--LA and PA) and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid--EPA, DHA and OA) with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1). In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA), we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  3. Fatty acids do not pay the toll: effect of SFA and PUFA on human adipose tissue and mature adipocytes inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murumalla Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On the basis that high fat diet induces inflammation in adipose tissue, we wanted to test the effect of dietary saturated and polysunsaturated fatty acids on human adipose tissue and adipocytes inflammation. Moreover we wanted to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in this pathway. Methods Human adipose tissue and adipocytes primary cultures were treated with endotoxin-free BSA conjugated with SFA (lauric acid and palmitic acid - LA and PA and PUFA (eicosapentaeneic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and oleic acid - EPA, DHA and OA with or without LPS. Cytokines were then assayed by ELISA (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1. In order to determine if TLR2 and TLR4 are activated by fatty acid (FA, we used HEK-Blue cells transfected by genes from TLR2 or TLR4 pathways associated with secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene. Results None of the FA tested in HEK-Blue cells were able to activate TLR2 or TLR4, which is concordant with the fact that after FA treatment, adipose tissue and adipocytes cytokines levels remain the same as controls. However, all the PUFA tested: DHA, EPA and to a lesser extent OA down-regulated TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human adipose tissue and adipocytes cultures. Conclusions This study first confirms that FA do not activate TLR2 and TLR4. Moreover by using endotoxin-free BSA, both SFA and PUFA tested were not proinflammatory in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. More interestingly we showed that some PUFA exert an anti-inflammatory action in human adipose tissue and adipocytes model. These results are important since they clarify the relationship between dietary fatty acids and inflammation linked to obesity.

  4. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  5. Proteomic Upregulation of Fatty Acid Synthase and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 and Identification of Cancer- and Race-Specific Pathway Associations in Human Prostate Cancer Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jennifer S; von Lersner, Ariana K; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    Protein profiling studies of prostate cancer have been widely used to characterize molecular differences between diseased and non-diseased tissues. When combined with pathway analysis, profiling approaches are able to identify molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer, group patients by cancer subtype, and predict prognosis. This strategy can also be implemented to study prostate cancer in very specific populations, such as African Americans who have higher rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality than other racial groups in the United States. In this study, age-, stage-, and Gleason score-matched prostate tumor specimen from African American and Caucasian American men, along with non-malignant adjacent prostate tissue from these same patients, were compared. Protein expression changes and altered pathway associations were identified in prostate cancer generally and in African American prostate cancer specifically. In comparing tumor to non-malignant samples, 45 proteins were significantly cancer-associated and 3 proteins were significantly downregulated in tumor samples. Notably, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (FABP5) were upregulated in human prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their known functions in prostate cancer progression. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) was also upregulated in tumor samples. The Metastasis Associated Protein 3 (MTA3) pathway was significantly enriched in tumor samples compared to non-malignant samples. While the current experiment was unable to detect statistically significant differences in protein expression between African American and Caucasian American samples, differences in overrepresentation and pathway enrichment were found. Structural components (Cytoskeletal Proteins and Extracellular Matrix Protein protein classes, and Biological Adhesion Gene Ontology (GO) annotation) were overrepresented in African American but not Caucasian American tumors. Additionally, 5

  6. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  7. The Implication of PGC-1α on Fatty Acid Transport across Plasma and Mitochondrial Membranes in the Insulin Sensitive Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Supruniuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α coactivator plays a decisive role in the maintenance of lipid balance via engagement in numerous metabolic processes (i.e., Krebs cycle, β-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain. It constitutes a link between fatty acids import and their complete oxidation or conversion into bioactive fractions through the coordination of both the expression and subcellular relocation of the proteins involved in fatty acid transmembrane movement. Studies on cell lines and/or animal models highlighted the existence of an upregulation of the total and mitochondrial FAT/CD36, FABPpm and FATPs content in skeletal muscle in response to PGC-1α stimulation. On the other hand, the association between PGC-1α level or activity and the fatty acids transport in the heart and adipocytes is still elusive. So far, the effects of PGC-1α on the total and sarcolemmal expression of FAT/CD36, FATP1, and FABPpm in cardiomyocytes have been shown to vary in relation to the type of PPAR that was coactivated. In brown adipose tissue (BAT PGC-1α knockdown was linked with a decreased level of lipid metabolizing enzymes and fatty acid transporters (FAT/CD36, FABP3, whereas the results obtained for white adipose tissue (WAT remain contradictory. Furthermore, dysregulation in lipid turnover is often associated with insulin intolerance, which suggests the coactivator's potential role as a therapeutic target.

  8. Dietary linseed oil and selenate affect the concentration of fatty acids in selected tissues of sheep

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czauderna, M.; Kowalczyk, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 389-401 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:State Committee for Scientific Research(PL) 3PO6Z 034 22 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : selenium * linseed oil * fatty acid Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  9. Hepatic fat fraction and visceral adipose tissue fatty acid composition in mice: Quantification with 7.0T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporq, Benjamin; Lambert, Simon A; Ronot, Maxime; Boucenna, Imane; Colinart, Pierre; Cauchy, Francois; Vilgrain, Valerie; Paradis, Valerie; Van Beers, Bernard E

    2016-08-01

    To develop an MRI method for quantifying hepatic fat content and visceral adipose tissue fatty acid composition in mice on a 7.0T preclinical system. MR acquisitions were performed with a multiple echo spoiled gradient echo with bipolar readout gradients. After phase correction, the number of double bounds (ndb) and the number of methylene interrupted double bounds (nmidb) were quantified with a model including eight fat components, and parametric maps of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were derived. The model included a complex error map to correct for the phase errors and the amplitude modulation caused by the bipolar acquisition. Validations were performed in fat-water emulsions and vegetable oils. In vivo, the feasibility was evaluated in mice receiving a high-fat diet containing primarily saturated fatty acids and a low-fat diet containing primarily unsaturated fatty acids. Linear regressions showed strong agreements between ndb and nmidb quantified with MRI and the theoretical values calculated using oil compositions, as well as between the proton density and the fat fractions in the emulsions. At MRI, the mouse liver fat fraction was smaller in mice fed the low-fat diet compared with mice fed the high-fat diet. In visceral adipose tissue, saturated fatty acids were significantly higher, whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly lower in mice fed the low-fat diet compared with mice fed the high-fat diet. It is feasible to simultaneously quantify hepatic fat content and visceral adipose tissue fatty acid composition with 7.0T MRI in mice. Magn Reson Med 76:510-518, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium

  10. Evidence for a high fatty acid synthesis activity in interscapular brown adipose tissue of genetically obese Zucker rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Lavau, M; Bazin, R; Karaoghlanian, Z; Guichard, C

    1982-01-01

    Obese (fa/fa) rats (30 days old) exhibited a 50% increase in the weight of interscapular brown adipose tissue compared with their lean (Fa/fa) littermates. The tissue weight increase was accounted for by an increased fat content. Lipogenesis in vivo, as assessed by the incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into lipid, was increased 5-fold in brown adipose tissue of obese as compared with lean rats. Accordingly, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate-cleavage enzyme and malic enzyme in...

  11. Effect of spawning on furan fatty acid profile of edible muscle and organ tissues from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Balzano, Michele; Colella, Sabrina; Santojanni, Alberto; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-04-24

    The total fatty acid compositions, especially the furan fatty acid (F-acids) profile, from edible muscle (fillet) and organ tissues (brain, eye, ovaries, and testes) of spawning and nonspawning sardine and anchovy were examined. The spawning season had no effect on F-acid profiles of the fillet and all organ tissues, for both fishes. However, differences among the F-acid fraction of the organ tissues were revealed. The F-acid portion was less than 1% of total fatty acid in all samples. Five F-acid congeners were detected in the fillet, eye, and gonads, while the brain contained only four F-acids. Unlike the F-acids, spawning season affected the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) abundance in fillet and gonads. DHA enrichment occurred in fillets and gonads from spawning sardine and anchovy. The ratio ω3 PUFA/ω6 PUFA decreases between spawning and nonspawning fillets, thus the fillets from spawning fish have higher nutritional value.

  12. Dietary fatty acid composition influences tissue lipid profiles and regulation of body temperature in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-08-01

    Many avian species reduce their body temperature (T(b)) to conserve energy during periods of inactivity, and we recently characterized how ambient temperature (T(a)) and nutritional stress interact with one another to influence physiologically controlled hypothermic responses in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In the present study, we examined how the fatty acid (FA) composition of the diet influences the FA composition of phospholipids in major organs and how these affect controlled hypothermic responses and metabolic rates in fasted birds. For 5 weeks prior to fasting, quail were fed a standard diet and gavaged each morning with 0.7 ml of water (control), or a vegetable oil comprising saturated fatty acids (SFA; coconut oil), or unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; canola oil). Birds were then fasted for 4 days at a T(a) of 15°C. We found that, while fasting, both photophase and scotophase T(b) decreased significantly more in the SFA treatment group than in the control group; apparently the former down-regulated their T(b) set point. This deeper hypothermic response was correlated with changes in the phospholipid composition of the skeletal muscle and liver, which contained significantly more oleic acid (18:1) and less arachidonic acid (20:4), respectively. Our data imply that these two FAs may be associated with thermoregulation.

  13. Protective role of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, Rajendran; Sundaram, Ramalingam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2013-01-05

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. The association of hyperglycemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone on lipid profile and tissue fatty acid changes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and fatty acid composition were estimated in plasma, liver and kidneys of control and experimental groups of rats. Oral administration of 20-OH ecdysone at a dose of 5mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and elevation of high density lipoprotein, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferasein comparison with diabetic untreated rats. Moreover, administration of 20-OH ecdysone to diabetic rats also decreased the concentrations of fatty acids, viz., palmitic, stearic (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1), whereas linolenic (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) were elevated. The antihyperlipidemic effect of 20-OH ecdysone was compared with glibenclamide a well-known antihyperglycemic drug. The result of the present study indicates that 20-OH ecdysone showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fat digestibility, nitrogen retention, and fatty acid profiles in blood and tissues of post-weaning piglets fed interesterified fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Jakobsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a designer fat as to changes in triacylglycerol structure in dietary fat on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profile of plasma, erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined in four groups of post-weaning piglets. The test...... fats added by 10% (w/w) to the diets were: R1 regiospecific structured fats with decanoic acid mainly located in the sn-1/3 positions and a long-chain fatty acid from rapeseed oil in the sn-2 position, R2 similar fat subjected to chemical randomization, R3 physical mixture of tridecanoin and rapeseed...... oil, and R4 rapeseed oil. The piglets were weaned at 28 days of age, and after one week of adaptation faeces and urine were collected quantitatively during three periods each of 7 days, in which the piglets were kept in metabolism cages for measurement of nutrient and energy digestibility and protein...

  15. The cold-induced lipokine 12,13-diHOME promotes fatty acid transport into brown adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynes, Matthew D; Leiria, Luiz O; Lundh, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT....... Mechanistically, 12,13-diHOME increased fatty acid (FA) uptake into brown adipocytes by promoting the translocation of the FA transporters FATP1 and CD36 to the cell membrane. These data suggest that 12,13-diHOME, or a functional analog, could be developed as a treatment for metabolic disorders....

  16. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  17. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. McNabney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance.

  18. Stable carbon isotope composition of perirenal adipose tissue fatty acids from Engadine sheep grazing either mountain or lowland pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, E K; Spangenberg, J E; Willems, H; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2012-03-01

    To provide further insights into ruminant lipid digestion and metabolism, and into cis-9,trans-11 18:2 synthesis, 12 growing Engadine lambs grazing either mountain pasture (2,250 m above sea level; n = 6) or lowland pasture (400 m above sea level; n = 6) were studied. Both pastures consisted exclusively of C(3) plants. Before the experiment, all animals grazed a common pasture for 6 wk. Grasses and perirenal adipose tissues of the sheep were analyzed for fatty acids by gas chromatography. Stable C-isotope ratios (δ(13)C values in ‰ vs. the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite standard) were determined in the composite samples by elemental analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13)C of the individual fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ(13)C value of the entire mountain pasture grass was -27.5‰ (SD 0.31), whereas that of the lowland pasture grass was -30.0‰ (SD 0.07). This difference was reflected in the perirenal adipose tissues of the corresponding sheep (P perirenal fat differed between mountain and lowland lambs (P perirenal cis-9,trans-11 18:2 were of endogenous origin and discrimination against (13)C occurred during Δ(9)-desaturation. The same discrimination was indicated by the isotopic shift between 16:0 and cis-9 16:1 in the mountain grazing group. Furthermore, the δ(13)C values of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 were smaller relative to the precursor fatty acids in the mountain lambs compared with the lowland group. This result suggests a reduced extent of biohydrogenation in lambs grazing on mountain grass in comparison with those grazing on lowland grass. This was supported by the smaller cis-9,trans-11 18:2 concentrations in total fatty acids found in the adipose tissues of the lowland lambs (P < 0.001). The results of this study demonstrate that natural differences between δ(13)C values of swards from different pastures and the adipose tissue fatty acids could be used as tracers in studies of

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  20. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlor...

  1. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  2. Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporations of [1-carbon-14] acetate, [1-carbon-14] propionate, n-[1-carbon-14] butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy[3-carbon-14] butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome

  3. Effects of volatile fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.H.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1972-01-01

    Our interest in the aetiology of ketosis in cattle recently led us to investigate possible metabolic control mechanisms of fat mobilization in bovine adipose tissue. Acetic, propionic and butyric acid are the major sources of metabolic energy made available to the adult ruminant by digestion

  4. Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Arieli, A; Lehrer, H; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Moallem, U

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding an increased amount of extruded flaxseed with high proportions of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to transition dairy cows on performance, energy balance, and FA composition in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. Multiparous Israeli-Holstein dry cows (n = 44) at 256 d of pregnancy were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) control cows were fed prepartum a dry-cow diet and postpartum a lactating-cow diet that consisted of 5.8% ether extracts; and (2) extruded flaxseed (EF) cows were supplemented prepartum with 1 kg of extruded flaxseed (7.9% dry matter)/cow per d, and postpartum were fed a diet containing 9.2% of the same supplement. The EF supplement was fed until 100 d in milk. On average, each pre- and postpartum EF cow consumed 160.9 and 376.2g of C18:3n-3/d, respectively. Postpartum dry matter intake was 3.8% higher in the EF cows. Milk production was 6.4% higher and fat content was 0.4% U lower in the EF group than in the controls, with no differences in fat and protein yields. Energy balance in the EF cows was more positive than in the controls; however, no differences were observed in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma. Compared with controls, EF cows had greater proportions of C18:3n-3 in plasma and adipose tissue. The proportion of n-3 FA in milk fat was 3.7-fold higher in the EF cows, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased from 8.3 in controls to 2.3 in the EF cows. Within-group tests revealed that the C18:3n-3 content in milk fat in the EF cows was negatively correlated with milk fat percentage (r = -0.91) and yield (r = -0.89). However, no decrease in de novo synthesis of less than 16-carbon FA was found in the EF group, whereas C16:0 yields were markedly decreased. It appears that the enrichment of C18:3n-3 in milk fat was limited to approximately 2%, and the potential for increasing this n-3 FA in milk is higher for cows with lower milk fat contents. In conclusion, feeding

  5. Altered Levels of Fatty Acids and Inflammatory and Metabolic Mediators in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosshaug, Linn E; Dahl, Christen P; Risnes, Ivar; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Nymo, Ståle; Geiran, Odd; Yndestad, Arne; Gullestad, Lars; Aukrust, Pål; Vinge, Leif E; Øie, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Adipose tissue has endocrine properties, secreting a wide range of mediators into the circulation, including factors involved in cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the potential role of adipose tissue in heart failure (HF), and the aim of this study was to investigate epicardial (EAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue in HF patients. Thirty patients with systolic HF and 30 patients with normal systolic function undergoing thoracic surgery were included in the study. Plasma was sampled and examined with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, whereas SAT and EAT biopsies were collected and examined by means of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography. Significantly higher expressions of mRNA encoding interleukin-6, adrenomedullin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, and fatty acid (FA)-binding protein 3, as well as higher levels of monounsaturated FA and palmitoleic acid, were seen in the EAT of HF patients, whereas the levels of docosahexaenoic acid were lower. Palmitoleic acid levels in EAT were correlated with 2 parameters of cardiac remodeling: increasing left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our results demonstrate adipose tissue depot-specific alterations of synthesis of FA and inflammatory and metabolic mediators in systolic HF patients. EAT may be a source of increased circulatory and myocardial levels of these mediators through endocrine actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  7. Inter-tissue differences in fatty acid incorporation as a result of dietary oil manipulation in Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid profile analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that may complement traditional stomach contents analysis. While recent studies have shown that the liver of sharks fed different diets have differing fatty acid profiles, the degree to which diet is reflected in shark blood serum and muscle tissue is still poorly understood. An 18-week controlled feeding experiment was undertaken using captive Port Jackson sharks (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Sharks were fed exclusive diets of artificial pellets treated with fish or poultry oil and sampled every 6 weeks. The fatty acid profiles from liver, blood serum, and muscle were affected differently, with the period from which significant differences were observed varying by tissue and diet type. The total fatty acid profiles of fish oil and poultry oil fed sharks were significantly different from week 12 onwards in the liver and blood serum, but significant differences were only observed by week 18 in the muscle tissue of sharks fed different diets. The drivers of dissimilarity which aligned with dietary input were 14:0, 18:2n-6, 20:5n-3, 18:1n-9 and 22:6n-3 in the liver and blood serum. Dietary fatty acids accumulated more consistently in the liver than in the blood plasma or muscle, likely due to its role as the central organ for fat processing and storage. Blood serum and muscle fatty acid profiles were influenced by diet, but fluctuated over-time. The low level of correlation between diet and muscle FA profiles is likely a result of low levels of fat (shark muscle tissues. Our findings describe inter-tissue differences in the incorporation of fatty acids from the diet to consumer, which should be taken into account when interpreting dietary patterns from fatty acid profiles.

  8. Effects of dietary fat saturation on fatty acid composition and gene transcription in different tissues of Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Fernández, A I; Rodríguez, C; Barragán, C; Martín-Palomino, P; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2015-04-01

    The effect of two diets, respectively enriched with SFA (S) and PUFA (P), on FA tissue composition and gene expression was studied in fattened Iberian pigs. The FA composition of adipose, muscular and liver tissues was affected by dietary treatment. S group showed higher MUFA and MUFA/SFA ratio and lower PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio than P group in all analyzed tissues. In muscle and liver the extracted lipids were separated into neutral lipids and polar lipid fractions which showed significantly different responses to the dietary treatment, especially in liver where no significant effect of diet was observed in NL fraction. The expression of six candidate genes related to lipogenesis and FA oxidation was analyzed by qPCR. In liver, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), acetyl CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and malic enzyme 1 (ME1) genes showed higher expression in S group. SCD, ACACA, ME1, and fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene expression levels showed a wide variation across the tested tissues, with much higher expression levels observed in adipose tissue than other tissues. Tissue FA profile and gene expression results support the deposition of dietary FA, the lipogenic effect of dietary saturated fat in liver and the employment of saturated dietary fat for endogenous synthesis of MUFA in all the analyzed tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and breast cancer risk: a case-cohort study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Petra M; Christensen, Jeppe H; Schmidt, Erik B

    2009-01-01

    with the lowest quintile, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.64-1.43) for total marine n-3 PUFA, 0.84 (95% CI 0.58-1.23) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 1.08 (95% CI 0.73-1.58) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). CONCLUSION: This study does not indicate any association between the content of total......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the content of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in adipose tissue, a biomarker for the long-term intake of seafood, and the subsequent development of breast cancer (BC). DESIGN: We designed a case-cohort study...

  10. New Insights into the Role of Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fatty Liver Disease: Modulation by Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acid-derived Lipid Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan eClària

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is causally linked to a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Prolonged, unremitting inflammation in this tissue has a direct impact on insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. liver and its timely resolution is a critical step toward reducing the prevalence of related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article describes the current state-of-the-art knowledge and novel insights into the role of macrophages in adipose tissue inflammation, with special emphasis on the progressive changes in macrophage polarization observed over the course of obesity. In addition, this article extends the discussion to the contribution of Kupffer cells, the liver resident macrophages, to metabolic liver disease. Special attention is given to the modulation of macrophage responses by omega-3-PUFAs, and more importantly by resolvins, which are potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving autacoids generated from docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In fact, resolvins have been shown to work as endogenous stop signals in inflamed adipose tissue and to return this tissue to homeostasis by inducing a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization toward a pro-resolving phenotype. Collectively, this article offers new views on the role of macrophages in metabolic disease and their modulation by endogenously-generated omega-3-PUFA-derived lipid mediators.

  11. Assessing the Functional Limitations of Lipids and Fatty Acids for Diet Determination: The Importance of Tissue Type, Quantity, and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and fatty acid (FA analysis is commonly used to describe the trophic ecology of an increasing number of taxa. However, the applicability of these analyses is contingent upon the collection and storage of sufficient high quality tissue, the limitations of which are previously unexplored in elasmobranchs. Using samples from 110 white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, collected throughout Australia, we investigated the importance of tissue type, sample quantity, and quality for reliable lipid class and FA analysis. We determined that muscle and sub-dermal tissue contain distinct lipid class and FA profiles, and were not directly comparable. Muscle samples as small as 12 mg dry weight (49 mg wet weight, provided reliable and consistent FA profiles, while sub-dermal tissue samples of 40 mg dry weight (186 mg wet weight or greater were required to yield consistent profiles. This validates the suitability of minimally invasive sampling methods such as punch biopsies. The integrity of FA profiles in muscle was compromised after 24 h at ambient temperature (~20°C, making these degraded samples unreliable for accurate determination of dietary sources, yet sub-dermal tissue retained stable FA profiles under the same conditions, suggesting it may be a more robust tissue for trophic ecology work with potentially degraded samples. However, muscle samples archived for up to 16 years in −20°C retain their FA profiles, highlighting that tissue from museum or private collections can yield valid insights into the trophic ecology of marine elasmobranchs.

  12. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  14. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Regulation of Tissue LC-PUFA Contents, Δ6 Fatty Acyl Desaturase (FADS2) Gene Expression and the Methylation of the Putative FADS2 Gene Promoter by Different Dietary Fatty Acid Profiles in Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Houguo; Dong, Xiaojing; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zuo, Rantao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influences of different dietary fatty acid profiles on the tissue content and biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in a euryhaline species Japanese seabass reared in seawater. Six diets were prepared, each with a characteristic fatty acid: Diet PA: Palmitic acid (C16:0); Diet SA: Stearic acid (C18:0); Diet OA: Oleic acid (C18:1n-9); Diet LNA: α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3); Diet N-3 LC-PUFA: n-3 LC-PUFA (DHA+EPA); Diet FO: the fish oil control. A 10-week feedin...

  16. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  17. Differential expression of fatty acid transporters and fatty acid synthesis-related genes in crop tissues of male and female pigeons (Columba livia domestica) during incubation and chick rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Wang, Xue-Ping; Bu, Zhu; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2017-10-01

    1. The growth performance of squabs reared solely by male or female parent pigeons was measured, and the changes of lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes potentially involved in lipid accumulation by crop tissues of parent pigeons were evaluated during incubation and chick rearing. 2. Squabs increased in body weight during 25 d of rearing, whereas both male and female pigeons lost weight after finishing rearing chicks, and the weight loss of male pigeons was significantly greater than that of female parent pigeons. Lipid content of crop milk from both parent pigeons gradually decreased to the crude fat level in the formulated diet after 10 d (R10) of chick rearing. 3. The gene expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid-binding protein 5 (EFABP) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) in male pigeon crop tissue were the greatest at 17 d (I17) of incubation. In female pigeons, FAT/CD36 expression was the highest at I14, and both EFABP and ACBP expression peaked at I14 and R7. The expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase in male pigeons reached the maximum level at R1, while they peaked at I14 and I17, respectively in female pigeons. The gene expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) was the greatest at I17 in the male, while it was at I14 in the female. However, no regular changing pattern was found in PPARα gene expression in male pigeons. 4. These results indicated that male and female pigeons may make different contributions in rearing squabs. The gene expression study suggested that fatty acids used in lipid biosynthesis of crop milk probably originated from both exogenous supply and de novo synthesis. The sex of the parent pigeon affected the lipid content of crop milk and the expression profiles of genes involved in fatty acid transportation and lipogenesis.

  18. Lipids and fatty acids composition in the tissues and by-products of two Tunisian shrimp species from the north and south regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limam, Zouhour; Arafa, Soumaya; Sadok, Saloua; El Abed, Amor

    2008-01-01

    Total lipid and fatty acid composition was determined in the muscle and by-products (heads, shells and tails) of Penaeus kerathurus and Metapenaeus monoceros caught off the North and South coasts of Tunisia. Shrimp total lipid levels in by-products ranged between 2 to 3.15% (p < 0.05) and were higher than fat tissue levels in both groups. No significant difference was found between tissue and by-product lipid contents of M.monoceros from both regions. However, significantly higher lipid content was found in P.kerathurus from the South than the North area. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids were important in the tissues and by-products of both species from both regions. Thus, polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute the major fraction followed by saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated. The main fatty acids in both shrimp species muscle and by-products were C16:0, C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, C18:1n-9, C18:0, C16:1, C20:4 and C18:1n-7.

  19. Lipid and fatty acid composition, and persistent organic pollutant levels in tissues of migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) broodstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, M.; Dick, J.R.; Medina, A.; Tocher, D.R.; Bell, J.G.; Mourente, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid class, fatty acid and POP levels were measured in migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) tissues caught off the Barbate coast, Spain. Tissue lipids were largely characterized by triacylglycerol, reflecting large energy reserves accumulated prior to reproductive migration. Fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and adipose exhibited similar profiles, whereas gonads showed a higher affinity for docosahexaenoic acid. Tissue POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol and negatively with polar lipids. Highest POP concentrations were in adipose and lowest in gonads, reflecting lipid content. DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB levels, with mono-ortho concentrations higher in tissues, whereas non-ortho PCBs contributed greater WHO-TEQs due to differences in TEFs. PBDE47 was the most prominent BDE congener in tissues, probably through biotransformation of BDE99 and other higher brominated congeners. The perceived POP risk from ABT consumption should be balanced by the well-established beneficial effects on human health of omega-3 fatty acids. - Highlights: ► Lipid classes, fatty acids and POPs were measured in Atlantic bluefin tuna tissues. ► Lowest POP concentrations were detected in gonads and highest in adipose. ► POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol. ► The DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB concentrations and TEQ levels. ► We assess the risk-benefit to human health associated with ABT consumption. - Lipids, fatty acids (particularly omega-3) and POPs were determined in Atlantic bluefin tuna to examine tissue distribution, and assess the risk-benefit to human health.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  1. Classification and prediction of HCC tissues by Raman imaging with identification of fatty acids as potential lipid biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstik, T; Marquardt, C; Beleites, C; Matthäus, C; Bielecki, C; Bürger, M; Krafft, C; Dirsch, O; Settmacher, U; Popp, J; Stallmach, A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can only be treated curatively at early stages and then have a favorable prognosis of this often fatal disease. For this reason, an early detection and diagnostic confirmation are crucial. Raman imaging spectroscopy is a promising technology for high-resolution visualization of the spatial distribution of molecular composition in tissue sections. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular information of liver tissue by Raman imaging for classification and diagnostic prediction. Unstained cryosections of human hepatic tissues (23 patients) were measured by Raman spectroscope in the regions of HCC (n = 12) and fibrosis (n = 17). The acquired data set was used to generate a random forest classification model with 101 iterations of sevenfold cross-validation. The models obtained during cross-validation were also used to predict regions of tumor margin (n = 8) aside from independent testing. Raman spectra differed between malignant and non-malignant tissue regions. Based on these spectral data, a random forest classification model calculated a prediction accuracy of 86 % (76 % sensitivity and 93 % specificity). The ten most important variables were identified at 2895, 2856, 1439, 1298, 1080, 1063, 1023, 937, 920, and 719 cm(-1). In this study, Raman imaging spectroscopy was applied successfully for liver tissue to differentiate, classify, and predict with high accuracy malignant and non-malignant tissue regions. Furthermore, the most important differences were identified as the Raman signature of fatty acids. The demonstrated results highlight the enormous potential which vibrational spectroscopy techniques have for the future diagnostics and prognosis estimation of HCC.

  2. Unusual odd-chain and trans-octadecenoic fatty acids in tissues of feral European beaver (Castorfiber), Eurasian badger (Melesmeles) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martysiak-Zurowska, Dorota; Zalewski, Kazimierz; Kamieniarz, Robert

    2009-06-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of depot adipose tissues in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutesprocyonoides) and the European beaver (Castorfiber) differs from that reported for the lipids of other monogastric animals, especially with regard to the presence of trans-octadecenoic acids. The concentrations of pentadecanoic acid 15:0 (PA) and heptadecanoic acid 17:0 (HA) in the lipids of the tested animals ranged from 0.23 to 0.79% and from 0.33 to 2.35% of total FAs, respectively. The total content of their monounsaturated cis isomers varied from 0.12 to 2.75% for pentadecanoic acid (c-PA) and from 0.38 to 2.45% for heptadecanoic acid (c-HA). It is interesting that the tissues of European beavers and raccoon dogs contained also trans isomers of octadecenoic acid C18:1 (t-OA) including vaccenic acid C18:1,11t (VA), typical of ruminants. The presence of FAs with an uneven number of carbon atoms and trans-octadecenoic acids in depot adipose tissue is indicative of the process of hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) in the digestive tract. The tissues of badgers also contained t-OA (from below 0.05% in the liver to 0.44% in the kidneys), but no VA was found.

  3. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...

  4. Effect of dietary sunflower oil and coconut oil on adipose tissue gene expression, fatty acid composition and serum lipid profile of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Mohan N Harihara; Sarmah, Babul C; Tamuli, Madan K; Das, Anubrata; Kalita, Dhireswar

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess whether the partial replacement of feed energy by vegetable oils containing high medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would modify lipogenic gene expression and other parameter of fat metabolism in pigs. Eighteen pigs (17-19 kg body weight) received one of three experimental diets for 60 days (six animals per group): (i) Control diet; (ii) a diet with sunflower oil (SO) or (iii) a diet with coconut oil (CO). In diets SO and CO, 10% of the feed energy was replaced by the respective oils. The experimental treatment did not influence the performance of the pigs. In blood serum, an increased content of total cholesterol was observed for SO and CO fed animals, whereas no significant changes for total triglycerides and different lipoprotein fractions were detected. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was significantly modified, with an increased content of MCFA and n-6 PUFA in CO and SO fed pigs, respectively. The gene expression for fatty acid synthase was decreased for SO and CO fed pigs; for stearoyl CoA desaturase and sterol regulatory element binding protein, a depression was observed in SO but not in CO fed pigs. The results of present study suggest that the type of dietary fat can modulate the adipose tissue gene expression and fatty acid composition differentially, with minimal effect on serum lipid profile.

  5. Epicardial and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids Profiles in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have recently shown that in high cholesterol-fed rabbits, the sensitivity of epicardial adipose tissue to changes in dietary fat is higher than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although the effects of diabetes on epicardial adipose tissue thickness have been studied, the influence of diabetes on profile of epicardial free fatty acids (FFAs has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes on the FFAs composition in serum and in the subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissues in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Methods: Forty non-diabetic and twenty eight diabetic patients candidate for CABG with > 75% stenosis participated in this study.Fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles were assayed by auto analyzer. Phospholipids and non-estrified FFA of serum and the fatty acids profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined using gas chromatography method. Results: In the phospholipid fraction of diabetic patients’ serum, the percentage of 16:0, 18:3n-9, 18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs was lower than the corresponding values of the non-diabetics; whereas, 18:0 value was higher. A 100% increase in the amount of 18:0 and 35% decrease in the level of 18:1n-11 was observed in the diabetic patients’ subcutaneous adipose tissue. In epicardial adipose tissue, the increase of 18:0 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA and decrease of 18:1n-11, ω3 (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significant; but, the contents of arachidonic acid and its precursor linoleic acid were not affected by diabetes. Conclusion: The fatty acids’ profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues is not equally affected by diabetes. The significant decrease of 16:0 and ω3 fatty acids and increase of trans and conjugated fatty acids in epicardial adipose tissue in the diabetic patients may worsen the formation of atheroma in the related arteries.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  7. Effects of UV radiation and diet on polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin, ocular tissue and dorsal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in outdoor rearing tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Michael T; Browman, Howard I; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2010-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation (UVR) on juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was assessed by measuring the fatty acid (FA) profiles of muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissues following 4-month long exposures to four different UVR treatments in outdoor rearing tanks. Fish were fed two different diets (Anchovy- and Herring-oil based) that differed in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations. Anchovy-fed salmon had higher concentrations of ALA (alpha-linoleic acid; 18:3n-3), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DPA (docosapentaenoic acid, 22:5n-3) in their muscle tissues than fish fed the Herring feed. Fish subjected to enhanced UVB levels had higher concentrations of LIN (linolenic acid, 18:2n-6) and ALA, total omega-6 FA and SAFA (saturated fatty acids) in their tissues compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Concentrations of ALA, LIN, GLA (gamma-linolenic acid; 18:3n-6), EPA, PUFA and total FA were higher in ventral skin of fish exposed to enhanced UVB compared with fish in reduced UV treatments. Salmon exposed to reduced UV weighed more per-unit-length than fish exposed to ambient sunlight. The FA profiles suggest that fish exposed to UV radiation were more quiescent than fish in the reduced UV treatments resulting in a buildup of catabolic substrates.

  8. Metabolic Circuit Involving Free Fatty Acids, microRNA 122, and Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver and Muscle Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chofit; Rivkin, Mila; Berkovits, Liav; Simerzin, Alina; Zorde-Khvalevsky, Elina; Rosenberg, Nofar; Klein, Shiri; Yaish, Dayana; Durst, Ronen; Shpitzen, Shoshana; Udi, Shiran; Tam, Joseph; Heeren, Joerg; Worthmann, Anna; Schramm, Christoph; Kluwe, Johannes; Ravid, Revital; Hornstein, Eran; Giladi, Hilla; Galun, Eithan

    2017-11-01

    Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of Luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines. We measured levels of microRNAs and mRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA extracted from plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice given the FFA-inducer CL316243. MIR122 was inhibited using an inhibitor of MIR122. Metabolic profiles of mice were determined using metabolic chambers and by histologic analyses of liver tissues. We performed RNA sequence analyses to identify metabolic pathways involving MIR122. We validated human Agpat1 and Dgat1 mRNAs, involved in triglyceride synthesis, as targets of MIR122. FFAs increased MIR122 expression in livers of mice by activating the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha, and induced secretion of MIR122 from liver to blood. Circulating MIR122 entered muscle and adipose tissues of mice, reducing mRNA levels of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis. Mice injected with an inhibitor of MIR122 and then given CL316243, accumulated triglycerides in liver and muscle tissues, and had reduced rates of β-oxidation. There was a positive correlation between level of FFAs and level of MIR122 in plasma samples from 6 healthy individuals, collected before and during fasting. In biochemical and histologic studies of plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues from mice, we found that FFAs increase hepatic expression and secretion of MIR122, which regulates energy storage vs expenditure in liver and peripheral tissues. Strategies to reduce

  9. Lipid and fatty acid composition, and persistent organic pollutant levels in tissues of migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, L.) broodstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Dick, J R; Medina, A; Tocher, D R; Bell, J G; Mourente, G

    2012-12-01

    Lipid class, fatty acid and POP levels were measured in migrating Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT) tissues caught off the Barbate coast, Spain. Tissue lipids were largely characterized by triacylglycerol, reflecting large energy reserves accumulated prior to reproductive migration. Fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and adipose exhibited similar profiles, whereas gonads showed a higher affinity for docosahexaenoic acid. Tissue POP concentrations correlated positively with percentage triacylglycerol and negatively with polar lipids. Highest POP concentrations were in adipose and lowest in gonads, reflecting lipid content. DL-PCBs contributed most to total PCDD/F + DL-PCB levels, with mono-ortho concentrations higher in tissues, whereas non-ortho PCBs contributed greater WHO-TEQs due to differences in TEFs. PBDE47 was the most prominent BDE congener in tissues, probably through biotransformation of BDE99 and other higher brominated congeners. The perceived POP risk from ABT consumption should be balanced by the well-established beneficial effects on human health of omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  11. Ameliorative potential of S-allylcysteine: effect on lipid profile and changes in tissue fatty acid composition in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Ganapathy; Ponmurugan, Ponnusamy

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. The association of hyperglycemia with an alteration of lipid parameters presents a major risk for cardiovascular complications in diabetes. The present study was designed to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC) in STZ induced diabetic rats. The levels of blood glucose, cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids, phospholipids and fatty acid composition were estimated in the liver and kidneys of control and experimental groups of rats. Oral administration of SAC at a dose of 150 mg/kg bodyweight per day to STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, free fatty acids, phospholipids, LDL-C, VLDL-C and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with diabetic control group. Oral administration of SAC to diabetic rats also decreased the concentrations of fatty acids, viz., palmitic, stearic (16:1), and oleic acid (18:1), whereas linolenic (18:3) and arachidonic acid (20:4) were elevated. The antihyperlipidemic effect of SAC was compared with glyclazide; a well-known antihyperglycemic drug. The result of the present study indicates that SAC showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Cellular and molecular effects of n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on adipose tissue biology and metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Rossmeisl, Martin; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-16 ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272; EC(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-007036; EC(XE) COST FA0602; EC(XE) COST BM0602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * DHA * adipose tissue Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.982, year: 2009

  13. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...

  14. Trophic structure of cold-water coral communities revealed from the analysis of tissue isotopes and fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Kutti, T.; Soetaert, K.

    2018-01-01

    The trophic structure of cold-water coral reef communities at two contrasting locations, the 800-m deep Belgica Mounds (Irish margin) and the 300-m deep Træna reefs (Norwegian Shelf), was investigated using stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) and fatty-acid composition analysis. A broad range of

  15. Study of lipids and fatty acids of phospholipids in the repair tissu of cutaneous burns of irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, J.; Pellat, B.; Dubos, M.; Goyffon, M.

    The influence of whole-body irradiation on the biochemical changes in skin after thermal burns in mice was studied. A decrease of total lipids and cholesterol biosynthesis was observed together with an intensification of the desaturation of fatty acids [fr

  16. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhye; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2018-02-23

    Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON) or high-fat diets (HFD) containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB), olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO), safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO), or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO) ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  17. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhye Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON or high-fat diets (HFD containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB, olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO, safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO, or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  18. Effect of maturation degree on fatty acid profile of different tissues in wild and farmed rohu (Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem, Shahid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding season, lots of physiological changes occur in the bodies of fish which lead to other phenotypical, anatomical and behavioral changes. To evaluate the impact of breeding on the bodily composition of fish, tests were conducted to determine the fatty acid profile of the brooder and Non-brooder wild and farmed fish. Samples were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector.There are non significant differences in the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in wild and farmed nonbrooder fish whereas in case of brooder there are significant differences. Brooder farmed fish contained more saturates in gonads approximately twice that of wild fish with C16:0 as the dominating fatty acid. C18:2n-6 and C20:5n-6 were the dominating unsaturated fatty acids in the gonads. Non-brooder fish contained more unsaturated fatty acids in the meat as compared to the brooder fish and farmed fish contained higher amounts of saturated fatty acids as compared to wild fish. C18:1n-9 and C20:4n-6 fatty acids were found in higher quantities and among the saturated acids, C16:0 is the dominating one. More or less similar results were found in the case of the liver fatty acid profile of breeding and nonbreeding fish. Fish of lower weight categories contained more unsaturated fatty acids and so better for consumption to leave the brooders of higher weight categories for the breeding of future generation.Durante la época de reproducción numerosos cambios fisiológicos ocurren en el cuerpo de los peces que guían a cambios anatómicos y de comportamiento. Para evaluar el impacto de la etapa de reproducción en la composición de los peces, ensayos para determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos fueron conducidos en peces salvajes y criados, en dos categorías de peso, maduro (booder o inmaduro (non-brooder. Las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía de gases usando un detector de ionización de llama. No hubo

  19. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did...

  20. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.

    2014-01-01

    enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18 : 1t), 18 : 1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid (18 : 1 D11t) and rumenic acid (18 : 2 D9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18 : 1t was 1·52% (90...

  1. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  2. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bruno; Estadella, Debora; Hachul, Ana Cláudia Losinskas; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet); soybean oil (S); lard (L); and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H). We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver. PMID:24027356

  3. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  4. Effects of organic selenium in broiler feed on the content of selenium and fatty acid profile in lipids of thigh muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the effects of selenium supplementation to broiler feed on the content of selenium, total fatty acids in lipids and on the oxidative stability of broiler thigh muscle tissue. The experiment involved 40 broilers fattened for 42 days. During the first three weeks, all broilers consumed starter diet containing 22% crude protein. After three weeks, broilers were divided into two groups and fed finisher diets containing 18% crude protein and supplemented with 3% sunflower oil and 3% linseed oil. Group 1 was not administered artificial selenium; Group 2 was supplemented with organic selenium at the amount of 0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Significantly higher (P P P > 0.05 and increase of linolenic acid and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05 in thigh muscle tissue of broilers. Since selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are nutricines, our results show that the produced broiler meat may be considered as functional food.

  5. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Lands

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

  6. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  7. Effects of dietary lipid source on growth, digestibility and tissue fatty acid composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friday Apata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems facing aquaculture is the inadequate supply of fish oil mostly used for fish feed manufacturing. The continued growth in aquaculture production cannot depend on this finite feed resources, therefore, it is imperative that cheap and readily available substitutes that do not compromise fish growth and fillet quality be found. To achieve this, a 12-week feeding trial with Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets differing in lipid source was conducted. Diets were supplemented with 6% lipid as fish oil, soybean oil, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil and melon seed oil. Triplicate groups of 20 H. longifilis were fed the experimental diets two times a day to apparent satiation, over 84 days. Growth, digestibility, and muscle fatty acid profile were measured to assess diet effects. At the end of the study, survival, feed intake and hepatosomatic index were similar for fish fed experimental diets. However, weight gain, SGR and FCR of fish fed soybean oil-based diet was significantly reduced. Apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were significantly lower in fish fed soybean, coconut and groundnut oil-based diets. Fillet and hepatic fatty acid compositions differed and reflected the fatty acid compositions of the diets. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, 20:5n-3 and 20:4n-6 were conserved in vegetable oils-based diets fed fish possibly due to synthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-6. Palm oil diet was the least expensive, and had the best economic conversion ratio. The use of vegetable oils in the diets had positive effect on growth and fillet composition of H. longifilis.

  8. Development of a rapid method for the sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of fatty acids and sugars from avocado mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Terry, Leon A

    2008-08-27

    Methods devised for oil extraction from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) mesocarp (e.g., Soxhlet) are usually lengthy and require operation at high temperature. Moreover, methods for extracting sugars from avocado tissue (e.g., 80% ethanol, v/v) do not allow for lipids to be easily measured from the same sample. This study describes a new simple method that enabled sequential extraction and subsequent quantification of both fatty acids and sugars from the same avocado mesocarp tissue sample. Freeze-dried mesocarp samples of avocado cv. Hass fruit of different ripening stages were extracted by homogenization with hexane and the oil extracts quantified for fatty acid composition by GC. The resulting filter residues were readily usable for sugar extraction with methanol (62.5%, v/v). For comparison, oil was also extracted using the standard Soxhlet technique and the resulting thimble residue extracted for sugars as before. An additional experiment was carried out whereby filter residues were also extracted using ethanol. Average oil yield using the Soxhlet technique was significantly (P oil extracts following both methods were very similar. Oil recovery improved with increasing ripeness of the fruit with minor differences observed in the fatty acid composition during postharvest ripening. After lipid removal, methanolic extraction was superior in recovering sucrose and perseitol as compared to 80% ethanol (v/v), whereas mannoheptulose recovery was not affected by solvent used. The method presented has the benefits of shorter extraction time, lower extraction temperature, and reduced amount of solvent and can be used for sequential extraction of fatty acids and sugars from the same sample.

  9. Does the fat tailed Damara ovine breed have a distinct lipid metabolism leading to a high concentration of branched chain fatty acids in tissues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana P Alves

    Full Text Available Fat tailed sheep breeds are known for their adaptation to nutritional stress, among other harsh production conditions. Damara sheep, native to Southern Africa, have recently been exported to other areas of the world, particularly Australia, aiming to produce lamb in semi-arid regions. Damaras have a unique hanging fat tail, a fat depot able to be mobilized under nutritional stress. In this article we perform an in-depth characterization of the fatty acid profiles of the fat tail in underfed and control Damara rams. Profiles were very similar between experimental groups, with the exception of palmitic acid (16:0 that was lower (P = 0.014 in underfed animals. However, the most striking result was the very high proportions of non-terminal branched chain fatty acids found in the fat tail adipose tissue, as well as the gastrocnemius muscle of Damara rams. The muscle of Dorper and Merino rams used in the same experiment did not present non-terminal branched chain fatty acids, suggesting that Damara rams have a unique lipid metabolism. Herein, we interpret this trait relating it to a higher ability of Damara sheep to digest fibrous fodder and to putative differences in the propionate metabolism by comparison to other sheep breeds.

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  11. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  12. Effect of dietary soybean oil and antioxidants on fatty acids and volatile compounds of tail subcutaneous and perirenal fat tissues in fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongjia; Wang, Jiakun; Lin, Jia; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Fat is the primary source of the volatiles that determine the characteristic flavors of animal products. Because unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) contribute to changes in flavor as a result of the oxidation process, a feeding trial was performed to investigate the effects of dietary soybean oil or antioxidants on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of the tail subcutaneous (SF) and perirenal fat tissues (PF) of fattening lambs. Thirty-six Huzhou lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design. The lambs' diets were supplemented with soybean oil (0 or 3 % of DM) or antioxidants (0 or 0.025 % of DM). Neither soybean oil nor antioxidant supplementation had an effect on lamb growth (P > 0.05). In regard to tail SF, soybean oil supplementation increased the 18:2n6t (P < 0.05) and the total amount of volatile acids, whereas antioxidant supplementation increased the content of C18:2n6c and C18:3n3 (P < 0.05) but had no effect on the volatiles profile. In regard to PF, dietary soybean oil supplementation increased the C18:0 content (P < 0.01); decreased the C18:1 (P = 0.01), C22:1 n9 (P < 0.01) and total UFA (P = 0.03) contents; and tended to decrease the E-2-octenal (P = 0.08), E, E-2, 4-decadienal (P = 0.10), 2-undecenal (P = 0.14) and ethyl 9-decenoate (P = 0.10) contents. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect either the fatty acid content or the volatiles profile in the PF. Tail SF and PF responded to dietary soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation in different ways. For SF, both soybean oil and antioxidant supplementation increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids but triggered only a slight change in volatiles. For PF, soybean oil supplementation decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and oxidative volatiles, but supplementation with antioxidants had little effect on PF fatty acids and the volatiles profile.

  13. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  14. Cloning and tissue distribution of rat hear fatty acid binding protein mRNA: identical forms in heart and skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claffey, K.P.; Herrera, V.L.; Brecher, P.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.

    1987-01-01

    A fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as been identified and characterized in rat heart, but the function and regulation of this protein are unclear. In this study the cDNA for rat heart FABP was cloned from a λ gt11 library. Sequencing of the cDNA showed an open reading frame coding for a protein with 133 amino acids and a calculated size of 14,776 daltons. Several differences were found between the sequence determined from the cDNA and that reported previously by protein sequencing techniques. Northern blot analysis using rat heart FABP cDNA as a probe established the presence of an abundant mRNA in rat heart about 0.85 kilobases in length. This mRNA was detected, but was not abundant, in fetal heart tissue. Tissue distribution studies showed a similar mRNA species in red, but not white, skeletal muscle. In general, the mRNA tissue distribution was similar to that of the protein detected by Western immunoblot analysis, suggesting that heart FABP expression may be regulated at the transcriptional level. S1 nuclease mapping studies confirmed that the mRNA hybridized to rat heart FABP cDNA was identical in heart and red skeletal muscle throughout the entire open reading frame. The structural differences between heart FABP and other members of this multigene family may be related to the functional requirements of oxidative muscle for fatty acids as a fuel source

  15. Cloning and tissue distribution of rat hear fatty acid binding protein mRNA: identical forms in heart and skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claffey, K.P.; Herrera, V.L.; Brecher, P.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.

    1987-12-01

    A fatty acid binding protein (FABP) as been identified and characterized in rat heart, but the function and regulation of this protein are unclear. In this study the cDNA for rat heart FABP was cloned from a lambda gt11 library. Sequencing of the cDNA showed an open reading frame coding for a protein with 133 amino acids and a calculated size of 14,776 daltons. Several differences were found between the sequence determined from the cDNA and that reported previously by protein sequencing techniques. Northern blot analysis using rat heart FABP cDNA as a probe established the presence of an abundant mRNA in rat heart about 0.85 kilobases in length. This mRNA was detected, but was not abundant, in fetal heart tissue. Tissue distribution studies showed a similar mRNA species in red, but not white, skeletal muscle. In general, the mRNA tissue distribution was similar to that of the protein detected by Western immunoblot analysis, suggesting that heart FABP expression may be regulated at the transcriptional level. S1 nuclease mapping studies confirmed that the mRNA hybridized to rat heart FABP cDNA was identical in heart and red skeletal muscle throughout the entire open reading frame. The structural differences between heart FABP and other members of this multigene family may be related to the functional requirements of oxidative muscle for fatty acids as a fuel source.

  16. Dietary effects on fatty acid metabolism of common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csengeri, I

    1996-01-01

    The paper summarises experimental data demonstrating effects of various dietary factors exerting changes in the fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Among the dietary factors (1) supplementary feeding in fish ponds, (2) absence of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, (3) starvation, and (4) ration level were studied. It was concluded that supplementary feeding in carp rearing ponds is frequently excessive in the Hungarian carp culture practice, inducing slight EFA-deficiency and enhancing de novo fatty acid synthesis. This latter caused enlarged fat depots with high oleic acid contents in the fish organs and tissues. EFA-deficient diets enhanced the synthesis of oleic acid except when high rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis was suppressed by dietary fatty acids. Feeding EFA-deficient diets caused gradual decrease in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and gradual increase in that of Mead's acid: 20:3(n-9), an indicator of the EFA-deficiency. At prolonged starvation, polyunsaturated fatty acids of the structural lipids were somehow protected and mainly oleic acid was utilised for energy production. At high ration levels, excessive exogenous polyunsaturates were decomposed, and probably converted to oleic acid or energy. Starvation subsequent to the feeding the fish at various ration levels, reflected adaptive changes in the fatty acid metabolism: Below and above the ration level required for the most efficient feed utilisation for growth, decomposition processes of the fatty acid metabolism were accelerated.

  17. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one...... of seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...

  18. Solid emulsion gel as a vehicle for delivery of polyunsaturated fatty acids: implications for tissue repair, dermal angiogenesis and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingel, Kirill I; Faure, Marie-Pierre; Azoulay, Laurent; Roberge, Christophe; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes preparation and biological characterization of the solid hybrid biomaterial that was designed for cell-targeted lipid delivery in healing tissues. The material referred to as 'solid emulsion gel' combines a protein-stabilized lipid emulsion and a hydrogel structure in a single compartment. The potential of the omega-3 (n-3)-fatty acids rich solid emulsion gel for tissue repair applications was investigated at the macro-, micro-, molecular and gene expression levels, using human fibroblasts and endothelial cells and a porcine model of full-thickness wounds. Being non-cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo, the biomaterial was found to affect cell metabolism, modulate expression of certain genes, stimulate early angiogenesis and promote wound repair in vivo. The neovascular response in vivo was correlated with upregulated expression of the genes involved in lipid transport (e.g. adipophilin), anti-apoptosis (e.g. heat shock proteins, haem oxygenase 1) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor). Collectively, the results of this study provide first evidence that the angiogenic response provided by solid emulsion gel-mediated delivery of n-3 fatty acids is an alternative to the topical administration of exogenous growth factors or gene therapy, and can be advantageously used for the stimulation of tissue repair in complex wounds. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA. In general, carriers of FADS minor alleles tend to have higher habitual plasma and tissue levels of LA and αLNA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid, EPA and also to a lesser extent DHA. In conclusion, available research findings suggest that FADS minor alleles are also associated with reduced inflammation and CVD risk, and that dietary total fat and fatty acid intake have the potential to modify relationships between FADS gene variants and circulating fatty acid levels. However to date, neither the size-effects of FADS variants on fatty acid status, nor the functional SNP in FADS1 and 2 have been identified. Such information could contribute to the refinement and targeting of EPA and DHA recommendations, whereby additional LC n-3 PUFA intakes could be recommended for those carrying FADS minor alleles.

  20. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation modifies the composition of fatty acids in thymocytes and tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Kulagina, Tatiana P; Aripovsky, Alexander V

    2013-08-01

    To test the participation of fatty acids (FA) in antitumor effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR), the changes in the FA composition in the thymus, liver, blood plasma, muscle tissue, and tumor tissue in mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma exposed to EHF EMR were studied. Normal and tumor-bearing mice were exposed to EHF EMR with effective parameters (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min daily during five consecutive days beginning the first day after the inoculation of tumor cells). Fatty acid composition of various organs and tissues of mice were determined using a gas chromatography. It was shown that the exposure of normal mice to EHF EMR or tumor growth significantly increased the content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and decreased the content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in all tissues examined. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to EHF EMR led to the recovery of FA composition in thymocytes to the state that is typical for normal animals. In other tissues of tumor-bearing mice, the exposure to EHF EMR did not induce considerable changes that would be significantly distinguished between disturbances caused by EHF EMR exposure or tumor growth separately. In tumor tissue which is characterized by elevated level of MUFA, the exposure to EHF EMR significantly decreased the summary content of MUFA and increased the summary content of PUFA. The recovery of the FA composition in thymocytes and the modification of the FA composition in the tumor under the influence of EHF EMR on tumor-bearing animals may have crucial importance for elucidating the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  1. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and in... and their associated fatty acids manufactured from fats and oils derived from edible sources: Capric...

  2. Effects of Biotin Supplementation in the Diet on Adipose Tissue cGMP Concentrations, AMPK Activation, Lipolysis, and Serum-Free Fatty Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Villa, Daniel; Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Miranda-Cervantes, Adriana; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Adipose tissue plays a central role in lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of biotin supplementation in adipose tissue on signaling pathways and critical proteins that regulate lipid metabolism, as well as on lipolysis. In addition, we assessed serum fatty acid concentrations. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (control: 1.76 mg biotin/kg; supplemented: 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) over 8 weeks postweaning. Compared with the control group, biotin-supplemented mice showed an increase in the levels of adipose guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) (control: 30.3±3.27 pmol/g wet tissue; supplemented: 49.5±3.44 pmol/g wet tissue) and of phosphorylated forms of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 65.2%±1.06%), acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), carboxylase-1 (196%±68%), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 (78.1%±18%). Serum fatty acid concentrations were decreased (control: 1.12±0.04 mM; supplemented: 0.91±0.03 mM), and no change in lipolysis was found (control: 0.29±0.05 μmol/mL; supplemented: 0.33±0.08 μmol/mL). In conclusion, 8 weeks of dietary biotin supplementation increased adipose tissue cGMP content and protein expression of the active form of AMPK and of the inactive forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2. Serum fatty acid levels fell, and no change in lipolysis was observed. These findings provide insight into the effects of biotin supplementation on adipose tissue and support its use in the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  3. Intermuscular Adipose Tissue Content and Intramyocellular Lipid Fatty Acid Saturation Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsulin resistance is associated with the higher content of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and the saturation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL, but a paucity of data exist in humans. This study examined associations among IMAT content, IMCL saturation, and fasting glucose concentration in middle-aged and older adults with overweight or obesity.MethodsSeventy-five subjects (26 males, 49 females were recruited and thigh muscle and IMAT were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Vastus lateralis tissue was acquired from a subset of nine subjects and IMCL content and saturation were assessed using nonlinear dual complex microscopy.ResultsThe characteristics of the 75 subjects were as follows: age 59±11 years, body mass index 30±5 kg/m2, fasting glucose concentration 5.2±0.5 mmol/L, fasting insulin concentration 12.2±7.3 µU/mL, fasting homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 2.9±2.0 (mean±SD. IMAT to muscle tissue (MT volume ratio was positively associated with the saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in IMCL. IMAT:MT was positively associated with fasting glucose concentration and HOMA-IR. IMCL saturation was positively associated with fasting glucose concentration while muscle cell area, IMCL area, and % IMCL in muscle cell were not associated with fasting glucose concentration.ConclusionThese results indicate that higher intermuscular fat content and IMCL saturation may impact fasting glucose concentration in middle-aged and older adults with overweight or obesity. The centralization of adipose tissue in the appendicular region of the body may promote insulin resistance.

  4. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  5. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of lambs' meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    one of the most promising steps in improving meat quality because of its antioxidant properties. The colour of meat is seen as the most .... Table 1 The effect of dietary antioxidant and fat source on the fatty acid content of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue of S.A. Mutton Merino lamb meat. Parameter. (% of total fatty acids).

  7. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol and oxidative status in broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nazim

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors that influence meat quality, particularly nutritional value and palatability (Coetzee & Hoffman, 2002). Changes in the dietary fatty acid (FA) composition could be reflected in the blood, which in turn would be transported to target ...

  8. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the

  9. Dietary fatty acids alter mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    type and relative amount of fatty acids that make up the membrane. Naturally, the phospholipid fatty acyl profiles of biological membranes vary dramatically across species2,3. For instance, the phospholpid fatty acid profiles of cellular membranes in yeasts are different from those in flies and those of mouse are different from ...

  10. Role of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins in cellular fatty acid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glatz, J. F.; van Nieuwenhoven, F. A.; Luiken, J. J.; Schaap, F. G.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    A number of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are now being implicated in the cellular uptake and intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids (FA). These proteins each have the capacity of non-covalent binding of FA, are present in tissues actively

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Three Oil Palm Fruit and Seed Tissues That Differ in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

  12. Substituting ground woody plants for cottonseed hulls in lamb feedlot diets: carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Christopher R; Wall, Kayley R; Smith, Stephen B; Whitney, Travis Raymond; Glasscock, Jessica L; Sawyer, Jason T

    2018-03-06

    Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb (n = 48) feedlot diets on carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits were evaluated. In a randomized design study with two feeding periods (period 1 = fed a 70% concentrate diet from days 0 to 27; period 2 = fed an 86% concentrate diet from days 28 to 57), lambs were individually fed six diets that differed only by roughage source (n = 8 animals/treatment; initial BW = 32.9 ± 3.2 kg): cottonseed hulls (CSH; control) or ground wood consisting of either redberry (RED), blueberry (BLUE), one-seed (ONE), or eastern red cedar (ERC) Juniperus spp., or Prosopis glandulosa (MESQ). After 57 d, the lambs were humanely harvested and after chilling (2 ± 1 oC) 24 h, carcasses were evaluated for carcass traits. At 48 h postmortem, the longissimus thoracis (LT) was removed from the left side of the carcass, and after freezing for no more than 3 mo, were thawed for 24 h, cooked, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Additionally, volatile aroma chemicals on the LT were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer/olfactory (GC/MS/OF, respectively) analyses. Lamb HCW was greater (P = 0.01) for lambs fed CSH compared with all other diets, but lambs had similar (P > 0.08) LM area, back fat thickness, leg circumference, and body wall. Neither adipose tissue fatty acid composition (P > 0.08) nor trained sensory panel evaluation (P > 0.18) was affected by finishing diet roughage source. Of the 81 volatile aroma compounds found in the grilled lamb chops, only seven were affected (P < 0.05) by dietary roughage source and included 1-pentanol (a sweet, pleasant aroma), heptenal (a fishy aroma), pentanal (fermented, bready aroma description), 1-(1H-pyrol-2yl)-ethanone (caramel-like), 2-heptanone (cheesy, banana, fruity aromatic), 6,7-dodecanedione (unknown aroma), and butanoic acid (a sweaty, rancid aroma). The addition of any of four species of juniper or mesquite may be

  13. Unsaturated fatty acids protect trophoblast cells from saturated fatty acid-induced autophagy defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye-Ji; Ahn, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Jongdae; Lee, Joon H; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2018-02-01

    Dysregulated serum fatty acids are associated with a lipotoxic placental environment, which contributes to increased pregnancy complications via altered trophoblast invasion. However, the role of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in trophoblastic autophagy has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure of saturated fatty acids interferes with the invasiveness of human extravillous trophoblasts. Saturated fatty acids (but not unsaturated fatty acids) inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Furthermore, when the trophoblast cells were exposed to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids counteracted the effects of saturated fatty acids by increasing degradation of autophagic vacuoles. Saturated fatty acids reduced the levels of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, while unsaturated fatty acids maintained their levels. In conclusion, saturated fatty acids induced decreased trophoblast invasion, of which autophagy dysfunction plays a major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  15. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  16. Impact of a Standard Rodent Chow Diet on Tissue n-6 Fatty Acids, Δ9-Desaturation Index, and Plasmalogen Mass in Rats Fed for One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pédrono, F; Boulier-Monthéan, N; Catheline, D; Legrand, P

    2015-11-01

    Although many studies focus on senescence mechanisms, few habitually consider age as a biological parameter. Considering the effect of interactions between food and age on metabolism, here we depict the lipid framework of 12 tissues isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats fed standard rodent chow over 1 year, an age below which animals are commonly studied. The aim is to define relevant markers of lipid metabolism influenced by age in performing a fatty acid (FA) and dimethylacetal profile from total lipids. First, our results confirm impregnation of adipose and muscular tissues with medium-chain FA derived from maternal milk during early infancy. Secondly, when animals were switched to standard croquettes, tissues were remarkably enriched in n-6 FA and especially 18:2n-6. This impregnation over time was coupled with a decrease of the desaturation index and correlated with lower activities of hepatic Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases. In parallel, we emphasize the singular status of testis, where 22:5n-6, 24:4n-6, and 24:5n-6 were exceptionally accumulated with growth. Thirdly, 18:1n-7, usually found as a discrete FA, greatly accrued over the course of time, mostly in liver and coupled with Δ9-desaturase expression. Fourthly, skeletal muscle was characterized by a surprising enrichment of 22:6n-3 in adults, which tended to decline in older rats. Finally, plasmalogen-derived dimethylacetals were specifically abundant in brain, erythrocytes, lung, and heart. Most notably, a shift in the fatty aldehyde moiety was observed, especially in brain and erythrocytes, implying that red blood cell analysis could be a good indicator of brain plasmalogens.

  17. Tissue and size-related changes in the fatty acid and stable isotope signatures of the deep sea grenadier fish Coryphaenoides armatus from the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone region of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sharples, Caroline J.; Webster, Lynda; Walsham, Pamela; Lacaze, Jean-Pierre; Cousins, Nicola J.

    2013-12-01

    Coryphaenoides armatus is a cosmopolitan deep-sea fish that plays a major role in the ecology of abyssal ecosystems. We investigated the trophic ecology and physiology of this species by determining the δ13C, δ15N and fatty acid signatures of muscle, liver and ovary tissues of individuals collected from ∼2700 m to the north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, NE Atlantic. Fatty acid and δ13C data both suggested that C. armatus shows an ontogenetic dietary shift, with the relative contributions of benthic and pelagic prey decreasing and increasing respectively as the animals grow. They also indicated that dietary overlap between animals living to the north and south of the CGFZ increases as they grow, suggesting that larger animals forage over greater distances and are not hindered by the presence of the CGFZ. Comparison of tissue-specific fatty acid signatures with previously published data suggests compositional homeostasis of the fatty acids 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) in the muscle, and 18:1(n-9) in the liver tissues. We ascribe this primarily to strict physiological requirements for these compounds, rather than simply to their abundance in the diet. We pose several speculative mechanisms to explain the observed trends in tissue-specific δ13C and δ15N values, illustrating some of the numerous processes that can influence the isotopic signatures of bulk tissues.

  18. Differential effects of docoosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid on fatty acid composition and myosin heavy chain-related genes of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Hossain, Shahdat; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Shido, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Myosin heavy chain (MHC) mediates the metabolic and contractile responses of skeletal muscles. MHC displays different isoforms, each of which has different characteristics. To better understand the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscles, rats were fed with control-, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-, and arachidonic acid (ARA)-oil, and the effects on plasma and muscular fatty acid profile, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of myosin heavy chain isoforms MHC1 of slow-twitch muscle (SO) and MHC2A, MHC2X, and MHCB isoforms of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of fast-twitch muscle were evaluated. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD were determined. The expressions of MHC1, MHC2A, MHC2X, and MHC2B were lower in the SO of the DHA-fed rats. In the EDL muscles of DHA-fed rats, the expressions of MHC1 and MHC2A increased; however, the expressions of MHC2X increased and that of the MHC2 were not altered. Oxidative stress, as indicated by the levels of LPO, was significantly higher in the plasma of the ARA-fed rats, when compared with that of the DHA-fed rats. The LPO levels were higher both in the SO and EDL muscles of ARA-fed rats. Compared with ARA oil intake, DHA oil showed higher mRNA levels of GPx and SOD. Catalase expression was higher only in the EDL but not in the SO-type muscles. Our studies finally indicate that DHA and ARA differentially affect the regulation of contractile and metabolic properties of slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles.

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your baby gets most ... you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important family of building ...

  20. Impact of physical exercise on visceral adipose tissue fatty acid profile and inflammation in response to a high-fat diet regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gonçalves, Inês O; Moreira, Ana; Maciel, Elisabete; Santos, Sónia; Domingues, Maria R; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate specific fatty-acids (FA) with the pathophysiology of inflammation. We aimed to analyze the impact of exercise on adipose tissue FA profile in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) and to ascertain whether these exercise-induced changes in specific FA have repercussions on obesity-related inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into sedentary, voluntary physical-activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) groups fed a standard (S, 35kcal% fat) or high-fat (71kcal% fat) diets. VPA-animals had unrestricted access to wheel-running. After 9-wks, ET-animals engaged a running protocol for 8-wks, while maintained dietary treatments. The FA content in epididymal white-adipose tissue (eWAT) triglycerides was analyzed by gas-chromatography and the expression of inflammatory markers was determined using RT-qPCR, Western and slot blotting. Eight-wks of ET reversed obesity-related anatomical features. HFD increased plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α content and eWAT monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 protein expression. HFD decreased eWAT content of saturated FA and monounsaturated FA, while increased linoleic acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in eWAT. VPA decreased visceral adiposity, adipocyte size and MCP-1 in HFD-fed animals. The VPA and ET interventions diminished palmitoleic acid and increased linoleic acid in HFD-fed groups. Moreover, both interventions increased PGE2 levels in standard diet-fed groups and decreased in HFD. ET increased eWAT fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and elongase 5 (ELOVL5) protein content in both diet types. ET reduced eWAT inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6), macrophage recruitment (MCP-1 and F4/80) and increased IL-10/TNF-α ratio in plasma and in eWAT in both diet types. Exercise induced FA-specific changes independently of dietary FA composition, but only ET attenuated the inflammatory response in VAT of HFD-fed rats. Moreover, the exercise-induced FA changes did not correlate with the inflammatory response

  1. Genetic parameters for tissue and fatty acid composition of backfat, perirenal fat and longissimus muscle in Large White and Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, P; Maignel, L; Bidanel, J P

    2010-04-01

    Genetic parameters pertaining to the same chemical characteristics of three porcine tissues, that is backfat (BF), perirenal fat (PF) and longissimus muscle (LM), were estimated in centrally tested Large White and Landrace pigs. Animals were fed ad libitum. They were slaughtered at an average BW of 99.6 kg, and samples of BF (both inner and outer layers) and LM were removed at the 13th to 14th rib level of the carcass on the day after slaughter. The data set included 2483 animals recorded for average daily gain (ADG; 35 to 100 kg), estimated carcass lean percentage (LEAN) and lean tissue growth rate (LTGR). Among these animals, around 950 pigs were recorded for lipid content (L%) and water content (W%) of BF and LM and for fatty acid composition (FAC) of BF, whereas FAC of LM was measured on 297 pigs and L%, W%, and FAC of PF on around 210 pigs. Heritabilities (h2) and genetic correlations (ra) were estimated using REML-animal model methodology. Estimates of h2 for L%, W% and FAC of BF, PF and LM were of moderate-to-high magnitude: for example 0.47 ± 0.09 for L% of LM, 0.59 ± 0.11 for W% of BF, 0.45 ± 0.08 for the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) of BF, 0.61 ± 0.15 and 0.29 ± 0.10 for the coefficient of unsaturation of lipids (UNSAT, average number of double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids) of PF and LM, respectively. Genetic correlations of L% with P/S or UNSAT were strongly negative (from -0.4 to -0.9) in BF and LM, but not in PF. The 'between-tissue' genetic correlations for homologous compositional traits were far from being unity (e.g. ra = 0.57 ± 0.05 'between' BF and PF for UNSAT). Genetic relationships between ADG and tissue compositional traits were globally weak. By contrast, genetic correlations were moderate-to-high between carcass leanness and tissue compositional traits, especially those of fat depots: for example -0.66 ± 0.14 between LEAN and L% of BF, 0.50 ± 0.07 between LEAN and UNSAT of PF, -0.44 ± 0.08 between

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tissue through syndecan-1 inhibition of the MEK-Erk pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Hu, Yunping; Gu, Zhennan; Owens, Rick T; Chen, Yong Q; Edwards, Iris J

    2011-10-01

    Human epidemiological studies have shown that diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are associated with a lower incidence of cancers including breast cancer. Our previous studies showed that the n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), upregulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) expression to induce apoptosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We now present evidence of a signaling pathway that is impacted by SDC-1 in these cells and in mouse mammary tissues to result in apoptosis. In MCF-7 cells and SK-BR-3 cells, DHA and a SDC-1 ectodomain impaired signaling of the p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of MAPK/Erk (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and Bad to induce apoptosis. SDC-1 siRNA significantly enhanced phosphorylation of these signal molecules and blocked the inhibitory effects of DHA on their phosphorylation. SDC-1 siRNA diminished apoptosis of MCF-7 cells, an effect that was markedly blocked by MEK inhibitor, PD98059. In vivo studies used (i) Fat-1 mice, a genetic model able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA to result in higher SDC-1 levels in Fat-1 mammary tissue compared with that of wild-type (wt) mice. Phosphorylation of MEK, Erk and Bad was lower in the Fat-1 versus wt tissue and (ii) SDC-1(-/-) mice that demonstrated markedly higher levels of phosphorylated MEK, Erk and Bad in mammary gland tissue compared with those of SDC(+/+) mice. These data elucidate a pathway whereby SDC-1, upregulated by DHA, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through inhibition of MEK/Erk/Bad signaling.

  3. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Altered Systemic Amino Acid Metabolism Are Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Sulin; Wiklund, Petri; Autio, Reija; Borra, Ronald; Ojanen, Xiaowei; Xu, Leiting; Törmäkangas, Timo; Alen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is a major cause of obesity-related morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify early metabolic alterations associated with liver fat accumulation in 50- to 55-year-old men (n = 49) and women (n = 52) with and without NAFLD. METHODS: Hepatic fat content was

  4. Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon O. Ebbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

  5. Human hepatic lipase overexpression in mice induces hepatic steatosis and obesity through promoting hepatic lipogenesis and white adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Cedó

    Full Text Available Human hepatic lipase (hHL is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo. Experiments were carried out in hHL transgenic and wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet. Triglyceride metabolism studies included β-oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in liver and WAT, hepatic triglyceride secretion, and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated free fatty acid (FFA lipolysis and influx. The expression of hHL promoted hepatic triglyceride accumulation and de novo lipogenesis without affecting triglyceride secretion, and this was associated with an upregulation of Srebf1 as well as the main genes controlling the synthesis of fatty acids. Transgenic mice also exhibited more adiposity and an increased LPL-mediated FFA influx into the WAT without affecting glucose tolerance. Our results demonstrate that hHL promoted hepatic steatosis in mice mainly by upregulating de novo lipogenesis. HL also upregulated WAT LPL and promoted triglyceride-rich lipoprotein hydrolysis and adipose FFA uptake. These data support the important role of hHL in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis and confirm the broad cardiometabolic role of HL.

  6. The development of radioiodinated fatty acids for myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Since free fatty acids are the principal energy source for the normally oxygenated myocardium, the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid analogues is an attractive approach for myocardial imaging. Interest in the use of these substances results from divergent fatty acid metabolic pathways in ischemic (triglyceride storage) versus normoxic tissue (β-oxidative clearance), following flow-dependent delivery. Iodine-123-labeled fatty acids may offer a unique opportunity to identity myocardial viability using single photon emission tomography. The development of structurally-modified fatty acids became of interest because of the relatively long acquisition periods required for SPECT. The significant time required by early generation single- or dual-head SPECT systems for data acquisition requires minimal redistribution during the acquisition period to ensure accurate evaluation of the regional fatty acid distribution pattern after re-construction. Research has focussed on the evaluation of structural modifications which can be introduced into the fatty acid chain which would inhibit the subsequent β-oxidative catabolism which normally results in rapid myocardial clearance. Introduction of a methyl group in position-3 of the fatty acid carbon chain has been shown to significantly delay myocardial clearance and iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3- R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a new tracer based on this strategy

  7. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA and -Linolenic Acid (ALA Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar Smolts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo G Nuez-Ortín

    Full Text Available Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  8. A study on correlation coefficients between fatty acids in the meat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... between n-6 and n-3 fatty acid concentrations in chicken meat fed diet containing fish oil (n-3 rich), soybean oil (n-6 rich) or palm oil. The main fatty acids in broiler breast and thigh tissues were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. The birds fed the experimental diets containing 7% fish oil.

  9. Do fatty acids affect fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaran, Seray; Besler, H Tanju

    2015-08-13

    In this study discussed the primary and regulatory roles of fatty acids, and investigated the affects of fatty acids on metabolic programming. Review of the literature was carried out on three electronic databases to assess the roles of fatty acids in metabolic programming. All abstracts and full-text articles were examined, and the most relevant articles were selected for screening and inclusion in this review. The mother's nutritional environment during fetal period has important effects on long term health. Fatty acids play a primary role in growth and development. Alterations in fatty acid intake in the fetal period may increase the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. Maternal fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and lactation are passed to the fetus and the newborn via the placenta and breast milk, respectively. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during the fetal period change the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids, which can cause structural and functional problems in cells. Additionally, the metabolic and neuroendocrine environments of the fetus and the newborn play key roles in the regulation of energy balance. Imbalances in fatty acid intake during pregnancy and lactation may result in permanent changes in appetite control, neuroendocrine function and energy metabolism in the fetus, leading to metabolic programming. Further studies are needed to determine the role of fatty acid intake in metabolic programming.

  10. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  11. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    that communicate cellular signals initiated by hormones and neurotransmitters. Recently, based on tissue expression patterns of these receptors and the concept that they may elicit the production of a range of appetite- and hunger-regulating peptides, such nutrient sensing GPCRs are attracting considerable...... of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  12. Effects of olive and fish oil Ca soaps in ewe diets on milk fat and muscle and subcutaneous tissue fatty-acid profiles of suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, B; Gómez-Cortés, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; Manso, T; de la Fuente, M A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may enhance fatty acid re-esterification in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metab...

  14. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 176, JUN 1 2015 (2015), s. 205-211 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * n-6 PUFA * Heat treatment * Fish tissue * HPLC/MS * GC/MS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2015

  15. Cell type-specific modulation of lipid mediator's formation in murine adipose tissue by omega-3 fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuda, Ondřej; Rombaldová, Martina; Janovská, Petra; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 3 (2016), s. 731-736 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-04449P; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14040 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue macrophages * omega -3 PUFA * protectin D1 * lipid mediators * lipidomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.466, year: 2016

  16. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  17. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  18. Fatty acid synthesis by spinach chloroplasts, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasunori

    1975-01-01

    By incorporation of 3 H 2 O into the fatty acid chain in the presence of unlabelled precursor, we showed that fatty acids are synthesized from PGA, PEP and pyruvate by intact spinach chloroplasts in the light. 13 C-tracer experiments confirmed that 1-C of pyruvate is decarboxylated and 2-C is incorporated into fatty acids by the chloroplasts. The patterns of fatty acids synthesized from PGA and pyruvate were the same as that from acetate. The highest rate of fatty acid synthesis was reached at the physiological concentration of PGA (3 mM) and pyruvate (1 mM). These results indicate the operation of the following path in the chloroplasts in light: PGA→PEP→pyruvate→acetylCoA→fatty acids. Since citrate and OAA were much less active and malate and glyoxylate were inert as precursors for fatty acid synthesis, PEP or pyruvate carboxylation, citrate lyase reaction and malate synthetase reaction are not involved in the formation of acetylCoA and fatty acids. Since pyruvate was much more effective as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis than lactate, acetaldehyde or acetate, direct decarboxylation path is considered to be the primary path from pyruvate to acetylCoA. The insignificant effect of chloroplast-washing on fatty acid synthesis from PGA and pyruvate indicates that the glycolytic path from PGA to pyruvate is associated with the chloroplasts. Since pyruvate was more effectively incorporated into fatty acids than acetylCoA, it is unlikely that pyruvate decarboxylation to acetylCoA is due to mitochondria contaminating the chloroplast preparation. On the basis of measurements of 3 H 2 O incorporation in the light and dark, the activity of fatty acid synthesis in spincah leaves appears to be shared by the activities in chloroplasts (87%) and other organelles (13%). (author)

  19. Implications of impaired ketogenesis in fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olpin, Simon Edward

    2004-03-01

    Long-chain fatty acids are important sources of respiratory fuel for many tissues and during fasting the rate of hepatic production of ketone bodies is markedly increased. Many extra hepatic tissues utilize ketone bodies in the fasted state with the advantage that glucose is "spared" for more vital tissues like the brain. This glucose sparing effect of ketones is especially important in infants where there is a high proportional glucose utilization in cerebral tissue. The first reported inherited defect affecting fatty acid oxidation was described in 1973 and to date about 15 separate disorders have been described. Although individually rare, cumulatively fatty acid oxidation defects are relatively common, have major consequences for affected individuals and their families, and carry significant health care implications. The major biochemical consequence of fatty acid oxidation defects is an inability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize fatty acids as an energy source with absent or limited hepatic capacity to generate ketones. Clinically patients usually present in infancy with acute life-threatening hypoketotic hypoglycaemia, liver disease, hyperammonaemia and cerebral oedema, with or without cardiac involvement, usually following a period of catabolic stress. Chronically there may be muscle involvement with hypotonia or exercise intolerance with or without cardiomyopathy. Treatment is generally by the avoidance of fasting, frequent carbohydrate rich feeds and for long-chain defects, the replacement of long-chain dietary fats with medium-chain formulae. Novel approaches to treatment include the use of d,l-3-hydoxybutyrate or heptanoate as an alternative energy source.

  20. Fatty acid metabolism: target for metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wakil, Salih J.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi A.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major energy source and important constituents of membrane lipids, and they serve as cellular signaling molecules that play an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome. Acetyl-CoA carboxylases 1 and 2 (ACC1 and ACC2) catalyze the synthesis of malonyl-CoA, the substrate for fatty acid synthesis and the regulator of fatty acid oxidation. They are highly regulated and play important roles in the energy metabolism of fatty acids in animals, including humans. They...

  1. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish),

  2. Lack of an association of depression with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids in healthy adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.; Kiriakakis, M.; Tsibinos, G.; Jansen, E.; Cremers, H.; Strien, C.; Hatzis, C.; Moschandreas, J.; Linardakis, M.; Kromhout, D.; Kafatos, A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both

  3. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  4. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  5. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  7. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp ( Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the third highest fatty acid in total fatty acids. MUFAs were found to be higher than SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in all seasons. Docosahexaenoic acid C22:6 3, linoleic acid C18:2 6 and eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 3 were the highest levels among the PUFAs. The percentages of 3 fatty acid were higher ...

  8. Dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a central role in all biological systems. They are constituents of the plasma membrane and serve as precursors to signaling molecules generated in response to external events. The conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids into signaling molecules starts by the

  9. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxy Fatty Acids (FAHFAs) With Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda, Ondrej; Brezinova, Marie; Rombaldova, Martina; Slavikova, Barbora; Posta, Martin; Beier, Petr; Janovska, Petra; Veleba, Jiri; Kopecky, Jan; Kudova, Eva; Pelikanova, Terezie; Kopecky, Jan

    2016-09-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex organ with both metabolic and endocrine functions. Dysregulation of all of these functions of WAT, together with low-grade inflammation of the tissue in obese individuals, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of marine origin play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and exert beneficial metabolic effects. Using experiments in mice and overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes, we elucidated the structures of novel members of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids-lipokines derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and linoleic acid, which were present in serum and WAT after n-3 PUFA supplementation. These compounds contained DHA esterified to 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HLA) or 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), termed 9-DHAHLA, 13-DHAHLA, and 14-DHAHDHA, and were synthesized by adipocytes at concentrations comparable to those of protectins and resolvins derived from DHA in WAT. 13-DHAHLA exerted anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties while reducing macrophage activation by lipopolysaccharides and enhancing the phagocytosis of zymosan particles. Our results document the existence of novel lipid mediators, which are involved in the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects attributed to n-3 PUFAs, in both mice and humans. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Treatment with TUG891, a free fatty acid receptor 4 agonist, restores adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction following chronic sleep fragmentation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, D; Qiao, Z; Almendros, I; Zheng, J; Khalyfa, A; Shimpukade, B; Ulven, T

    2016-07-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF), a frequent occurrence in multiple sleep and other diseases leads to increased food intake and insulin resistance via increased macrophage activation and inflammation in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). Free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) is reduced in pediatric sleep apnea patients and FFA4 agonists have been proposed in the treatment of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Male mice were subjected to SF exposures for 6 weeks, and treated during the last 2 weeks with either TUG891, a potent and selective FFA4 agonist, or vehicle (Veh). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests and VWAT insulin sensitivity tests were conducted (phosphorylated Akt/total Akt), along with flow cytometric assessments of VWAT macrophage polarity, and T-cell lymphocyte subsets. SF-TUG891 mice showed reduction in food consumption, weight gain and VWAT mass. Furthermore, TUG891 treatment ameliorated glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test responses and increased VWAT p-Akt/Akt responses to insulin. Increases in M1/M2 macrophages and decreased Treg counts in VWAT associated with SF were markedly improved by TUG891, and VWAT macrophages from TUG891-treated mice had markedly attenuated insulin resistance effects on naïve cultured adipocytes. Treatment with an FFA4 agonist reverses SF-induced food intake increases and gains in body weight, and significantly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, interventional dietary or pharmaceutical strategies aimed at increasing FFA4 activity may serve as potentially useful adjunctive therapies for sleep disorders accompanied by metabolic morbidity.

  12. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  13. Yield, flesh parameters, and proximate and fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of wild and cultured Vieja Colorada (Cichlasoma festae in tropical Ecuadorian river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A. González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the composition of cultured and wild Cichlasoma festae in Ecuador. The mean slaughter yield and dress-out were similar for cultured and wild specimens and the average fillet fat content for cultured fish was significantly higher compared to the wild fish. The pH, fillet color, drip loss and coked loss were similar between populations. Significant differences were found in protein, lipid and ash content in both studied populations. This study showed that saturated fatty acid (SFA was higher than sum of monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in both populations. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids had the maximum percentage of SFA, MUFA and PUFA respectively. In cultured and wild fish was also found to differ in the PUFA/SFA, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid, n-3/n-6 ratios and atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Minerals included Ca, P, K, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. There were significant differences in the first six ones. The production system (cultured or wild influences significantly most of the analyzed characteristics of carcass and flesh of C. festae. These results provide valued nutritional information of native species to produce sources of food with low-fat and high-protein, and safety food for the consumers in Ecuadorian country.

  14. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO, soybean oil (SO, linseed oil (LO, rapeseed oil (RO and peanut oil (PO, respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m. Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of

  15. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  16. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the pancreatic β-cells and insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Mideksa, Seifu; Ambachew, Sintayehu

    2018-03-14

    Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent cytokine-induced cell death in pancreatic islets. Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids for human subjects prevent beta cell destruction and insulin resistance. It also enhances insulin secretion, reduction in lipid profiles and glucose concentration particularly in type II diabetes patients. Therefore there should be a focus on the treatment mechanism of insulin related obesity and diabetes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. II. Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B A; Kinsella, J A; Watt, B K

    1975-07-01

    An estensive survey of the literature on lipids of beef covering the past fouteen years revealed that a number of factors, such as sex, age, and diet of animal, and analytical method, can affect the lipid content and fatty acid composition of beef. The feeding regimen of the animal was a factor considered in evaluating data for the food table. Extraction method was important in assessing information on lean tissue lipids. Statistical analysis showed that fatty acid patterns for the separable fat and separable lean of various meat cuts were not significantly different at the 5 per cent level. Cooking by dry or moist heat has little effect on relative fatty acid composition. Methods for converting methyl ester data into per cent composition of fatty acids in the meat cut are presented. A comprehensive table of fatty acids per 100 gm. separable lean, separable fet, and total edible portions of Choice grade cuts of beef is given, as well as a table acids per 100 gm. fat for lean and adipose tissues.

  18. Hepatic fatty acid oxidation : activity, localization and function of some enzymes involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Tol (Arie)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractFatty acid oxidation is an important pathway for energy production in mammals and birds. In animal tissues the enzymes of fatty acid oxidation are located in the mitochondrion. Recent reports suggest that this is not the case in Castor bean endosperm. In this tissue the enzymes of

  19. Quantification of Bone Fatty Acid Metabolism and Its Regulation by Adipocyte Lipoprotein Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bartelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipocytes are master regulators of energy homeostasis. Although the contributions of classical brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively to glucose and fatty acid metabolism are well characterized, the metabolic role of adipocytes in bone marrow remains largely unclear. Here, we quantify bone fatty acid metabolism and its contribution to systemic nutrient handling in mice. Whereas in parts of the skeleton the specific amount of nutrients taken-up from the circulation was lower than in other metabolically active tissues such as BAT or liver, the overall contribution of the skeleton as a whole organ was remarkable, placing it among the top organs involved in systemic glucose as well as fatty acid clearance. We show that there are considerable site-specific variations in bone marrow fatty acid composition throughout the skeleton and that, especially in the tibia, marrow fatty acid profiles resemble classical BAT and WAT. Using a mouse model lacking lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a master regulator of plasma lipid turnover specifically in adipocytes, we show that impaired fatty acid flux leads to reduced amounts of dietary essential fatty acids while there was a profound increase in de novo produced fatty acids in both bone marrow and cortical bone. Notably, these changes in fatty acid profiles were not associated with any gross skeletal phenotype. These results identify LPL as an important regulator of fatty acid transport to skeletal compartments and demonstrate an intricate functional link between systemic and skeletal fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

  20. The multiple roles of Fatty Acid Handling Proteins in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine SF Moullé

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of a living organism as energy source but also as constituent of the membrane lipid bilayer. In addition fatty acid (FA derivatives interact with many signaling pathways. FAs have amphipathic properties and therefore require being associated to protein for both transport and intracellular trafficking. Here we will focus on several fatty acid handling proteins, among which the fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36, members of fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs, and lipid chaperones fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. A decade of extensive studies has helped decipher the mechanism of action of these proteins in peripheral tissue with high lipid metabolism. However, considerably less information is available regarding their role in the brain, despite the high lipid content of this tissue. This review will primarily focus on the recent studies that have highlighted the crucial role of lipid handling proteins in brain FA transport, neuronal differentiation and development, cognitive processes and brain diseases. Finally a special focus will be made on the recent studies that have revealed the role of FAT/CD36 in brain lipid sensing and nervous control of energy balance.

  1. Fatty liver diseases, bile acids, and FXR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD worldwide has increased at an alarming rate, which will likely result in enormous medical and economic burden. NAFLD presents as a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism(s of NAFLD-to-NASH transition remains elusive with various genetic and environmental susceptibility factors possibly involved. An understanding of the mechanism may provide novel strategies in the prevention and treatment to NASH. Abnormal regulation of bile acid homeostasis emerges as an important mechanism to liver injury. The bile acid homeostasis is critically regulated by the farnesoid X receptor (FXR that is activated by bile acids. FXR has been known to exert tissue-specific effects in regulating bile acid synthesis and transport. Current investigations demonstrate FXR also plays a principle role in regulating lipid metabolism and suppressing inflammation in the liver. Therefore, the future determination of the molecular mechanism by which FXR protects the liver from developing NAFLD may shed light to the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

  2. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  3. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Overview of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Products containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as krill oil and fish oils, have been effective in lowering triglyceride levels. Although no data have suggested that the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increases associated with some omega-3 fatty acid formulations lead to adverse outcomes, these elevations in LDL-C levels may compromise the achievement of lipid targets. Thus, there is a need for agents that can lower triglyceride levels without increasing LDL-C levels.

  5. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D'Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  6. Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Cereal-Based Turkish Foods

    OpenAIRE

    DAĞLIOĞLU, Orhan; TAŞAN, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 13 cereal-based foods produced by Turkish companies were analysed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The total fat contents of the samples ranged from 1.8 to 37.9%. Traditional Turkish white bread and bulgur had the lowest fat content (1.8% and 2.3% respectively) and wafer the highest (37.9%). The major fatty acids in the samples were C16:0, C18:0, trans C18:1, C18:1 and C18:2. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents varied bet...

  7. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  8. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to ...

  9. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  10. Germline signals deploy NHR-49 to modulate fatty-acid β-oxidation and desaturation in somatic tissues of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnappan, Ramesh; Amrit, Francis R G; Chen, Shaw-Wen; Gill, Hasreet; Holden, Kyle; Ward, Jordan; Yamamoto, Keith R; Olsen, Carissa P; Ghazi, Arjumand

    2014-12-01

    In C. elegans, removal of the germline extends lifespan significantly. We demonstrate that the nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-49, enables the response to this physiological change by increasing the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial β-oxidation and fatty-acid desaturation. The coordinated augmentation of these processes is critical for germline-less animals to maintain their lipid stores and to sustain de novo fat synthesis during adulthood. Following germline ablation, NHR-49 is up-regulated in somatic cells by the conserved longevity determinants DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1. Accordingly, NHR-49 overexpression in fertile animals extends their lifespan modestly. In fertile adults, nhr-49 expression is DAF-16/FOXO and TCER-1/TCERG1 independent although its depletion causes age-related lipid abnormalities. Our data provide molecular insights into how reproductive stimuli are integrated into global metabolic changes to alter the lifespan of the animal. They suggest that NHR-49 may facilitate the adaptation to loss of reproductive potential through synchronized enhancement of fatty-acid oxidation and desaturation, thus breaking down some fats ordained for reproduction and orchestrating a lipid profile conducive for somatic maintenance and longevity.

  11. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of the fatty acid-binding protein (Es-FABP gene in female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs, small cytosolic proteins that function in the uptake and utilization of fatty acids, have been extensively studied in higher vertebrates while invertebrates have received little attention despite similar nutritional requirements during periods of reproductive activity. Results Therefore, a cDNA encoding Eriocheir sinensis FABP (Es-FABP was cloned based upon EST analysis of a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The full length cDNA was 750 bp and encoded a 131 aa polypeptide that was highly homologous to related genes reported in shrimp. The 9108 bp Es-FABP gene contained four exons that were interrupted by three introns, a genomic organization common among FABP multigene family members in vertebrates. Gene expression analysis, as determined by RT-PCR, revealed the presence of Es-FABP transcripts in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, ovary, gills, muscle, thoracic ganglia, heart, and intestine, but not stomach or eyestalk. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Es-FABP expression in ovary, hemocytes, and hepatopancreas was dependent on the status of ovarian development, with peak expression observed in January. Conclusions Evidence provided in the present report supports a role of Es-FABP in lipid transport during the period of rapid ovarian growth in E. sinensis, and indirectly confirms the participation of the hepatopancreas, ovary, and hemocytes in lipid nutrient absorption and utilization processes.

  12. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  14. Supplementation with omega fatty acids in various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sicińska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For some decades, an increase in propagation of coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes, tumors and mental disorders has been observed. Consequently, new and effective methods of treatment of these diseases using drugs and diet supplements have been developed. A promising solution is the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of some diseases.These compounds have broad application in prevention of many diseases and are used to support standard therapies. Their activity is connected with participation in metabolic processes regulating biochemical transformations in cells and tissues.Omega-3 fatty acids regulate production of cytokines, increased levels of which may contribute to occurrence of chronic inflammatory diseases, autoaggression of the immunological system, arteriosclerosis or tumor development. These substances exert a beneficial effect on the blood system by improvement of blood circulation and nerve signal transmission. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of irregular heartbeat, stabilize arterial pressure, and restore balance in cholesterol metabolism disorders.They also play a key role in maintaining physical and mental efficiency; thus administration of these compounds for young children is of great importance. Nevertheless, administration of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet seems to be essential. The purpose of this study is to present the structure and sources of omega-3 and – 6 fatty acids and discuss the problems concerning therapeutic use of these compounds in various disorders.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeromson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle.

  16. Control of food intake by fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharrer, E

    1999-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation seems to provide an important stimulus for metabolic control of food intake, because various inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation (mercaptoacetate, methyl palmoxirate, R-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyric acid) stimulated feeding in rats and/or mice, in particular when fed a fat-enriched diet, and long-term intravascular infusion of lipids reduced voluntary food intake in various species, including humans. The feeding response to decreased fatty acid oxidation was due to a shortening of the intermeal interval with meal size remaining unaffected. Thus, energy derived from fatty acid oxidation seems to contribute to control of the duration of postmeal satiety and meal onset. Since inhibition of glucose metabolism by 2-deoxy-D-glucose affects feeding pattern similarly, and spontaneous meals were shown to be preceded by a transient decline in blood glucose in rats and humans, a decrease in energy availability from glucose and fatty acid oxidation seems to be instrumental in eliciting eating. Since the feeding response of rats to inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was abolished by total abdominal vagotomy and pretreatment with capsaicin destroying non-myelinated afferents and attenuated by hepatic branch vagotomy, fatty acid oxidation in abdominal tissues, especially in the liver, apparently is signalled to the brain by vagal afferents to affect eating. Brain lesions and Fos immunohistochemistry were employed to identify pathways within the brain mediating eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation. According to these studies, the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the medulla oblongata represents the gate for central processing of vagally mediated afferent information related to fatty acid oxidation. The lateral parabrachial nucleus of the pons seems to be a major relay for pertinent ascending input from the NTS. In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating

  17. Effect of a protein and energy dense n-3 fatty acid enriched oral supplement on loss of weight and lean tissue in cancer cachexia: a randomised double blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fearon, K. C. H.; von Meyenfeldt, M. F.; Moses, A. G. W.; van Geenen, R.; Roy, A.; Gouma, D. J.; Giacosa, A.; van Gossum, A.; Bauer, J.; Barber, M. D.; Aaronson, N. K.; Voss, A. C.; Tisdale, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: N-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may possess anticachectic properties. This trial compared a protein and energy dense supplement enriched with n-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (experimental: E) with an isocaloric isonitrogenous control supplement (C) for their effects on

  18. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  19. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis-fatty acid methyl ester (PLFA-FAME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to develop certain perspectives based on the principle of on-site remediation of the soil through biological means known as "bioremediation" against soil pollution issues resulting from fuel contamination in our country and to reveal the fatty acid profile in the final soils. The fatty acid profile of the soils was ...

  20. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  1. Methoxylated fatty acids in Blumeria graminis conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchembled, Jérôme; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj; Laruelle, Frédéric; Palhol, Fabien; Couturier, Daniel; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Sancholle, Michel

    2005-04-01

    The total fatty acids (FA) composition of Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici conidia, the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew, was analyzed as a function of their age. A total of 19 FA (C12-C24 saturated and unsaturated) and unusual methoxylated fatty acids (mFA) were detected in young, intermediate and old conidia. Two very long chain methoxylated FA were identified by GC-MS as 3-methoxydocosanoic and 3-methoxytetracosanoic acids. Medium chain FA were predominant in young conidia (75%, including 13% of mFA) while very long chain fatty acids constituted the major compounds in old conidia (74%, including 30% of mFA). We have shown for the first time that the total FA composition is strongly correlated with the age of B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) conidia.

  2. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  3. Oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der F.; Hoorn, van den M.H.; Blaauw, R.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Long-chain internal olefins were prepared by silver(II)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids by sodium peroxydisulfate. Similar to saturated carboxylic acids, 1-alkenes were the major decarboxylation product in the additional presence of copper(II), whereas in the absence

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    , respectively). Cis monounsaturated fatty acids were 49.2 +/- 3.1, 44.9 +/- 1.8, and 37.7 +/- 1.7, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 3.3 +/- 0.7, 5.8 +/- 2.0, and 5.0 +/- 0.1 g/100 g fatty acids in beef, veal, and lamb, respectively. Beef contained 2.1 +/- 0.8 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids, about half....... The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake...

  5. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2......) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement...

  6. Fluorescing fatty acids in rat fatty liver models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Anna C; Ferrigno, Andrea; Di Pasqua, Laura G; Berardo, Clarissa; Mannucci, Barbara; Bottiroli, Giovanni; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2017-06-01

    The autofluorescence (AF) of NAD(P)H and flavins has been at the basis of many in-situ studies of liver energy metabolism and functionality. Conversely, few data have been so far reported on fluorescing lipids. In this work we investigated the AF of liver lipid extracts from two fatty liver models, Wistar rats fed with MCD diet for 12 days (Wi-MCD), and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Among the most abundant fatty acids in the lipid extracts, indicated by mass spectrometry, arachidonic acid (AA) exhibited higher quantum yield than the other fluorescing fatty acids (FLFA), and red shifted AF spectrum. This allowed to estimate the AA contribution to the overall emission of lipid extracts by curve fitting analysis. AA prevailed in obese Zucker livers, accounting for the different AF spectral profiles between the two models. AF and mass spectrometry indicated also a different balance between the fluorescing fraction and the overall amount of AA in the two models. The ability of AF to detect directly AA and FLFA was demonstrated, suggesting its supportive role as tool in wide-ranging applications, from the control of animal origin food, to experimental investigations on liver fat accumulation, lipotoxicity and disease progression, with potential translation to the clinics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J.F.C.

    1983-01-01

    The biochemical investigations described in this thesis deal with two aspects of fatty acid oxidation in muscle: a comparison of the use of cell-free and cellular systems for oxidation measurements, and studies on the assay and the role of the fatty acid binding protein in fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid oxidation rates are determined radiochemically by the sum of 14 CO 2 and 14 C-labeled acid-soluble products formed during oxidation of [ 14 C]-fatty acids. A radiochemical procedure for the assay of fatty acid binding by proteins is described. (Auth.)

  8. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H 2 O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H 2 O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14 C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14 CO 2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14 CO 2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 μmoles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 μmoles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O 2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 μmoles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  9. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  10. Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids.

  11. Chain-modified radioiodinated fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Several carbon chain manipulations have been studied in terms of their effects on myocardial activity levels and residence time. The manipulations examined included: chain length, chain branching, chain unsaturation, and carbon-iodine bond stabilization. It was found that chain length affects myocardial activity levels for both straight-chain alkyl acids and branched chain alkyl and aryl acids. Similar results have been reported for the straight-chain aryl acids. Generally, the longer chain lengths correlated with higher myocardial activity levels and longer residence times. This behavior is attributed to storage as triglycerides. Branched chain acids are designed to be anti-metabolites but only the aryl β-methyl acids possessed the expected time course of constant or very slowly decreasing activity levels. The alkyl β-methyl acids underwent rapid deiodination - a process apparently independent of β-oxidation. Inhibition of β-oxidation by incorporation of carbon-carbon double and triple bonds was studied. Deiodination of ω-iodo alkyl fatty acids prevented an assessment of suicide inhibition using an unsaturated alkynoic acid. Stabilization of the carbon-iodine bond by attachment of iodine to a vinylic or aryl carbon was studied. The low myocardial values and high blood values observed for an eleven carbon ω-iodo vinylic fatty acid were not encouraging but ω-iodo aryl fatty acids appear to avoid the problems of rapid deiodination. (Auth.)

  12. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  13. Challenges in enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jennifer Stamey; Corl, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is determined by several factors including diet. The milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows is low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series. Efforts to change and influence fatty acid profile with longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have proven challenging. Several barriers prevent easy transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk fat including rumen biohydrogenation and fatty acid esterification. The potential for cellular uptake and differences in fatty acid incorporation into milk fat might also have an effect, though this has received less research effort. Given physiological impediments to enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids, manipulating the genome of the cow might provide a greater increase than diet alone, but this too may be challenged by the physiology of the cow.

  14. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  15. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  16. Ruminant and industrially produced trans fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids of trans configuration in our food come from two different sources - industrially produced partially hydrogenated fat (IP-TFA) used in frying oils, margarines, spreads, and in bakery products, and ruminant fat in dairy and meat products (RP-TFA). The first source may contain up to 60......% of the fatty acids in trans form compared to the content in ruminant fat which generally does not exceed 6%. In Western Europe, including Scandinavia, the average daily intake of IP-TFA has decreased during the recent decade due to societal pressure and a legislative ban, whereas the intake of RP-TFA has...

  17. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  18. Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata

    OpenAIRE

    Mafezoli,Jair; Santos,Regina Helena A.; Gambardela,Maria Teresa P.; Silveira,Edilberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8%) was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable part of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4%) was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction all...

  19. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  20. Fatty Acid Induced Remodeling within the Human Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against ...

  1. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The retinal pigment epithelium utilizes fatty acids for ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adijanto, Jeffrey; Du, Jianhai; Moffat, Cynthia; Seifert, Erin L; Hurle, James B; Philp, Nancy J

    2014-07-25

    Every day, shortly after light onset, photoreceptor cells shed approximately a tenth of their outer segment. The adjacent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells phagocytize and digest shed photoreceptor outer segment, which provides a rich source of fatty acids that could be utilized as an energy substrate. From a microarray analysis, we found that RPE cells express particularly high levels of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) compared with all other tissues (except the liver and colon), leading to the hypothesis that RPE cells, like hepatocytes, can produce β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) from fatty acids. Using primary human fetal RPE (hfRPE) cells cultured on Transwell filters with separate apical and basal chambers, we demonstrate that hfRPE cells can metabolize palmitate, a saturated fatty acid that constitutes .15% of all lipids in the photoreceptor outer segment, to produce β-HB. Importantly, we found that hfRPE cells preferentially release β-HB into the apical chamber and that this process is mediated primarily by monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1). Using a GC-MS analysis of (13)C-labeled metabolites, we showed that retinal cells can take up and metabolize (13)C-labeled β-HB into various TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids. Collectively, our data support a novel mechanism of RPE-retina metabolic coupling in which RPE cells metabolize fatty acids to produce β-HB, which is transported to the retina for use as a metabolic substrate.

  3. Frictional response of fatty acids on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Rashmi R; Biswas, S K

    2009-05-15

    Self-assembled monolayers of fatty acids were formed on stainless steel by room-temperature solution deposition. The acids are covalently bound to the surface as carboxylate in a bidentate manner. To explore the effect of saturation in the carbon backbone on friction in sliding tribology, we study the response of saturated stearic acid (SA) and unsaturated linoleic acid (LA) as self-assembled monolayers using lateral force microscopy and nanotribometry and when the molecules are dispersed in hexadecane, using pin-on-disc tribometry. Over a very wide range (10 MPa-2.5 GPa) of contact pressures it is consistently demonstrated that the unsaturated linoleic acid molecules yield friction which is significantly lower than that of the saturated stearic acid. It is argued, using density functional theory predictions and XPS of slid track, that when the molecular backbone of unsaturated fatty acids are tilted and pressed strongly by a probe, in tribological contact, the high charge density of the double bond region of the backbone allows coupling with the steel substrate. The interaction yields a low friction carboxylate soap film on the substrate. The saturated fatty acid does not show this effect.

  4. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Goupille, Caroline; Vildé, Anne; Arbion, Flavie; Body, Gilles; Chevalier, Stephan; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality. Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality. We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality. These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality.

  5. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid...

  6. Effects of commercial enrichment products on fatty acid components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red pepper paste (ZA), AlgaMac 3050 (ZB) and Spresso (ZC) on fatty acid compositions in rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were intensively cultured on a mixture of ω3 algae and ω3 yeast. Enriched rotifers were seen to have higher level of unsaturated fatty acids of linoleic acid (LOA) and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acid ...

  7. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  8. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  9. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries......-7%. Conclusion: The current intake of TFA in most Western European countries does not appear to be a reason for major concern. In several countries a considerable proportion of energy was derived from SFA. It would therefore be prudent to reduce intake of all cholesterol-raising fatty acids, TFA included...

  10. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and tailfat of two fat-tailed sheep breeds under identical feeding conditions. Twelve male lambs from two breeds, Sanjabi (n = 6), weighing 23.3 ± 0.48 kg, and Mehraban (n = 6), weighing 26.1 ± 2.14 kg, were used in this ...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Jeromson; Iain J. Gallagher; Stuart D. R. Galloway; D. Lee Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscl...

  12. Fatty acid composition of California grown almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, S K; Seeram, N P; Kshirsagar, H H; Heber, D; Lapsley, K A

    2008-11-01

    Eight almond (Prunus dulcis L.) cultivars from 12 different California counties, collected during crop years 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006, were extracted with petroleum ether. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS analyses to determine fatty acid composition of soluble lipids. Results indicated palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3) acid, respectively, accounted for 5.07% to 6.78%, 57.54% to 73.94%, 19.32% to 35.18%, and 0.04% to 0.10%; of the total lipids. Oleic and linoleic acid were inversely correlated (r=-0.99, P= 0.05) and together accounted for 91.16% to 94.29% of the total soluble lipids. Statistically, fatty acid composition was significantly affected by cultivar and county.

  13. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world's thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  14. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  16. Lipid and fatty acid requirements of tilapias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia have been shown to have a dietary requirement for linoleic (n-6) series fatty acids (18:2n-6 or 20:4n-6). The optimum dietary levels of n-6 reported were 0.5 and 1% for redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), respectively. Tilapia have been suggested to al...

  17. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  18. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from [1- 14 C]acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 μM acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl 2 , 1 mM each of the MnCl 2 and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO 3 , and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 μg/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO 3 , divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg 2+ and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor

  19. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  20. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be e...

  1. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acid 2-hydroxylase adds a single oxygen atom to a hydrogen atom at a particular point on a fatty acid ... direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Obstructive sleep ...

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    . The overlap between cis and trans C-18:1 by capillary GLC was verified by argentation-thin-layer chromatography followed by GLC, on three samples of veal and three samples of lamb. In veal 1.0 g, and in lamb 1.4 g trans C-18:1 per 100 g fatty acids were hidden under the cis C-18:1 peak. The mean intake...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    KONHEFROVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis with the name "Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of inpatients" is divided into a theoretical and a research parts. The theoretical part is focused on sorting out lipids and the recommended daily dosing. Next there are described the chemical structure of fatty acids and basic differences between saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (trans and cis) fatty acids. The biggest part of the theory is formed by the unsaturated fatty acids, their characteristics, food source and their effect o...

  5. [Essential fatty acids and the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbis, P; Hesse, S; Privat, Y

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of the essential fatty acids (AGE) in an organism leads to synthesis of eicosanoids, which have various biological properties. Linoleic acid plays an important part in maintenance of epidermal integrity by intervening in the cohesion of the stratum corneum and in prevention of transepidermal water loss. Metabolites of arachidonic acid (mostly those obtained by the lipoxygenase pathway) are important agents in causing many inflammatory skin reactions concurrent with development of skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Pharmacological and dietetic control of the metabolism of arachidonic acid is a new and interesting therapeutic concept in the care of skin diseases. Also, fish oil, which is rich in linoleic acid and poor in arachidonic acid, seems to be useful in basal treatment of psoriasis. The value of evening primrose oil, which is rich in gamma-linoleic acid, in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is discussed.

  6. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios ... The fast growing demand of omega-3 enriched meat and meat products, lead producers to ..... Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) as an [omega]-3 fatty acid source for ...

  7. Naturally occurring fatty acids: Source, chemistry, and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  8. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  10. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot ...

  11. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  12. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  13. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solvents which may be used in the preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters are those generally recognized... preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters. (b) Sucrose fatty acid esters meet the following specifications: (1..., 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or available for inspection at the National Archives...

  14. A method for measuring fatty acid oxidation in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Ida Coordt; Rødkær, Steven Vestergaard; Fredens, Julius

    2012-01-01

    different fatty acid oxidation rates. We show that starvation results in increased fatty acid oxidation, which is independent of the transcription factor NHR-49. On the contrary, fatty acid oxidation is reduced to approximately 70% in animals lacking the worm homolog of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Hence...

  15. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distillation, which removes short-chain and saturated fatty acids, it is now possible for manufacturers of these ... in red blood cell membranes, expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids) was determined at baseline, ... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase from baseline) when ...

  16. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  17. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  18. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  19. Free fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α induce adipocyte manganese superoxide dismutase which is increased in visceral adipose tissues of obese rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krautbauer

    Full Text Available Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity.

  20. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  1. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid amide (erucamide) using fatty acid and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj Praphulla; Singh, R P

    2007-01-01

    Ammonolysis of fatty acids to the corresponding fatty acid amides is efficiently catalysed by Candida antartica lipase (Novozym 435). In the present paper lipase-catalysed synthesis of erucamide by ammonolysis of erucic acid and urea in organic solvent medium was studied and optimal conditions for fatty amides synthesis were established. In this process erucic acid gave 88.74 % pure erucamide after 48 hour and 250 rpm at 60 degrees C with 1:4 molar ratio of erucic acid and urea, the organic solvent media is 50 ml tert-butyl alcohol (2-methyl-2-propanol). This process for synthesis is economical as we used urea in place of ammonia or other amidation reactant at atmospheric pressure. The amount of catalyst used is 3 %.

  2. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Amjad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids have proven to be very essential for human health due to their multiple health benefits. These essential fatty acids (EFAs need to be uptaken through diet because they are unable to be produced by the human body. These are important for skin and hair growth as well as for proper visual, neural, and reproductive functions of the body. These fatty acids are proven to be extremely vital for normal tissue development during pregnancy and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids can be obtained mainly from two dietary sources: marine and plant oils. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3 are the primary marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Marine fishes are high in omega-3 fatty acids, yet high consumption of those fishes will cause a shortage of fish stocks existing naturally in the oceans. An alternative source to achieve the recommended daily intake of EFAs is the demand of today. In this review article, an attempt has, therefore, been made to discuss the importance of omega-3 fatty acids and the recent developments in order to produce these fatty acids by the genetic modifications of the plants.

  3. Modulation of hepatic steatosis by dietary fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-02-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes a range of conditions caused by fat deposition within liver cells. Liver fat content reflects the equilibrium between several metabolic pathways involved in triglyceride synthesis and disposal, such as lipolysis in adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis, triglyceride esterification, fatty acid oxidation and very-low-density lipoprotein synthesis/secretion in hepatic tissue. In particular, it has been demonstrated that hepatic de novo lipogenesis plays a significant role in NAFLD pathogenesis. It is widely known that the fatty acid composition of the diet influences hepatic lipogenesis along with other metabolic pathways. Therefore, dietary fat may not only be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis, but may also prevent and/or reverse hepatic fat accumulation. In this review, major data from the literature about the role of some dietary fats as a potential cause of hepatic fat accumulation or as a potential treatment for NAFLD are described. Moreover, biochemical mechanisms responsible for an increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed. It is noteworthy that both quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary fat influence triglyceride deposition in the liver. A high-fat diet or the dietary administration of conjugated linoleic acids induced hepatic steatosis. In contrast, supplementation of the diet with krill oil or pine nut oil helped in the prevention and/or in the treatment of steatotic liver. Quite interesting is the "case" of olive oil, since several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models.

  4. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  5. Metabolic effects of free fatty acids during endotoxaemia in a porcine model--free fatty acid inhibition of growth hormone secretion as a potential catabolic feedback mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, M; Gjedsted, J; Granfeldt, A; Larsen, P Ø; Schmitz, O; Tønnesen, E; Møller, N

    2010-05-01

    Critical illness and severe inflammation are catabolic states characterised by breakdown of tissue and protein stores, by increased levels of free fatty acids, and by insulin resistance. These metabolic features contribute to morbidity and mortality. Growth hormone and insulin are the two major anabolic hormones. The present study was designed to test whether increased levels of free fatty acids (i) inhibit growth hormone secretion and (ii) induce insulin resistance during acute endotoxin exposure in a porcine model of critical illness. We studied 20 pigs for 6 h during combined anaesthesia and endotoxin infusion and a hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamp to control glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid concentrations. Pigs were randomised to two different continuous infusion rates of Intralipid resulting in different, sustained, and elevated free fatty acid concentrations (1.63 mmol l(-1) vs. 0.58 mmol l(-1), p=0.0002). Concomitantly, we observed reduced growth hormone concentrations in the group with high free fatty acid concentrations (3.5 ng ml(-1) vs. 6.6 ng ml(-1), pfeedback mechanism whereby growth hormone induced-stimulation of free fatty acids release inhibit growth hormone secretion. This mechanism may further contribute to protein loss in critical illness. We found no evidence that the increment of plasma free fatty acids between groups contribute to insulin resistance in critical illness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  6. Fatty acid effects on fibroblast cholesterol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireman, R.B.; Muth, J.; Lopez, C.

    1987-05-01

    Two cell lines of normal (CRL 1475, GM5565) and of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (CM 486,488) fibroblasts were preincubated with medium containing the growth factor ITS, 2.5 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA, or 35.2 ..mu..mol/ml of these fatty acids complexed with 2.5 mg BSA/ml: stearic (18:0), caprylic (8:0), oleic (18:1;9), linoleic (18:2;9,12), linolenic (18:3;9,12,15), docosahexaenoic (22:6;4,7,10,13,16,19)(DHA) or eicosapentaenoic (20:5;5,8,11,14,17)(EPA). After 20 h, cells were incubated for 2 h with 0.2 ..mu..Ci (/sup 14/C)acetate/ml. Cells were hydrolyzed; an aliquot was quantitated for radioactivity and protein. After saponification and extraction with hexane, radioactivity in the aqueous and organic phases was determined. The FH cells always incorporated 30-90% more acetate/mg protein than normal cells but the pattern of the fatty acid effects was similar in both types. When the values were normalized to 1 for the BSA-only group, cells with ITS had the greatest (/sup 14/C)acetate incorporation (1.45) followed by the caprylic group (1.14). Cells incubated with 18:3, 20:6 or 22:6 incorporated about the same amount as BSA-only. Those preincubated with 18:2, 18:1, 18:0 showed the least acetate incorporation (0.87, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively). The percentage of total /sup 14/C counts which extracted into hexane was much greater in FH cells; however, these values varied with the fatty acid, e.g., 1.31(18:0) and 0.84(8:0) relative to 1(BSA).

  7. Nutrient composition, volatile fatty acids production, digestible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient composition, volatile fatty acids production, digestible organic matter and anti-nutrtional factors of some agro-industrial by-products of Ethiopia. ... Because of high NDF and lignin, BB and coffee parchment (CPa) had low DOM (507±30 and 322±4 g/kg DM, respectively). CPa and SW had low ME (< 6.6±0.3 MJ/kg ...

  8. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    , Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...... value and FA concentrations. FA concentrations were generally lower in June after a heavy cut than in May and August....

  9. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  10. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  11. Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Ewald, G.; Nilsson, E.

    2004-01-01

    organohalogen compounds in the salmon were halogenated fatty acids, predominantly chlorinated species that accounted for up to 35% of the extractable, organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the fish tissues. The amount of chlorinated fatty acids in the salmon muscle decreased as a result of spawning migration...... to that of the unchlorinated fatty acids. Lipids of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), a fish resident to the spawning lake of the salmon, contained higher concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids than grayling in a lake without migratory salmon. This may reflect a food-chain transfer of the chlorinated fatty acids...... originating from the salmon, demonstrating a long-range transport route for this type of pollutants to pristine areas....

  12. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  13. ω-3 Fatty acids reverse lipotoxity through induction of autophagy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Tianlian; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease concerning hepatocyte lipid accumulation as well as apoptosis induced by free fatty acids (FFAs) and to explore the underlying mechanism involving autophagy. Hepatocytes were incubated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) to mimic in vitro lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, presented by lipid accumulation and cellular apoptosis. Chemical inhibitor or inducer of autophagy and genetic deficit cells, as well as ω-3 fatty acids were used as intervention. The autophagic role of ω-3 fatty acids was investigated using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The underlying mechanism of ω-3 fatty acids involving autophagy was preliminarily explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. FFAs induce lipid accumulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Inhibition or genetic defect of autophagy increases lipid accumulation induced by FFA, whereas induction acts inversely. ω-3 Fatty acids reduced lipid accumulation and inhibited apoptosis induced by FFA. ω-3 Fatty acids induced autophagy by downregulating stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression in hepatocytes. ω-3 Fatty acids exert protective effects on hepatocytes against lipotoxicity through induction of autophagy, as demonstrated by inhibition of lipid accumulation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of Fatty Acid Genotype and Diet on Changes in Colonic Fatty Acids in a Mediterranean Diet Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Porenta, Shannon R.; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Raskin, Leonid; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

    2013-01-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk since n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Medit...

  15. Physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were, free fatty acid (4.52%oleic acid), acid value (7.04%oleic acid), saponification value (145.00mgKOH/goil), peroxide value (7.73meq.peroxide/kg) and iodine value (37.30mg iodine/100g). The fatty acid detected and there values were myristic acid (0.10%), palmitic acid (13.77%) ,palmitoleic acid (0.68%), stearic ...

  16. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation to a high protein, carbohydrate-free diet induces a marked reduction of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenic enzymes in rat adipose tissue that is rapidly reverted by a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, S M R C; Moura, M A F; Kawashita, N H; Festuccia, W T L; Garófalo, M A R; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2005-06-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo lipogenesis is markedly reduced in liver, carcass, and in 4 different depots of adipose tissue of rats adapted to a high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet. In the present work, we investigate the activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the epididymal adipose tissue (EPI) of rats adapted to an HP diet before and 12 h after a balanced diet was introduced. Rats fed an HP diet for 15 days showed a 60% reduction of EPI fatty acid synthesis in vivo that was accompanied by 45%-55% decreases in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. Reversion to a balanced diet for 12 h resulted in a normalization of in vivo EPI lipogenesis, and in a restoration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity to levels that did not differ significantly from control values. The activities of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex increased to about 75%-86% of control values, but the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme remained unchanged 12 h after diet reversion. The data indicate that in rats, the adjustment of adipose tissue lipogenic activity is an important component of the metabolic adaptation to different nutritional conditions.

  18. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... The effects of seasonal variation on the fatty acid composition of carps Cyprinus carpio were determined. A total of 38 different fatty ... recent years, fish lipids have been focused on as being beneficial for human health. .... The principal fatty acids of both fractions (neutral and phospholipids) were palmitic ...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  20. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western diets are often deficient in n-3 fatty acids because of an insufficient intake of cold water oily fish. The main n-3 fatty acids in fatty fish are ... To date, no formally accepted dietary reference intakes for EPA and DHA exist, while international intake recommendations differ widely. Supplementation is an easy and ...

  1. Impact of dietary fatty acids on muscle composition, liver lipids, milt composition and sperm performance in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Baeza, R.; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    of dietary regime on muscle composition, and liver lipids prior to induced maturation, and the resulting sperm composition and performance. To accomplish this fish were reared on three "enhanced" diets and one commercial diet, each with different levels of fatty acids, arachidonic acid (ARA......), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Neutral lipids from the muscle and liver incorporated the majority of the fatty acid profile, while phospholipids incorporated only certain fatty acids. Diet had an effect on the majority of sperm fatty acids, on the total volume of extractable milt...... induced medium milt volumes but had the highest sperm motility. EPA also seems important for sperm quality parameters since diets with higher EPA percentages had a higher volume of milt and higher sperm motility. In conclusion, dietary fatty acids had an influence on fatty acids in the tissues of male eel...

  2. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Jawed

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product.

  3. A new leptin-mediated mechanism for stimulating fatty acid oxidation: a pivotal role for sarcolemmal FAT/CD36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momken, Iman; Chabowski, Adrian; Dirkx, Ellen; Nabben, Miranda; Jain, Swati S; McFarlan, Jay T; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Bonen, Arend

    2017-01-01

    Leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation in muscle and heart; but, the mechanism by which these tissues provide additional intracellular fatty acids for their oxidation remains unknown. We examined, in isolated muscle and cardiac myocytes, whether leptin, via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, stimulated fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid uptake to enhance fatty acid oxidation. In both mouse skeletal muscle and rat cardiomyocytes, leptin increased fatty acid oxidation, an effect that was blocked when AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by adenine 9-β-d-arabinofuranoside or Compound C. In wild-type mice, leptin induced the translocation of FAT/CD36 to the plasma membrane and increased fatty acid uptake into giant sarcolemmal vesicles and into cardiomyocytes. In muscles of FAT/CD36-KO mice, and in cardiomyocytes in which cell surface FAT/CD36 action was blocked by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate, the leptin-stimulated influx of fatty acids was inhibited; concomitantly, the normal leptin-stimulated increase in fatty acid oxidation was also prevented, despite the normal leptin-induced increase in AMPK phosphorylation. Conversely, in muscle of AMPK kinase-dead mice, leptin failed to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36, along with a failure to stimulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Similarly, when siRNA was used to reduce AMPK in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, leptin failed to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36. Our studies have revealed a novel mechanism of leptin-induced fatty acid oxidation in muscle tissue; namely, this process is dependent on the activation of AMPK to induce the translocation of FAT/CD36 to the plasma membrane, thereby stimulating fatty acid uptake. Without increasing this leptin-stimulated, FAT/CD36-dependent fatty acid uptake process, leptin-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation does not enhance fatty acid oxidation. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Tracing the fate of dietary fatty acids: metabolic studies of postprandial lipaemia in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Most postprandial studies have investigated the response of a single meal, yet the ingestion of sequential meals is more typical in a Western society. The aim of this review is to explain how natural and stable isotope tracers of fatty acids have been used to investigate the metabolism of dietary fat after single and multiple meals, with a focus on in vivo measurements of adipose tissue metabolism. When stable isotope tracers are combined with arteriovenous difference measurements, very specific measurements of metabolic flux across tissues can be made. We have found that adipose tissue is a net importer of dietary fat for 5 h following a single test meal and for most of the day during a typical three-meal eating pattern. When dietary fat is cleared from plasma, some fatty acids 'spillover' into the plasma and contribute up to 50% of postprandial plasma NEFA concentrations. Therefore, plasma NEFA concentrations after a meal reflect the balance between intracellular and extracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue. This balance is altered after the acute ingestion of fructose. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase is a key modulator of fatty acid flux in adipose tissue and its rate of action is severely diminished in obese men. In conclusion, in vivo studies of human metabolism can quantify the way that adipose tissue fatty acid trafficking modulates plasma lipid concentrations. This has implications for the flux of fatty acids to tissues that are susceptible to ectopic fat deposition such as the liver and muscle.

  5. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  6. Two-dimensional fluorescence in-gel electrophoresis of coronary restenosis tissues in minipigs: increased adipocyte fatty acid binding protein induces reactive oxygen species-mediated growth and migration in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Ya Nan; Sun, Wei Hua; Liu, Zhu Hui; Zhang, Qi; Pu, Li Jin; Yang, Ke; Wang, Ling Jie; Zhu, Zhen Bin; Meng, Hua; Yang, Ping; Du, Run; Chen, Qiu Jing; Wang, Li Shun; Yu, Hong; Shen, Wei Feng

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to uncover the protein changes of coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) tissue in minipigs with and without streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus by quantitative 2-dimensional fluorescence in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and to investigate the influences of crucial proteins identified, particularly adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (AFABP), in human arterial smooth muscle cells. Sirolimus-eluting stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 diabetic and 26 nondiabetic minipigs, and angiography was repeated after 6 months. The intima tissue of significant ISR and non-ISR segments in both diabetic and nondiabetic minipigs was analyzed by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. AFABP level was significantly increased in ISR tissue than in non-ISR tissue in both diabetic and nondiabetic minipigs, with level being higher in diabetic ISR than in nondiabetic ISR tissue. In human arterial smooth muscle cells, overexpression of AFABP significantly altered phenotype and promoted growth and migration, with effects more prominent in high-glucose than in low-glucose medium, whereas AFABP knockdown inhibited these effects. AFABP overexpression increased reactive oxygen species production by upregulating the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits Nox1, Nox4, and P22 through multiple pathways, with elevation of downstream gene cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. However, AFABP-induced effects were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, pathway inhibitors, and small interfering RNA. In addition, the supernatant from AFABP-expressing human arterial smooth muscle cells and recombinant AFABP also promoted cellular growth and migration. This study has demonstrated that AFABP is significantly increased in coronary artery ISR segments of both diabetic and nondiabetic minipigs. Increased AFABP expression and secretory AFABP of human arterial smooth muscle cells promote growth and migration via reactive oxygen species

  7. Use of tocopherol with polyunsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocopherol can inhibit the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by stabilizing lipid radicals that form at elevated temperatures or pro-oxidant conditions. This is particularly relevant for feeds formulated with fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or linolenic acid (ALA) T...

  8. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular events after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, Daan; Giltay, Erik J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, D.; Schouten, E. G.; Geleijnse, J. M.; de Goede, J.; Griep, L. M. Oude; Teitsma-Jansen, A. M.; Waterham, E.; Giltay, E. J.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Deckers, J. W.; Katan, M. B.; Zock, P. L.; de Boer, M. J.; de Leeuw, H.; Boersma, E.; Jukema, J. W.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; van der Kuip, D. A. M.; Thomas, K.; Rivero-Ayerza, M.; Vollaard, A. M.; Fieren, C. J.; van Kempen, L. H. J.; Bakx, A.; Sedney, M. I.; Hertzberger, D. P.; Michels, H. R.; de Rotte, A. A.; van Rugge, R. P.; Klootwijk, A.; Verheul, J. A.; Nicastia, D. M.; de Medina, R. Robles; van Rossem, M.; Leenders, C. M.; van der Meer, P.; Uppal, S. C.; Blok, J. G.; Visser, R. F.; Mosterd, A.; Umans, V. A. W. M.; Reichert, C. L. A.; Louwerenburg, J. W.; Liem, A. H.; van Rees, C.; Kirchhof, C. J. H. J.; Konst, L.; Drost, H.; van Liebergen, R. A. M.; Polak, P. E.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Schroeder-Tanka, J.; van Kesteren, H.; van den Berg, B. J.; Bronzwaer, P. N. A.; van Loenhout, T. T.; de Milliano, P.; Bloemberg, B. P. M.; Okma, L.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Grootaarts, W.; van Rumpt, D.; Hulshof, P. J. M.; van der Struijs-van de Putte, H. M.; Versloot, P.; Hovenier, R.; de Vries, J. H. M.; Siebelink, E.; Rosier, O. E.; Zevenbergen, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from prospective cohort studies and randomized, controlled trials have provided evidence of a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effect of the marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and

  9. Unsaturated fatty acids and insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Karen; Aranda, Mario; Asenjo, Sylvia; Sáez, Katia; Bustos, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) that interfere with insulin signaling. The aim of our study was to assess the FFA profile in obese children and adolescents and to determine their relation with different degrees of insulin resistance. A transversal study was conducted of 51 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.7±1.6 years; 47% males) with obesity (body mass index ≥95 percentile). Anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters were assessed. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Plasma fatty acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with heptadecanoic acid as the internal standard. The mean concentration of myristic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and total fatty acids was 9.3±2.2, 86.5±38.3, 93.0±35.5, 177.0±83.6, 48.5±14.9, and 414.3±160.9 μmol/L, respectively. Total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid showed an inverse significant correlation with insulin resistance. Children with high insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >2.5) showed a decrease in unsaturated fatty acids compared with children having a HOMA-IR of fatty acid concentrations between those groups. A decrease in unsaturated fatty acids was correlated with insulin resistance in childhood obesity.

  10. Fe-Catalyzed Oxidative Cleavage of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spannring, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325783802

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids into aldehydes or carboxylic acids gives access to valuable products. The products can be used as chemical building blocks, as emulsifiers or in the paint or polymer industry. Ozonolysis is applied industrially to cleave the fatty acid oleic acid

  11. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids.Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS.In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid.Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  12. Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Type II: More than Just Fatty Acids*

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Schonauer, Melissa S.; Autio, Kaija J.; Mittelmeier, Telsa M.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotes harbor a highly conserved mitochondrial pathway for fatty acid synthesis (FAS), which is completely independent of the eukaryotic cytosolic FAS apparatus. The activities of the mitochondrial FAS system are catalyzed by soluble enzymes, and the pathway thus resembles its prokaryotic counterparts. Except for octanoic acid, which is the direct precursor for lipoic acid synthesis, other end products and functions of the mitochondrial FAS pathway are still largel...

  13. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, fatty and amino acids composition of two commercially important freshwater fish species Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. purchased from local fishermen in two landing sites in Lagos State, Nigeria were determined. Live specimens of C. gariepinus were purchased while samples of T. zillii were stored in ...

  14. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Leshukov; K. Klimov; O. Kuprina

    2012-01-01

    The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness) of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  15. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  16. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online). Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v45i4.7. Milk fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid content of Jersey and. Fleckvieh x Jersey cows in a pasture-based feeding system. B. Sasanti1,2, S. Abel2, ...

  17. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P meal caused the greatest change in cod lipid composition and utilization.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids: new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael H

    2013-12-01

    Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects. In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase 1-3 for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. EPA and DHA have differences in their effects on lipoprotein metabolism, in which EPA, with a more potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha effect, decreases hepatic lipogenesis, whereas DHA not only enhances VLDL lipolysis, resulting in greater conversion to LDL, but also increases HDL cholesterol and larger, more buoyant LDL particles. Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction.

  19. PPAR{delta} is a fatty acid sensor, which enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca; Boergesen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is implicated in regulation of mitochondrial processes in a number of tissues, and PPARdelta activation is associated with decreased susceptibility to ectopic lipid deposition and metabolic disease. Here we show that PPARdelta...... against adverse effects on GSIS associated with prolonged fatty acid exposure. The presented results indicate that the nuclear receptor PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that adapts beta-cell mitochondrial function to long-term changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels. As maintenance of mitochondrial...

  20. Adipose tissue deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase causes fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Cai, Guo He; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Mitchell, Grant A; Wu, Jiang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver is a major health problem worldwide. People with hereditary deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are reported to develop fatty liver. In this study, systemic and tissue-specific HSL-deficient mice were used as models to explore the underlying mechanism of this association. We found that systemic HSL deficient mice developed fatty liver in an age-dependent fashion between 3 and 8 months of age. To further explore the mechanism of fatty liver in HSL deficiency, liver-specific HSL knockout mice were created. Surprisingly, liver HSL deficiency did not influence liver fat content, suggesting that fatty liver in HSL deficiency is not liver autonomous. Given the importance of adipose tissue in systemic triglyceride metabolism, we created adipose-specific HSL knockout mice and found that adipose HSL deficiency, to a similar extent as systemic HSL deficiency, causes age-dependent fatty liver in mice. Mechanistic study revealed that deficiency of HSL in adipose tissue caused inflammatory macrophage infiltrates, progressive lipodystrophy, abnormal adipokine secretion and systemic insulin resistance. These changes in adipose tissue were associated with a constellation of changes in liver: low levels of fatty acid oxidation, of very low density lipoprotein secretion and of triglyceride hydrolase activity, each favoring the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, HSL-deficient mice revealed a complex interorgan interaction between adipose tissue and liver: the role of HSL in the liver is minimal but adipose tissue deficiency of HSL can cause age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Adipose tissue is a potential target for treating the hepatic steatosis of HSL deficiency.

  1. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-S. E-mail: kskim@mail.chosun.ac.kr; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-10-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the {alpha}-carbon position and C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons were higher than C{sub n-2} hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin.

  2. Radiolytic products of irradiated authentic fatty acids and triacylglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Jeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Radiolytic products of authentic fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and triacylglycerides (tripalmitin, tristearin, triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin) were determined. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from the saturated fatty acids were higher than the unsaturated fatty acids. Authentic fatty acids were mainly decomposed in the α-carbon position and C n-1 hydrocarbons occurred in higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Concentrations of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from the saturated fatty acids were lower than the unsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of hydrocarbons from tripalmitin and tristearin were not a significant change compared with triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin. For all triacylglycerides except triolein, C n-1 hydrocarbons were higher than C n-2 hydrocarbons. Radioproduction rates of 2-alkylcyclobutanones from tripalmitin and tristearin were higher than triolein, trilinolein and trilinolenin

  3. Expression and Association of SCD Gene Polymorphisms and Fatty Acid Compositions in Chicken Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Furqon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is an integral membrane protein of endoplasmic reticulum (ER that catalyzes the rate limiting step in the monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids. Selection for fatty acids traits based on molecular marker assisted selection is needed to increase a value of chicken meat. This study was designed to analyze expression and associations of SCD gene polymorphisms with fatty acid traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross. A total of 62 F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (29 males and 33 females were used in this study. Fatty acid traits were measured at 26 weeks of age. Samples were divided into two groups based on fatty acid traits (the highest and the lowest. Primers in exon 2 region were designed from the genomic chicken sequence. The SNP g.37284A>G was detected and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was then used to genotype. The expression of SCD gene was analyzed using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The result showed that there were three genotypes (AA, AG, and GG found in this study. The SCD|AciI polymorphism was significantly associated with palmitoleic acid (C16:1, fatty acids total and saturated fatty acid in 26 weeks old of F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross (P<0.05. The SCD gene was expressed for polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver tissue in two groups of chickens. In conclusion, the SCD gene could be a candidate gene that affects fatty acids traits in F2 kampung-broiler chicken cross.

  4. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  5. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  6. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  7. Dietary fatty acids influence sperm quality and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A; Moscatelli, N; Di Giacomo, M; Zara, V

    2017-05-01

    Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% olive oil (a source of monounsaturated fatty acids) or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). Liver and adipose tissue weight, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were determined. Activities of enzymes involved in sperm energetic metabolism were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency was also assayed. The obtained results suggest that olive oil partially counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on sperm quality, by increasing gamete motility, by reducing oxidative stress and slightly improving mitochondrial respiration efficiency. On the other hand, krill oil determines an increase in sperm concentration and motility, an increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, Krebs cycle enzymes and respiratory chain complexes; a parallel increase in the cellular levels of ATP and a reduction in oxidative damage were also observed. These results suggest that dietary fatty acids are able to positively influence sperm quality and function. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  9. Fatty acids and terpenoids from Trigonia fasciculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafezoli Jair

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty portion of the hexane extract from roots of Trigonia fasciculata has been determined by GC/MS analysis of the methyl ester mixture. Seventeen fatty acids were identified and oleic acid (38.8% was the major component. The GC/MS analysis of the less polar fraction of the non-saponifiable part of the root hexane extract allowed the identification of fifteen sesquiterpenes and alpha-santalene (28.4% was the major component. Chromatography over silica gel of the more polar fraction allowed the isolation of two known compounds: betulinic acid and friedelin, and a novel diterpene 7-(2-hydroxy-acetyl-10-hydroxy-tetradecahydro-1-methylene-4b,7,10a-trimethyl -phenantrene (6alpha-hydroxy-15-oxo-allodevadarool, all unknown for the species. Structure determination was accomplished by chemical derivatization, comparison to literature data and spectral analysis, including 2D NMR (COSY, HETCOR, COLOC and X-ray crystallography.

  10. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  11. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  12. NORMAL FATTY ACID CONCENTRATIONS IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Stacey M; Harding, Cary O; Gillingham, Melanie B

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if children with phenylketonuria (PKU) have lower fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid due to the phenylalanine restricted diet therapy compared to healthy control subjects. Dietary intake and fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid were measured in twenty-one subjects (PKU and twenty-three control children. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower protein and significantly higher polyunsaturated fat intake compared to controls. Subjects with PKU had significantly lower concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid of the sum of the omega-3,omega-6, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concentrations of fatty acids among subjects with PKU were lower than control subjects but no subject with PKU exhibited any signs or symptoms suggestive of essential fatty acid deficiency, thereby suggesting that subjects with PKU in this cohort have normal and adequate essential fatty acid concentrations in total erythrocyte lipid.

  13. Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of Three Phytomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid and sterol analysis were performed on Phytomonas serpens and Phytomonas sp. grown in chemically defined and complex medium, and P. françai cultivated in complex medium. The three species of the genus Phytomonas had qualitatively identical fatty acid patterns. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Miristic and stearic were the major saturated fatty acids. Ergosterol was the only sterol isolated from Phytmonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a sterol-free medium, indicating that it was synthesized de novo. When P. françai that does not grow in defined medium was cultivated in a complex medium, cholesterol was the only sterol detected. The fatty acids and sterol isolated from Phytomonas sp. and P. serpens grown in a chemically defined lipid-free medium indicated that they were able to biosynthesize fatty acids and ergosterol from acetate or from acetate precursors such as glucose or threonine.

  14. Metabolism of fatty acids in rat brain in microsomal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhard, E.E.; Gan-Elepano, M.; Mead, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique in which substrate fatty acids are incorporated into microsomal membranes followd by comparison of their rates of desaturation or elongation with those of exogenous added fatty acids it has been found that the desaturation rate is more rapid for the membrane-bound substrate than for the added fatty acid. Moreover, the product of the membrane-bound substrate is incorporated into membrane phospholipid whereas the product of the exogenous substrate is found in di- and triacyl glycerols and in free fatty acids as well. These and other findings point to a normal sequence of reaction of membrane liqids with membrane-bound substrates involving transfer of fatty acid from phospholipid to the coupled enzyme systems without ready equilibration with the free fatty acid pool

  15. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  16. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  17. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of marine snail Rapana venosa meat, visceral mass and operculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fenglei; Xing, Ronge; Wang, Xueqin; Peng, Quancai; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    Rapana venosa (Rv), an important marine snail, demonstrates an increasing nutritional and economic importance. However, there is still limited information available on their nutritional composition. The present study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles of different body parts of Rv, aiming for its better application and research. The operculum contained a high amount of protein and flavor amino acids. The edible tissues, including meat and visceral mass, were valuable sources of essential amino acids (EAA) apart from methionine and cysteine. In addition, the meat contained high amount of taurine. Fatty acid analysis indicated that the edible tissues contained high amounts of ω3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6ω3), and had a low ω6/ω3 fatty acid ratio. Interestingly, significantly higher concentrations of most nutritional elements such as fat, EAA, EPA and DHA, were found in the visceral mass compared to those in the meat. The operculum of Rv may became a very interesting source for some protein and flavor peptide development, and the edible parts of Rv may be utilized for special dietary applications requiring high amounts of taurine, EPA, DHA and a lower ω6/ω3 fatty acid ratio. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in...

  19. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    choleretic, stomachic, astringent, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antipyretic and tonic properties [4-. 6]. Flavonoids, steroids, volatile constituents, sesquiterpene lactones and fatty acids have been previously isolated from plants belonging to the genus [7-11]. Fatty acid, either saturated or unsaturated, is a carboxylic acid with a long.

  20. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D Y

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders.

  2. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zdzisław Kochan; Joanna Karbowska; Ewa Babicz-Zielińska

    2010-01-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs), products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the ...

  3. Characterization of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-11

    synthases have been studied including the soluble fatty acid synthases , those involved in polyketide synthesis, and the FAE1-like 3-keto-CoA synthases ...condensation, including the soluble fatty acid synthases and the FAE1-like 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (FAE-KCSs) possess a catalytic triad of Cys, His...1 Fatty acid synthase required for de novo FA synthesis .................................................. 2 A. Type I FAS

  4. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... ¹Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Accepted 5 November, 2010 ...... Dietary lipid, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol metabolism in aging rats. Lipids.

  5. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  6. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries....... TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3...

  7. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  8. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid was found in all but one species. Additionally, some species contained docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid of the ω-6 series, was present in all studied macroalgae. Fucus spiralis L. exhibited the highest amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 series. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio in half of the studied species was lower than 1. This information reinforces the potential application of some brown macroalgae as dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  10. Effect of the level and type of starchy concentrate on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats receiving a diet rich in sunflower-seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Bonnet, M; Chilliard, Y

    2012-04-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in ruminant milk. The impact of the level and type of starchy concentrate added to diets supplemented with sunflower-seed oil on caprine milk FA composition and on mammary, omental and perirenal adipose, and liver lipid metabolism was examined in fourteen Alpine goats in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square with 21 d experimental periods. Treatments were a grass hay-based diet with a high level of forage (F) or a high level of concentrate with either maize grain (CM) or flattened wheat (CW) as source of starch and supplemented with 130 g/d sunflower-seed oil. Milk yield was enhanced (Pmilk fat content was decreased on the CM and CW diets compared with the F diet, resulting in similar milk fat secretion. Both high-concentrate diets increased (Pmilk yield of 10 : 0-16 : 0 and decreased trans-9,11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-18 : 2. The CW diet decreased (Pmilk. The expression and/or activity of fourteen proteins involved in the major lipogenic pathways in mammary tissues and of lipogenic genes in adipose and liver tissues were similar among treatments. In conclusion, high starch concentrates alter milk FA yield via mechanisms independent of changes in mammary, liver or adipose tissue lipogenic gene expression. Furthermore, data provided indications that mammary lipogenic responses to starch-rich diets differ between caprine and bovine ruminants.

  11. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  12. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  13. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  14. A functional nexus between photoperiod acclimation, torpor expression and somatic fatty acid composition in a heterothermic mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Klingenspor, Martin; McAllan, Bronwyn M

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal changes in thermal physiology and torpor expression of many heterothermic mammals are controlled by photoperiod. As function at low body temperatures during torpor requires changes of tissue lipid composition, we tested for the first time whether and how fatty acids are affected by photoperiod acclimation in hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, a strongly photoperiodic species. We also examined changes in fatty acid composition in relation to those in morphology and thermal biology. Hamsters in short photoperiod had smaller reproductive organs and most had a reduced body mass in comparison to those in long photoperiod. Pelage colour of hamsters under short photoperiod was almost white while that of long photoperiod hamsters was grey-brown and black. Short photoperiod acclimation resulted in regular (28% of days) torpor use, whereas all hamsters in long photoperiod remained normothermic. The composition of total fatty acids differed between acclimation groups for brown adipose tissue (5 of 8 fatty acids), heart muscle (4 of 7 fatty acids) and leg muscle (3 of 11 fatty acids). Importantly, 54% of all fatty acids detected were correlated (r(2) = 0.60 to 0.87) with the minimum surface temperature of individuals, but the responses of tissues differed. While some of the compositional changes of fatty acids were consistent with a 'homeoviscous' response, this was not the case for all, including the sums of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which did not differ between acclimation groups. Our data identify a possible nexus between photoperiod acclimation, morphology, reproductive biology, thermal biology and fatty acid composition. They suggest that some of the changes in thermal physiology are linked to the composition of tissue and organ fatty acids.

  15. A functional nexus between photoperiod acclimation, torpor expression and somatic fatty acid composition in a heterothermic mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Geiser

    Full Text Available The seasonal changes in thermal physiology and torpor expression of many heterothermic mammals are controlled by photoperiod. As function at low body temperatures during torpor requires changes of tissue lipid composition, we tested for the first time whether and how fatty acids are affected by photoperiod acclimation in hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, a strongly photoperiodic species. We also examined changes in fatty acid composition in relation to those in morphology and thermal biology. Hamsters in short photoperiod had smaller reproductive organs and most had a reduced body mass in comparison to those in long photoperiod. Pelage colour of hamsters under short photoperiod was almost white while that of long photoperiod hamsters was grey-brown and black. Short photoperiod acclimation resulted in regular (28% of days torpor use, whereas all hamsters in long photoperiod remained normothermic. The composition of total fatty acids differed between acclimation groups for brown adipose tissue (5 of 8 fatty acids, heart muscle (4 of 7 fatty acids and leg muscle (3 of 11 fatty acids. Importantly, 54% of all fatty acids detected were correlated (r(2 = 0.60 to 0.87 with the minimum surface temperature of individuals, but the responses of tissues differed. While some of the compositional changes of fatty acids were consistent with a 'homeoviscous' response, this was not the case for all, including the sums of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which did not differ between acclimation groups. Our data identify a possible nexus between photoperiod acclimation, morphology, reproductive biology, thermal biology and fatty acid composition. They suggest that some of the changes in thermal physiology are linked to the composition of tissue and organ fatty acids.

  16. Role of fatty acid uptake and fatty acid beta-oxidation in mediating insulin resistance in heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Keung, Wendy; Samokhvalov, Victor; Wang, Wei; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids are a major fuel source used to sustain contractile function in heart and oxidative skeletal muscle. To meet the energy demands of these muscles, the uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids must be coordinately regulated in order to ensure an adequate, but not excessive, supply for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. However, imbalance between fatty acid uptake and beta-oxidation has the potential to contribute to muscle insulin resistance. The action of insulin is initiated by binding to its receptor and activation of the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor, resulting in the initiation of an intracellular signaling cascade that eventually leads to insulin-mediated alterations in a number of cellular processes, including an increase in glucose transport. Accumulation of fatty acids and lipid metabolites (such as long chain acyl CoA, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol, and/or ceramide) can lead to alterations in this insulin signaling pathway. An imbalance between fatty acid uptake and oxidation is believed to be responsible for this lipid accumulation, and is thought to be a major cause of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes, due to lipid accumulation and inhibition of one or more steps in the insulin-signaling cascade. As a result, decreasing muscle fatty acid uptake can improve insulin sensitivity. However, the potential role of increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation in the heart or skeletal muscle in order to prevent cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and decrease insulin resistance is controversial. While increased fatty acid beta-oxidation may lower cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, increasing fatty acid beta-oxidation can decrease muscle glucose metabolism, and incomplete fatty acid oxidation has the potential to also contribute to insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the proposed mechanisms by which alterations in fatty acid uptake and oxidation contribute to insulin resistance, and how targeting fatty acid uptake and

  17. Enhanced fatty acid uptake in visceral adipose tissue is not reversed by weight loss in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucci, Marco; Karmi, Anna C; Iozzo, Patricia; Fielding, Barbara A; Viljanen, Antti; Badeau, Robert M; Borra, Ronald; Saunavaara, Virva; Pham, Tam; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Viljanen, Tapio; Parkkola, Riitta; Frayn, Keith N; Nuutila, Pirjo

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity causes an imbalance in fat mass distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots. We tested the hypothesis that this relates to increased NEFA uptake between these depots in obese compared with healthy participants. Second, we hypothesised that a

  18. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sjövall, P.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, J.; Kuda, Ondřej; Kopecký, Jan; Bryhn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 17 (2015), s. 5101-5111 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09347S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Omega -3 * TOF-SIMS * mouse tissue * lipids Imaging * PCA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  19. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and ketogenesis: an emerging connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging literature indicating that at least two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; linoleate, alpha-linolenate) are moderately ketogenic and that via ketone bodies significant amounts of carbon are recycled from these fatty acids into de novo synthesis of lipids including cholesterol, palmitate, stearate and oleate. This pathway (PUFA carbon recycling) is particularly active in several tissues during the suckling period when, depending on the tissue, >200 fold more carbon from alpha-linolenate can be recycled into newly synthesized lipids than is used to make docosahexaenoate. At least in rats, PUFA carbon recycling also occurs in adults and even during extreme linoleate deficiency. Hence, this pathway should be considered an obligatory component of PUFA metabolism. It is still speculative but part of the clinical benefit of the very high fat ketogenic diet in intractable seizures may be achieved by raising plasma levels of PUFA that have anti-seizure effects, especially arachidonate and docosahexaenoate. Hence, in addition to some PUFA being ketogenic substrates, the state of ketosis involves potentially beneficial changes in PUFA homeostasis. Both the molecular controls on these pathways and their clinical significance still need elucidation.

  20. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. Results: We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1 Delta...... faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...... levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under...

  1. Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Randomized to a Higher-Complex Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Manifest Lower Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Glucose, and Free Fatty Acids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Reece, Melanie S; Reynolds, Regina M; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Heerwagen, Margaret; Donahoo, William T; Daniels, Linda J; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has focused on carbohydrate restriction but is poorly substantiated. In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we challenged the conventional low-carbohydrate/higher-fat (LC/CONV) diet, hypothesizing that a higher-complex carbohydrate/lower-fat (CHOICE) diet would improve maternal insulin resistance (IR), adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis, and infant adiposity. At 31 weeks, 12 diet-controlled overweight/obese women with GDM were randomized to an isocaloric LC/CONV (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein; n = 6) or CHOICE (60%/25%/15%; n = 6) diet. All meals were provided. AT was biopsied at 37 weeks. After ∼7 weeks, fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and free fatty acids (P = 0.06) decreased on CHOICE, whereas fasting glucose increased on LC/CONV (P = 0.03). Insulin suppression of AT lipolysis was improved on CHOICE versus LC/CONV (56 vs. 31%, P = 0.005), consistent with improved IR. AT expression of multiple proinflammatory genes was lower on CHOICE (P diet may improve maternal IR and infant adiposity, challenging recommendations for a LC/CONV diet. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. A composite model including visfatin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen, hyaluronic acid, and hematological variables for the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.

  3. The ACACA and SREBF1 genes are promising markers for pig carcass and performance traits, but not for fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Monika; Nowacka-Woszuk, Joanna; Szydlowski, Maciej; Switonski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Among functional and positional candidate genes for pig fatness traits, there are genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1). In our study, 5 known and 2 novel SNPs in the ACACA gene and 2 known and 6 novel polymorphisms in the SREBF1 were found. The SNPs segregated as 6 and 10 haplotypes in ACACA and SREBF1, respectively. Two SNPs in ACACA were associated with fatness and performance traits in Polish breeds. In the SREBF1 gene, two novel SNPs were associated with daily gain and one, within a potential intronic micro-RNA gene, showed an association with fatness traits. Breed-specific differences in the transcript level were observed for ACACA only. No correlation between the transcript levels and fatty acid compositions was found in muscle and fat tissues. We concluded that polymorphisms of the ACACA and SREBF1 genes are promising markers for pig carcass and performance traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemotaxonomy of the Rubiaceae family based on leaf fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrand, Sébastien; Badoc, Alain; Patouille, Brigitte; Lacomblez, Chantal; Chavent, Marie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2005-03-01

    With 10,700 species distributed in 637 genera, the Rubiaceae family is one of the largest of the angiosperms. Since it was previously evidenced that the fatty acid composition of photosynthetic tissues can be a tool for chemotaxonomic studies, the fatty acid composition of leaves from 107 Rubiaceae species highly representative of the diversity of the family was determined. Principal component analysis allowed a clear-cut separation of Coffeae, Psychotrieae and Rubieae. The occurrence of C16:3 fatty acid, a marker of the prokaryotic plastidial lipid biosynthetic pathway, concerned at least two branches: Theligoneae/Rubieae and Anthospermeae-Anthosperminae which appeared to be in close relationship. Additional experiments were carried out to ensure the correlation between the presence of C16:3 fatty acid and the prokaryotic biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  6. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  7. Distribution and mobility of omega 3 fatty acids in rainbow trout fed varying levels and types of dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, A J; Buckley, J T

    1980-04-01

    The availability of essential fatty acids in fish neutral lipid to tissue phospholipids was determined under conditions of adequate and inadequate essential fatty acid intake as well as during fasting. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed a semi-purified diet containing varying levels of cod liver oil, with or without supplementary olein. Fatty acid analysis indicated that in all treatments the neutral lipid pool was not turned over during feeding but was enhanced by exogenous or endogenously synthesized fatty acids. Fish that received diets devoid of essential fatty acids maintained virtually all of the docosahexenoic acid originally present in each lipid pool. Fish fed diets containing essential fatty acids deposited them in proportion to the dietary levels. After a 4-week fast, no change was noted in the relative levels of fatty acids in neutral lipid indicating that all fatty acids in neutral lipid were catabolized equally--including essential fatty acids. During fasting there was a selective retention of docosahexenoic and linoleic acids in the phospholipid pool.

  8. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  9. Fatty Acid Synthesis by Indonesian Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTA RIKA PRATIWI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the primary storage nutrients in diatoms consist of lipid, they are potential for the industrial fatty acid production. High value fatty acids include arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This study aimed to analyze fatty acid synthesis by Chaetoceros gracilis diatom during growth. There was a large increase in lipid yield from 4pg cell−1 mass of lipid per cell at the exponential phase to 283pg cell−1 at stationary phase. The lipid concentrations also increased significantly from the stationary phase to the death phase, but not significantly from the end exponential phase to the stationary phase. The relative percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA of the total fatty acid was higher than that of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at all of growth phase. The highest PUFA was found at stationary phase at the same time when SAFA was being the lowest. The majority of SAFA was palmitic acid (24.03–40.35%. MUFA contained significant proportion of oleic acid (19.6–20.9%. Oleic acid, linoleic acid and á-linolenic acid were found at every stage growth. These fatty acids are considered as precursor for production of long chain PUFA-Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA/22:6ù3 through series of desaturation and elongation step with all of desaturase enzyme (Ä8-D, Ä9-D, Ä12-D, Ä15-D, Ä17-D, Ä6-D, Ä5-D, and Ä4-D and elongase enzyme (E.

  10. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  11. A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiang-Yong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-06-11

    Metabolic endotoxemia, commonly derived from gut dysbiosis, is a primary cause of chronic low grade inflammation that underlies many chronic diseases. Here we show that mice fed a diet high in omega-6 fatty acids exhibit higher levels of metabolic endotoxemia and systemic low-grade inflammation, while transgenic conversion of tissue omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids dramatically reduces endotoxemic and inflammatory status. These opposing effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can be eliminated by antibiotic treatment and animal co-housing, suggesting the involvement of the gut microbiota. Analysis of gut microbiota and fecal transfer revealed that elevated tissue omega-3 fatty acids enhance intestinal production and secretion of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), which induces changes in the gut bacteria composition resulting in decreased lipopolysaccharide production and gut permeability, and ultimately, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation. Our findings uncover an interaction between host tissue fatty acid composition and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of omega-3 fatty acids. Given the excess of omega-6 and deficiency of omega-3 in the modern Western diet, the differential effects of tissue omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia provide insight into the etiology and management of today's health epidemics.

  12. Seasonal changes of fatty acids in Nerita textilis on intertidal area of Chabahar Bay (Oman Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadi, N.; Eghtesadi, P.; Darvish Bastami, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify and isolate the fatty acids composition of Nerita textiles in intertidal area of Chabahar Bay, and also to explore the seasonal changes of fatty acid content in Nerita textiles. GC/MS resulted thirteen fatty acids, that saturated fatty acids (SFA) of palmitic acid (16:0) was the most abundant category of fatty acid obtained in total lipids. There were no significant differences in total saturated fatty acids between different seasons. No significant di...

  13. Fraction of unsaturated fatty acids in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is lower in subjects with high total VAT volume - a combined 1 H MRS and volumetric MRI study in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machann, Jürgen; Stefan, Norbert; Schabel, Christoph; Schleicher, Erwin; Fritsche, Andreas; Würslin, Christian; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2013-02-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. However, little is known about the composition of VAT with regard to the amount of mono- (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in triglycerides. Volume-selective MRS was performed in addition to MRI for the quantification of VAT. Analysis comprised proton signals from the vinyl-H group (H-C=C-H), including protons from MUFA+PUFA, and diallylic-H, i.e. methylene-interrupted PUFAs. The methyl (-CH(3) ) resonance, which is the only peak with a defined number of protons/triglyceride (n=9), served as reference. Twenty male subjects participated in this prospective study and underwent MRS of VAT on a 3-T whole-body unit. Spectra were recorded by a single-voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) technique (TE/TM/TR=20/10/4000 ms; volume of interest between 20 × 25 × 20 and 30 × 30 × 20 mm(3); 48-80 acquisitions depending on the size of the volume of interest; bandwidth, 1200 Hz). Post-processing was performed by a Java-based magnetic resonance user interface (jMRUI; AMARES). The volume of VAT was quantified in a separate session on a 1.5-T imager a few days prior to the MRS session by T(1) -weighted imaging. The relative amount of VAT was calculated as a percentage of body weight (%VAT). Ratios of vinyl-H to -CH(3) and diallylic-H to -CH(3) were calculated. All spectra recorded from VAT were of high quality, enabling reliable quantification of the mentioned resonances. %VAT and vinyl-H/CH(3) varied over a broad range (2.8-8.3% and 0.45-0.64, respectively). A strong negative correlation between %VAT and vinyl-H/CH(3) was found (r= -0.92), whereas diallylic-H/CH(3) alone was clearly less well correlated with %VAT (r= -0.21). The composition of VAT shows strong interindividual variations. The greater the total amount of VAT, the less unsaturated the fatty acids. This is a preliminary result in mainly obese male subjects, and it

  14. GC – MS Characterization of Degutted White Grubs' Fatty Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-06-16

    Jun 16, 2013 ... acid indicates that white grubs may be rich in essential fatty acids. The result established a hybrid nature in fatty ..... of phospholipids in the plasma membrane by the action of phospholipase A2 and also from the diet ... Thromboxanes cause vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation. Prostacyclins (PGI2) are ...

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  16. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many

  17. Short Communication Effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of breeder hens with a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) premix, containing 509 g fatty acid salts/kg of which 285 g were calcium butyrate, on their eggshell characteristics and the hatching percentage of the eggs. One thousand six hundred 66-week old ...

  18. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars. 299 treatment of inflamatory disease. Nutricion. Hospitalaria 21:28-41. Gupta, S.K. 2011. Technological innovations in major world oil crops (1 Ed.). Newyork: Springer. pp. 123-150. Hassan, F.U. and Ahmed, M. 2012. Oil and fatty acid composition of peanut ...

  19. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  20. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  1. Unsaturated fatty acid: Metabolism, synthesis and gene regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both plants and animals, unsaturated fatty acids are considered to be essential membrane components. Also they play key roles in many cellular events. The synthesis and metabolism of unsaturated fatty acid are very complex processes, involving a variety of enzymes and regulated pathways. Most recently, research has ...

  2. Fatty Acid Composition of the Aerial Parts of Some Centaurea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species, viz, Centaurea behen, C. saligna, C. depressa, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei, C. urvillei subsp. hayekiana and C. aggregata subsp. aggregata, from Elaz.., Turkey. Methods: Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of the oil extracts of four Centaurea species were ...

  3. GC – MS Characterization of Degutted White Grubs' Fatty Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acids composition of white grubs examined by GC- MS identified 19 different fatty acids; 11 saturated, 7 monoene and a cyclopropaneoctanoate. The identified ones are Methyl tetradecanoate (C14:0), Methyl dodecanoate (C12:0), Methyl cis – 9 - octadecenote (C18:1), Methyl(7E) – 7 – hexadecenoate (C16:1), Methyl ...

  4. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  5. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  6. Synthesis of fatty acid starch esters in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; van der Knoop, Sjoerd; Keijzer, Danielle; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an exploratory study on the synthesis of fatty acid/potato starch esters using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the solvent. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-25 MPa), temperature (120-150 degrees C) and various basic catalysts and fatty acid

  7. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  8. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four isonitrogenous diets containing different lipid levels on the muscle fatty acid profiles of Malaysian mahseer were evaluated over a period of six weeks from June to July, 2010. A general increase of monounsaturated fatty acid contents in the muscle of fish that were fed the test diets was detected after two ...

  9. Neonatal fatty acid status and cardiometabolic health at 9 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seggers, Jorien; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; Decsi, Tamas; Boehm, Gunther; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status is associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We previously demonstrated no effect of LCPUFA supplementation after birth on BP and anthropometrics. Little is known about the association between fatty acid status at

  10. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  11. The PPARα/γ Agonist, Tesaglitazar, Improves Insulin Mediated Switching of Tissue Glucose and Free Fatty Acid Utilization In Vivo in the Obese Zucker Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Wallenius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility was assessed in male Zucker rats: lean controls, obese controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 μmol/kg/day for 3 weeks. Whole body glucose disposal rate ( and hepatic glucose output (HGO were assessed under basal fasting and hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp conditions using [3,3H]glucose. Indices of tissue specific glucose utilization ( were measured at basal, physiological, and supraphysiological levels of insulinemia using 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-3H]glucose. Finally, whole body and tissue specific FFA and glucose utilization and metabolic fate were evaluated under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions using a combination of [U-13C]glucose, 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]palmitate, and [9,10-3H]-(R-bromopalmitate. Tesaglitazar improved whole body insulin action by greater suppression of HGO and stimulation of compared to obese controls. This involved increased insulin stimulation of in fat and skeletal muscle as well as increased glycogen synthesis. Tesaglitazar dramatically improved insulin mediated suppression of plasma FFA level, whole body turnover (, and muscle, liver, and fat utilization. At basal insulin levels, tesaglitazar failed to lower HGO or compared to obese controls. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that tesaglitazar has a remarkable ability to improve insulin mediated control of glucose and FFA fluxes in obese Zucker rats.

  12. Glucose-stimulated acrolein production from unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, R; Duran-Reyes, G; Diaz-Flores, M; Hicks, J J; Kumate, J

    2004-02-01

    Glucose auto-oxidation may be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also be important in the lipid peroxidation process, accompanied by the release of toxic reactive products. We wanted to demonstrate that acrolein can be formed directly and actively from free fatty acids in a hyperglycemic environment. A suspension of linoleic and arachidonic acids (2.5 mM) was exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mmol/L) in vitro. The samples were extracted with organic solvents, partitioned, followed at 255-267 nm, and analysed using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. The total release of aldehydes significantly (P products, acrolein (5% of total) and its condensing product, 4-hydroxy-hexenal, were identified. From the results presented here, it was possible to demonstrate the production of acrolein, probably as a fatty acid product, due to free radicals generated from the glucose auto-oxidation process. The results led us to propose that acrolein, which is one of the most toxic aldehydes, is produced during hyperglycemic states, and may lead to tissue injury, as one of the initial problems to be linked to high levels of glucose in vivo.

  13. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...... for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....

  14. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...

  16. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3 improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired

  17. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  18. Identification of Fatty Acids in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginies, Christian; Brillard, Julien; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2016-12-05

    The Bacillus species contain branched chain and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) with diverse positions of the methyl branch (iso or anteiso) and of the double bond. Changes in FA composition play a crucial role in the adaptation of bacteria to their environment. These modifications entail a change in the ratio of iso versus anteiso branched FAs, and in the proportion of unsaturated FAs relative to saturated FAs, with double bonds created at specific positions. Precise identification of the FA profile is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms of Bacillus species. Many of the FAs from Bacillus are not commercially available. The strategy proposed herein identifies FAs by combining information on the retention time (by calculation of the equivalent chain length (ECL)) with the mass spectra of three types of FA derivatives: fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), 4,4-dimethyl oxazoline derivatives (DMOX), and 3-pyridylcarbinyl ester (picolinyl). This method can identify the FAs without the need to purify the unknown FAs. Comparing chromatographic profiles of FAME prepared from Bacillus cereus with a commercial mixture of standards allows for the identification of straight-chain saturated FAs, the calculation of the ECL, and hypotheses on the identity of the other FAs. FAMEs of branched saturated FAs, iso or anteiso, display a constant negative shift in the ECL, compared to linear saturated FAs with the same number of carbons. FAMEs of unsaturated FAs can be detected by the mass of their molecular ions, and result in a positive shift in the ECL compared to the corresponding saturated FAs. The branching position of FAs and the double bond position of unsaturated FAs can be identified by the electron ionization mass spectra of picolinyl and DMOX derivatives, respectively. This approach identifies all the unknown saturated branched FAs, unsaturated straight-chain FAs and unsaturated branched FAs from the B. cereus extract.

  19. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); da Silva, Camila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); Department of Technology, Maringa State University (UEM), Umuarama, PR, 87506-370 (Brazil); Rossi, Carla C.R.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Maringa, PR, 87020-900 (Brazil); College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Guirardello, Reginaldo [College of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); de Castilhos, Fernanda [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR, 81531-990 (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  2. Fatty acid-binding protein in liver and small intestine of the preruminant calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cytosol obtained from differential centrifugation of homogenates from liver and small intestine mucosa was incubated with 1-[ 14 C] oleic acid or 1-[ 14 C] palmitic acid and filtered through Sephadex G-75. Elution profiles for both tissues showed radioactivity in two main peaks, the first corresponding to binding of fatty acid to high molecular weight proteins and the second to a protein fraction with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 daltons. The low molecular weight fraction had high fatty acid-binding activity, which was greater for oleic than palmitic acid. The findings demonstrate the presence of fatty acid-binding protein in liver and intestinal mucosa of the preruminant calf

  3. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  4. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...... packing and structure of oleic acid (HOA) and stearic acid (HSA) in fluid bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The experimental data show a small but consistent positive excess volume for fatty acid concentrations below 10 mol %. At higher concentrations the fatty acids mix ideally...... with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...

  5. Identification and quantification of intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in plasma of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onkenhout, W.; Venizelos, V.; van der Poel, P. F.; van den Heuvel, M. P.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The free fatty acid and total fatty acid profiles in plasma of nine patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, two with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and two with mild-type multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD-m) deficiency, were analyzed by gas

  6. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  7. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Kropp, J.; Goodman, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous interest in the use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acids for myocardial imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-123-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability makers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). (author)

  8. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kropp, J.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin; Goodman, M.M. [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Franken, P. [Free Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Reske, S.N. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Sektion Nuklearmedizin; Som, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sloof, G.W.; Visser, F.C. [Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Cardiology Dept.

    1993-06-01

    Continued Interest in the use of iodine-1 23-labeled fatty acids for myocardial Imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-I 23-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability markers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 1 5-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  9. The development of iodine-123-methyl-branched fatty acids and their applications in nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kropp, J.; Biersack, H.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Goodman, M.M. (University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Franken, P. (Free Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Medicine Dept.); Reske, S.N. (Ulm Univ. (Germany

    1993-01-01

    Continued Interest in the use of iodine-1 23-labeled fatty acids for myocardial Imaging results from observations from a variety of studies that in many types of cardiac disease, regional fatty acid myocardial uptake patterns are often different than regional distribution of flow tracers. These differences may reflect alterations in important parameters of metabolism which can be useful for patient management or therapeutic strategy decision making. In addition, use of iodine-I 23-labeled fatty acid distribution may represent a unique metabolic probe to relate some aspects of the metabolism of these substrates with the regional viability of cardiac tissue. The use of such viability markers could provide important prognostic information on myocardial salvage, helping to identify patients for revascularization or angioplasty. Clinical studies are currently in progress with the iodine-123-labeled 1 5-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid analogue at several institutions. The goals of this paper are to discuss development of the concept of metabolic trapping of fatty acids, to briefly review development and evaluation of various radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids and to discuss recent patient studies with iodine-123 (BMIPP) using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).

  10. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Geneive E; Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Dewitt, David L

    2002-04-10

    Several commercially available C-8 to C-24 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (1-29) were assayed for cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) and cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the saturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1), there was an increase in antioxidant activity with increasing chain length from octanoic acid to myristic acid (C-8-C-14) and a decrease thereafter. All unsaturated fatty acids tested at 60 microg mL(-1) showed good antioxidant activity except for undecylenic acid (12), cis-5-dodecenoic acid (13), and nervonic acid (29). The highest inhibitory activities among the saturated fatty acids tested on cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-I and COX-II were observed for decanoic acid to lauric acid (3-5) at 100 microg mL(-1). Similarly, among the unsaturated fatty acids tested, the highest activities were observed for cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid (25) and cis-13,16-docosadienoic acid (27) at 100 microg mL(-1).

  11. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1993-12-01

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. [14C]- and [3H]acetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from acetate appeared in 14- to 20-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated. No label was seen in the essential fatty acid 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4. Radiolabel from [9, 10-3H]palmitic acid (16:0) was detected in 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, and 18:1. [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) was converted to 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, and 20:4, demonstrating delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activity in keratinocytes. Label from acetate, 16:0, or 18:2 was found mostly in the cellular phospholipids while only one third of the label from [14C]arachidonic was found in the phospholipids. [14C]acetate and [14C]18:2 time course data were used to construct a model of the metabolism of these reactants, using coupled, first-order differential equations. The data show that EFA-deficient keratinocytes metabolize fatty acids using pathways previously found in liver; they suggest the positioning of 18:2 desaturase and 18:3 elongase near the plasma membrane; they indicate that for the synthesis of nonessential fatty acids the formation of 18:0 from 16:0 is the rate-determining step; and they show that the conversion of 18:2 to 20:3 is rapid. These experiments demonstrate a method to study lipid enzyme kinetics in living cells.

  12. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of lipids in higher plant vacuolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, S P; Konenkina, T A; Salyaev, R K

    2000-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of vacuolar membrane lipids from plant storage tissues and their genesis have been studied. A high content of unsaturated fatty acids (up to 77%) was observed in lipids of these membranes. Linoleic acid prevailed in vacuolar lipids of carrot and red beet (54.2 and 44.2%, respectively). Linolenic acid prevailed in vacuolar lipids of garden radish and turnip (39.7 and 33.9%, respectively). Regarding saturated fatty acids, vacuolar lipids of garden radish, carrot, and red beet contained predominantly palmitic acid (up to 20-24%). Unsaturated fatty acids, petroselinic (C18: 1omega12), cis-vaccenic (C18: 1omega7), hexatrien-7,-10,-13-oic (C16:3omega3) and others, were observed in vacuolar lipids of roots. These acids are usually synthesized in chloroplasts, and their presence in vacuolar lipids can be associated either with the transport of metabolites to the vacuole, or with endocytosis during vacuolar formation in the plant cell. The specific features of fatty acid composition of tonoplast lipids apparently are closely related to the tonoplast unique fluidity and mobility required for running osmotic processes in the cell and for forming transport protein assemblies.

  13. Plasma Free Fatty Acids in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozturk, Ozlem; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Sertoglu, Erdim; Aydin, Hakan; Yilmaz, Ali; Cemal Yenen, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. Objective We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women Design Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography. Results Statistically differences was not seen between the groups with maternal age, gestational age, or plasma levels of EPA, DHA, and AA. Statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with plasma levels of C20 and C22(pHyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:28730165

  14. Plasma Free Fatty Acids in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozturk, Ozlem; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Sertoglu, Erdim; Aydin, Hakan; Yilmaz, Ali; Cemal Yenen, Mufit

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women. Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistically differences was not seen between the groups with maternal age, gestational age, or plasma levels of EPA, DHA, and AA. Statistically significant difference was seen between the groups with plasma levels of C20 and C22(p Hyperemesis gravidarum.

  15. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  16. The effects of trans-fatty acids on TAG regulation in mice depend on dietary unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saín, Juliana; González, Marcela Aída; Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Scalerandi, María Victoria; Bernal, Claudio Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trans-fatty acids (TFA) on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice fed diets containing different proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from olive (O), maize (C) or rapeseed (R) oils partially substituted or not with TFA (Ot, Ct and Rt, respectively). Male CF1 mice were fed (30 d) one of these diets. The effects of the partial substitution (1 %, w/w) of different UFA with TFA on the activity and expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acids oxidation were evaluated, as well as their transcription factor expressions. Some of the mechanisms involved in the serum TAG regulation, hepatic VLDL rich in TAG (VLDL-TAG) secretion rate and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were assessed. In liver, TFA induced an increase in TAG content in the Ot and Rt groups, and this effect was associated with an imbalance between lipogenesis and β-oxidation. In the Ot group, exacerbated lipogenesis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the liver steatosis induced by TFA, whereas in Rt it has been related to a decreased β-oxidation, compared with their respective controls. The enhanced hepatic VLDL-TAG secretion in the Ot and Rt groups was compensated with a differential removal of TAG by LPL enzyme in extrahepatic tissues, leading to unchanged serum TAG levels. In brief, the effects of low levels of TFA on liver and serum TAG regulation in mice depend on the dietary proportions of n-3, n-6 and n-9 UFA.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Natividad R; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Proteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate signaling events. Indeed, it is now appreciated that cellular function is partly regulated by the specific spatiotemporal lipid composition of the membrane, down to the nanosecond and nanometer scale. Furthermore, membrane composition is altered during human disease processes such as cancer and obesity. For example, an increased rate of lipid/cholesterol synthesis in cancerous tissues has long been recognized as an important aspect of the rewired metabolism of transformed cells. However, the contribution of lipids/cholesterol to cellular function in disease models is not yet fully understood. Furthermore, an important consideration in regard to human health is that diet is a major modulator of cell membrane composition. This can occur directly through incorporation of membrane substrates, such as fatty acids, e.g., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and cholesterol. In this review, we describe scenarios in which changes in membrane composition impact human health. Particular focus is placed on the importance of intrinsic lipid/cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism and extrinsic dietary modification in cancer and its effect on plasma membrane properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and its potential relevance for human development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Claudia; Lattka, Eva; Rzehak, Peter; Steer, Colin; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-04-01

    Blood and tissue contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) are related to numerous health outcomes including cardiovascular health, allergies, mental health and cognitive development. Evidence has accumulated to show that in addition to diet, common polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have very marked effects on human PUFA and LC-PUFA status. Recent results suggest that in addition to fatty acid desaturase 1 and fatty acid desaturase 2, the gene product of fatty acid desaturase 3 is associated with desaturating activity. New data have become available to show that FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also modulate docosahexaenoic acid status in pregnancy as well as LC-PUFA levels in children and in human milk. There are indications that FADS SNPs modulate the risk for allergic disorders and eczema, and the effect of breastfeeding on later cognitive development. Mechanisms by which FADS SNPs modulate PUFA levels in blood, breast milk and tissues should be explored further. More studies are required to explore the effects of FADS gene variants in populations with different ethnic backgrounds, lifestyles and dietary habits, and to investigate in greater depth the interaction of gene variants, diet and clinical end points, including immune response and developmental outcomes. Analyses of FADS gene variants should be included into all sizeable cohort and intervention studies addressing biological effects of PUFA and LC-PUFA in order to consider these important confounders, and to enhance study sensitivity and precision. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 200412345

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenke, Dawn C; Foreyt, John P; Miller, Edgar R; Reeves, Rebecca S; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2013-01-01

    Background: transFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

  20. Bacterial fatty acid metabolism in modern antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is essential for many pathogens and different from the mammalian counterpart. These features make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a desirable target for antibiotic discovery. The structural divergence of the conserved enzymes and the presence of different isozymes catalyzing the same reactions in the pathway make bacterial fatty acid synthesis a narrow spectrum target rather than the traditional broad spectrum target. Furthermore, bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors are single-targeting, rather than multi-targeting like traditional monotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics. The single-targeting nature of bacterial fatty acid synthesis inhibitors makes overcoming fast-developing, target-based resistance a necessary consideration for antibiotic development. Target-based resistance can be overcome through multi-targeting inhibitors, a cocktail of single-targeting inhibitors, or by making the single targeting inhibitor sufficiently high affinity through a pathogen selective approach such that target-based mutants are still susceptible to therapeutic concentrations of drug. Many of the pathogens requiring new antibiotic treatment options encode for essential bacterial fatty acid synthesis enzymes. This review will evaluate the most promising targets in bacterial fatty acid metabolism for antibiotic therapeutics development and review the potential and challenges in advancing each of these targets to the clinic and circumventing target-based resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  2. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  3. Homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, B.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    The use of copper and cadmium oxides or soaps as catalysts for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty alcohols has been investigated. It is shown that copper soaps homogeneously activate hydrogen. When copper and cadmium oxides are used as catalysts, they react with the

  4. Esterification free fatty acid in palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated rice husk ash catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Sutrisno, Bachrun

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia, as one of the biggest palm oil producers and exporters in the world, is producing large amounts of low-grade oil such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from palm oil industries. The use of PFAD can reduce the cost of biodiesel production significantly, which makes PFAD a highly potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) on PFAD was studied using rice husk ash (RHA) as heterogeneous catalyst. The rice husk ash catalyst was synthesized by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA catalyst were characterized by using different techniques, such as porosity analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, total number of acid sites and elemental analysis. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to PFAD (4:1-10:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of FFA to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, the catalyst amount of 10 wt% of PFAD, and reaction temperature of 60°C.

  5. Metabolomic investigation of porcine muscle and fatty tissue after Clenbuterol treatment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanglei; Fu, Yuhua; Han, Xiaosong; Li, Xinyun; Li, Changchun

    2016-07-22

    Clenbuterol is a β-adrenergic agonist used as additive to increase the muscle mass of meat-producing animals. Previous studies were limited to evaluations of animal growth performance and determination of the residues. Several studies have focused on urine samples. Little information about the underlying molecular mechanisms that can explain Clenbuterol metabolism and promote energy repartition in animal muscle and fatty tissue is available. Therefore, this research aims to detect the metabolite variations in muscle and fatty tissue acquired from Chinese pigs fed with Clenbuterol using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten two-month old Enshi black pigs were fed under the same condition; five of which were fed with basic ration containing Clenbuterol for one month, whereas the other five pigs were fed only with basic ration. Muscle and fatty tissue were subjected to metabolomics analysis using GC/MS. Differences in metabolomic profiles between the two groups were characterized by multivariate statistical analysis. The muscle samples showed that 15 metabolites were significantly different in the Clenbuterol-treated group compared with the control group; 13 potential biomarkers were found in the fatty tissue. Most of the metabolites were associated with fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Glycerol, phenylalanine, and leucine were the common metabolites between the muscle and fatty tissue. These metabolites may provide a new clue that contributes to the understanding of the energy reassignment induced by Clenbuterol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Harald

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human health may be improved if dietary intakes of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are increased. Consumption of broiler meat is increasing, and the meat content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids are affected by the composition of broiler feed. A two-way analyses of variance was used to study the effect of feed containing omega-3 rich plant oils and selenium enriched yeast on broiler meat composition, antioxidation- and sensory parameters. Four different wheat-based dietary treatments supplemented with 5% rapeseed oil or 4% rapeseed oil plus 1% linseed oil, and either 0.50 mg selenium or 0.84 mg selenium (organic form per kg diet was fed to newly hatched broilers for 22 days. Results The different dietary treatments gave distinct different concentrations of selenium and fatty acids in thigh muscle; one percent linseed oil in the diet increased the concentration of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:3, 20:5 and 22:5, and 0.84 mg selenium per kg diet gave muscle selenium concentration at the same level as is in fish muscle (0.39 mg/kg muscle. The high selenium intake also resulted in increased concentration of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA (20:5, DPA (22:5 and DHA (22:6, thus it may be speculated if high dietary selenium might have a role in increasing the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in tissues after intake of plant oils contning omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusion Moderate modifications of broiler feed may give a healthier broiler meat, having increased content of selenium and omega-3 fatty acids. High intakes of selenium (organic form may increase the concentration of very long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in muscle.

  7. Brain microsomal fatty acid elongation is increased in abcd1-deficient mouse during active myelination phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masashi; Kawamichi, Misato; Shimura, Yusuke; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Watanabe, Shiro; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2015-12-01

    The dysfunction of ABCD1, a peroxisomal ABC protein, leads to the perturbation of very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism and is the cause of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Abcd1-deficient mice exhibit an accumulation of saturated VLCFAs, such as C26:0, in all tissues, especially the brain. The present study sought to measure microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain of wild-type (WT) and abcd1-deficient mice during the course of development. The fatty acid elongation activity in the microsomal fraction was measured by the incorporation of [2-(14)C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids in the presence of C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA. Cytosolic fatty acid synthesis activity was completely inhibited by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The microsomal fatty acid elongation activity in the brain was significantly high at 3 weeks after birth and decreased substantially at 3 months after birth. Furthermore, we detected two different types of microsomal fatty acid elongation activity by using C16:0-CoA or C20:0-CoA as the substrate and found the activity toward C20:0-CoA in abcd1-deficient mice was higher than the WT 3-week-old animals. These results suggest that during the active myelination phase the microsomal fatty acid elongation activity is stimulated in abcd1-deficient mice, which in turn perturbs the lipid composition in myelin.

  8. Interaction of fatty acid genotype and diet on changes in colonic fatty acids in a Mediterranean diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porenta, Shannon R; Ko, Yi-An; Gruber, Stephen B; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Baylin, Ana; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora

    2013-11-01

    A Mediterranean diet increases intakes of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids and lowers intake of n-6 fatty acids. This can impact colon cancer risk as n-6 fatty acids are metabolized to proinflammatory eicosanoids. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interactions of polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes, FADS1 and FADS2, and changes in diet on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. A total of 108 individuals at increased risk of colon cancer were randomized to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet. Fatty acids were measured in both serum and colonic mucosa at baseline and after six months. Each individual was genotyped for four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster. Linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of diet, genotype, and the diet by genotype interaction on fatty acid concentrations in serum and colon. Genetic variation in the FADS genes was strongly associated with baseline serum arachidonic acid (n-6) but serum eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and colonic fatty acid concentrations were not significantly associated with genotype. After intervention, there was a significant diet by genotype interaction for arachidonic acid concentrations in colon. Subjects who had all major alleles for FADS1/2 and were following a Mediterranean diet had 16% lower arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon after six months of intervention than subjects following the Healthy Eating diet. These results indicate that FADS genotype could modify the effects of changes in dietary fat intakes on arachidonic acid concentrations in the colon. ©2013 AACR.

  9. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Ouldamer

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality.Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality.We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality.These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality.

  11. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  12. Metabolically engineered cells for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to the construction and engineering of cells, more particularly microorganisms for producing PUFAs with four or more double bonds from non-fatty acid substrates through heterologous expression of an oxygen requiring pathway. The invention especially involves...... improvement of the PUFA content in the host organism through fermentation optimization, e.g. decreasing the temperature and/or designing an optimal medium, or through improving the flux towards fatty acids by metabolic engineering, e.g. through over-expression of fatty acid synthases, over-expression of other...

  13. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast milk: Fatty acid composition and maternal diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihela Dujmović

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk from healthy and well-nourished mothers is the preferred form of infants´ feeding in the first six months after parturition, and breastfeeding in this period supports the normal growth and development of new-born infants. During the first month postpartum, breast milk changes through three stages: colostrum, transitional milk and mature milk. Mature milk, which is excreted after the 16th day postpartum, contains on average 3.4-4.5 % lipids. Breast milk lipids fulfill 40-55 % of an infant´s daily energy needs and provide a supply of fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids. The characteristics of milk lipids are largely determined by their fatty acid composition. In this work the general characteristics of breast milk and milk lipids, as well as the influence of maternal diet on composition of fatty acids in breast milk, are discussed. Breast milk provides all dietary essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, as well as their longer-chain more-unsaturated metabolites, including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are of particular importance in visual and neural development, and their content in milk is a reflection of the mother´s current and long-term dietary intake. A positive association has been established between the maternal intake of fish and seafood and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid in milk. Numerous researches have been shown that supplementation with docosahexaenoic acids during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation significantly increases the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk.

  15. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  16. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  17. Trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in the buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    T. Peeva; G. Mihaylova

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid content in milk samples, obtained from buffaloes of the Bulgarian Murrah breed reared in a buffalo farm in the Agricultural Institute - Shumen was investigated. Milk samples were obtained from the morning and evening milking. The determination of fatty acids was done with a combination of gas chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography. It was found out that from the saturated fatty acids in buffalo milk, the highest amount was that of palmitic acid (29.39%), follo...

  18. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim aydin

    South African Society for Animal Science. 255. Table 1 Effect of feeding a commercial pelleted pigeon diet1 supplemented with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the liver fatty acid compositions2 of pigeons. % of Total fatty acids (Means ± s.e.). Fatty acids. SFO. CLA3. P-value. C14:0. 0.18 ± 0.02.

  19. Topical electrophilic nitro-fatty acids potentiate cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Alicia R; Carey, Cara D; Killeen, Meaghan E; Salvatore, Sonia R; Ferris, Laura K; Freeman, Bruce A; Schopfer, Francisco J; Falo, Louis D

    2018-02-01

    Endogenous electrophilic fatty acids mediate anti-inflammatory responses by modulating metabolic and inflammatory signal transduction and gene expression. Nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acids may thus be useful for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory skin disorders. In this regard, subcutaneous (SC) injections of nitro oleic acid (OA-NO 2 ), an exemplary nitro-fatty acid, inhibit skin inflammation in a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Given the nitration of unsaturated fatty acids during metabolic and inflammatory processes and the growing use of fatty acids in topical formulations, we sought to further study the effect of nitro-fatty acids on cutaneous inflammation. To accomplish this, the effect of topically applied OA-NO 2 on skin inflammation was evaluated using established murine models of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). In contrast to the effects of subcutaneously injected OA-NO 2 , topical OA-NO 2 potentiated hapten-dependent inflammation inducing a sustained neutrophil-dependent inflammatory response characterized by psoriasiform histological features, increased angiogenesis, and an inflammatory infiltrate that included neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, and γδ T cells. Consistent with these results, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of skin from psoriasis patients displayed a 56% increase in nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NO 2 ) levels in lesional skin compared to non-lesional skin. These results suggest that nitro-fatty acids in the skin microenvironment are products of cutaneous inflammatory responses and, in high local concentrations, may exacerbate inflammatory skin diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty Acids, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although elevated free fatty acid (FFA levels in obesity have been considered to be of importance for insulin resistance, a recent meta-analysis suggested normal FFA levels in obese subjects. We investigated fasting circulating FFA and glycerol levels in a large cohort of non-obese and obese subjects. Methods: Subjects recruited for a study on obesity genetics were investigated in the morning after an overnight fast (n = 3,888. Serum FFA (n = 3,306, plasma glycerol (n = 3,776, and insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-IR,n = 3,469 were determined. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and insulin resistance as HOMA-IR ≥ 2.21. Results: In obese subjects, circulating FFA and glycerol levels were higher than in non-obese individuals (by 26% and 47%, respectively; both p Conclusion: Circulating FFA and glycerol levels are markedly elevated in obesity but only marginally influenced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whether these differences persist during diurnal variations in circulating FFA/glycerol, remains to be established.

  1. Obesity and the development of type 2 diabetes: the effects of fatty tissue inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dara P SchusterDepartments of Internal Medicine and Surgery, Divisions of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Ohio State University Hospitals and Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with multiple obesity-associated health problems including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue serves as a fuel storage depot, but also plays a pivotal role in homeostasis of energy expenditure, appetite regulation, glucose regulation, and immunity. Both genetics and environment play important roles in adipose tissue function and dysfunction. Obesity represents an abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue resulting from chronic overnutrition and reduced physical activity. The nature of this increased accumulation of fat tissue, whether hyperplasia or hypertrophy, local or ectopic, is associated with deleterious perturbations including excess fatty acid secretion, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, and abnormal adipocyte hormone signaling resulting in insulin resistance. In the setting of obesity, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation is postulated to play a role in development of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related comorbidities including obstructive sleep apnea, hepatic steatosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although the exact mechanism of these relationships are complex and not completely understood, the ability to store and limit fatty acid deposition to adipose tissue is a common component to remaining insulin sensitive, controlling the inflammatory cascade and reducing the risk of developing obesity-related comorbidities.Keywords: adipose tissue, inflammatory cascade, adipocyte, insulin resistance, glucose ¬regulation, healthy obese

  2. A defect in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation reduces jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitlhile, M M; Fukushige, H; Nishimura, M; Hildebrand, D F

    2005-06-01

    The final steps of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis are thought to involve peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but this has not been directly demonstrated. The last and key step in fatty acid beta-oxidation is catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT) (EC 2.3.1.16). A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Landsberg erecta, which lacks a functional KAT protein and is defective in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation has been reported. In this study, the mutant was found to accumulate reduced level of JA in both its wounded cotyledons and leaves, while only the cotyledons accumulate 3-oxo-2-(pent-2'-enyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid (OPC-8:0). This indicates that a defect in one of the thiolase isoenzymes impairs beta-oxidation of OPC-8:0 to JA. The mutant had sufficient thiolase activity for the synthesis of JA in the unwounded but not in the wounded tissues. Activities of the enzymes in the JA pathway that catalyze the steps, which precede beta-oxidation were not altered by the mutation in a thiolase protein. Thus, reduced levels of JA in the wounded tissues of the mutant were attributed to the defect in a thiolase protein.

  3. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Frigeni, Marta; Pasquali, Marzia

    2016-10-01

    Carnitine is essential for the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent β-oxidation. It can be synthesized by the body or assumed with the diet from meat and dairy products. Defects in carnitine biosynthesis do not routinely result in low plasma carnitine levels. Carnitine is accumulated by the cells and retained by kidneys using OCTN2, a high affinity organic cation transporter specific for carnitine. Defects in the OCTN2 carnitine transporter results in autosomal recessive primary carnitine deficiency characterized by decreased intracellular carnitine accumulation, increased losses of carnitine in the urine, and low serum carnitine levels. Patients can present early in life with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic encephalopathy, or later in life with skeletal and cardiac myopathy or sudden death from cardiac arrhythmia, usually triggered by fasting or catabolic state. This disease responds to oral carnitine that, in pharmacological doses, enters cells using the amino acid transporter B(0,+). Primary carnitine deficiency can be suspected from the clinical presentation or identified by low levels of free carnitine (C0) in the newborn screening. Some adult patients have been diagnosed following the birth of an unaffected child with very low carnitine levels in the newborn screening. The diagnosis is confirmed by measuring low carnitine uptake in the patients' fibroblasts or by DNA sequencing of the SLC22A5 gene encoding the OCTN2 carnitine transporter. Some mutations are specific for certain ethnic backgrounds, but the majority are private and identified only in individual families. Although the genotype usually does not correlate with metabolic or cardiac involvement in primary carnitine deficiency, patients presenting as adults tend to have at least one missense mutation retaining residual activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial Channels edited by Pierre Sonveaux, Pierre Maechler

  4. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40 percent. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

  5. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are via metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of ω3-PUFAs are in contrast to those of fatty acids with virtually identical structures, such as the ω6-PUFAs linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, and their corresponding metabolites. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss both the nutrigenomics (nutrient-gene interactions) and nutrigenetics (genetic variation in nutrition) of dietary fatty acids with a focus on the ω3-PUFAs (Gebauer et al., 2007(1)). Important in the biological response for these fatty acids or their metabolites are cognate receptors that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD and cancer. Four nuclear receptor (NR) subfamilies will be emphasized as receptors that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands: (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, (2) retinoid X receptors, (3) liver X receptors, and (4) farnesoid X receptor. In addition to the different responses elicited by varying structures of fatty acids, responses may vary because of genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize ω3- and ω6 fatty acids or that respond to them. In particular, polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturases and the aforementioned NRs contribute to the complexity of nutritional effects seen with ω3-PUFAs. Following a brief introduction to the health benefits of ω3-PUFAs, the regulation of gene expression by these dietary fatty acids via NRs will be characterized. Subsequently, the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key enzymes involved in the metabolism and response to ω3-PUFAs will

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  7. The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Adonis; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the use of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease by discussing key epidemiologic and placebo-controlled studies in people with and without prior cardiovascular disease at baseline. In addition, studies on the antitriglyceridemic, antihypertensive, hemostatic, antiarrhythmic, and antiatherogenic properties of omega-3 fatty acids were examined. Lastly, we discussed current dietary and safety recommendations regarding fish and fish oil capsules as stated by the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Environmental Protection Agency. We found that omega-3 fatty acids have shown to significantly reduce coronary mortality and sudden death in people without prior cardiovascular disease and reduce all-cause death and cardiac mortality in secondary prevention studies. Studies on stroke are still unclear and more studies need to focus on stroke subtypes. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids might be the result of their ability to reduce triglyceride levels, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, arrhythmia, and atherogenesis. Currently, the general public is recommended to consume two fatty fish meals per week (0.3-0.5 grams per day eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Pregnant mothers and children should refrain from eating fish high in methylmercury levels while limiting their consumption of other fish varieties to 12 ounces per week. Patients with coronary heart disease should have 1 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, whereas patients with hypertriglyceridemia should take 3 to 5 g per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid under a physician's supervision.

  8. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  9. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  10. The effect of dietary sulfur on the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of methionine-supplemented diet on the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids was studied by comparing results of control and cysteine-supplemented diets in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a period of 17 days one of the following diets: control, cysteine-supplemented, and/or methionine-supplemented. On the last day of the feeding period, the rats were administered either (1-{sup 14}C) arachidonic acid (AA) or (1-{sup 14}C) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by stomach tube five hours before sacrificing. The cyclooxygenase activity in liver microsomes, the apparent Km of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and brain homogenates, and the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the phosphatidylinositol fraction of brain, heat, lung, spleen, and kidney tissues were analyzed.

  11. Regulation of muscle plasticity and trophism by fatty acids: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phablo Abreu

    Full Text Available Summary The skeletal muscle tissue has a remarkable ability to alter its plastic structural and functional properties after a harmful stimulus, regulating the expression of proteins in complex events such as muscle regeneration. In this context, considering that potential therapeutic agents have been widely studied, nutritional strategies have been investigated in order to improve the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. There is evidence of the modulatory action of fatty acids, such that oleic and linoleic acids, that are abundant in Western diets, on muscle function and trophism. Thus, fatty acids appear to be potential candidates to promote or impair the recovery of muscle mass and function during regeneration, since they modulate intracellular pathways that regulate myogenesis. This study is the first to describe and discuss the effect of fatty acids on muscle plasticity and trophism, with emphasis on skeletal muscle regeneration and in vitro differentiation of muscle cells.

  12. Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma and rumen tissue, and rumen epithelium development in lambs.

  13. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-31

    inhibitors into the clinic. fatty acid synthase, thioesterase, inhibitors, drug development U U U UU 44 USAMRMC Table of Contents ...targeting. Ursolic acid , a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid , as well as the tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate...2007,  6(7), 2120‐2126.  73.  Liu, Y., Tian, W., Ma, X., and Ding, W. Evaluation of  inhibition of  fatty  acid  synthase by  ursolic   acid : positive

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  15. Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu-Kung, Alexander F; Bozzelli, Kristen N; Nguyen, Rose; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2004-01-01

    .... In the presence of bacteria-mimicking phospholipid vesicles fatty acid conjugates of the amphipathic peptide, AKK, show a larger change in helical structure than either of the unmodified peptides...

  16. Fatty acids changes of baby food fat by γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflaki, F.; Matloubi, H.; Ahmadi, M. A. A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a mutual protection when mixtures of components irradiated together, so experimental investigation is necessary for determination of the effects that actually occur in different class of nutrients in formulated foods. This work is concerned with the effect of γ irradiated on fatty acids content of a formulated baby food fat and the results is compared with changes of fatty acids in irradiated whole foods. Irradiation was performed with a gamma cell (Co-60) at dose levels of 0.5, 1.5, 6, 10, 30, 45 kGy at room temperature and in the presence of air. The samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that destruction of fatty acids in this formulated food is reasonably less than fatty acids of whole foods fat

  17. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Engineering fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for sustainable biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L; Michaud, Jennifer; Burkart, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel and other liquid fuels due to their fast growth rate, high lipid yields, and ability to grow in a broad range of environments. However, many microalgae achieve maximal lipid yields only under stress conditions hindering growth and providing compositions not ideal for biofuel applications. Metabolic engineering of algal fatty acid biosynthesis promises to create strains capable of economically producing fungible and sustainable biofuels. The algal fatty acid biosynthetic pathway has been deduced by homology to bacterial and plant systems, and much of our understanding is gleaned from basic studies in these systems. However, successful engineering of lipid metabolism in algae will necessitate a thorough characterization of the algal fatty acid synthase (FAS) including protein-protein interactions and regulation. This review describes recent efforts to engineer fatty acid biosynthesis toward optimizing microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical characterization and fatty acid content of 'venadillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of 1.4740 at 20°C; a saponification index of 159.55 mg KOH∙g-1; a peroxide index of 0.739 meq O2∙kg-1, and 0.367% free fatty acid content were shown. From chromatographic oil evaluations, eight fatty acids were identified ...

  20. Engineering fatty acid synthases for directed polyketide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jan; Buelens, Floris; Serdjukow, Sascha; Janßen, Melanie; Cortina, Niña; Grubmüller, Helmut; Grininger, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we engineered fatty acid synthases (FAS) for the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids and polyketides, guided by a combined in vitro and in silico approach. Along with exploring the synthetic capability of FAS, we aim to build a foundation for efficient protein engineering, with the specific goal of harnessing evolutionarily related megadalton-scale polyketide synthases (PKS) for the tailored production of bioactive natural compounds.

  1. The role of fatty acids in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Barry; Perry, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a multi-faceted disruption of the communication between insulin and the interior of a target cell. The underlying cause of insulin resistance appears to be inflammation that can either be increased or decreased by the fatty acid composition of the diet. However, the molecular basis for insulin resistance can be quite different in various organs. This review deals with various types of inflammatory inputs mediated by fatty acids, which affect the extent of insulin resista...

  2. ω-iodophenyl fatty acids: a convenient method of radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, C.A.; Lee, H.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A solid-phase radioiodination technique for ω-iodophenyl fatty acids using ammonium sulfate is described. The radioiodinations are (1) regioselective, (2) high in yield (95%), (3) short in reaction time (1 h) and (4) capable of yielding high specific activity products although at lower yields. Purification is exceptionally simple: a single passage through an ion exchange column to remove unreacted *I - is all that is required. Syntheses of several ω-iodophenyl fatty acids are also described. (author)

  3. Functional alteration of breast muscle fatty acid profile by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast muscle fatty acid (FA) profile was studied in broiler chickens fed at different levels of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios in 4 treatment groups; very high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VH), high level of n-6:n-3 ratios (H), low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (L), very low level of n-6:n-3 ratios (VL) and control, respectively.

  4. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Andreas; Petersen, Gitte; Hellgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    acid in brain, jejunum and liver. The OA-diet increased brain levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) without changing tissue fatty acid composition. The same diet increased oleoylethanolamide in liver. All five dietary fats decreased oleoylethanolamide in jejunum...... (AA)) on tissue levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, eicosapentaenoylethanolamide, docosahexaenoylethanolamide and tissue fatty acid composition. The LA-diet increased linoleoylethanolamide and linoleic...... without changing levels of anandamide, suggesting that dietary fat may have an orexigenic effect. The AA-diet increased anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in jejunum without effect on liver. The FO-diet decreased liver levels of all N-acylethanolamines (except eicosapentaenoylethanolamide...

  5. Performance Characteristics of Borate Fatty Acid Formulations as Mold Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Coleman; Vina Yang; Carol A. Clausen

    2013-01-01

    The combination of boric acid (BA) or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and a fatty acid (FA) such as heptanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acids (C7–C9) is an effective treatment solution for protecting wood structures against mold. BA or DOT alone have substantial potency against insects and decay fungi, but have negligible or no mold inhibitor activity. However,...

  6. Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jason H.Y.; Marklund, Matti; Imamura, Fumiaki; Tintle, Nathan; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Goede, de Janette; Zhou, Xia; Yang, Wei Sin; Oliveira Otto, de Marcia C.; Kröger, Janine; Qureshi, Waqas; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Bassett, Julie K.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Lankinen, Maria; Murphy, Rachel A.; Rajaobelina, Kalina; Gobbo, Del Liana C.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Kalsbeek, Anya; Veenstra, Jenna; Luo, Juhua; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Hung Ju; Siscovick, David S.; Boeing, Heiner; Chen, Tzu An; Steffen, Brian; Steffen, Lyn M.; Hodge, Allison; Eriksdottir, Gudny; Smith, Albert V.; Gudnason, Vilmunder; Harris, Tamara B.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Laakso, Markku; Tsai, Michael Y.; Giles, Graham G.; Nurmi, Tarja; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Schulze, Matthias B.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chien, Kuo Liong; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Sun, Qi; Harris, William S.; Lind, Lars; Ärnlöv, Johan; Riserus, Ulf; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background: The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with

  7. High-Fat Diet Alters Serum Fatty Acid Profiles in Obesity Prone Rats: Implications for In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Heden, Timothy D; Matthew Morris, E; Fritsche, Kevin L; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Thyfault, John P

    2015-10-01

    High-fat diets (HFD) are commonly used in rodents to induce obesity, increase serum fatty acids and induce lipotoxicity in various organs. In vitro studies commonly utilize individual free fatty acids (FFA) to study lipid exposure in an effort to model what is occurring in vivo; however, these approaches are not physiological as tissues are exposed to multiple fatty acids in vivo. Here we characterize circulating lipids in obesity-prone rats fed an HFD in both fasted and fed states with the goal of developing physiologically relevant fatty acid mixtures for subsequent in vitro studies. Rats were fed an HFD (60% kcal fat) or a control diet (10% kcal fat) for 3 weeks; liver tissue and both portal and systemic blood were collected. Fatty acid profiles and absolute concentrations of triglycerides (TAG) and FFA in the serum and TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG) and phospholipids in the liver were measured. Surprisingly, both systemic and portal serum TAG were ~40% lower in HFD-fed compared to controls. Overall, compared to the control diet, HFD feeding consistently induced an increase in the proportion of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a concomitant decline in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both serum TAG and FFA. The elevations of PUFA were mostly attributed to increases in n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. In conclusion, fatty acid mixtures enriched with linoleic and arachidonic acid in addition to SFA and MUFA should be utilized for in vitro studies attempting to model lipid exposures that occur during in vivo HFD conditions.

  8. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in rat hepatocytes by exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids is caused by lipid peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L.; Hansen, Harald S.; Grunnet, N.

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatocyte long-term cultures were utilized to investigate the impact of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the insulin-induced de novo fatty acid synthesis in vitro. The addition of 0.5 mM albumin-complexed oleic, linoleic, columbinic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic...... by the peroxidized PUFA. Arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid showed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Two other antioxidants: 50 µM a-tocopherol acid succinate and 1 µM N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, both proved more efficient than a-tocopherol phosphate. There was a significant correlation...... or docosahexaenoic acid resulted in a marked suppression of fatty acid synthesis. By evaluation of cell viability (determined as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) it turned our, that the antioxidant used (50 µM a-tocopherol phosphate) had a low antioxidant activity, resulting in cytotoxic effects...

  9. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five...... interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat...... positions in accordance with the distributions in test fats. Calculations of postprandial TAG concentrations from fatty acid data revealed increasing amounts up to 4 h but lower response curves (IAUC) for the two saturated fats in accordance with previous published data. The T fat gave results comparable...

  10. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  11. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio: health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, Western diets are characterized by a higher omega-6 and a lower omega-3 fatty acid intake, whereas during the Paleolithic period when human’s genetic profile was established, there was a balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Their balance is an important determinant for brain development and in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and other autoimmune and possibly neurodegenerative diseases. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids influence gene expression. Because of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their metabolic pathways, blood levels of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are determined by both endogenous metabolism and dietary intake making the need of balanced dietary intake essential for health and disease prevention. Whether an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 3:1 to 4:1 could prevent the pathogenesis of many diseases induced by today’s Western diets (AFSSA, 2010, a target of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment, and genetics. A target of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 1:1 to 2:1 appears to be consistent with studies on evolutionary aspects of diet, neurodevelopment and genetics. A balanced ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is important for health and in the prevention of CHD and possibly other chronic diseases.

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Ruminant Reproduction — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Len Van Tran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids such as n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are critical nutrients, used to improve male reproductive performance through modification of fatty acid profile and maintenance of sperm membrane integrity, especially under cold shock or cryopreservation condition. Also, PUFA provide the precursors for prostaglandin synthesis and can modulate the expression patterns of many key enzymes involved in both prostaglandin and steroid metabolism. Many studies carried out on diets supplemented with PUFA have demonstrated their capability to sustain sperm motility, viability and fertility during chilling and freezing as well as improving testis development and spermatogenesis in a variety of livestock species. In addition to the type and quantity of dietary fatty acids, ways of addition of PUFA to diet or semen extender is very crucial as it has different effects on semen quality in male ruminants. Limitation of PUFA added to ruminant ration is due to biohydrogenation by rumen microorganisms, which causes conversion of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, leading to loss of PUFA quantity. Thus, many strategies for protecting PUFA from biohydrogenation in rumen have been developed over the years. This paper reviews four aspects of PUFA in light of previous research including rumen metabolism, biological roles, influence on reproduction, and strategies to use in male ruminants.

  13. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  14. CD36 Mediated Fatty Acid-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia-induced apoptosis mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 is associated with increased uptake of ox-LDL or fatty acid in macrophages, hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis, liver damage and fibrosis in obese patients, and diabetic nephropathy (DN, respectively. However, the specific role of CD36 in podocyte apoptosis in DN with hyperlipidemia remains poorly investigated.The expression of CD36 was measured in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue samples (Ctr = 18, DN = 20 by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. We cultured conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5 and treated cells with palmitic acid, and measured CD36 expression by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence; lipid uptake by Oil red O staining and BODIPY staining; apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, TUNEL assay and Western blot analysis; and ROS production by DCFH-DA fluorescence staining. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 statistical software.CD36 expression was increased in kidney tissue from DN patients with hyperlipidemia. Palmitic acid upregulated CD36 expression and promoted its translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane in podocytes. Furthermore, palmitic acid increased lipid uptake, ROS production and apoptosis in podocytes, Sulfo-N-succinimidyloleate (SSO, the specific inhibitor of the fatty acid binding site on CD36, decreased palmitic acid-induced fatty acid accumulation, ROS production, and apoptosis in podocytes. Antioxidant 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidine -1-oxyl (tempol inhibited the overproduction of ROS and apoptosis in podocytes induced by palmitic acid.CD36 mediated fatty acid-induced podocyte apoptosis via oxidative stress might participate in the process of DN.

  15. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  16. Oxidation of furan fatty acids by soybean lipoxygenase-1 in the presence of linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batna, A; Spiteller, G

    1994-04-19

    The interaction of furan fatty acids (F-acids) with lipoxygenase was investigated by incubation experiments of a synthetic dialkyl-substituted F-acid with soybean lipoxygenase-1. Originally the oxidation of furan fatty acids was assumed to be directly effected by lipoxygenase. It is now demonstrated that this reaction is a two-step process that requires the presence of lipoxygenase substrates, e.g. linoleic acid. In the first step linoleic acid is converted by the enzyme to the corresponding hydroperoxide. This attacks, probably in a radical reaction, the furan fatty acid to produce a dioxoene compound that can be detected unequivocally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  17. NGF blocks polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in n-3 fatty acid-supplemented PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msika, Ora; Brand, Annette; Crawford, Michael A; Yavin, Ephraim

    2012-07-01

    Regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in proliferating and NGF-differentiated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells deficient in n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) was studied. A dose- and time-dependent increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3) and DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) glycerophospholipids (GPL) via the elongation/desaturation pathway following alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) supplements was observed. That was accompanied by a marked reduction of eicosatrienoic acid (Mead acid 20:3n-9), an index of PUFA deficiency. EPA supplements were equally effective converted to 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. On the other hand, supplements of linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6) were not effectively converted into higher n-6 PUFA intermediates nor did they impair elongation/desaturation of ALA. Co-supplements of DHA along with ALA did not interfere with 20:5n-3 biosynthesis but reduced further elongation to 22-hydrocarbon PUFA intermediates. A marked decrease in the newly synthesized 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 following ALA or EPA supplements was observed after nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation. NGF also inhibited the last step in 22:5n-6 formation from LNA. These results emphasize the importance of overcoming n-3 PUFA deficiency and raise the possibility that growth factor regulation of the last step in PUFA biosynthesis may constitute an important feature of neuronal phenotype acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli and its applications towards the production of fatty acid based biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The idea of renewable and regenerative resources has inspired research for more than a hundred years. Ideally, the only spent energy will replenish itself, like plant material, sunlight, thermal energy or wind. Biodiesel or ethanol are examples, since their production relies mainly on plant material. However, it has become apparent that crop derived biofuels will not be sufficient to satisfy future energy demands. Thus, especially in the last decade a lot of research has focused on the production of next generation biofuels. A major subject of these investigations has been the microbial fatty acid biosynthesis with the aim to produce fatty acids or derivatives for substitution of diesel. As an industrially important organism and with the best studied microbial fatty acid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli has been chosen as producer in many of these studies and several reviews have been published in the fields of E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis or biofuels. However, most reviews discuss only one of these topics in detail, despite the fact, that a profound understanding of the involved enzymes and their regulation is necessary for efficient genetic engineering of the entire pathway. The first part of this review aims at summarizing the knowledge about fatty acid biosynthesis of E. coli and its regulation, and it provides the connection towards the production of fatty acids and related biofuels. The second part gives an overview about the achievements by genetic engineering of the fatty acid biosynthesis towards the production of next generation biofuels. Finally, the actual importance and potential of fatty acid-based biofuels will be discussed. PMID:24405789

  19. Sheep erythrocyte membrane binding and transfer of long-chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1999-01-01

    Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants......Palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, sheep erythrocyte ghosts, transporting elements, transport kinetics, fatty acid transport, transport rate constants...

  20. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  1. Association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and intraprostatic inflammation in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phillis J.; Lucia, M. Scott; Parnes, Howard L.; Thompson, Ian M.; Lippman, Scott M.; Song, Xiaoling; Gurel, Bora; De Marzo, Angelo; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation may play an etiologic role in prostate cancer. Several dietary factors influence inflammation; studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, while n-6 and trans fatty acids are pro-inflammatory. We evaluated whether serum phospholipid n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids were associated with intraprostatic inflammation, separately in 191 prostate cancer cases and 247 controls from the placebo arm of the in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Men without a prostate cancer diagnosis underwent prostate biopsy at trial end, and benign prostate tissue inflammation was evaluated in approximately three biopsy cores per man; this was expressed as no, some, or all cores with inflammation. In controls, serum eicosapentaenoic acid (OR of all cores with inflammation versus none (95%CI): 0.35 (0.14, 0.89)), and docosahexaenoic acid (OR (95%CI): 0.42 (0.17, 1.02)) were inversely associated with, while linoleic acid (OR (95%CI): 3.85 (1.41, 10.55)) was positively associated with intraprostatic inflammation. Serum trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation. No significant associations were observed in cases; however, we could not rule out a positive association with linoleic acid and an inverse association with arachidonic acid. Thus, in the PCPT, we found that serum n-3 fatty acids were inversely, n-6 fatty acids were positively, and trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation in controls. While, in theory, inflammation could mediate associations of serum fatty acids with prostate cancer risk, our findings cannot explain the epidemiologic associations observed with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. PMID:25926387

  2. Effect of impaired fatty acid oxidation on myocardial kinetics of 11C- and 123I-labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with palmitate 11 C and single photon imaging with terminally radioiodinated fatty acid analogues (FFA 123 I) were evaluated for the noninvasive assessment of regional myocardial fatty acid metabolism during ischaemia. Decreased uptake of tracer and delayed clearance of activity in the ischaemic myocardium were reported for both 11 C- and 123 I-labelled compounds. However, since during ischaemia both myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism are reduced concomitantly, either factor can be responsible for the changes observed. Experimental preparations in which fatty acid metabolism can be modified independently of flow are helpful for the characterization of the relationship between metabolism and myocardial kinetics of labelled fatty acids. Results obtained during flow-independent inhibition of fatty acid oxidation include the following observations: - In dogs with controlled coronary perfusion the rate of clearance of palmitate 11 C-activity is decreased during diminished delivery of oxygen, regardless of whether myocardial perfusion is concomitantly reduced or not. - In isolated rabbit hearts perfused at normal flow, the extraction of FFA 123 I is decreased during hypoxia. - During pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid oxidation the deiodination of FFA 123 I is markedly reduced in rat hearts in vivo and in vitro. (orig.)

  3. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  4. Assessing the robustness of quantitative fatty acid signature analysis to assumption violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

      Knowledge of animal diets can provide important insights into life history and ecology, relationships among species in a community and potential response to ecosystem change or perturbation. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a method of estimating diets from data on the composition, or signature, of fatty acids stored in adipose tissue. Given data on signatures of potential prey, a predator diet is estimated by minimizing the distance between its signature and a mixture of prey signatures. Calibration coefficients, constants derived from feeding trials, are used to account for differential metabolism of individual fatty acids. QFASA has been widely applied since its introduction and several variants of the original estimator have appeared in the literature. However, work to compare the statistical properties of QFASA estimators has been limited.

  5. pH-sensitive liposomes containing polymerized phosphatidylethanolamine and fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Han, H S; Kim, H

    1992-11-01

    With the ultimate aim of targeting cancer drugs to malignant tissues, liposomes containing polymeric phosphatidylethanolamine and a fatty acid were prepared. For this purpose diacetylenic phosphatidylethanolamine (DAPE), a phosphatidylethanolamine containing diacetylene, was synthesized. Liposomes containing DAPE, fatty acid, and either phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or phosphatidylethanolamine-beta-oleoyl-gamma-palmitoyl (POPE) were then prepared. Polymerization of DAPE was effected by UV illumination. The polymeric liposomes so obtained were stable at physiological pH but became leaky below pH 6.5. Of various compositions studied, the greatest pH-sensitivity was found with liposomes composed of 35 mol% DAPE, 35 mol% POPE, and 30 mol% saturated fatty acid. The presence of blood plasma albumin decreased vesicle stability while apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) had the opposite effect and plasma as a whole had a slightly stabilizing effect.

  6. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  7. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  8. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-09

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  10. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Azka; Nurjanah Nurjanah; Agoes Mardiono Jacoeb

    2015-01-01

    Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited informationabout nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition offatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.).The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC), while amino acids,total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography(HPLC). Egg contained 22 fatty acids such...

  11. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oxygen uptake during the γ-irradiation of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, M.M.K.; Moore, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation-induced oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in aqueous solutions has been estimated by measurement of the continuous uptake of oxygen using an oxygen electrode. Chain reactions, initiated by HO radicals, are easily identified to be occurring in the case of unsaturated fatty acids. Other mild oxidation agents, namely (SCN)2 -anion radicals, Br 2 - anion radicals and N 3 -anion radicals, are also found to be capable of oxidizing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Evidence is presented the O 2- anion radicals may also initiate peroxidation. The oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids is dependent on dose rate, fatty acid concentration, temperature and the presence of antioxidant and other protective agents. Kinetic studies of the reaction of (SCN)2 - anion radicals and Br 2 - anion radicals with linoleic and linolenic acids have been carried out using pulse radiolysis. The bimolecular rate constants for both radical species with the lipids are approx 10 7 mol-? 1 dm 3 s -1 , below their critical micelle concentrations, and decrease at higher concentrations due to micelle formation. (author)

  13. [Determination of 11 fatty acids and fatty acids methyl esters in biodiesel using ultra performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhe; Bao, Guirong; Wang, Hua

    2008-07-01

    A method for the determination of 11 familiar components in biodiesel was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (UPLC-ELSD). These components were oleic acid, methyl cis-9-octadecenoate, linoleic acid, methyl linoleate, stearic acid, methyl octadecanoate, methyl linolenate, palmitic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, erucic acid and myristic acid. The sample was dissolved in methanol after extraction from the products. The separation column was an Acquity UPLC BEH Phenyl C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (3:1, v/v). An isocratic elution program was utilized for the separation. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min and the column temperature was 40 degrees C. The parameters of ELSD were as follows: the plus was 80; the temperature of the drift tube was 45 degrees C; the eluant gas pressure was 172 kPa. The sample was detected by ELSD in only 5 min. The calibration curves of 11 components showed good linearity with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.997. In comparison with other methods, this method is simple, fast, and has a good separation efficiency. The fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters were separated in one step, thus, the extent of reaction can be confirmed by the determination of their contents. This method can be routinely used for the determination of the fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters in the reaction products and the final biodiesel.

  14. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Catalá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others.

  15. Free and Bound Fatty-Acids and Hydroxy Fatty-Acids in the Living and Decomposing Eelgrass Zostera-Marina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Nienhuis, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Very early diagenetic processes of free, esterified and amide or glycosidically bound fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids present in well documented samples of living and decomposing eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) were investigated. Free and esterified fatty acids decreased significantly over a period

  16. From fat to FAT (CD36/SR-B2): Understanding the regulation of cellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P

    2017-05-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake of long-chain fatty acids and the regulation of this process have been elucidated in appreciable detail in the last decades. Two main players in this field, each discovered in the early 1990s, are (i) a membrane-associated protein first identified in adipose ('fat') tissue and referred to as putative fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 (now officially designated as SR-B2) which facilitates the transport of fatty acids across the plasma membrane, and (ii) the family of transcription factors designated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ) for which fatty acids and fatty acid metabolites are the preferred ligand. CD36/SR-B2 is the predominant membrane protein involved in fatty acid uptake into intestinal enterocytes, adipocytes and cardiac and skeletal myocytes. The rate of cellular fatty acid uptake is regulated by the subcellular vesicular recycling of CD36/SR-B2 from endosomes to the plasma membrane. Fatty acid-induced activation of PPARs results in the upregulation of the expression of genes encoding various proteins and enzymes involved in cellular fatty acid utilization. Both CD36/SR-B2 and the PPARs have been implicated in the derangements in fatty acid and lipid metabolism occurring with the development of pathophysiological conditions, such as high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy, and have been suggested as targets for metabolic intervention. In this brief review we discuss the discovery and current understanding of both CD36/SR-B2 and the PPARs in metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with severe fat malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    by thin-layer chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. The concentration of linoleic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 21.7%, 19.4%, 16.4%, and 13.4% respectively (P ...: group 1, 50% (n = 15). Fecal fat was measured by the method of Van de Kamer the last 2 of 5 d of a 75-g fat diet. Serum fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were measured by gas-liquid chromatography after separation...

  19. Formation of fatty acids in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegina, T. A.; Pavlovskaya, T. Y.; Ladyzhenskaya, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Abiogenic synthesis of fatty acids was studied in photochemical conversions of saturated hydrocarbons. It was shown that, in a hydrocarbon water CaCO3 suspension, the action of 254 nm UV rays caused the formation of fatty acids with a maximum number of carbon atoms in the chain not exceeding that in the initial hydrocarbon. Synthesis of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, caproic, enanthic and caprylic (in the case of octane) acids occurs in heptane water CaCO3 and octane water CaCO3 systems.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  1. Fatty acid metabolism, energy expenditure and insulin resistance in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J; Kraegen, Edward W; Bruce, Clinton R

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are essential elements of all cells and have significant roles as energy substrates, components of cellular structure and signalling molecules. The storage of excess energy intake as fat in adipose tissue is an evolutionary advantage aimed at protecting against starvation, but in much of today's world, humans are faced with an unlimited availability of food, and the excessive accumulation of fat is now a major risk for human health, especially the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since the first recognition of the association between fat accumulation, reduced insulin action and increased risk of T2D, several mechanisms have been proposed to link excess FA availability to reduced insulin action, with some of them being competing or contradictory. This review summarises the evidence for these mechanisms in the context of excess dietary FAs generating insulin resistance in muscle, the major tissue involved in insulin-stimulated disposal of blood glucose. It also outlines potential problems with models and measurements that may hinder as well as help improve our understanding of the links between FAs and insulin action.

  2. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  3. Fatty and amino acids composition of selected wild edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For thousands of years, mushrooms have long been used for their health promoting properties. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids and amino acids contents in priority wild mushrooms: Termitomyces microcarpus, Termitomyces sp. (Bunyanaka), Termitomyces globulus, Termitomyces eurrhizus and ...

  4. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  5. Continuous Cultivation of Photosynthetic Bacteria for Fatty Acids Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations.At hydraulic retention time (HRT)....... sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7)....

  6. Fatty acids, cholesterol, oxidative rancidity, and color of irradiated shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy doses applied to frozen and packed headed shrimp on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability was evaluated. Myristic acid was higher in shrimp irradiated with 4 and 6 kGy and palmitic acid was higher in samples irradiated with 2 and 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. Stearic and behenic acids were lower in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated shrimp. With regard to non-irradiated shrimp, palmitoleic, oleic, and linoleic acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy. Saturated fatty acid and cholesterol contents in irradiated samples were not different from those in non-irradiated shrimp. Lipid oxidation was higher in samples irradiated with 2, 4, and 6 kGy. Redness and yellowness of cooked shrimp were higher in samples irradiated with 6 kGy than in those in non-irradiated samples. The application of irradiation in doses up to 6 kGy on frozen and packed headed shrimp does not affect negatively the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability.

  7. Ferrierite-Catalysed Branching of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemann, S.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    The light alkyl branching in isostearic acid (ISAC) imparts it with unique physical properties and functionalities among fatty acids, making it a valuable raw material in the production of lubricants, cosmetics and surface-active agents. Being derived from renewable vegetable oils, ISAC has the

  8. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  9. Total lipid accumulation and fatty acid profiles of microalga Spirulina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient limitation in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus increased lipid accumulation under depleted growth in Spirulina strains. Nitrogen limitation was found more effective than phosphorus in accumulating lipid. The fatty acid profile was variable: palmitic (48%), linolenic (21%) and linoleic acids (15%) were the most ...

  10. Essential Oils and Fatty Acids Composition of Dry Fruits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid was about 54% saturated and 46% unsaturated with omega-6 and omega-3 constituting 27% and omega-9 (20%). The effectiveness of T.tetraptera to the treatment of variety of ailments does not depend largely on the essential oils composition of the plant since the oil is dominated by acetic acid. Any essential ...

  11. Isolation of lower fungi for polyunsaturated fatty acid production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... 1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Ransit Center, Klong Luang,. Pathum Thani ... The major essential fatty acid composition was found to be arachidonic acid (ARA;. C20:4n6) ... tastes and odors of fish oil, shows that some fish especially salmon ...

  12. Fatty Acid Profile, Cholesterol and Oxidative Status in Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can be concluded that dietary LO and SO enhanced n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively, while dietary PO enhanced the oleic acid and oxidative stability of broiler breast muscle. Thus, this study showed that PO can be used as an alternative oil source in broiler diets with a positive effect on the oxidative ...

  13. Surface investigation of chitosan film with fatty acid monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. El-hefian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface pressure- molecular area (-A isotherm curves of two fatty acids of different chain lengths, i.e. stearic (C18 and arachidic (C20 acids, were obtained by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB technique. Results showed clear isotherm plots with limiting mean molecular area around 21 Å2 for both acids. However, the monolayer was found to collapse at higher than 33 mN m-1 and 21 mN m-1 for stearic acid and arachidic acid respectively. The effect of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of the acids was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Chitosan film, before and after dipping in water, was also studied by means of AFM so that it could be used for comparison. It was found that the surface of chitosan was more homogeneous and smoother after dipping in water. In addition, more homogeneous surfaces were achieved after transferring a layer of the fatty acid onto the substrate.

  14. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  15. High ω-3:ω-6 fatty acids ratio increases fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in human ectopic endometrial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaki, Korosh; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Darabi, Masoud; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Shabani, Mahdi; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, is defined by the atypical growth of endometrium- like tissue outside of the uterus. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) and fatty acid binding protein4 (FABP4) play several important roles in the inflammatory diseases. Objective: Due to reported potential anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fatty acid binding protein 4 and extracellular secretory phospholipase A2IIa in cultured endometrial cells. Materials and Methods: Ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues obtained from 15 women were snap frozen. After thawing and tissue digestion, primary mixed stromal and endometrial epithelial cell culture was performed for 8 days in culture mediums supplemented with normal and high ratios of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA. sPLA2-IIa in the culture medium and FABP4 level was determined using enzyme immuno assay (EIA) technique. Results: Within ectopic endometrial cells group, the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa were remarkably increased under high ω-3 PUFA exposure compared with control condition (p=0.014 and p=0.04 respectively). Conclusion: ω-3 PUFAs may increase the level of cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa in ectopic endometrial cells, since sPLAIIa and FABP4 may affect endometriosis via several mechanisms, more relevant studies are encouraged to know the potential effect of increased cellular FABP4 and extracellular sPLA2-IIa on endometriosis. PMID:25709631

  16. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

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    Janaćković Peđa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

  17. Comparison of the fatty acid profile of muscle neutral lipids and phospholipids of up-river anadromous sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L. from three Portuguese river basins

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    Sara Pinela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Composition of fatty acid profile of muscle neutral lipids (NL and phospholipids (PL of sea lamprey that enter the Portuguese rivers Minho, Tagus and Guadiana during their non-trophic spawning migration was analysed. The fatty acid profile exhibited differences in the percentage among NL and PL and between river basins. Similarities were found in the fatty acid profile of NL. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA were the most representative, followed by saturated fatty acids (SFA and finally by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Monoenic 16:1 and 18:1ω9 formed a considerable percentage of total fatty acids, followed by SFA 14:0 and 16:0. EPA and DHA were the dominant PUFA fatty acids. In terms of NL, the fatty acid that contributed for the discrimination between the three river basins was 18:1ω7. Individuals from the Minho river basin exhibited a different fatty acid profile of PL characterised by a low PUFA percentage when compared with lampreys from the Tagus and Guadiana river basins. Muscle PL fraction showed that the two monoenes, 16:1 and 18:1ω9, occurred at high percentage, followed by 16:0 and 14:0 (SFA. Among PUFA, DHA was the most representative fatty acid. The fatty acids that contributed to the separation between the three river basins were 16:0, 18:4ω3 and 24:1ω9. Although the results point in the direction of a possible difference between the fatty acid composition of the NL and PL fractions in the muscle samples from the three river basins, further studies, especially in tissues where fatty acid composition will be less sensitive to diet and environmental factors, are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. High Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in fat-1 Mice Reduce Inflammatory Pain.

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    Zhang, Enji; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Shin, Nara; Yin, Yuhua; Nan, Yongshan; Xu, Yinshi; H