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Sample records for tissue element levels

  1. Determination of trace element level in different tissues of the leaping mullet (Liza saliens, Mugilidae) collected from Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Eslami, Shahram; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn were determined in the brain, heart, liver, gill, gonad, spleen, kidney, and red and white muscles of Liza saliens (leaping mullet). Trace element levels in fish samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Among the non-essential metals, the levels of Ni and Pb in the tissues were higher than limits for fish proposed by FAO/WHO, EU, and TFC. Generally, the levels of the non-essential metals were much higher than those of manganese in the red and white muscles. Fe distribution pattern in tissues was in order of spleen > liver > heart > gill > brain > kidney > gonad > red muscle > white muscle. Red muscle was not within the safe limits for human consumption because non-essential metal (Ni, Pb) contents were higher than standard limits.

  2. Effects of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) polymorphism on toxic metal and trace element levels in placental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Tekin, Deniz; Aliyev, Vugar; Yalcin, Serap; Kurtay, Guelay; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-01-01

    The placenta is a crucial organ of fetal origin that functions in providing nutrients to the fetus from the mother. During pregnancy, the need for essential micronutrients, such as Fe and Zn, increases due to the requirements of the growing fetus. Maternal Fe deficiency induces an increase in Cu levels and can also affect cytokine levels in the placenta. On the other hand, Cu deficiency, although not as common, can also have destructive effects on the fetus. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities, including such as immune responses, acute-phase reactions, and inflammation. The placenta produces a significant amount of IL-6 during pregnancy. The effects of the IL-6 -174 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on IL-6 gene transcription and on plasma cytokine levels were assessed in the present study. We investigated the association between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and trace element/toxic metal levels in placental tissues. For the purposes of this study, 95 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Presence of the IL-6 polymorphism was determined using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, and metal levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Based on our data, there were no significant associations between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and Pb, Cd, Fe, or Zn levels in the placental tissues (p > 0.05), but a statistically significant association was detected between the polymorphism and Cu levels (p = 0.016). We determined that the mean Cu levels in the placental tissues from individuals with GG, GC and CC genotypes were 5.62 ± 1.98, 6.22 ± 3.22 and 8.00 ± 1.32 ppm, respectively, whereas the overall mean Cu level from the placental tissues was 5.98 ± 2.51 ppm. - Highlights: → We studied between the association of IL-6 polymorphism and metal levels in the placenta tissues. → It was the first report evaluating the association

  3. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  4. Effects of Different Levels of Molybdenum on Rumen Microbiota and Trace Elements Changes in Tissues from Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sihui; Zhang, Caiying; Xiao, Qingyang; Zhuang, Yu; Gu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Xing, Chenghong; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for animals and human beings. However, the negative effects on rumen function and distribution of trace elements in tissues induced by excessive Mo have not been well understood. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate the impact of Mo on rumen microbiota, distribution of trace elements in various organs, and hematological parameters of goats. A total of 36 goats were randomly distributed into three groups with equal number and low-Mo and high-Mo groups were orally administered ammonium molybdate at 15 and 45 mg · Mo · kg -1  · BW respectively, while the control group received corresponding quantitative deionized water. The results showed that the total number of ciliate and protozoa protein concentration decreased significantly (P contents significantly decreased (P contents increased (P contents were not obvious (P > 0.05) in other tissues on days 25 and 50. Besides, there was no obvious variation in iron (Fe) contents during whole experiment period (P > 0.05). Furthermore, excessive Mo content had no significant effect on red blood cell (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (HGB) concentration (P > 0.05) on days 25 and 50, while white blood cell (WBC) counts increased significantly (P content could impact the balance of ruminal microorganisms and interfere with the absorption and distribution of Mo and Cu mainly.

  5. ROLE OF TAURINE ON THE LEVEL OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF RATS EXPOSED TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANIS, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different tissues provoking oxidative damage and organ dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of taurine against gamma radiation-induced disorders in iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in parallel to radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver, spleen and heart tissues. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiations. Taurine treated irradiated rats received 250 mg taurine/kg body weight/day for 10 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on 1 st , 7 th and 14 th days after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated significant increases in Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg levels in the liver. Significant increases of Fe and Cu and significant decrease of Zn and non-significant changes in Mg were observed in the spleen. Heart tissues showed significant decrease in the level of iron and non-significant changes in the levels of Cu, Zn and Mg. Alterations in the levels of essential elements were associated with oxidative stress. Significant decreases of SOD and CAT activities along with significant increase of TBARS levels were recorded in the different tissues after irradiation. Taurine administration pre-irradiation has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in the levels of essential elements. It could be concluded that taurine might protect from oxidative damage induced by gamma irradiation

  6. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of essential and possibly-essential trace element levels in adipose tissue from an adult cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Vrhovnik, Petra; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Fernández, Mariana F; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; Olea, Nicolás; Fiket, Željka; Kniewald, Goran; Arrebola, Juan P

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing evidence linking levels of trace elements (TEs) in adipose tissue with certain chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes or obesity). The objectives of this study were to assess concentrations of a selection of nine essential and possibly-essential TEs in adipose tissue samples from an adult cohort and to explore their socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle determinants. Adipose tissue samples were intraoperatively collected from 226 volunteers recruited in two public hospitals from Granada province. Trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V, and Zn) were analyzed in adipose tissue by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, diet, and health status by face-to-face interview. Predictors of TE concentrations were assessed by using multivariable linear and logistic regression. All TEs were detected in all samples with the exception of Se (53.50%). Iron, zinc, and copper showed the highest concentrations (42.60 mg/kg, 9.80 mg/kg, and 0.68 mg/kg, respectively). Diet was the main predictor of Cr, Fe, Mo, and Se concentrations. Body mass index was negatively associated with all TEs (β coefficients = -0.018 to -0.593, p = 0.001-0.090) except for Mn and V. Age showed a borderline-significant positive correlation with Cu (β = 0.004, p = 0.089). Residence in a rural or semi-rural area was associated with increased Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Mn, V and Zn concentrations and with β coefficients ranging from 0.196 to 0.544 (p V concentrations (β coefficients = 0.276-0.368, p = 0.022-0.071). This is the first report on the distribution of these TEs in adipose tissue and on their determinants in a human cohort and might serve as an initial step in the elucidation of their clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  8. Assessment of Trace Element Levels in Muscle Tissues of Fish Species Collected from a River, Stream, Lake, and Sea in Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Küpeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of some trace and essential elements, including Al, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn, were determined in 17 different fish species from Sakarya River, Çark Stream, Sapanca Lake, and Western Black Sea using ICP-OES after microwave (MW digestion procedure. During preparation of samples for analysis, wet and MW digestion methods were also compared. Accuracy of the digestion methods was checked by the analysis of DORM-3 reference material (Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. Concentrations of trace elements were found as Al: 6.5–48.5, B: 0.06–3.30, Ba: 0.09–2.92, Cr: 0.02–1.64, Cu: 0.13–2.28, Fe: 7.28–39.9, Mn: 0.08–11.4, Ni: 0.01–26.1, Sr: 0.17–13.5, and Zn: 11.5–52.9 µg g−1. The obtained results were compared with other studies published in the literature. Trace element levels in various fish species collected from waters in Sakarya region were found to be below limit values provided by Turkish Food Codex (TFC, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and World Health Organization (WHO.

  9. Elemental composition of skin tissue by PIXE and INAA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, R.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a particular type of scar that can form after any type of dermal injury. They are unsightly, red, elevated above normal skin level, itchy and painful. At present no-one knows why these scars form. Due to the differences between scar tissue and normal skin it was decided to analyse skin tissue which at a later date would be compared to scar tissue. Spit skin graft (epidermis) samples as well as full thickness skin (epidermis to dermis) tissue were analysed using PIXE and RBS with a 2 MeV proton beam. The epidermis was compared to the dermis to see if there were any variations between the two. In all the samples P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cd were detected and in a majority of the samples Zn and Ba were found, using PIXE. It was found that, between the epidermis and dermis, there was an significant increase in P in the epidermis in both full thickness and split skin graft samples. Complementary elemental analysis was also performed using neutron activation, and Br, Na and Zn were detected. (author)

  10. Level of radioactive strontium-90, potassium-40 in bone tissues of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, D.; Andrei, S.; Ehnkhtuya, Ts.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the level of strontium-90 and potassium-40 in bone tissues of sheep. Level of the radioactive elements in its bone tissues decreases depending on its ripeness, but a strong decrease was observable in its old ages

  11. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  12. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  13. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  14. Trace elemental correlation study in malignant and normal breast tissue by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Murty, G.A.V. Ramana; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Lakshminarayana, S.; Vijayan, V.; Lakshmi, P.V.B. Rama; Gavarasana, Satyanarayana; Reddy, S. Bhuloka

    2006-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission technique was used to study the variations in trace elemental concentrations between normal and malignant human breast tissue specimens and to understand the effects of altered homeostasis of these elements in the etiology of breast cancer. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the biological samples of normal and malignant breast tissues. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated. Almost all the elements were found to be elevated (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) in the cancerous tissues when compared with normal tissues. The excess levels of trace elements observed in the cancerous breast tissues could either be a cause or a consequence of breast cancer. Regarding their role in the initiation or promotion of breast cancer, one possible interpretation is that the elevated levels of Cu, Fe and Cr could have led to the formation of free radicals or other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that adversely affect DNA thereby causing breast cancer, which is mainly attributed to genetic abnormalities. Moreover, since Cu and Fe are required for angiogenesis, elevated concentrations of these elements are likely to promote breast cancer by increasing the blood supply for tumor growth. On the other hand elevated concentrations of elements in breast cancer tissues might also be a consequence of the cancer. This can be understood in terms of the biochemical and histological differences between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Tumors, characterized by unregulated multiplication of cells, need an ever-increasing supply of essential nutrients including trace elements. This probably results in an increased vascularity of malignant tissues, which in turn leads to enhancement of elemental concentrations in tumors

  15. Water hardness and cardiovascular disease. Elements in water and human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharrett, A R

    1977-05-01

    The hypothesis that the hardness of drinking water has a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease will be strengthened if it can be demonstrated that elements in drinking water find their way into human tissues in significant amounts. For biologically important metals, the evidence is reviewed for a relationship of tissue levels to levels in drinking water. Hard water can contribute significantly to daily magnesium intake. Residents of hard-water areas may have raised levels of magnesium in coronary arteries, bone, and myocardial tissue. Lead levels in bone and in blood have been shown to be elevated in individuals living in homes with lead plumbing and soft water. Cadmium intake from water is probably small compared to that from other sources, and there is no convincing evidence of alteration in human tissue levels via drinking water cadmium. Human zinc and copper tissue levels are of interest but have not been adequately studied in relation to drinking water levels.

  16. Trace element determinations in brain tissues from normal and clinically demented individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Leite, Renata E.P.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Ferretti, Renata E.L.; Suemoto, Claudia; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Studies on trace element levels in human brains under normal and pathological conditions have indicated a possible correlation between some trace element concentrations and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, analysis of brain tissues was carried out to investigate if there are any differences in elemental concentrations between brain tissues from a normal population above 50 years of age presenting Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) equal to zero (CDR=0) and that cognitively affected population ( CDR=3). The tissues were dissected, ground, freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated in a neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma ray activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The one-way ANOVA test (p< 0.05) was used to compare the results. All the elements determined in the hippocampus brain region presented differences between the groups presenting CDR=0 and CDR=3. In the case of frontal region only the elements Na, Rb and Zn showed differences between these two groups. These findings proved the correlation between elemental levels present in brain tissues neurodegenerative diseases. Biological standard reference materials SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and SRM 1577b Bovine Liver analyzed for quality control indicated good accuracy and precision of the results. (author)

  17. Applications of condensed matter understanding to medical tissues and disease progression: Elemental analysis and structural integrity of tissue scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.u [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, School of Community and Health Sciences, City University, London (United Kingdom); Gundogdu, O. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Al-Ebraheem, Alia [Department of Radiography, School of Community and Health Sciences, City University, London (United Kingdom); Che Ismail, Elna [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kaabar, W., E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.u [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bunk, O. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bailey, M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (mu-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (mu-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.

  18. Applications of condensed matter understanding to medical tissues and disease progression: Elemental analysis and structural integrity of tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.; Farquharson, M.J.; Gundogdu, O.; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Che Ismail, Elna; Kaabar, W.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Falkenberg, G.; Bailey, M.

    2010-01-01

    The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (μ-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.

  19. Woody tissue analysis using an element ratio technique (DRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; L.F. Ohmann; D.F. Grigal

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS) was used to describe the variation of 12 elements in woody tree tissue and balsam fir (Abies balsamae (L.) Mill.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), red pine (Pinus resinosa alt.), and aspen (

  20. Trace elements in digestive cancer tissue by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, C.; Constantinescu, O.; Cata, I.; Dumitriu, D. E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Pantelica, A.; Penescu, L. C.; Piticu, I.; Radu, A. T.; Vargolici, M.; Ciortea, M.; Staniceanu, F.; Popescu, E.; Donciu, D.; Moldovan, A.; Popescu, L.; Burghelea, B.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental composition study of digestive cancer tissue with different localizations (esophagus, stomach, colon) by using PIXE analysis is presented. A number of 20 tumor and normal (control) tissue samples were analyzed. Thin targets were prepared by mineralization of the lyophilized tissue with nitric acid and dropping on 2 μm Mylar foil. The measurements were carried out in vacuum using 3 MeV protons delivered by the tandem accelerator in Bucharest, Romania. The following elements were identified: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Although the results show relatively large variations from a sample to another there were obtained mean ratios of tumor/normal concentrations which are significantly greater than one, in the limit of the standard deviation for the following elements: K (1.45±0.28), Ca (1.30±0.21), Cr (2.33±0.56), and Zn (1.18±0.15). For the other determined elements, no significant difference between the tumor and normal tissues, in the limit of the present standard deviation, was found. (authors)

  1. Trace elements in digestive cancer tissue by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, Constantin; Constantinescu, Olimpiu; Filimon, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Elemental composition study of digestive cancer tissue with different localizations (esophagus, stomach, colon), by using PIXE analysis, is presented. A number of 20 tumors and normal (control) tissue samples was analyzed. Thin targets were prepared by mineralization with nitric acid of the lyophilized tissue and dropping on 2 μm Mylar foil. The measurements were carried out in vacuum using 3 MeV protons delivered by the Tandem Accelerator in Bucharest, Romania. The following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Although the results show relatively large variations from a sample to another, there were obtained mean ratios of tumor/normal concentrations which are significantly greater than one, in the limit of the standard deviation, for the following elements: K(1.45 ± 0.28), Ca(1.30 ± 0.21), Cr(2.33 ± 0.56), and Zn(1.18 ± 0.15). For other elements determined, no significant difference between the tumor and normal tissues , in the limit of the present standard deviation, was found. (authors)

  2. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements, namely lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), found in kidney tissues were analyzed and compared between wild/fattened and female/male bluefin tuna (BFT) in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred (that is, 50 female and 50 male) individual ...

  3. Concentrations of cadmium and selected essential elements in malignant large intestine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Adam; Kilanowicz, Anna; Sapota, Andrzej; Duda-Szymańska, Joanna; Daragó, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Incidence rates of large intestine cancer indicate a role of environmental and occupational factors. The role of essential elements and their interaction with toxic metals can contribute to the explanation of a complex mechanism by which large intestine cancer develops. Bearing this in mind, determining the levels of essential and toxic elements in tissues (organs), as well as in body fluids, seems to shed light on their role in the mode of action in malignant disease. Aim Determination of the levels of cadmium, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, magnesium, and iron in large intestine malignant tissue. Material and methods Two intraoperative intestine sections were investigated: one from the malignant tissue and the other one from the normal tissue, collected from each person with diagnosed large intestine cancer. Cadmium, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, and iron levels were determined with atomic absorption spectrometry, and selenium levels by spectrofluorimetric method. Results The levels of copper, selenium, and magnesium were higher in the malignant than in normal tissues. In addition, the zinc/copper and calcium/magnesium relationship was altered in malignant tissue, where correlations were lower compared to non-malignant tissue. Conclusions The results seems to demonstrate disturbed homeostasis of some essential elements. However, it is hard to confirm their involvement in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. PMID:27110307

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia, J A; Perkons, A K

    1974-01-01

    Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis with Instrumental Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometry was used to determine the amounts of more than 30 trace constituents in heart tissue of rats and kidney tissue of rabbits. The results were confirmed by a rapid ion-exchange group separation method in the initial stages of the experiments. The samples were exposed to thermal neutrons for periods between 3 minutes and 14 hours. Significant differences in the amounts and types of trace elements in the two different tissue types are apparent, however, are probably due to specific diets. Tables of relevant nuclear data, standard concentrations, radiochemical separation recoveries, and quantitative analytical results are presented. The ion-exchange group separation scheme and typical examples of the instrumental gamma ray spectra are shown. The techniques developed in this study are being used for a large scale constituent survey of various diseased and healthy human tissues.

  5. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, Pdodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegele, Rainer; Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D.; Pastuovic, Zeljko

    2013-01-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca +2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  7. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  8. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  9. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    During the last two decades, biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains; and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Give the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law ans a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMs are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested. 62 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gueriau

    Full Text Available The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  11. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  12. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  13. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O' Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  14. PIXE analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, R.W.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; O'Neill, M.P.; Wilder, B.J.; Florida Univ., Gainesville; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex. (orig.)

  15. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  16. Calculation of normal tissue complication probability and dose-volume histogram reduction schemes for tissues with a critical element architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemierko, Andrzej; Goitein, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate a model of normal tissue complication probability for tissues that may be represented by a critical element architecture. They derive formulas for complication probability that apply to both a partial volume irradiation and to an arbitrary inhomogeneous dose distribution. The dose-volume isoeffect relationship which is a consequence of a critical element architecture is discussed and compared to the empirical power law relationship. A dose-volume histogram reduction scheme for a 'pure' critical element model is derived. In addition, a point-based algorithm which does not require precomputation of a dose-volume histogram is derived. The existing published dose-volume histogram reduction algorithms are analyzed. The authors show that the existing algorithms, developed empirically without an explicit biophysical model, have a close relationship to the critical element model at low levels of complication probability. However, it is also showed that they have aspects which are not compatible with a critical element model and the authors propose a modification to one of them to circumvent its restriction to low complication probabilities. (author). 26 refs.; 7 figs

  17. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes Godinho, R.; Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P.; Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism

  18. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes Godinho, R.; Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  19. Elemental characterization of tissues of Octopus vulgaris along the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoleão, P; Pinheiro, T; Sousa Reis, C

    2005-06-01

    The concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, and Pb were measured in digestive gland (DG), branchial hearts (BH), gill (G), and muscle (M) of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 caught in three fishing areas of the Portuguese coast, Viana do Castelo, Cascais, and Santa Luzia, for 2 years. The elemental concentrations measured for the different tissues were in accordance with values reported in the literature. The digestive gland presented high concentration levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn, while the branchial hearts showed elevated levels of V, Ni, Mo, as well as Fe and Cu. Significant variations in As, V, Cu, Mo, and Pb tissue concentrations were observed for animals originated from different sampling sites. Pb and As determined in the digestive gland and branchial hearts of animals from Cascais and Santa Luzia, can reflect local environmental characteristics. The variability observed in the elemental concentrations may be useful to further assess the species susceptibility to environmental conditions.

  20. Characterization of transuranic elements at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes current understanding of transuranic speciation in natural waters. Several predictive models describing the behaviour of these elements in both marine and fresh-water systems illustrate the importance of this information. (author)

  1. Zinc therapy on children with Psoriasis modulates trace elements in serum and tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements in either serum and skin which has been done on twenty patients with psoriasis with age range between 4 -13 years. They were under medical treatment with 5 milligram; oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. A significant increase in both serum and tissue copper and iron levels was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer . In addition, a significant decrease in both serum and tissue calcium and magnesium in psoriatic patients. It has been concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium in psoriatic patients.

  2. Trace element determination in soft tissues of marine bivalves by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in soft tissues of marine bivalves were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Elemental levels of Ag, As, Br, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Ni, Rb, Se, and Zn in the organs of giant ezoscallos, rock oysters, and giant crams were obtained. The metal-bound proteins were extracted from the mantles and hepatopancreases of rock oysters. By irradiating the fraction obtained by HPLC gel chromatography, the possibility for the existence of an Ag bound protein in the mantles was found. (author)

  3. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  4. Soft tissue deformation using a Hierarchical Finite Element Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Alessandro; Bello, Fernando; Darzi, Ara

    2004-01-01

    Simulating soft tissue deformation in real-time has become increasingly important in order to provide a realistic virtual environment for training surgical skills. Several methods have been proposed with the aim of rendering in real-time the mechanical and physiological behaviour of human organs, one of the most popular being Finite Element Method (FEM). In this paper we present a new approach to the solution of the FEM problem introducing the concept of parent and child mesh within the development of a hierarchical FEM. The online selection of the child mesh is presented with the purpose to adapt the mesh hierarchy in real-time. This permits further refinement of the child mesh increasing the detail of the deformation without slowing down the simulation and giving the possibility of integrating force feedback. The results presented demonstrate the application of our proposed framework using a desktop virtual reality (VR) system that incorporates stereo vision with integrated haptics co-location via a desktop Phantom force feedback device.

  5. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  6. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    concern for breeding bird populations. - Highlights: → We assess elements in soil, invertebrates, and breeding shorebird tissues in the Arctic. → Element levels, invertebrate composition and shorebird use differed among habitat types. → Hg was elevated in blood and eggs and was negatively related to egg volume. → Hg and Se showed significant bioaccumulation and biomagnification. → However, all element levels were within available Canadian safety guidelines.

  7. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    concern for breeding bird populations. - Highlights: {yields} We assess elements in soil, invertebrates, and breeding shorebird tissues in the Arctic. {yields} Element levels, invertebrate composition and shorebird use differed among habitat types. {yields} Hg was elevated in blood and eggs and was negatively related to egg volume. {yields} Hg and Se showed significant bioaccumulation and biomagnification. {yields} However, all element levels were within available Canadian safety guidelines.

  8. A study about trace element distribution in cancer tissue and serum of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Lee, Eun Joo; Jung, Young Joo

    1993-01-01

    Authers analyzed the trace element distribution of cancer tissue and its corresponding normal tissue and serum of preoperative and postoperative stage in gastric, colon, breast cancer patients. Zinc and rubidium were higher in concentration in breast cancer tissue than in normal tissue. As for the distribution of trace element in serum, bromine became about 10 times higher after gastric resection. This result can be applied to experimental carcinogenesis and to relationship with other prognostic factors. (Author)

  9. The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.A.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair has been recognized as a tissue which incorporates elements into its structure during the growth process, after which it becomes separated from the continual metabolic activity of the body. It has many advantages for being used as an indicator for screening population groups exposed to environmental pollutants. Such usage is not free from criticisms. Sometimes the so-called ''normal ranges'' of trace elements in hair quoted in the literature can be wide. Various factors can influence the trace element content of hair. In this report we have attempted to summarize the available literature on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium and chromium in human scalp hair. (author). 135 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of heavy metal levels in the tissues of Periophthalmus papillio from the mangrove swamps of the Bukuma oilfield, Rivers State. ... Generally elevated metal levels in both tissues were recorded at the stations with wellheads, implicating oil-related activities as the main source of contamination. However, the levels in ...

  11. Trace elements in soft tissue of Papua penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in Rey Jorge island, Antartic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzetta, G.; Grillo, B.; Odino, R.; Delmonte, D.

    1998-01-01

    Tissue concentrations of heavy metals(copper, zinc, iron, manganese, selenium, bromine and rubidium)were determined in the liver, kidney and pectoral muscle of several adult individuals of Gentoo penguin(Pygoscelis papua) collected ar Suffield Point, King George Island, south Shetland Islands, Antarctica during the 1995-1996 breeding season. Heavy metal determinations were carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Of the metals determined, tissue concentrations of the essential elements zinc, iron, manganese and selenium would appear to be closely regulated metabolically and these elements are, therefore, unlikely to be serious pollution threats in general terms.Also, there is some evidence that bromine and rubidium shows signs of being regulated to a small extent.Copper concentrations in liver tissues would appear to show the most variation with an extremely high level being reported in the male individual (240 ppm dry weight). Among wholly marine or coastal birds.Gentoo penguin may thus be the best potential indicator of coastal pollution by copper. On the other hand, distinct inter-tissue differences in the metal concentrations were observed; liver had the greatest mean concentrations of iron and copper, while kidney was characterized by the highest mean concentrations of zinc, selenium and bromide.

  12. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p < 0.005) while the levels of Ca, Cr and Ni were lower (p < 0.005) in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  13. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES. The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g–1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg–1g dry weight. The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= –0.70, Mn-Cu (r= –0.74, Se-Cu (r= –0.68, Se-Mn (r= 0.82 in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99, Mn-Al (r= 0.62, Mn-Fe (r= 0.62, Se-Al (r = 0.88, Se-Fe (r= 0.87, Se-Mn (r= 0.58 in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68, Al-Cu (r= 0.88, Fe-Cu (r= 0.95 and Fe-Al (r= 0.97 in the viscera.

  14. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron activation and PIXE analysis of oyster tissues cultivated at different ocean depths for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Nakano, Y.; Chatt, A.

    2005-01-01

    Difference in trace element concentrations in oyster tissues cultivated in Japan on hanging ropes at different sea depths were investigated using INAA and PIXE. Three groups of oyster were collected from a single rope at 1 m, 6 m, and 11 m depths. From each group, five oysters were chosen and removed from the shell after washing in tap water. Two groups of organ, namely hepatopancreas and muscle, and gill and mantle were separated from soft tissues, freeze-dried, and pulverized. One portion of the powdered samples was irradiated for a short time at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in Canada for Ag and Se analysis. Another portion was irradiated for one hour in Kyoto University Reactor in Osaka, Japan for Fe, Rb, Sc, and Zn analysis. The third portion was digested in a microwave oven after the addition of an indium solution (as an internal standard) and concentrated nitric acid for analysis by PIXE. More than twenty elements were determined by PIXE. The organs in oysters have different roles. For example, hepatopancreas and muscle are thought to accumulate elements after ingestion of plankton from sea water while gill and mantle are always in contact with sea water. As a result, there were differences in levels of some elements between the two groups of organ. In addition, levels of most elements were found to be depth dependent. The variations in Fe and Zn concentrations of the two organ groups at 3 different depths are shown in Table 1. Details of the method and results will be presented.

  16. Levels of essential and non-essential elements in commercially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this study was to assess the quality of commercially packaged moringa tea brands available in the retail markets in Nigerian cities on the basis of the essential and nonessential elemental content in their tissues. Four different brands of moringa tea comprising two locally processed teas and two imported teas ...

  17. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  18. Determination of trace elements in tissues of diabetic rats by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingguang; Wang Yinsong; Qian Yine; Zhang Guilin

    2000-01-01

    By using streptozotocin (STZ) injection to induce model diabetic rats, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze elemental; concentrations in liver, kidney and pancreas tissues in diabetes and control rats. Results obtained for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cl, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Se and Zn in those tissues show that some elemental contents in diabetic group change obviously when compared with those of the controls. The changes of elemental contents and their significance are discussed

  19. Trace elements levels in centenarian ‘dodgers’

    OpenAIRE

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or ‘dodgers’ (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant ...

  20. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  1. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  2. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J. [Mining University, Dept. of Radipmetry, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Krakow (Poland); Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Krakow (Poland); Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of two neuro-degenerative diseases i.e, Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurons. As a preliminary study, the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikaryal parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control case. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous system tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level. (authors)

  3. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  4. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Shane A; Landry, Guillaume; Van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11–30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect ( 3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D 90 ) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. (paper)

  5. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  6. Selected organic compounds and trace elements in streambed sediments and fish tissues, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Organochlorines, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and trace elements were investigated in streambed sediments and fish tissues at selected sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, during 1998. At most sites, SVOCs and organochlorine compounds were either not detected or detected at very low concentrations. Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard at Anchorage, which was the only site sampled with a significant degree of development in the watershed, had elevated levels of many SVOCs in streambed sediment. Coring of sediments from two ponds on Chester Creek confirmed the presence of elevated concentrations of a variety of organic compounds. Moose Creek, a stream with extensive coal deposits in its watershed, had low concentrations of numerous SVOCs in streambed sediment. Three sites located in national parks or in a national wildlife refuge had no detectable concentrations of SVOCs. Trace elements were analyzed in both streambed sediments and tissues of slimy sculpin. The two media provided similar evidence for elevated concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at Chester Creek. In this study, 'probable effect levels '(PELs) were determined from sediments finer than 0.063 millimeters, where concentrations tend to be greatest. Arsenic and chromium concentrations exceeded the PEL at eight and six sites respectively. Zinc exceeded the PEL at one site. Cadmium and copper concentrations were smaller than the PEL at all sites. Mercury concentrations in streambed sediments from the Deshka River were near the PEL, and selenium concentrations at that site also appear to be elevated above background levels. At half the sites where slimy sculpin were sampled, selenium concentrations were at levels that may cause adverse effects in some species.

  7. Effect of diet on tissue levels of palmitoylethanolamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    2013-01-01

    small intestine, PEA, oleoylethanolamide and linoleoylethanolamide have anorectic properties. Of other dietary components, only ethanol is known to influence tissue levels of PEA. Thus, an acute intoxicating dose of ethanol will decrease PEA levels in various areas in the brain of rats. The mechanism......Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) as well as the other N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), e.g. anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide and linoleoylethanolamide, appear to exist in every mammalian cell at low levels, e.g. a few hundred pmol/g tissue for PEA. Their formation can be stimulated...... by cellular injury and inflammation. In the brain PEA and other NAEs may have neuroprotective functions. PEA levels in tissues seem hardly to be influenced by variation in intake of dietary fatty acids, except in the small intestine where dietary fat results in decreased levels of PEA and other NAEs. In rat...

  8. Determination of trace elements in human brain tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, R.E.P.; Jacob-Filho, W.; Grinberg, L.T.; Ferretti, R.E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace element concentrations in brain tissues from normal (n = 21) and demented individuals (n = 21) of both genders aged more than 50 years. Concentrations of the elements Br, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained for the hippocampus and frontal cortex tissues, as well as, those obtained in brains of normal and demented individuals. Certified reference materials, NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 1577b Bovine Liver were analyzed for quality of the analytical results. (author)

  9. Accelerator based nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in materials- calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues: enamel, dentine, cementum, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction. (author)

  10. Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Andy L; Marsal, Elia; Planell, Josep A; Lacroix, Damien

    2009-10-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

  11. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2018-03-01

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  12. [The elemental composition of teeth hard tissues depending on the state of the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suladze, N; Shishniashvili, T; Margvelashvili, V; Kobakhidze, K

    2014-01-01

    At present, great attention is paid to the origin of man-made micro elemental anomalies. To monitor the state of the environment and its effects on the human body, of great importance is the determination of the amount and distribution of various chemical elements in the dentin and enamel of the teeth. To determine the essential (Ca, Zn, Mn, Ni), conditionally essential (Rb, Ni, Sr) and toxic (Pb, Hg) trace elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth and to identify the relationship between the elemental composition of the tooth structure and the state of the general and dental health depending on the state of the environment, we have examined 29 children aged 3-4 years who have carried out analysis of hard tissue of teeth (teeth used for remote medical reasons) for the maintenance of nine chemical elements. Children living in a relatively environmentally favorable conditions essential value and conditionally essential elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth were within normal limits, and toxic elements slightly increased limits that differ from those of children living in environmentally disadvantaged areas. In particular, these essential elements were significantly reduced (except for zinc), as indicators of toxic elements - mercury and lead, increased by 12.5% and 44.5%, respectively, which is clearly reflected on the state of dental health because noted decompensated form of tooth decay. Thus, deviations in a state of general and dental health of children associated with an imbalance of macro-and microelements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth.

  13. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  14. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwa, Ernest M.M.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Rice, Clive M.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg −1 respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg −1 were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: ► High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. ► Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. ► Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. ► The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  15. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  16. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  17. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  18. Radioactivity in the pelagic fish. II. Group separation of radioactive elements in fish tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K; Tozawa, H; Amano, K; Takase, A

    1955-01-01

    Analytical group separation was performed with various ashed tissues of some fishes exposed to radioactive ash. The radioactivity was particularly large with elements belonging to the 3rd group, both A and B subgroups. The 2nd group showed considerable activity in pyloric ceca and kidney of Skipjacks. The radioactivity of the 1st and 4th groups was detected in some tissues; the 5th group showed slight activity.

  19. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  20. A search for losses of chromium and other trace elements during lyophilization of human liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Human liver tissues were investigated for possible trace-element losses during lyophilization by comparison of concentrations of lyophilized and untreated (wet) samples. When destructive neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) was used, no significant losses were observed for As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, and Zn. The advantages of n.a.a. over radio-tracer techniques for studies of trace-element volatility are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  2. Finite element model to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Pardasani, K R

    2016-12-01

    The temperature of body tissues is viewed as an indicator of tissue response in clinical applications since ancient times. The tissue temperature depends on various physical and physiological parameters like blood flow, metabolic heat generation, thermal conductivity of tissues, shape and size of organs etc. In this paper a finite element model has been proposed to study temperature distribution in skin and deep tissues of human limbs. The geometry of human limb is taken as elliptical tapered shape. It is assumed that outer surface of the limb is exposed to the environment. The appropriate boundary conditions have been framed based on physical conditions of the problem. The model has been developed for a three dimensional steady state case. Hexahedral circular sectoral elements are used to discretize the region. The results have been computed to obtain temperature profiles and study the relation of tissue temperature with the parameters like atmospheric temperature, rate of evaporation, thickness of tissues layers and shape of the limb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-12-15

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied.

  4. Concentration of 17 Elements in Subcellular Fractions of Beef Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-12-01

    Subcellular fractions of beef heart tissue are investigated, by means of neutron activation analysis, with respect to their concentration of 17 different elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry is used. The homogeneity of the subcellular fractions is examined electron microscopically. The following elements are determined: As, Ba, Br, Cas Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, P, Rb, Se, Sm, W and Zn. The determination of Ag, Au, Cd, Ce, Cr, Sb and Sc is omitted, in view of contamination. Reproducible and characteristic patterns of distribution are obtained for all elements studied

  5. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  6. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Galván-Portillo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  7. Food consumption and adipose tissue DDT levels in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván-Portillo Marcia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes food consumption in relation to levels of DDE (the principal metabolite of DDT in the adipose tissue of 207 Mexican women residing in States with high and low exposure to DDT. Data on the women's dietary habits and childbearing history were obtained from a personal interview. Adipose tissue DDE levels were measured by gas-liquid chromatography and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Adipose tissue DDE levels increased significantly with age (p = 0.005 and residence in coastal areas (p = 0.002 and non-significantly with the consumption of onion, cauliflower, prickly pear, squash blossoms, sweet corn, broad beans, chili pepper sauce, ham, and fish. Even so, during breastfeeding there was a non-significant reduction in these levels. The findings suggest that certain foods serve as vehicles for DDE residues and confirm that breastfeeding is a mechanism for the elimination of this insecticide, which accumulates over the years in the human body.

  8. Prostate cancer outcome and tissue levels of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafanov, A.G.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; MacIas, V.; Gao, W.; Liang, W.-M.; Beam, C.; Gray, Marion A.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThere are several studies examining prostate cancer and exposure to cadmium, iron, selenium, and zinc. Less data are available on the possible influence of these metal ions on prostate cancer outcome. This study measured levels of these ions in prostatectomy samples in order to examine possible associations between metal concentrations and disease outcome.METHODSWe obtained formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of prostatectomy samples of 40 patients with PSA recurrence, matched 1:1 (for year of surgery, race, age, Gleason grading, and pathology TNM classification) with tissue blocks from 40 patients without recurrence (n = 80). Case–control pairs were compared for the levels of metals in areas adjacent to tumors. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for quantification of Cd, Fe, Zn, and Se.RESULTSPatients with biochemical (PSA) recurrence of disease had 12% lower median iron (95 µg/g vs. 111 µg/g; P = 0.04) and 21% lower zinc (279 µg/g vs. 346 µg/g; P = 0.04) concentrations in the normal-appearing tissue immediately adjacent to cancer areas. Differences in cadmium (0.489 µg/g vs. 0.439 µg/g; 4% higher) and selenium (1.68 µg/g vs. 1.58 µg/g; 5% higher) levels were not statistically significant in recurrence cases, when compared to non-recurrences (P = 0.40 and 0.21, respectively).CONCLUSIONSThere is an association between low zinc and low iron prostate tissue levels and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. Whether these novel findings are a cause or effect of more aggressive tumors, or whether low zinc and iron prostatic levels raise implications for therapy, remains to be investigated. 

  9. Evaluation of Tissue Interactions with Mechanical Elements of a Transscleral Drug Delivery Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Borenstein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate tissue-device interactions due to implantation of a mechanically operated drug delivery system onto the posterior sclera. Two test devices were designed and fabricated to model elements of the drug delivery device—one containing a free-spinning ball bearing and the other encasing two articulating gears. Openings in the base of test devices modeled ports for drug passage from device to sclera. Porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes were attached to half of the gear devices to minimize tissue ingrowth through these ports. Test devices were sutured onto rabbit eyes for 10 weeks. Tissue-device interactions were evaluated histologically and mechanically after removal to determine effects on device function and changes in surrounding tissue. Test devices were generally well-tolerated during residence in the animal. All devices encouraged fibrous tissue formation between the sclera and the device, fibrous tissue encapsulation and invasion around the device, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gear devices encouraged significantly greater inflammation in all cases and a larger rate of tissue ingrowth. PTFE membranes prevented tissue invasion through the covered drug ports, though tissue migrated in through other smaller openings. The torque required to turn the mechanical elements increased over 1000 times for gear devices, but only on the order of 100 times for membrane-covered gear devices and less than 100 times for ball bearing devices. Maintaining a lower device profile, minimizing microscale motion on the eye surface and covering drug ports with a porous membrane may minimize inflammation, decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues and minimizing disruption of device operation.

  10. Design of chimeric expression elements that confer high-level gene activity in chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroca, Rodrigo; Howell, Katharine A; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Non-green plastids, such as chromoplasts, generally have much lower activity of gene expression than chloroplasts in photosynthetically active tissues. Suppression of plastid genes in non-green tissues occurs through a complex interplay of transcriptional and translational control, with the contribution of regulation of transcript abundance versus translational activity being highly variable between genes. Here, we have investigated whether the low expression of the plastid genome in chromoplasts results from inherent limitations in gene expression capacity, or can be overcome by designing appropriate combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). We constructed chimeric expression elements that combine promoters and 5'-UTRs from plastid genes, which are suppressed during chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit ripening, either just at the translational level or just at the level of mRNA accumulation. These chimeric expression elements were introduced into the tomato plastid genome by stable chloroplast transformation. We report the identification of promoter-UTR combinations that confer high-level gene expression in chromoplasts of ripe tomato fruits, resulting in the accumulation of reporter protein GFP to up to 1% of total cellular protein. Our work demonstrates that non-green plastids are capable of expressing genes to high levels. Moreover, the chimeric cis-elements for chromoplasts developed here are widely applicable in basic and applied research using transplastomic methods. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer – An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Ghada

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML. Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic

  12. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-08-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent γ-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences (μg/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn

  13. An integrated finite-element approach to mechanics, transport and biosynthesis in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, B.G.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element approach was formulated, aimed at enabling an integrated study of mechanical and biochemical factors that control the functional development of tissue engineered constructs. A nonlinear biphasic displacement-velocity-pressure description was combined with adjective and diffusive

  14. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1965-08-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent {gamma}-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences ({mu}g/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn.

  15. Concentrations of transuranic elements in critical organs and tissues of goats (CAPRA HIRCUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, V.S.; Vaskovtsova, V.A.; Kuhtsevich, A.B.; Tagai, S.A.; Tsarenok, A.A.; Buzdalkin, K.N.; Gvozdik, A.F.; Makarovets, I.V.; Nilova, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of Am 241 and Pu 238, 239+240 transfer from the dietary soil-based component (mineral soil) to organs and tissues of goats during a grazing period of 80 and 160 days have been determined. The maximum specific activities of transuranic elements have been found in liver of goats. (authors)

  16. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  17. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, Nahshon K; Dolovich, Allan T; Chen, Daniel X B; Zhang, Chris W J

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold's mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly. However, experimentally observing the scaffold deflection is challenging. This paper presents a novel study on characterization of mechanical properties of scaffolds by phase contrast imaging and finite element modeling, which specifically includes scaffold fabrication, scaffold imaging, image analysis, and finite elements (FEs) modeling of the scaffold mechanical properties. The innovation of the work rests on the use of in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging at 20 KeV to characterize tissue scaffold deformation caused by ultrasound radiation forces and the use of the Fourier transform to identify movement. Once deformation has been determined experimentally, it is then compared with the predictions given by the forward solution of a finite element model. A consideration of the number of separate loading conditions necessary to uniquely identify the material properties of transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic scaffolds is also presented, along with the use of an FE as a form of regularization.

  18. Finite-element simulation of blood perfusion in muscle tissue during compression and sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, W J; Huyghe, J M; Slaaf, D W; van Donkelaar, C C; Drost, M R; Janssen, J D; Huson, A

    1997-09-01

    Mechanical interaction between tissue stress and blood perfusion in skeletal muscles plays an important role in blood flow impediment during sustained contraction. The exact mechanism of this interaction is not clear, and experimental investigation of this mechanism is difficult. We developed a finite-element model of the mechanical behavior of blood-perfused muscle tissue, which accounts for mechanical blood-tissue interaction in maximally vasodilated vasculature. Verification of the model was performed by comparing finite-element results of blood pressure and flow with experimental measurements in a muscle that is subject to well-controlled mechanical loading conditions. In addition, we performed simulations of blood perfusion during tetanic, isometric contraction and maximal vasodilation in a simplified, two-dimensional finite-element model of a rat calf muscle. A vascular waterfall in the venous compartment was identified as the main cause for blood flow impediment both in the experiment and in the finite-element simulations. The validated finite-element model offers possibilities for detailed analysis of blood perfusion in three-dimensional muscle models under complicated loading conditions.

  19. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  20. Mass spectrometric characterization of elements and molecules in cell cultures and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlinghaus, H.F.; Kriegeskotte, C.; Fartmann, M.; Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Lipinsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and laser post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS) have been used to image and quantify targeted compounds, intrinsic elements and molecules with subcellular resolution in single cells of both cell cultures and tissues. Special preparation procedures for analyzing cell cultures and tissue materials were developed. Cancer cells type MeWo, incubated with boronated compounds, were sandwiched between two substrates, cryofixed, freeze-fractured and freeze-dried. Also, after injection with boronated compounds, different types of mouse tissues were extracted, prepared on a special specimen carrier and plunged with high velocity into LN 2 -cooled propane for cryofixation. After trimming, these tissue blocks were freeze-dried. The measurements of the K/Na ratio demonstrated that for both cell cultures and tissue materials the special preparation techniques used were appropriate for preserving the chemical and structural integrity of the living cell. The boron images show inter- and intracellular boron signals with different intensities. Molecular images show distinct features partly correlated with the cell structure. A comparison between laser-SNMS and ToF-SIMS showed that especially laser-SNMS is particularly well-suited for identifying specific cell structures and imaging ultratrace element concentrations in tissues

  1. Coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element models for soft tissues using ABAQUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Simon, B R; Rigby, Paul H; Newberg, Tyler P

    2011-04-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) including characteristic large deformations in highly nonlinear materials (hyperelasticity and coupled diffusive/convective transport of neutral mobile species) will allow quantitative study of in vivo tissues. Such FEMs will provide basic understanding of normal and pathological tissue responses and lead to optimization of local drug delivery strategies. We present a coupled porohyperelastic mass transport (PHEXPT) finite element approach developed using a commercially available ABAQUS finite element software. The PHEXPT transient simulations are based on sequential solution of the porohyperelastic (PHE) and mass transport (XPT) problems where an Eulerian PHE FEM is coupled to a Lagrangian XPT FEM using a custom-written FORTRAN program. The PHEXPT theoretical background is derived in the context of porous media transport theory and extended to ABAQUS finite element formulations. The essential assumptions needed in order to use ABAQUS are clearly identified in the derivation. Representative benchmark finite element simulations are provided along with analytical solutions (when appropriate). These simulations demonstrate the differences in transient and steady state responses including finite deformations, total stress, fluid pressure, relative fluid, and mobile species flux. A detailed description of important model considerations (e.g., material property functions and jump discontinuities at material interfaces) is also presented in the context of finite deformations. The ABAQUS-based PHEXPT approach enables the use of the available ABAQUS capabilities (interactive FEM mesh generation, finite element libraries, nonlinear material laws, pre- and postprocessing, etc.). PHEXPT FEMs can be used to simulate the transport of a relatively large neutral species (negligible osmotic fluid flux) in highly deformable hydrated soft tissues and tissue-engineered materials.

  2. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    in all three bed-sediment samples, ranged from 1.1 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in C.J. Strike Reservoir to 11 micrograms per kilogram dry weight in Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Data from this study, compared with data collected in the upper Snake River Basin from 1992 to 1994, indicates that, in general, organochlorine concentrations in fish tissue and bed sediment increased from the headwaters of the Snake River in Wyoming downstream to Brownlee Reservoir. The largest trace-element concentrations in fish tissue were in liver samples from carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and suckers from the Boise River near Twin Springs. Concentrations of most trace elements were larger in livers than in the sport- fish fillets. However, mercury concentrations were generally larger in the sportfish fillets; they ranged from 0.08 microgram per gram wet weight in yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 0.32 microgram per gram wet weight in channel catfish from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. None of the trace-element concentrations in fillets exceeded median international standards or U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels. Large trace-element concentrations in the upper Snake River Basin were reported in liver samples from suckers from headwater streams, probably a result of historical mining and weathering of metal-rich rocks. Concentrations of most trace elements in the bed-sediment samples were largest in Brownlee Reservoir at Mountain Man Lodge. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc in bed sediment from the Mountain Man Lodge site exceeded either the threshold effect level or probable effect level established by the Canadian Government for the protection of benthic life. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel concentrations in bed sediment from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River and chromium, copper, and nickel in bed sediment from C.J. Strike Reservoir also exceeded the threshold effect level.

  3. 2-deoxyglucose tissue levels and insulin levels following tolazamide dosing in normal and obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillman, C.A.; Fletcher, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of tolazamide (TZ), a sulfonylurea, on 14 C-2-deoxyglucose ( 14 C-2DG) tissue distribution and insulin levels of normal and obese mice was investigated using an in vivo physiological method. Acute doses of TZ (50 mg/kg ip) increased 14 C-2DG levels in gastrocnemius muscle and retroperitoneal fat and produced a transient elevation of insulin which most likely accounts for the increased 14 C-2DG levels in muscle and fat. The results demonstrate that the in vivo 14 C-2DG method produced results consistent with known actions of sulfonylureas on in vitro hexose assimilation in muscle and fat. Subchronic treatment (7 days) with TZ 50 mg/kg ip twice daily did not result in increased insulin-stimulated 14 C-2DG tissue levels in normal mice when compared to saline treated controls. However, insulin levels were lower in mice treated subchronically with TZ compared to saline controls suggesting an enhancement of insulin action. Viable yellow obese mice represent a model of maturity onset obesity presenting with insulin resistance. The insulin resistance of this obese strain appears to reside in the fat tissue as assessed by comparing 14 C-2DG tissue levels of obese mice with lean littermate controls. Subchronic TZ treatment had no effect on 14 C-2DG uptake in fat or muscle tissue of viable yellow obese mice and did not alter their plasma insulin levels. It appears that genetically obese viable mice may be resistant to subchronic treatment with TZ. (author)

  4. Mechanical modeling and characterization of meniscus tissue using flat punch indentation and inverse finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, Behzad; Fatouraee, Nasser; Imeni, Milad

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, to characterize the mechanical properties of meniscus by considering its local microstructure, a novel nonlinear poroviscoelastic Finite Element (FE) model has been developed. To obtain the mechanical response of meniscus, indentation experiments were performed on bovine meniscus samples. The ramp-relaxation test scenario with different depths and preloads was designed to capture the mechanical characteristics of the tissue in different regions of the medial and lateral menisci. Thereafter, a FE simulation was performed considering experimental conditions. Constitutive parameters were optimized by solving a FE-based inverse problem using the heuristic Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm. These parameters were ranged according to previously reported data to improve the optimization procedure. Based on the results, the mechanical properties of meniscus were highly influenced by both superficial and main layers. At low indentation depths, a high percentage relaxation (p < 0.01) with a high relaxation rate (p < 0.05) was obtained, due to the poroelastic and viscoelastic nature of the superficial layer. Increasing both penetration depth and preload level involved the main layer response and caused alterations in hyperelastic and viscoelastic parameters of the tissue, such that for both layers, the shear modulus was increased (p < 0.01) while the rate and percentage of relaxation were decreased (p < 0.01). Results reflect that, shear modulus of the main layer in anterior region is higher than central and posterior sites in medial meniscus. In contrast, in lateral meniscus, posterior side is stiffer than central and anterior sides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A PIXE analysis for measuring the trace elements concentration in breast tissue of Iranian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Salimi, J.; Geranpayeh, L.; Perovani, H.

    2003-01-01

    A powerful and improved technique, proton induced x-ray emission has been performed-yielding the elemental composition of 17 samples of surgically excised malignant and normal tumors of breast tissue. The samples without any further process as thick targets were put on cap ton foil backing. There are no homogenizing processes. The proton induced x-ray emission spectra analysis was performed using he non-linear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. The samples are taken form patients in the wide range of age and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. The quantitative comparison between two of tissue was evaluated by assessing the presence of calcium. Potassium, Iron, Copper and Zinc, as minor and trace elements. results in this study indicate that relative values of Cu/Zn, P/K and also Ca and S in being type were higher than those in those in malignant type, but the concentration of Fe and Zn in cancerous tissues was significantly higher than those for being type. Results suggest significant elevation of zinc in the pathological tissues. Cu/Zn ratio for both type of tissues are evaluated. The results show that this ratio in patients with breast cancer is significantly lower than the normal group. Selenium and arsenic was not obtained in any of 17 samples. Most of the tissues of benign kind (fibrocystic and fib ro adenoma)contain cadmium. Calcium concentration in normal tissues is significantly higher than tumorous tissues

  6. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  7. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) and vanadate (VO{sup 3-}) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ({sup 48}V) and zinc ({sup 65}Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  8. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO 2+ ) and vanadate (VO 3- ) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ( 48 V) and zinc ( 65 Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  9. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  10. A novel radiation responsive cis-acting element regulates gene induction and mediates tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi; Kuchibahtla, Jaya

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) binds and activates inflammatory cells and thereby contributes to the pathogenesis of tissue injury. To characterize a model for radiation-induction of tissue injury, we studied radiation-mediated lung injury in mice deficient in the ICAM-1 gene. To study the mechanisms of x-ray mediated ICAM induction, we studied transcriptional activation of the ICAM promoter and nuclear protein binding to the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to study the histologic pattern of ICAM expression in irradiated tissue. The ICAM-1 knockout mice were bred with wild type mice to create heterozygous mice with attenuated ICAM expression. ICAM -/-, ICAM+/- and ICAM +/+ mice were treated with thoracic irradiation and lung sections were stained for leukocyte common antigen (CD45) to study inflammation. To study the mechanism of x-ray induction of ICAM, we linked the 5' untranslated region of the ICAM gene to the luciferase reporter gene and delated DNA segments from the promoter to determine which elements are required for induction. We performed electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of nuclear proteins from irradiated endothelial cells to study transcription factor activation. Results: Immunohistochemistry showed dose and time dependent increases in ICAM protein expression in irradiated lungs which was prolonged as compared to endothelial cells in vitro. The histologic pattern of ICAM expression was in the capillary endothelium and was distinct from the pattern of expression of other radiation-inducible adhesion molecules. ICAM knockout mice had no ICAM expression and no inflammatory cell accumulation in the irradiated lung. ICAM+/+ mice developed leukocyte adhesion to irradiated endothelium within hours of irradiation and radiation pneumonitis 5 to 6 weeks later. The DNA sequence between -981 and -769 (relative to start codon) contains two 16-base pair repeats, each

  11. Face-based smoothed finite element method for real-time simulation of soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Andrea; Bessard Duparc, Rémi; Bui, Huu Phuoc; Paulus, Christoph J.; Peterlik, Igor; Cotin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    In soft tissue surgery, a tumor and other anatomical structures are usually located using the preoperative CT or MR images. However, due to the deformation of the concerned tissues, this information suffers from inaccuracy when employed directly during the surgery. In order to account for these deformations in the planning process, the use of a bio-mechanical model of the tissues is needed. Such models are often designed using the finite element method (FEM), which is, however, computationally expensive, in particular when a high accuracy of the simulation is required. In our work, we propose to use a smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) in the context of modeling of the soft tissue deformation. This numerical technique has been introduced recently to overcome the overly stiff behavior of the standard FEM and to improve the solution accuracy and the convergence rate in solid mechanics problems. In this paper, a face-based smoothed finite element method (FS-FEM) using 4-node tetrahedral elements is presented. We show that in some cases, the method allows for reducing the number of degrees of freedom, while preserving the accuracy of the discretization. The method is evaluated on a simulation of a cantilever beam loaded at the free end and on a simulation of a 3D cube under traction and compression forces. Further, it is applied to the simulation of the brain shift and of the kidney's deformation. The results demonstrate that the method outperforms the standard FEM in a bending scenario and that has similar accuracy as the standard FEM in the simulations of the brain-shift and of the kidney's deformation.

  12. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P

    2009-05-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  13. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P; Gavaghan, D; Whiteley, J

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  14. Levels of macroelements and toxic elements in herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljev Željko A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 diverse herbal teas were examined, including: yarrow, basil, St.John’s wort, peppermint, horsetail, nettle, thyme, corn silk, hibiscus, marshmallow, chamomile, rosehip, heather and wild mint. The samples were prepared using the method of microwave digestion, and measurements were performed by the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Sb; atomic absorption spectrometry (Mg; emission flame photometry (Ca, K, Na and spectrophotometry (P. Intervals of variation (mg/kg for macroelements were: Ca (2738-35399; P (1545-6264; Mg (1647-7816; Na (293-10629 and K (9683-33985, and for toxic elements: Cd (0.014-0.645; Hg (<0.001- 0.017; Pb (0.064-1.340; As (0.030-0.544 and Sb (0.004-0.068. In the three samples (yarrow and two St.John’s wort samples measured cadmium concentration was higher than the maximum level for dried herbs, recommended by WHO. Ward's hierarchical clustering method was performed with the aim of grouping herbal teas by the amount of toxic elements. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31071

  15. Soft tissue deformation estimation by spatio-temporal Kalman filter finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadian, Mehran; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan; Shin, Jaehyun

    2018-01-01

    Soft tissue modeling plays an important role in the development of surgical training simulators as well as in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. It has been known that while the traditional Finite Element Method (FEM) promises the accurate modeling of soft tissue deformation, it still suffers from a slow computational process. This paper presents a Kalman filter finite element method to model soft tissue deformation in real time without sacrificing the traditional FEM accuracy. The proposed method employs the FEM equilibrium equation and formulates it as a filtering process to estimate soft tissue behavior using real-time measurement data. The model is temporally discretized using the Newmark method and further formulated as the system state equation. Simulation results demonstrate that the computational time of KF-FEM is approximately 10 times shorter than the traditional FEM and it is still as accurate as the traditional FEM. The normalized root-mean-square error of the proposed KF-FEM in reference to the traditional FEM is computed as 0.0116. It is concluded that the proposed method significantly improves the computational performance of the traditional FEM without sacrificing FEM accuracy. The proposed method also filters noises involved in system state and measurement data.

  16. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gozdz, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (∼ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  17. Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in mainland Portugal: Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Monteiro, Sílvia S; Pereira, Andreia T; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Torres, Jordi; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Pollution is among the most significant threats that endanger sea turtles worldwide. Waters off the Portuguese mainland are acknowledged as important feeding grounds for juvenile loggerheads. However, there is no data on trace element concentrations in marine turtles occurring in these waters. We present the first assessment of trace element concentrations in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) occurring off the coast of mainland Portugal. Also, we compare our results with those from other areas and discuss parameters that may affect element concentrations. Trace element concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, Zn) were determined in kidney, liver and muscle samples from 38 loggerheads stranded between 2011 and 2013. As was the only element with higher concentrations in muscle (14.78 μg g -1 ww) than in liver or kidney. Considering non-essential elements, Cd presented the highest concentrations in kidney (34.67 μg g -1 ) and liver (5.03 μg g -1 ). Only a weak positive link was found between renal Cd and turtle size. Inter-elemental correlations were observed in both liver and kidney tissues. Hepatic Hg values (0.30 ± 0.03 μg g -1 ) were higher than values reported in loggerheads in the Canary Islands but lower than in Mediterranean loggerheads. Cd concentrations in the present study were only exceeded by values found in turtles from the Pacific. Although many endogenous and exogenous parameters related with complex life cycle changes and wide geographic range may influence trace element accumulation, the concentrations of Cd are probably related to the importance of crustaceans in loggerhead diet in the Portuguese coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of elemental tissue composition following proton treatment using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Min, Chul Hee; Zhu, Xuping; El Fakhri, Georges; Paganetti, Harald; Mawlawi, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as an imaging technique for in vivo proton dose and range verification after proton induced-tissue activation. During proton treatment, irradiated tissue is activated and decays while emitting positrons. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of using PET imaging after proton treatment to determine tissue elemental composition by evaluating the resultant composite decay curve of activated tissue. A phantom consisting of sections composed of different combinations of 1 H, 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O was irradiated using a pristine Bragg peak and a 6 cm spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP) proton beam. The beam ranges defined at 90% distal dose were 10 cm; the delivered dose was 1.6 Gy for the near monoenergetic beam and 2 Gy for the SOBP beam. After irradiation, activated phantom decay was measured using an in-room PET scanner for 30 min in list mode. Decay curves from the activated 12 C and 16 O sections were first decomposed into multiple simple exponential decay curves, each curve corresponding to a constituent radioisotope, using a least-squares method. The relative radioisotope fractions from each section were determined. These fractions were used to guide the decay curve decomposition from the section consisting mainly of 12 C + 16 O and calculate the relative elemental composition of 12 C and 16 O. A Monte Carlo simulation was also used to determine the elemental composition of the 12 C + 16 O section. The calculated compositions of the 12 C + 16 O section using both approaches (PET and Monte Carlo) were compared with the true known phantom composition. Finally, two patients were imaged using an in-room PET scanner after proton therapy of the head. Their PET data and the technique described above were used to construct elemental composition ( 12 C and 16 O) maps that corresponded to the proton-activated regions. We compared the 12 C and 16 O compositions of seven ROIs that corresponded to the vitreous humor, adipose

  19. A 2D Electromechanical Model of Human Atrial Tissue Using the Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brocklehurst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue is a syncytium of coupled cells with pronounced intrinsic discrete nature. Previous models of cardiac electromechanics often ignore such discrete properties and treat cardiac tissue as a continuous medium, which has fundamental limitations. In the present study, we introduce a 2D electromechanical model for human atrial tissue based on the discrete element method (DEM. In the model, single-cell dynamics are governed by strongly coupling the electrophysiological model of Courtemanche et al. to the myofilament model of Rice et al. with two-way feedbacks. Each cell is treated as a viscoelastic body, which is physically represented by a clump of nine particles. Cell aggregations are arranged so that the anisotropic nature of cardiac tissue due to fibre orientations can be modelled. Each cell is electrically coupled to neighbouring cells, allowing excitation waves to propagate through the tissue. Cell-to-cell mechanical interactions are modelled using a linear contact bond model in DEM. By coupling cardiac electrophysiology with mechanics via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the DEM model successfully simulates the conduction of cardiac electrical waves and the tissue’s corresponding mechanical contractions. The developed DEM model is numerically stable and provides a powerful method for studying the electromechanical coupling problem in the heart.

  20. Tissue Trace Elements and Lipid Peroxidation in Breeding Female Bank Voles Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda-Ostaszewska, Elżbieta; Włostowski, Tadeusz; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara

    2018-04-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that reproduction reduces oxidative damage in various tissues of small mammal females. The present work was designed to determine whether the reduction of oxidative stress in reproductive bank vole females was associated with changes in tissue trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) that play an essential role in the production of reactive oxygen species. Lipid peroxidation (a marker of oxidative stress) and iron concentration in liver, kidneys, and skeletal muscles of reproducing bank vole females that weaned one litter were significantly lower than in non-reproducing females; linear regression analysis confirmed a positive relation between the tissue iron and lipid peroxidation. The concentrations of copper were significantly lower only in skeletal muscles of reproductive females and correlated positively with lipid peroxidation. No changes in tissue zinc were found in breeding females when compared with non-breeding animals. These data indicate that decreases in tissue iron and copper concentrations may be responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress in reproductive bank vole females.

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    the kidney. The level of endrin ketone was higher than endrin aldehyde in all the tissues analyzed. The mean concentration of endrin ketone was 0.347 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of α-endosulfan was 0.140μg /kg wet weight. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at 0.033 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of gamma-chlordane was 0.020 μg /kg kidney. Methoxychlor was detected at 0.183μg /kg, wet weight in the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticides residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRL), as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  3. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  4. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  5. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  6. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, W.S.; Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g −1 for Fe to 7 μg g −1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  7. Retention of the metabolized trace elements in biological tissues following different drying procedures. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Loss of Sb, Co, I, Hg, Se and Zn during freeze-drying and oven-drying at 80, 105 and 120 0 C were studied in rat tissues that contained metabolized radioactive isotopes. No loss was observed for any of the 6 elements on freeze-drying. However, tissue-specific differences were observed in many cases for Hg, Se, I and Sb on oven-drying. A significant loss of Hg was observed in liver even at 80 0 C, and for brain at 105 0 C. Se was lost from whole blood, brain, lung and muscle at 120 0 C, Sb was lost from whole blood at 105 0 C, but from brain, kidney, lung and spleen at 120 0 C. Iodine was also lost from whole blood, kidney, blood serum, erythrocytes, brain, lung and muscle at 120 0 C. Although the losses were statistically significant, they remained in most cases between 2 and 10% with the exception of Hg at 120 0 C, where the losses in some of the tissues were unpredictable. For urine, freeze-drying and oven-drying at 80 0 C was found to be relatively safe for Hg and I. At 105 0 C and above, serious loss of Hg was observed. In this experiment, the elements Zn, Co, Sb and Se were not studied for urine. (Auth

  8. Regulatable elements in the high-level waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.

    1979-01-01

    Regulatable elements of a deep geological nuclear waste isolation system are those characteristics of a candidate system which need to be specified to achieve control of its performance. This report identifies the regulatable elements with respect to waste form, repository design, site suitability, and the modeling and decision analysis processes. Regulatable elements in each section are listed and described briefly as they affect the short-term and long-term performance of a deep geological repository

  9. Differential radiosensitivity on a tissue level in Delphinium ajacis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, S K; Basu, R K [Bose Research Inst., Calcutta (India). Cryogenetics Lab.

    1980-09-01

    Root, leaf, pollen mother cell and endosperm of D.ajacis showed differential sensitivity as measured by X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations at mitotic anaphase and telophase stages of the first and second division cycles after irradiation. These tissues differed significantly in Interphase Chromosome Volume (ICV) values. In all the tissues the percentage of aberrant cells increased linearly with increase in X-ray dose. Though endosperm had the largest ICV value it was the most radioresistant tissue tested. The relative radiosensitivity of the other 3 tissues was positively correlated with ICV value. The radioresistance of endosperm is probably due to factors unique to this tissue which remained obscure.

  10. Biphasic Finite Element Modeling Reconciles Mechanical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs Across Testing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Gregory R; Fisher, Matthew B; Stoeckl, Brendan D; Dodge, George R; Mauck, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples. We determined the model sensitivity to tissue radius and subchondral bone modulus, as well as its ability to estimate material parameters using the built-in parameter optimization tool in FEBio. We then sequentially tested agarose gels of 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% weight/weight using a custom indentation platform, followed by unconfined compression. Similarly, we evaluated the ability of the model to generate material parameters for living constructs by evaluating engineered cartilage. Juvenile bovine mesenchymal stem cells were seeded (2 × 10 7 cells/mL) in 1% weight/volume hyaluronic acid hydrogels and cultured in a chondrogenic medium for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Samples were planed and tested sequentially in indentation and unconfined compression. The model successfully completed parameter optimization routines for each testing modality for both acellular and cell-based constructs. Traditional outcome measures and the FE-derived outcomes showed significant changes in material properties during the maturation of engineered cartilage tissue, capturing dynamic changes in functional tissue mechanics. These outcomes were significantly correlated with one another, establishing this FE modeling approach as a singular method for the evaluation of functional engineered and native tissue regeneration, both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Procedure of trace element analysis in oyster tissues by using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Tuong Hanh; Dinh Thi Bich Lieu; Dinh Thien Lam and Nguyen Manh Hung

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of trace element analysis such as Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb in molluscs (oyster tissues) was established by using X-ray fluorescence techniques. The procedure was investigated from the sample collection, drying, ashing ratio to the analytical techniques by using Cd-109, detector Si (Li) and the peak processing MCAPLUS program was applied for this study. The procedure is based on direct comparison with certified concentrations of international standard reference SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue of National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of commerce, United States of America for Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and the Standard Addition Methods for Pb. The accuracy of the Standard Addition Methods was estimated by CRM281 Rye Grass of Community Bureau of Reference-BCR, European Commission. The results of 10 samples which were collected from several markets in Hanoi are shown. (author)

  12. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transposable elements become active and mobile in the genomes of aging mammalian somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Marco; Criscione, Steven W; Peterson, Abigail L; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Kreiling, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize and have since been found to be ubiquitous in all living organisms. Transposition is mutagenic and organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress the activity of their endogenous TEs. Transposition in somatic cells is very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may be derepressed in some cases, such as cancer development. We have found that during normal aging several families of retrotransposable elements (RTEs) start being transcribed in mouse tissues. In advanced age the expression culminates in active transposition. These processes are counteracted by calorie restriction (CR), an intervention that slows down aging. Retrotransposition is also activated in age-associated, naturally occurring cancers in the mouse. We suggest that somatic retrotransposition is a hitherto unappreciated aging process. Mobilization of RTEs is likely to be an important contributor to the progressive dysfunction of aging cells.

  14. Inorganic elements in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): relationships among external and internal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Hooper, Michael J.; Cobb, George P.; Barnes, Melanie; Shaver, Donna; Ertolacci, Shauna; Smith, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic elements from anthropogenic sources have entered marine environments worldwide and are detectable in marine organisms, including sea turtles. Threatened and endangered classifications of sea turtles have heretofore made assessments of contaminant concentrations difficult because of regulatory restrictions on obtaining samples using nonlethal techniques. In the present study, claw and skin biopsy samples were examined as potential indicators of internal tissue burdens in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Significant relationships were observed between claw and liver, and claw and muscle concentrations of mercury, nickel, arsenic, and selenium (p turtles.

  15. Levels of Major and Minor Elements in Some Commercial Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the macro- and micro-nutrient elements of some commercially available fruit juices in Serbia. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique was employed for determination of the major and minor elements in samples of two different types of fruit juices - clear ...

  16. Evaluation of the finite element software ABAQUS for biomechanical modelling of biphasic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J Z; Herzog, W; Epstein, M

    1998-02-01

    The biphasic cartilage model proposed by Mow et al. (1980) has proven successful to capture the essential mechanical features of articular cartilage. In order to analyse the joint contact mechanics in real, anatomical joints, the cartilage model needs to be implemented into a suitable finite element code to approximate the irregular surface geometries of such joints. However, systematic and extensive evaluation of the capacity of commercial software for modelling the contact mechanics with biphasic cartilage layers has not been made. This research was aimed at evaluating the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for analysing biphasic soft tissues. The solutions obtained using ABAQUS were compared with those obtained using other finite element models and analytical solutions for three numerical tests: an unconfined indentation test, a test with the contact of a spherical cartilage surface with a rigid plate, and an axi-symmetric joint contact test. It was concluded that the biphasic cartilage model can be implemented into the commercial finite element software ABAQUS to analyse practical joint contact problems with biphasic articular cartilage layers.

  17. Dose determination algorithms for a nearly tissue equivalent multi-element thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Chamberlain, J.; Velbeck, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop dosimetric systems that will enable reliable interpretation of dosimeter readings in terms of the absorbed dose or dose-equivalent, a new multi-element TL dosimeter assembly for Beta and Gamma dose monitoring has been designed. The radiation-sensitive volumes are four LiF-TLD elements, each covered by its own unique filter. For media-matching, care has been taken to employ nearly tissue equivalent filters of thicknesses of 1000 mg/cm 2 and 300 mg/cm 2 for deep dose and dose to the lens-of-the-eye measurements respectively. Only one metal filter (Cu) is employed to provide low energy photon discrimination. A Thin TL element (0.09 mm thick) is located behind an open window designed to improve the energy under-response to low energy beta rays and to provide closer estimate of the shallow dose equivalent. The deep and shallow dose equivalents are derived from the correlation of the response of the various TL elements to the above quantities through computations based on previously defined relationships obtained from experimental results. The theoretical formalization for the dose calculation algorithms is described in detail, and provides a useful methodology which can be applied to different tissue-equivalent dosimeter assemblies. Experimental data has been obtained by performing irradiation according to the specifications established by DOELAP, using 27 types of pure and mixed radiation fields including Cs-137 gamma rays, low energy photons down to 20 keV, Sr/Y-90, Uranium, and Tl-204 beta particles

  18. Determination of trace elements and screening of metalloproteins in human blood and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohaska, K.

    2003-02-01

    Sequential and simultaneous atomic spectrometric detection was applied for the determination of metals in human whole blood, blood fractions and joint tissues. For this purpose ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry) and GFAAS (graphite furnace - atomic absorption spectrometry) were optimized. The nebulizing technique of the ICP-OES causes a high consumption of the sample (2.4 mL /min uptake rate). Using the simultaneous modus of measurement it is possible to determine up to 20 elements in the samples of interest. Using GFAAS the elements can be detected sequentially only, the method is more time consuming in comparison. For the direct sample injection into the graphite tube only 20 aeL are needed. Since 1 mL sample has to be filled in the sample vessel of the autosampler, up to six elements can be determined in this volume. The most important advantage of the simultaneous multi-element detection is the low sample consumption, which is essential for analysis of biological samples. Normally only small amounts of human blood or tissues can be collected, and the concentrations of analytes are usually very low. Therefore in many cases a sample preparation is of advantage, which enables a pre-concentration of the analyte. The sample digestion was optimized with respect to the possible pre-concentration of the analytes. Ashing of the freeze-dried blood enabled a six fold higher concentration in the measuring solution compared with wet digestion of blood. For the ICP-OES sample introduction system two different nebulizers were tested in the complex matrix of the digested blood samples. A Meinhard and the microconcentric nebulizer were compared according to their analytical performance. The matrix of the samples caused LODs three to five times higher than in the aqueous standards. The application of the Meinhard nebulizer enabled sufficiently low LODs in the matrix for some elements of interest (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, S, Zn in freeze-dried blood

  19. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwiej, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: jchwiej@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, S. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Chlebda, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland); Setkowicz, Z. [Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, Hamburg (Germany); Stegowski, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Szczudlik, A. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, ul. Botaniczna-3, 31-503 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-09-29

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain.

  20. Implementation of X-ray fluorescence microscopy for investigation of elemental abnormalities in central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwiej, J.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Wojcik, S.; Lankosz, M.; Chlebda, M.; Adamek, D.; Tomik, B.; Setkowicz, Z.; Falkenberg, G.; Stegowski, Z.; Szczudlik, A.

    2005-01-01

    The microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (micro-SRXRF) was applied to topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of human spinal cord tissue sections. The feasibility of this technique for the determination of elemental abnormalities caused by neurodegenerative disorder, i.e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), was verified. The applied measurement conditions allowed detecting: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in thin tissue slices. Two-dimensional maps of the elemental distribution were recorded. Quantitative differences in elemental concentration between gray matter, nerve cells and white matter were observed for all analyzed cases. For the motor neuron bodies higher accumulation of S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn and Br was noticed. The results showed significant differences of elemental accumulation between the analyzed ALS cases. Moreover, the feasibility of using tissue sections fixed and embedded in paraffin for micro-SRXRF analysis was tested. These studies were performed on the samples of rat brain

  1. Effect of herbicide (primextra) on tissue cholesterol level in Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (0.04, 0.06 and 0.10μg/L) of primextra for 21 days in a static renewal bioassay system. The changes in the tissue cholesterol concentrations were determined every seven days. The result showed that primextra had adverse effect on the tissue ...

  2. Accumulation and in vivo tissue distribution of pollutant elements in Erica andevalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Valdes, B.; Leidi, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis. Roots were associated with fungi which formed intra and extra-cellular mycelia. The SEM studies showed that Cu was not sequestrated into the root tissues and was uniformly distributed in leaf tissues. Meanwhile, Pb was only localised within epidermal root tissues which indicates that its sequestration in an external matrix might represent a tolerance mechanism in this species. Iron was uniformly distributed throughout the leaves, while in roots it was predominantly retained on the epidermal cell walls. The exclusion and tolerance mechanisms adopted by this species to survive in mining areas indicate that it can be used successfully in the re-vegetation of contaminated areas

  3. Accumulation and in vivo tissue distribution of pollutant elements in Erica andevalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Apartado de Correo 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: sabina@us.es; Valdes, B. [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Apartado de Correo 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Leidi, E.O. [Department of Plant Biotechnology, IRNAS-CSIC, Avda. Reina Mercedes 10, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    Erica andevalensis is an endemic shrub from an area in the southwest of Spain (Andalucia) characterized by acidic and contaminated soils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of samples after conventional or cryo-fixation preparation protocols was used for morphological and anatomical studies. SEM coupled with EDX-analysis was employed to localise and quantify different elements within plant parts (leaves, stems and roots) in samples collected in the field. Morphological studies revealed that the species has typical adaptive structures to drought-stress such as rolled needle-like leaves, sunken stomata and a thick waxy cuticle on the upper epidermis. Roots were associated with fungi which formed intra and extra-cellular mycelia. The SEM studies showed that Cu was not sequestrated into the root tissues and was uniformly distributed in leaf tissues. Meanwhile, Pb was only localised within epidermal root tissues which indicates that its sequestration in an external matrix might represent a tolerance mechanism in this species. Iron was uniformly distributed throughout the leaves, while in roots it was predominantly retained on the epidermal cell walls. The exclusion and tolerance mechanisms adopted by this species to survive in mining areas indicate that it can be used successfully in the re-vegetation of contaminated areas.

  4. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  5. Trace Elements Distribution in Human Gallstones, Bile and Gallbladder Tissues Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I. O.; Khrbish, Y. S.; Bshir, A. T.; Doubali, K.; Abugassa, S. O.

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the elemental distribution in different types of gallstones; bile and gallbladder tissues using neutron activation analysis technique based on k0-INAA method in Tajura center. Samples were collected from patients who undergone open surgery of gallbladder (cholecystectomy) at El-khadra University Hospital in Tripoli, aged between 23-80 yr. The samples obtained from patients who don't suffer from any chronic diseases, therefore, they were not taking any medications that might elevate the concentration of certain elements in the body. Samples were prepared and lyophilized by different process in a clean room. All samples were irradiated in the reactor and measured in the neutron activation laboratory. In order to obtain accurate results, Au and Zr flux monitors were irradiated with the samples for flux ratio (f) and α determinations and to account for any flux variations within the container. The irradiations of the samples were carried out in the reactor channels VCR11 and VCR12 for 8 hours under f (32 and 14) and α parameters (0.0183, 0.1678) respectively. More than 20 elements were determined in the above mentioned samples. Several SRM were irradiated with the samples to insure the reliability of the results.

  6. Concentrations of trace elements in human tissues and relation of ratios of mutual metals to the human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-wei, X.; Shao-xian, L.; Xiao-juan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    According to the experimental results, the concentrations and concentrations in order, of trace elements in human tissues among Changsha's People in China are reported. The authors particularly present that the ratios of mutual metals (M/N) in normal physiological tissues and fluids are very important factors which indicate the metabolic situations of trace elements in the body and as the indices which evaluate the situation of human health. (M and N mean the concentrations of different trace elements in the tissues or fluids, respectively.) Up to now, it is still an interesting field to study the functions of trace elements for the human health. There are previously some reports about the concentrations of trace elements in normal physiological tissues/ or organs and fluids of human body. These provide very valuable data for biological medicine. In the study presented atomic absorption method was adopted in order to determine the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Cd in human tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, bone, lung, pancreas, heart and artery and muscle) at autopsy. The authors suggest that trace elements, are contained in the body in an aproportional way, in normal physiological tissues and fluids, and the ratios may directly indicate metabolic situation of trace elements in the body which further reveal the mystery of trace elements for human health. Therefore, the ratios M/N as an indicator of health is more proper than that only using concentrations of trace elements. Schroeder (1973) reported that incidence of heart disease is related to the imbalance of ration Zn/Cd and Zn/Cu rather than the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, and the intellectual development also depends on the proper proportion among copper, cadmium, lead, zinc in the body

  7. A novel soft tissue prediction methodology for orthognathic surgery based on probabilistic finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Paul G M; Borghi, Alessandro; Ruggiero, Federica; Badiali, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alberto; Marchetti, Claudio; Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Breakey, Richard W F; Jeelani, Owase; Dunaway, David J; Schievano, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Repositioning of the maxilla in orthognathic surgery is carried out for functional and aesthetic purposes. Pre-surgical planning tools can predict 3D facial appearance by computing the response of the soft tissue to the changes to the underlying skeleton. The clinical use of commercial prediction software remains controversial, likely due to the deterministic nature of these computational predictions. A novel probabilistic finite element model (FEM) for the prediction of postoperative facial soft tissues is proposed in this paper. A probabilistic FEM was developed and validated on a cohort of eight patients who underwent maxillary repositioning and had pre- and postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken. Firstly, a variables correlation assessed various modelling parameters. Secondly, a design of experiments (DOE) provided a range of potential outcomes based on uniformly distributed input parameters, followed by an optimisation. Lastly, the second DOE iteration provided optimised predictions with a probability range. A range of 3D predictions was obtained using the probabilistic FEM and validated using reconstructed soft tissue surfaces from the postoperative CBCT data. The predictions in the nose and upper lip areas accurately include the true postoperative position, whereas the prediction under-estimates the position of the cheeks and lower lip. A probabilistic FEM has been developed and validated for the prediction of the facial appearance following orthognathic surgery. This method shows how inaccuracies in the modelling and uncertainties in executing surgical planning influence the soft tissue prediction and it provides a range of predictions including a minimum and maximum, which may be helpful for patients in understanding the impact of surgery on the face.

  8. DETERMINATION OF MULTI ELEMENT LEVELS IN LEAVES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ICP-OES (Spectro Analytical Instruments, Kleve, Germany) was used for the determination of elements. ... Samples. In this study, 18 different herbal tea samples (leaves and flowers) that are traditionally used for medical ... analysis of CRM were all within the 95% reliability limit. The results ..... reasons for serious health risks.

  9. Levels of Major and Minor Elements in Some Commercial Fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, 2Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, ... Purpose: To evaluate the macro- and micro-nutrient elements of some commercially available fruit juices in ... national regulations. ... the consumption of natural products, such as fruit ... analytical techniques, each with its advantages.

  10. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 . To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p 0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  11. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...

  12. Elemental imbalance studies by INAA on extra neural tissues from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Human kidney and liver tissues were studied for generalized elemental imbalances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Iron was significantly increased (p<0.05) in ALS kidneys and Co and Fe (marginal, p<0.10) were increased in ALS liver compared with their respective controls. Mercury values were almost two-fold higher for ALS kidney and 17% higher for ALS liver as compared with their respective controls, However, the Hg data exhibited large variations and ALS-control differences were not significant. Data from the present study are discussed with reference to the role of metallothioneins (MT) in ALS, and a possible linkage between a free radical mediated mechanism and degeneration of cells in ALS is also explored. (author). 43 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Certification of the methylmercury content in SRM 2977 mussel tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) and SRM 1566b oyster tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, S; Schantz, M M; Horvat, M; Logar, M; Akagi, H; Emons, H; Levenson, M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    The methylmercury content in two new marine bivalve mollusk tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been certified using results of analyses from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and two other laboratories. The certified concentrations of methylmercury were established based on the results from four and six different (independent) analytical methods, respectively, for SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue (13.2 +/- 0.7 microg/kg) and SRM 2977 Mussel Tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) (36.2 +/- 1.7 microg/kg). The certified concentration of methylmercury in SRM 1566b is among the lowest in any certified reference material (CRM).

  14. Optimization of tissue physical parameters for accurate temperature estimation from finite-element simulation of radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature. (note)

  15. Optimization of tissue physical parameters for accurate temperature estimation from finite-element simulation of radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-10-07

    Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: human tissue levels and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Udai; Chu, Ih; Ryan, John J; Feeley, Mark

    2004-01-01

    with behavioral alterations in neonatal mice. When considering the outlier value for PBDE-99 at 229 ng/g, this would result in an estimated PBDE-99 body burden of 46 microg/kg, or a MOS of only 9. However, no toxicokinetics data are available for humans, and the actual margin of safety may be much smaller if based on levels in critical target organs or tissues.

  17. Finite-element modelling and preliminary validation of microneedle-based electrodes for enhanced tissue electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Ruth; Grygoryev, Konstantin; Zhenfei Ning; Williams, John; Moore, Tom; O'Mahony, Conor

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates the use of microneedle-based electrodes for enhanced testis electroporation, with specific application to the production of transgenic mice. During the design phase, finite-element software has been used to construct a tissue model and to compare the relative performance of electrodes employing a) conventional flat plates, b) microneedle arrays, and c) invasive needles. Results indicate that microneedle-based electrodes can achieve internal tissue field strengths which are an order of magnitude higher than those generated using conventional flat electrodes, and which are comparable to fields produced using invasive needles. Using a double-sided etching process, conductive microneedle arrays were then fabricated and used in prototype electrodes. In a series of mouse model experiments involving injection of a DNA vector expressing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), the performance of flat and microneedle electrodes was compared by measuring GFP expression after electroporation. The main finding, supported by experimental and simulated data, is that use of microneedle-based electrodes significantly enhanced electroporation of testis.

  18. Trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Kerem, Dan; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Goffman, Oz; Morick, Danny; Yoffe, Olga; Kress, Nurit

    2014-06-15

    In this paper we present the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one Cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one Risso's dolphin. Most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. Concentrations of Hg and Cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum concentrations of 1067 mg kg(-1) Hg in the liver of the Risso's dolphin and 29 mg kg(-1) Cd in the kidney of the Cuvier's beaked whale. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of trace elements in baleen whales in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the first report of trace elements in minke whale and rough-toothed dolphin in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  20. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by μ-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using μ-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 μm thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 μm microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman

  1. Comparative study of trace element levels in some local vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of heavy metals in two varieties of vegetables harvested during the dry and wet seasons from seven different locations in Ilorin, Nigeria, were determined. The correlation between the level of metals in the vegetables and the irrigation water was also studied. Vegetables harvested during the dry season were found ...

  2. Serum levels of selected vitamins and trace elements in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid, vitamins and Zinc play essential role in DNA methylation but alcohol consumption is known to affect the levels of these micronutrients leading to risk of developing various illnesses and certain cancers. This study determined the levels of DNA methylation dependent-micronutrients (folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, ...

  3. Contents of chemical elements in tissues of European badger (Meles meles affected by ovarian tumour – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Bukovjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher concentrations of chemical elements in animal tissues may be associated with tumours and may explain cancerogenity. In this study, selected chemical elements were measured in the liver, kidneys, muscles and tissues affected by tumour in a dead female European badger (Meles meles with a metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for the assessment of concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc. AMA 254 analyser was used for the assessment of mercury concentration. Concentrations of heavy metals such as As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and total Hg amounted to 0.031, 0.16, 7.74, 44.54, 0.67, 0.67, and 0.36 mg·kg-1 in the tumour tissue. This is the first detection of ovarian tumour in a European badger (Meles meles which was systematically examined for the presence of chemical elements.

  4. Isolation of transplutonium elements from high-level radioactive wastes using diphenyl(dibutylcarbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmutova, M.K.; Litvina, M.N.; Pribylova, G.A.; Ivanova, L.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Smirnov, I.V.; Shadrin, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Consequent stages of development of principal technological scheme of extraction separation of transplutonium elements from high-level radioactive wastes of spent fuel reprocessing are presented. Approach to reagent selection from the series of carbamoylmethylphosphine oxides is based. Distribution of transplutonium elements and accompanying elements between model solution of high-level radioactive wastes and solution of reagent in organic solvent is investigated. Methods of separation of transplutonium elements, reextraction of transplutonium elements together with rare earth elements are developed. Principal technological scheme of transplutonium elements separation from nonevaporated raffinates of spent fuel of WWER type reactors and method of separation of transplutonium and rare earth elements in weakly acid reextract with the use of liquid chromatography with free immobile phase are proposed [ru

  5. Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.; Jena, S.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

  6. A comparison of sample preparation strategies for biological tissues and subsequent trace element analysis using LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Török, Szilvia; Hegedus, Balazs; Döme, Balazs; Limbeck, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is one of the most commonly applied methods for lateral trace element distribution analysis in medical studies. Many improvements of the technique regarding quantification and achievable lateral resolution have been achieved in the last years. Nevertheless, sample preparation is also of major importance and the optimal sample preparation strategy still has not been defined. While conventional histology knows a number of sample pre-treatment strategies, little is known about the effect of these approaches on the lateral distributions of elements and/or their quantities in tissues. The technique of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) has emerged as the gold standard in tissue preparation. However, the potential use for elemental distribution studies is questionable due to a large number of sample preparation steps. In this work, LA-ICP-MS was used to examine the applicability of the FFPE sample preparation approach for elemental distribution studies. Qualitative elemental distributions as well as quantitative concentrations in cryo-cut tissues as well as FFPE samples were compared. Results showed that some metals (especially Na and K) are severely affected by the FFPE process, whereas others (e.g., Mn, Ni) are less influenced. Based on these results, a general recommendation can be given: FFPE samples are completely unsuitable for the analysis of alkaline metals. When analyzing transition metals, FFPE samples can give comparable results to snap-frozen tissues. Graphical abstract Sample preparation strategies for biological tissues are compared with regard to the elemental distributions and average trace element concentrations.

  7. Th, U, Ra and rare earth element distributions in farm animal tissues from an elevated natural radiation background environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Paul; Morse, Robert; Ford, Helen; Eisenbud, Merril; Franca, E.P.; de Castro, M.B.; Lobao, Nazyo; Sachett, Ivanor; Carlos, Marcia

    1991-01-01

    A field study was conducted in an area of elevated natural background radioactivity (the Pocos de Caldas plateau, Brazil) to assess tissue concentrations and the comparative bioavailability of isotopic Th (IV), U (IV, VI), Ra (II) and light rare earth elements (REE), i.e. La (III) and Ce (III, IV) in adult steers, pigs and chickens. The assessment of comparative bioavailability was aided by normalizing tissue concentrations to local soil concentrations, i.e. by calculating soil-to-tissue concentration ratios (CRs). Mean CRs (for muscle/soil) in these animals were very similar for U, La and Th which, as a group, decreased among the farm animals sampled as (all x 10 -4 ): chicken (1) ≥ steer (0.7) ≥ pig (0.4). For 226 Ra, CRs in muscle decreased in the same order among animals although mean values were 3-5 times greater than those quoted. Much greater values and greater differences among the elements are noted for bone/soil CRs, which for all animals decreased as: Ra >> U > La=Th, indicating the order of elemental bioavailability (assuming bone to be the major retention compartment). Isotopic ratios in farm animal tissue are shown to resemble closely those in soils over which the animals forage, with few exceptions, indicating the importance of the soil component in the transfer of these elements to tissues. (author)

  8. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmdmdx/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD mdx /J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd mdx /J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  9. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elemental analysis of biological tissues of animal models in muscular dystrophies investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina Metairon; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.; Bueno, Jr.C.R.; Sant'Anna, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Element concentrations in biological tissues of Dmd mdx /J and C57BL/6 J mice strains were determined using the neutron activation analysis technique. Samples of whole blood, bones and organs (heart and muscle) of these strains were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil). To perform this investigation biological samples of two-month-old adult females (n = 10) and males (n = 9) for Dmd mdx /J (dystrophic mice), and males (n 12) for C57BL/6 J (control group), originally obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Maine, USA) and further inbred at IPEN-CNEN/SP (Sao Paulo, Brazil), were used. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. These data may, in the future, contribute to the healthcare area, in veterinary medicine and in the pharmaceutical industry allowing the evaluation of the best procedures in diagnosis, treatment and investigations of neuromuscular diseases (muscular dystrophy) of patients through the use of animal models. (author)

  11. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  12. Classification of trace elements in tissues from organic and conventional French pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinet, Julien; Royer, Eric; Saint-Hilaire, Mailie; Chafey, Claude; Noël, Laurent; Minvielle, Brice; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Engel, Erwan; Guérin, Thierry

    2018-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of the farming system on the levels of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in pig tissues from three types of production (Organic (n = 28), Label Rouge (n = 12) and Conventional (n = 30)) randomly sampled in different slaughterhouses. All the concentrations were below regulatory limits. In muscles, Cu, Zn and As were measured at slightly higher levels in organic samples but no differences between organic and Label Rouge was observed. Livers from conventional and Label Rouge pig farms exhibited higher Zn and Cd contents than the organic ones, probably due to different practice in zinc or phytase supplementation of fattening diets. Principal component analysis indicated a correlation between Cu and As concentrations in liver and carcass weight, and between Zn and Cd liver levels and lean meat percentage. The linear discriminant analysis succeeded in predicting the farming process on the basis of the lean meat percentage and the liver Cd level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  14. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  15. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  16. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  17. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Villarroya

    Full Text Available Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT and brown (BAT adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2 H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues.

  18. Thymidine kinase 2 deficiency-induced mitochondrial DNA depletion causes abnormal development of adipose tissues and adipokine levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. © 2011 Villarroya et al.

  19. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.

  20. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of atrial peptide blood and tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michener, M.L.; Schwartz, D.; Currie, M.G.; Geller, D.M.; Needleman, P.

    1987-01-01

    AP has now been established as an important hormone for the regulation of vascular fluid volume and blood pressure. AP release in response to atrial stretchy provides an ideal means of responding to changes in vascular volume. This response is composed of actions on the kidneys and vascular smooth muscle, and an integrated endocrine response through the inhibition of aldosterone and vasopressin secretion. The detection of AP in the cardiovascular control centers of the brain by both RIA and immunohistochemical staining suggests that AP may also play a role in the central regulation of cardiovascular system. The development of RIAs for AP make it possible to measure stored and secreted AP and to begin to understand how changes in AP levels relate to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions such as high blood pressure and congestive heart failure

  2. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  3. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, Sandra S; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M D; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Aboueissa, Abouel-Makarim; Wise, John Pierce

    2008-08-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  4. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S.; Goertz, Caroline E.C.; Dunn, J. Lawrence; Gulland, Frances M.D.; Gelatt, Tom; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Burek, Kathy; Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary; Taylor, Robert; Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim

    2008-01-01

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  5. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  6. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  7. Modeling and Characterization of Capacitive Elements With Tissue as Dielectric Material for Wireless Powering of Neural Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Reza; Marefat, Fatemeh; Sodagar, Amir M; Mohseni, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel plates that are aligned around the tissue layer and incorporate a grounded, guarded, capacitive pad to mitigate the adverse effect of stray capacitances and shield the plates from external interfering electric fields. The plates are also coated with a biocompatible, insulating, coating layer on the inner side of each plate in contact with the tissue. A comprehensive circuit model is presented that accounts for the effect of the coating layers and is validated by measurements of the equivalent capacitance as well as impedance magnitude/phase of the parallel plates over a wide frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Using insulating coating layers of Parylene-C at a thickness of and Parylene-N at a thickness of deposited on two sets of parallel plates with different sizes and shapes of the guarded pad, our modeling and characterization results accurately capture the effect of the thickness and electrical properties of the coating layers on the behavior of the capacitive elements over frequency and with different tissues.

  8. Dynamic DNA cytosine methylation in the Populus trichocarpa genome: tissue-level variation and relationship to gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vining Kelly J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been implicated in many biological processes. However, large-scale epigenomic studies have been applied to very few plant species, and variability in methylation among specialized tissues and its relationship to gene expression is poorly understood. Results We surveyed DNA methylation from seven distinct tissue types (vegetative bud, male inflorescence [catkin], female catkin, leaf, root, xylem, phloem in the reference tree species black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa. Using 5-methyl-cytosine DNA immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing (MeDIP-seq, we mapped a total of 129,360,151 36- or 32-mer reads to the P. trichocarpa reference genome. We validated MeDIP-seq results by bisulfite sequencing, and compared methylation and gene expression using published microarray data. Qualitative DNA methylation differences among tissues were obvious on a chromosome scale. Methylated genes had lower expression than unmethylated genes, but genes with methylation in transcribed regions ("gene body methylation" had even lower expression than genes with promoter methylation. Promoter methylation was more frequent than gene body methylation in all tissues except male catkins. Male catkins differed in demethylation of particular transposable element categories, in level of gene body methylation, and in expression range of genes with methylated transcribed regions. Tissue-specific gene expression patterns were correlated with both gene body and promoter methylation. Conclusions We found striking differences among tissues in methylation, which were apparent at the chromosomal scale and when genes and transposable elements were examined. In contrast to other studies in plants, gene body methylation had a more repressive effect on transcription than promoter methylation.

  9. Limited prognostic value of tissue protein expression levels of cyclin E in Danish ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Høgdall, Claus K; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the expression of cyclin E in tumour tissues from 661 patients with epithelial ovarian tumours. The second was to evaluate whether cyclin E tissue expression levels correlate with clinico-pathological parameters and prognosis of the disease. Using...... tissue arrays (TA), we analysed the cyclin E expression levels in tissues from 168 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT) (147 stage I, 4 stage II, 17 stage III) and 493 Ovarian cancer (OC) patients (127 stage I, 45 stage II, 276 stage III, 45 stage IV). Using a 10% cut-off level for cyclin E......-off value showed that cyclin E had no independent prognostic value. In conclusion, we found cyclin E expression in tumour tissue to be of limited prognostic value to Danish OC patients....

  10. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Rahim Hematiyan, Mohammad; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2015-12-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%.

  11. Calculation of dose distribution in compressible breast tissues using finite element modeling, Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadyari, Parvin; Faghihi, Reza; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Hematiyan, Mohammad Rahim; Koontz, Craig; Meigooni, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    Compression is a technique to immobilize the target or improve the dose distribution within the treatment volume during different irradiation techniques such as AccuBoost ® brachytherapy. However, there is no systematic method for determination of dose distribution for uncompressed tissue after irradiation under compression. In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast tissue between compressed and uncompressed states was investigated. With that, a novel method was developed to determine the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue after irradiation of compressed breast tissue. Dosimetry was performed using two different methods, namely, Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code and measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The displacement of the breast elements was simulated using a finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software. From these results, the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model was constructed from magnetic resonance images of six different women volunteers. The mechanical properties were modeled by using the Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic material model. Experimental dosimetry was performed by placing the TLD chips into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom. The results determined that the nodal displacements, due to the gravitational force and the 60 Newton compression forces (with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in the orthogonal direction) were determined. Finally, a comparison of the experimental data and the simulated data showed agreement within 11.5%  ±  5.9%. (paper)

  12. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  13. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of 30 Trace Elements in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissue Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K; Brune, D; Wester, P O

    1963-10-15

    The following trace elements were quantitatively determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in T samples of non-cancerous and 5 samples of cancerous human tissue: P, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, La, Au, and Hg. In some of the samples the following elements were qualitatively determined: Ti+Sc, Ga, Sr, In, Ba, Ce, Hf, Os, Pt, and U. Most of the trace elements were found to be present in much higher concentrations in the non-cancerous than in the corresponding cancerous liver samples. In a typical run one sample each of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue was irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal flux of 2.10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. for 24 hours. The radioactive trace elements were separated into 16, and in some cases 18, groups by means of a chemical group separation method. Subsequently, the gamma spectrometric measurements were performed. Two persons can manage the chemical separations and measure the different activities from a run in 1,5 days. A new method of comparing unknown samples with standards was developed.

  15. Validation of scaffold design optimization in bone tissue engineering: finite element modeling versus designed experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Nicholas; Mueller, Jens; Smucker, Byran; Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra

    2017-02-21

    This study reports the development of biological/synthetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (TE) via 3D bioplotting. These scaffolds were composed of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), type I collagen, and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in an attempt to mimic the extracellular matrix of bone. The solvent used for processing the scaffolds was 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. The produced scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microcomputed tomography, thermogravimetric analysis, and unconfined compression test. This study also sought to validate the use of finite-element optimization in COMSOL Multiphysics for scaffold design. Scaffold topology was simplified to three factors: nHA content, strand diameter, and strand spacing. These factors affect the ability of the scaffold to bear mechanical loads and how porous the structure can be. Twenty four scaffolds were constructed according to an I-optimal, split-plot designed experiment (DE) in order to generate experimental models of the factor-response relationships. Within the design region, the DE and COMSOL models agreed in their recommended optimal nHA (30%) and strand diameter (460 μm). However, the two methods disagreed by more than 30% in strand spacing (908 μm for DE; 601 μm for COMSOL). Seven scaffolds were 3D-bioplotted to validate the predictions of DE and COMSOL models (4.5-9.9 MPa measured moduli). The predictions for these scaffolds showed relative agreement for scaffold porosity (mean absolute percentage error of 4% for DE and 13% for COMSOL), but were substantially poorer for scaffold modulus (51% for DE; 21% for COMSOL), partly due to some simplifying assumptions made by the models. Expanding the design region in future experiments (e.g., higher nHA content and strand diameter), developing an efficient solvent evaporation method, and exerting a greater control over layer overlap could allow developing PLGA-nHA-collagen scaffolds to meet the mechanical requirements for

  16. Baring the teeth. [Dental caries and the analysis of trace elements in dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaton-Jones, P [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Retief, H [Alabama Univ., Birmingham (USA); Turkstra, J [Fort Hare Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    To determine whether trace elements other than fluorine play a role in the varying prevalences of dental caries in different South African population groups, neutron activation techniques have been devised to establish the concentrations of trace elements in tooth enamel and dentine.

  17. Tissue-Level Mechanical Properties of Bone Contributing to Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Granke, Mathilde; Singleton, Robert C; Pharr, George M

    2016-08-01

    Tissue-level mechanical properties characterize mechanical behavior independently of microscopic porosity. Specifically, quasi-static nanoindentation provides measurements of modulus (stiffness) and hardness (resistance to yielding) of tissue at the length scale of the lamella, while dynamic nanoindentation assesses time-dependent behavior in the form of storage modulus (stiffness), loss modulus (dampening), and loss factor (ratio of the two). While these properties are useful in establishing how a gene, signaling pathway, or disease of interest affects bone tissue, they generally do not vary with aging after skeletal maturation or with osteoporosis. Heterogeneity in tissue-level mechanical properties or in compositional properties may contribute to fracture risk, but a consensus on whether the contribution is negative or positive has not emerged. In vivo indentation of bone tissue is now possible, and the mechanical resistance to microindentation has the potential for improving fracture risk assessment, though determinants are currently unknown.

  18. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  19. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  20. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  1. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes as radioprotector mechanism of oligo elements and lachesis muta in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenti, E.; Croci, M.; Mohamad, N.; Medina, V.; Sambuco, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Nunez, M.; Martin, G.; Cricco, G.; Bergoc, R.; Rivera, E.

    2006-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the ionizing radiations (IR) it has acquired great relevance in the last decades although their effects are not selective and they are also manifested on the normal tissues. In previous works we demonstrate the radioprotector effect that the combination of oligo elements Zinc, Selenium and Manganese associated to the snake poison Lachesis muta (O-LM) it exercises on the small intestine and the bone marrow of irradiated mouse. The objective of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms, and particularly the paper of the anti-oxidant superoxide dismutases enzymes (MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD), Catalase (CAT), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), in the radioprotector action that exercises the combination O-LM. Four groups of mice were used: A) control; B) treated with O-LM; C) irradiated; D) irradiated and treated with O-LM. The two treated groups were injected daily via s.c. with 0,1 ml of O-LM from 30 days before the irradiation and until to 4 days later. The two irradiated groups received 10 Gy in whole body the day 30. The day 35 all the animals were sacrificed. The histological intestinal cuts of the mucous one were evaluated by tint with hematoxyline-eosin; the presence of apoptotic cells it was determined by the Tunel method (Apoptag kit); the expression of PCNA (nuclear antigen of proliferating cells), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, CAT and GPx, by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that in the lot D it was preserved totally the histology of the intestinal mucous. In the control A it was observed PCNA expression in the crypts, of MnSOD in the hairiness and CuZnSOD, CAT and Gpx in both. The change produced by O-LM (group B) it was the increase of PCNA, of CAT and the appearance of MnSOD in the crypts. On the other hand, the irradiation (C) it produced a marked descent in the GPx, the complete disappearance of PCNA and an increase of the apoptotic cells. The group D showed that O-LM it reverted totally the effect of the RI on the expression of PCNA

  2. Implication of low level inflammation in the insulin resistance of adipose tissue at late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, J; Sevillano, J; Marciniak, J; Rodriguez, R; González-Martín, C; Viana, M; Eun-suk, O H; de Mouzon, S Hauguel; Herrera, E; Ramos, M P

    2011-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic of late pregnancy, and adipose tissue is one of the tissues that most actively contributes to the reduced maternal insulin sensitivity. There is evidence that pregnancy is a condition of moderate inflammation, although the physiological role of this low-grade inflammation remains unclear. The present study was designed to validate whether low-grade inflammation plays a role in the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue during late pregnancy. To this end, we analyzed proinflammatory adipokines and kinases in lumbar adipose tissue of nonpregnant and late pregnant rats at d 18 and 20 of gestation. We found that circulating and tissue levels of adipokines, such as IL-1β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and TNF-α, were increased at late pregnancy, which correlated with insulin resistance. The observed increase in adipokines coincided with an enhanced activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue. Treatment of pregnant rats with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrate-1 in adipose tissue, which was paralleled by a reduction of IR substrate-1 serine phosphorylation and an enhancement of the metabolic actions of insulin. These results indicate that activation of p38 MAPK in adipose tissue contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance at late pregnancy. Furthermore, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that physiological low-grade inflammation in the maternal organism is relevant to the development of pregnancy-associated insulin resistance.

  3. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in various tissues of birds of prey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Lepom, Peter; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Schepens, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, concentrations and tissue distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; IUPAC nos. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, and 209) were examined in brain, adipose tissue, liver, muscle, and serum of birds of prey. Median ΣPBDE levels (BDE 28-183) in the tissues of sparrowhawks ranged from 360 to 1900 ng/g lipid weight (lw), which was in general one order of magnitude higher than in the tissues of common buzzards (26-130 ng/g lw). There were no differences in PBDE congener patterns between the various tissues within individuals of a certain species. Inter-species differences in PBDE patterns and in particular the percentage of BDE 99, 100 and 153 were, however, pronounced between sparrowhawk and common buzzard. BDE 209 was detected in nearly all serum and in some liver samples, but not in any other tissues. This observation suggests that exposure to BDE 209 is low or that this congener is poorly accumulated. Passive (lipid content related) diffusion could not completely describe the PBDE tissue distribution, e.g. the lowest PBDE-load was measured in brain, a fairly lipid rich tissue. - Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey is tissue dependent

  4. Training elements at different levels in the strategies for control of schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnbjerg, Niels; Simonsen, P. E.; Furu, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Recently acquired comprehensive knowledge concerning the epidemiology of schistosomiasis has provided the background for the establishment of schistosomiasis control strategies. However, the planning, implementation, and maintenance of such control programmes requires sufficient numbers of well t...... trained personnel at the local, district and central levels. Training of health personnel as well as motivation of the community are fundamental and essential elements in any schistosomiasis control programme. The training elements and approaches are discussed....

  5. Evaluation of serum and tissue levels of VAP-1 in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Stephen T.; Weston, Christopher J.; Shepherd, Emma L.; Hejmadi, Rahul; Ismail, Tariq; Adams, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial adhesion molecule, vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1, AOC3) promotes lymphocyte recruitment to tumours, although the contribution that VAP-1 makes to lymphocyte recruitment in human colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. VAP-1 exists in circulating soluble form (sVAP-1). A previous study demonstrated elevated sVAP-1 levels in CRC patients. The aim of this study was to confirm this finding and study the differences in tissue VAP-1 expression between CRC and healthy tissues. sVAP-1 levels were measured in the serum of 31 patients with CRC and 31 age- and sex-matched controls. Tissue VAP-1 levels were measured by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mean sVAP-1 level ± SD was significantly lower in the CRC group compared with the control group (399 ± 138 ng/ml versus 510 ± 142 ng/ml, P = 0.003). Tissue VAP-1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in CRC compared with normal colon tissue. VAP-1 immunostaining was practically absent from CRC. VAP-1 is downregulated in human CRC and although the molecular basis of this down regulation is not yet known, we suggest it may be part of a mechanism used by the tumour to prevent the recruitment of anti-tumour immune cells. Our data contradicts the findings of others with regard sVAP-1 levels in patients with CRC. Possible reasons for this are discussed

  6. Levels of Essential Elements in Different Medicinal Plants Determined by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid I. Brima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the content of essential elements in medicinal plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Five different medical plants (mahareeb (Cymbopogon schoenanthus, sheeh (Artemisia vulgaris, harjal (Cynanchum argel delile, nabipoot (Equisetum arvense, and cafmariam (Vitex agnus-castus were collected from Madina city in the KSA. Five elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Se were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe levels were the highest and Se levels were the lowest in all plants. The range levels of all elements in all plants were as follows: Fe 193.4–1757.9, Mn 23.6–143.7, Zn 15.4–32.7, Se 0.13–0.92, and Cu 11.3–21.8 µg/g. Intakes of essential elements from the medical plants in infusion were calculated: Fe 4.6–13.4, Mn 6.7–123.2, Zn 7.0–42.7, Se 0.14–1.5, and Cu 1.5–5.0 µg/dose. The calculated intakes of essential elements for all plants did not exceed the daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA. These medicinal plants may be useful sources of essential elements, which are vital for health.

  7. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  8. Effects of Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism on Lipogenic Gene Expression Levels in Diaphragm Tissues of Japanese Black Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ardiyanti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two SNPs, i.e. L127V and T172M, of bovine growth hormone (GH causing the presence of GH gene haplotypes A, B, and C was previously shown to alter intramuscular fatty acid (FA composition in Japanese Black (JB heifers. To determine the SNP effect on somatotropic hormone concentration and lipogenesis, we measured plasma GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations. We also measured mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1 and FA composition in diaphragm tissues. Heifers with genotype CC had the lowest plasma insulin concentration and FASN and SCD mRNA levels among genotypes. FASN mRNA levels in haplotype A tended to positively correlate with saturated FA (SFA content and negatively correlated with C18:2 and unsaturated FA (USFA contents. SCD mRNA levels in haplotype A positively correlated with monounsaturated FA (MUFA contents and negatively correlated with C18:0 content. They also tended to positively correlate with C16:1, C18:1, and USFA contents and USFA/SFA ratio and negatively correlate with SFA content. Taken together, GH gene polymorphism affects the lipogenic genes expression levels and their relationships with fatty acid compositions in diaphragm tissues of JB heifers at 31 months of age.

  9. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  10. Spatial transcriptomics: paving the way for tissue-level systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Andreas E; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2017-08-01

    The tissues in our bodies are complex systems composed of diverse cell types that often interact in highly structured repeating anatomical units. External gradients of morphogens, directional blood flow, as well as the secretion and absorption of materials by cells generate distinct microenvironments at different tissue coordinates. Such spatial heterogeneity enables optimized function through division of labor among cells. Unraveling the design principles that govern this spatial division of labor requires techniques to quantify the entire transcriptomes of cells while accounting for their spatial coordinates. In this review we describe how recent advances in spatial transcriptomics open the way for tissue-level systems biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Jadavji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an enzyme key regulator in folate metabolism. Deficiencies in MTHFR result in increased levels of homocysteine, which leads to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. In the brain, SAM donates methyl groups to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, which is involved in neurotransmitter analysis. Using the MTHFR-deficient mouse model the purpose of this study was to investigate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and amino acid levels in brain tissue. MTHFR deficiency affected levels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in within the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mthfr−/− mice had reduced levels of glutamate in the amygdala and γ-aminobutyric acid in the thalamus. The excitatory mechanisms of homocysteine through activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in brain tissue might alter levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid.

  12. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.; Judy, P. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content.

  13. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  14. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  15. Impact of element-level static condensation on iterative solver performance

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, D.

    2015-10-02

    This paper provides theoretical estimates that quantify and clarify the savings associated to the use of element-level static condensation as a first step of an iterative solver. These estimates are verified numerically. The numerical evidence shows that static condensation at the element level is beneficial for higher-order methods. For lower-order methods or when the number of iterations required for convergence is low, the setup cost of the elimination as well as its implementation may offset the benefits obtained during the iteration process. However, as the iteration count (e.g., above 50) or the polynomial order (e.g., above cubics) grows, the benefits of element-level static condensation are significant.

  16. Finite-element simulation of blood perfusion in muscle tissue during compression and sustained contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, W.J.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Slaaf, D.W.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Drost, M.R.; Janssen, J.D.; Huson, A.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical interaction between tissue stress and blood perfusion in skeletal muscles plays an important role in blood flow impediment during sustained contraction. The exact mechanism of this interaction is not clear, and experimental investigation of this mechanism is difficult. We developed a

  17. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Fillion, Myriam [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Passos, Carlos J.S. [Faculdade UnB Planaltina (FUP), Universidade de Brasilia, Planaltina (DF) (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando, E-mail: fbarbosa@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratorio de Toxicologia e Essencialidade de Metais, Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto-USP, Avenida do Cafe s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  18. Trace element levels in whole blood of riparian villagers of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa Rodrigues, Jairo; Lemos Batista, Bruno; Fillion, Myriam; Passos, Carlos J.S.; Mergler, Donna; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of essential elements is of critical importance in human health. However, trace element concentrations in biological fluids are affected by environmental and physiological parameters, and therefore considerable variations can occur between specific population subgroups. Brazil is a large country with much food diversity. Moreover, dietary habits differ from north to south. As an example, the traditional populations of the Brazilian Amazon basin are heavily dependent on fish, fruits, vegetables and manioc for their daily sustenance. However, very few studies have examined to what extent these diets reflect adequate nutritional status for essential elements. Then, in the present study we have evaluated the levels of some trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn Sr, and Rb) in the whole blood of a riparian Brazilian Amazonian population and estimated the influence of age and gender on levels and inter-element interactions in the same population. For this, 253 subjects, aged 15 to 87, from 13 communities situated on the banks of the Tapajos, one of the major tributaries of the Amazon, were randomly selected. The values found for cobalt, copper and strontium in whole blood are in the same range as in other populations. On the other hand, the levels of rubidium and zinc may be considered higher. Moreover, gender was shown to influence Zn and Cu levels while age influenced the concentrations of Sr and Rb in men and Cu in women. Given the scarcity of studies examining nutritional status in traditional communities of the Amazon, our study is the first to provide relevant insight into trace element values in this region and inter-element interactions. This paper is also of particular importance for future studies looking at the possible protective effects of traditional Amazon riparian diets against mercury intake from fish consumption.

  19. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  20. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Powles, Ryan L; Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-07-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  1. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sarah; Ou, Derek; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yiming; Lu, Yisi; Liu, Wei; Li, Boyang; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K.; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system) increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells) provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson’s disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline. PMID:28742084

  2. Removal of actinide elements from high level radioactive waste by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chongli; Yang Dazhu; He Longhai; Xu Jingming; Zhu Yongjun

    1992-03-01

    The modified TRPO process for removing actinide elements from synthetic solution, which was taken from reprocessing of power reactor nuclear fuel, was verified by cascade experiment. Neptunium valence was adjusted in the process for improving neptunium removing efficiency. At 1 mol/L concentration of HNO 3 of feed solution and after a few stages of extraction with 30% t=TRPO kerosene, over 99.9% of Am, Pu, Np and U could be removed from HAW (high level radioactive waste) solution. The stripping of actinides loaded in TRPO are accomplished by high concentration nitric acid, oxalic acid and sodium carbonate instead of amino carboxylic complexing agents used in previous process. The actinides stripped were divided into three groups, which are Am + RE, Np + Pu, and U, and the cross contamination between them is small. Behaviours of F.P. elements are divided into three types which are not extracted, little extracted and extracted elements. The extracted elements are rare earth and Pd, Zr and Mo which are co-extracted with actinides. The separation factor between actinides and other two types of F.P.elements will increase if more scrubbing sections are added in the process. The relative concentration profile of actinide elements and Tc in various stages as well as the distribution of actinides and F.P. elements in the process stream solutions are also presented

  3. Disposal of flow-level radioactive waste in Belgium: A safety analysis for inorganic chemotoxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste often contains large quantities of inorganic chemical substances. Due attention should therefore be given to the safety implications of both the radiological and chemical substances in the waste. Our study develops the safety assessment methodology for surface disposal with emphasis on the potential effects of inorganic nonradiological elements on human health. Contamination of groundwater was considered as the major exposure pathway. The applied methodology first screens all elements on the basis of five criteria. Conservative screening calculations were used to screen out the elements that do not pose danger to humans, and to select those that could have a negative impact and thus require further analysis. The latter was done by first calculating the elemental mass fluxes out of the repository and into the aquifer followed by the calculation of groundwater concentrations. The results showed that on the basis of the screening calculations, 75% of all elements could be classified as non-hazardous. The detailed calculations showed that the majority of the remaining elements had groundwater concentrations below the drinking water or groundwater standards. The results further showed that for a few elements the maximum groundwater concentration was above the standard, but below the background concentrations. (author)

  4. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  5. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, K S; Sergio, L P S; Mencalha, A L; Fonseca, A S; Paoli, F

    2016-01-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases. (paper)

  6. Microlocalization and Quantitation of Risk Associated Elements in Gleason Graded Prostate Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    ORGANIZATION: Regents of the University of California Maya Conn Los Angeles CA 90024 REPORT DATE: March 2007 TYPE OF REPORT...California Maya Conn Los Angeles CA 90024 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...carcinoma of different histological grading in comparison to normal prostate tissue and adenofibromyomatosis (BPH) Uro Res 10:301-303. 5. Feustel A

  7. Real-time surgical simulation for deformable soft-tissue objects with a tumour using Boundary Element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Becker, A. A.; Jones, I. A.; Glover, A. T.; Benford, S. D.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2009-08-01

    A virtual-reality real-time simulation of surgical operations that incorporates the inclusion of a hard tumour is presented. The software is based on Boundary Element (BE) technique. A review of the BE formulation for real-time analysis of two-domain deformable objects, using the pre-solution technique, is presented. The two-domain BE software is incorporated into a surgical simulation system called VIRS to simulate the initiation of a cut on the surface of the soft tissue and extending the cut deeper until the tumour is reached.

  8. Real-time surgical simulation for deformable soft-tissue objects with a tumour using Boundary Element techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P; Becker, A A; Jones, I A; Glover, A T; Benford, S D; Vloeberghs, M

    2009-01-01

    A virtual-reality real-time simulation of surgical operations that incorporates the inclusion of a hard tumour is presented. The software is based on Boundary Element (BE) technique. A review of the BE formulation for real-time analysis of two-domain deformable objects, using the pre-solution technique, is presented. The two-domain BE software is incorporated into a surgical simulation system called VIRS to simulate the initiation of a cut on the surface of the soft tissue and extending the cut deeper until the tumour is reached.

  9. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draskovic, R.J.; Jacimovic, Lj.; Stojicevic, M.; Pajic, P.; Filipovic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis to biological materials. Pt. 4. Approach to simultaneous determination of trace elements in human eye tissues with non-destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, T; Bando, M; Nakajima, A [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Terai, M [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen trace elements (short-lived nuclides: Al, Br, Cu, Mn and V; long-lived nuclides: Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Se and Zn) in human eye tissues are determined simultaneously by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The quantity of Al, Br, Fe, Se and Zn in the eye tissues (about 1 to more than 10 ..mu..g/g dry weight tissue) seems to be higher than that of other trace elements, although the content of each trace element in individual tissue is scattered in a wide range. Conjunctiva, iris (+ciliary body) and choroid (+pigment epithelium) seem to contain larger amount of various trace elements than other eye tissues. From correlation studies it is evident that the relative distribution of 14 trace elements in various eye tissues are similar, and furthermore the content of trace elements in the eye tissues may be correlated in each of the three groups (group A: Cd, Se and Zn; group B: Al, Cr, Fe, Se and V; group C: Al, Au, Fe and Se).

  11. Tissue-Specific Enrichment of Lymphoma Risk Loci in Regulatory Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, James E; Trynka, Gosia; Vijai, Joseph; Offit, Kenneth; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Klein, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Though numerous polymorphisms have been associated with risk of developing lymphoma, how these variants function to promote tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Here, we report that lymphoma risk SNPs, especially in the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype chronic lymphocytic leukemia, are significantly enriched for co-localization with epigenetic marks of active gene regulation. These enrichments were seen in a lymphoid-specific manner for numerous ENCODE datasets, including DNase-hypersensitivity as well as multiple segmentation-defined enhancer regions. Furthermore, we identify putatively functional SNPs that are both in regulatory elements in lymphocytes and are associated with gene expression changes in blood. We developed an algorithm, UES, that uses a Monte Carlo simulation approach to calculate the enrichment of previously identified risk SNPs in various functional elements. This multiscale approach integrating multiple datasets helps disentangle the underlying biology of lymphoma, and more broadly, is generally applicable to GWAS results from other diseases as well.

  12. Comparison of serum trace element levels in patients with or without pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In developing countries, nutritional deficiency of essential trace elements is a common health problem, particularly among pregnant women because of increased requirements of various nutrients. Accordingly, this study was initiated to compare trace elements status in women with or without pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum trace elements including zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 patients and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu between two groups (P > 0.05. A significant difference in Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were observed between patients with pre-eclampsia and control group (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the levels of Zn, Se, Ca and Mg are significantly altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. This research shows that these deficiencies can not due to hemodilution.

  13. Human apolipoprotein CIII gene expression is regulated by positive and negative cis-acting elements and tissue-specific protein factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reue, K.; Leff, T.; Breslow, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is a major protein constituent of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and is synthesized primarily in the liver. Cis-acting DNA elements required for liver-specific apoCIII gene transcription were identified with transient expression assays in the human hepatoma (HepG2) and epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines. In liver cells, 821 nucleotides of the human apoCIII gene 5'-flanking sequence were required for maximum levels of gene expression, while the proximal 110 nucleotides alone were sufficient. No expression was observed in similar studies with HeLa cells. The level of expression was modulated by a combination of positive and negative cis-acting sequences, which interact with distinct sets of proteins from liver and HeLa cell nuclear extracts. The proximal positive regulatory region shares homology with similarly located sequences of other genes strongly expressed in the liver, including α 1 -antitrypsin and other apolipoprotein genes. The negative regulatory region is striking homologous to the human β-interferon gene regulatory element. The distal positive region shares homology with some viral enhancers and has properties of a tissue-specific enhancer. The regulation of the apoCIII gene is complex but shares features with other genes, suggesting shuffling of regulatory elements as a common mechanism for cell type-specific gene expression

  14. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of biological tissues: contribution to the study of trace element accumulation as a function of aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudry, Andre.

    1975-01-01

    The accumulation of trace elements in various organs as a function of age was studied in rats, in connection with tissue aging phenomena. Part one reviews the various methods available to develop a programme of simultaneous multi-element analysis in biological matrices. Part two studies the precision and accuracy offered by neutron activation analysis. Special attention is paid to the problem of sample contamination by the silica glass irradiation supports. The possible causes of this effect are mentioned and a procedure limiting its harmful influence is proposed. Part three defines the restrictions introduced by the use of a method to separate the activable matrix. The fourth and last chapter describes the development of a multielement chemical separation system, designed to work semi-automatically for the simultaneous treatment of three samples and a standard in a shielded cell of small dimensions. The principles of a multi-comparator calibration where a knowledge of certain conventional but imprecise nuclear data is unnecessary owing to an experimental expedient are outlined briefly. Finally the separation method is tried out on various biological samples, including a reference (bovine liver SRM1577-NBS), and some results are given [fr

  15. Gene-specific correlation of RNA and protein levels in human cells and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edfors, Fredrik; Danielsson, Frida; Hallström, Björn M.

    2016-01-01

    An important issue for molecular biology is to establish whether transcript levels of a given gene can be used as proxies for the corresponding protein levels. Here, we have developed a targeted proteomics approach for a set of human non-secreted proteins based on parallel reaction monitoring...... to measure, at steady-state conditions, absolute protein copy numbers across human tissues and cell lines and compared these levels with the corresponding mRNA levels using transcriptomics. The study shows that the transcript and protein levels do not correlate well unless a gene-specific RNA-to-protein (RTP...

  16. Impact of element-level static condensation on iterative solver performance

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, D.; Á lvarez-Aramberri, J.; Paszynski, M.; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    that static condensation at the element level is beneficial for higher-order methods. For lower-order methods or when the number of iterations required for convergence is low, the setup cost of the elimination as well as its implementation may offset

  17. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  18. Matching of singly- and doubly-unresolved limits of tree-level QCD squared matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, Gabor [University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, PO Box 51 (Hungary); Trocsanyi, Zoltan [University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, PO Box 51 (Hungary); Duca, Vittorio Del [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1 - 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2005-06-01

    We describe how to disentangle the singly- and doubly-unresolved (soft and/or collinear) limits of tree-level QCD squared matrix elements. Using the factorization formulae presented in this paper, we outline a viable general subtraction scheme for computing next-to-next-to-leading order corrections for electron-positron annihilation into jets.

  19. Synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) elemental distribution analysis of brain tissue in a rat model of transient focal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuxia; He Rui; Qian Junchao; Lei Hao; Liu Nianqing; Huang Yuying; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown recently that transient focal ischemia with a duration of 15 minutes in rat leads to delayed neurodegeneration in striatum, as evidenced by shortened T 1 relaxation time in this brain region. The mechanism underlying such T 1 change has been proposed to be deposition of paramagnetic metal ions, such as manganese, in the ischemic brain tissue. To further investigate the characteristics of metal ion deposition in the ischemic brain tissue, elemental (i.e., Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn) distribution was measured in rat brain sections 2 weeks after a 15-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using synchrotron radiation X-Ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF). The right middle cerebral arteries of 4 Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were occluded under mild anesthesia (1-1.5% isoflurane) for 15 minutes by inserting a silicon-coated nylon thread from the external carotid artery into the internal carotid artery. Two weeks later the rats were decapitated and the brain was immediately removed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, cut into 100 m sections at the level of striatum with a microtome, and put onto polycarbonate films specially designed for SRXRF examination. All SRXRF spectra obtained with a beam spot size of 100 m x 100 m were normalized to the acquisition time and the counting of the ion chambers, and the contribution from the supporting polycarbonate film was subtracted. The X-ray peak area for each element (A) and the Compton scattering intensity (B) for the whole brain section were obtained. The relative content for each element was taken as the ratio of A to B. The results show that, compared to those in the contralateral striatum (i.e., left hemisphere), the relative contents of Ca and Mn in the ipsilateral striatum (i.e., right hemisphere) increased 1300.3±500.3% and 39±23%, respectively. The relative contents of Fe and Zn in the ischemic striatum showed no obvious changes as compared to control, contrasted to the results reported by Danielisova et al who showed

  20. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  1. Adjacent level effects of bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and disc replacement plus fusion in cervical spine--a finite element based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Ahmad; Goel, Vijay K; Biyani, Ashok; Garfin, Steven R; Bono, Christopher M

    2012-03-01

    Studies delineating the adjacent level effect of single level disc replacement systems have been reported in literature. The aim of this study was to compare the adjacent level biomechanics of bi-level disc replacement, bi-level fusion and a construct having adjoining level disc replacement and fusion system. In total, biomechanics of four models- intact, bi level disc replacement, bi level fusion and fusion plus disc replacement at adjoining levels- was studied to gain insight into the effects of various instrumentation systems on cranial and caudal adjacent levels using finite element analysis (73.6N+varying moment). The bi-level fusion models are more than twice as stiff as compared to the intact model during flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Bi-level disc replacement model required moments lower than intact model (1.5Nm). Fusion plus disc replacement model required moment 10-25% more than intact model, except in extension. Adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses increased substantially in the bi-level fusion model. On the other hand, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were similar to intact for the bi-level disc replacement model. For the fusion plus disc replacement model, adjacent level motions, facet loads and endplate stresses were closer to intact model rather than the bi-level fusion model, except in extension. Based on our finite element analysis, fusion plus disc replacement procedure has less severe biomechanical effects on adjacent levels when compared to bi-level fusion procedure. Bi-level disc replacement procedure did not have any adverse mechanical effects on adjacent levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue partition and risk assessments of trace elements in Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the Pearl River Estuary coast, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Yu, Ri-Qing; Sun, Xian; Ding, Yulong; Chen, Hailiang; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuping

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the last few decades, an increased number of stranded marine mammals, particularly the Indo-Pacific Finless Porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), were observed in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). As long-lived, apex predators vulnerable to bioaccumulation of contaminants, the tissue residue levels and health risk of trace elements (TEs) in N. phocaenoides from the PRE have been little studied. Eleven typical TEs distributed in skin, liver and kidney tissues were investigated from 25 specimens stranded along the PRE from 2007 to 2015 in the present study. It revealed that most TEs were highly accumulated in internal organs (liver and kidney), except for Zn with high residue levels in external skin. Compared with the TEs in prey items, the residue levels of Hg, Se, Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr in N. phocaenoides increased 4-618 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification. Sex-related differences of TE accumulation were not obvious, except for renal Mn, in which the females showed lower mean concentrations than males. Significantly positive correlations between body length and TE levels were found for Hg, Se and Cd. Results of the calculated risk quotients (RQ) suggested that the risks to N. phocaenoides from consumption of prey items were generally low, but further attentions should be paid to Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and As due to the elevated RQ values. The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Se in the epidermis were positively correlated with the levels found in internal organs. Our investigation provides evidence to support the use of skin as one biomonitoring approach on Hg, Cd and Se contamination of internal tissues in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying dynamic mechanical properties of human placenta tissue using optimization techniques with specimen-specific finite-element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Miller, Carl S; Nazmi, Giseli; Pearlman, Mark D; Schneider, Lawrence W; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2009-11-13

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fetal deaths resulting from maternal trauma in the United States, and placental abruption is the most common cause of these deaths. To minimize this injury, new assessment tools, such as crash-test dummies and computational models of pregnant women, are needed to evaluate vehicle restraint systems with respect to reducing the risk of placental abruption. Developing these models requires accurate material properties for tissues in the pregnant abdomen under dynamic loading conditions that can occur in crashes. A method has been developed for determining dynamic material properties of human soft tissues that combines results from uniaxial tensile tests, specimen-specific finite-element models based on laser scans that accurately capture non-uniform tissue-specimen geometry, and optimization techniques. The current study applies this method to characterizing material properties of placental tissue. For 21 placenta specimens tested at a strain rate of 12/s, the mean failure strain is 0.472+/-0.097 and the mean failure stress is 34.80+/-12.62 kPa. A first-order Ogden material model with ground-state shear modulus (mu) of 23.97+/-5.52 kPa and exponent (alpha(1)) of 3.66+/-1.90 best fits the test results. The new method provides a nearly 40% error reduction (p<0.001) compared to traditional curve-fitting methods by considering detailed specimen geometry, loading conditions, and dynamic effects from high-speed loading. The proposed method can be applied to determine mechanical properties of other soft biological tissues.

  4. Evaluation of some essential element levels in thalassemia major patients in Mosul district, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarrai, Abdulmunaim H; Adaay, Mohaisen H; Al-Tikriti, Khudhair A; Al-Anzy, Muayed M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of some essential elements in thalassemic patients in Mosul, Iraq. One hundred and five thalassemic blood transfusion dependent children, 2.5-18 years of age attending Ibn-Al-Atheer teaching hospital in Mosul City, Iraq, during 2005, were used in this study. Fifty-four healthy subjects served as a control group. Patients were allocated in a non-randomized prospective cross-sectional hospital based study. Essential elements levels were estimated. The mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and z-test were used. P-values copper, and potassium levels were found among the 105 thalassemic patients compared to the 54 controls. Levels of calcium, phosphate, and sodium were within normal limits. Fluctuations in the essential elements levels seem to be related to the different complications associated with the disease. Zinc deficiency may be attributed to hyperzincuria resulted from the release of Zn from hemolyzed red cells. Hypercupremia occurs in acute and chronic infections and hemochromatosis, which is a principal complication of thalassemia. Increased Na levels may be due to renal damage. Hypomagnesemia may occur due to hypoparathyroidism.

  5. Evaluation of some essential elements levels in thalassemia patients in Mosul, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Samarrai, Abdulmunaim H.; Al-Tikriti, Khudhair A.; Al-Anzy, Muayed M.; Adaay, Mohaisen H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the levels of some essential elements in thalassemic patients in Mousel, Iraq. One hundred and five thalassemic blood transfusion dependent children, 2.5-18 years of age attending Ibn-Al-Atheer teaching hospital in Mosul City, Iraq, during 2005, were used in this study. Fifty-four healthy subjects served as a control group. Patients were allocated in a non-randomized prospective cross-sectional hospital study. Essential elements levels were estimated. The mean, standard deviation, correction coefficient and z-test were used. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Low serum Zinc, Magnesium, high serum copper and potassium levels were found among the 105 thalassemic patients compared to the 54 controls. Levels of calcium, phosphate and sodium were within normal limits. Fluctuations in the essential elements levels seem to be related to the different complications associated with the disease. Zinc deficiency may be attributed to hyperzincuria resulted from the release of Zn from hemolyzed red cells. Hypercupremia occurs in acute and chronic infections and hemochromatosis, which is a principal complication of thalassemia. Increased Na levels may be due to renal damage. Hypomagnesemia may occur due to hypoparathyroidism. (author)

  6. Simulation of nonlinear transient elastography: finite element model for the propagation of shear waves in homogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  8. The effect of milk on plasmatic and tissue levels of macrolides: in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Groppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The ingestion of milk with drugs, particularly some antibiotics, is frequently recommended in order to decrease possible gastrointestinal discomfort. The objective of this study was to assess the interference of milk in the absorption and tissue levels of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Forty female rats received surgicallyimplanted PVC sponges on their backs. One week later, granulomatous tissue was observed and the animals were divided into eight groups, which received erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin with and without milk. One hour after administration of antibiotic, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and tissue samples were submitted to microbiological assay with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, in order to determine drug concentration. Milk did not cause any reduction in the serum and tissue levels of azithromycin and clarithromycin (p>0.05,t-test. However, ingestion of milk reduced by approximately 28.7% the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and by 34.1% the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t test serum concentrations. Similar effects were observed on tissue levels. Milk ingestion caused a reduction of approximately 20.8% in the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and 40% in the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t-test tissue levels. We concluded that erythromycin and roxithromycin should be not administered with milk. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, macrolides, milk, serum concentration

  9. Three-dimensional finite element models of the human pubic symphysis with viscohyperelastic soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoping; Alonso, Jorge E; Kim, Jong-Eun; Davidson, James S; Etheridge, Brandon S; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of human pubic symphyses were constructed from computed tomography image data of one male and one female cadaver pelvis. The pubic bones, interpubic fibrocartilaginous disc and four pubic ligaments were segmented semi-automatically and meshed with hexahedral elements using automatic mesh generation schemes. A two-term viscoelastic Prony series, determined by curve fitting results of compressive creep experiments, was used to model the rate-dependent effects of the interpubic disc and the pubic ligaments. Three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin material coefficients were calculated for the discs using a heuristic FE approach based on average experimental joint compression data. Similarly, a transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model was applied to the ligaments to capture average tensile responses. Linear elastic isotropic properties were assigned to bone. The applicability of the resulting models was tested in bending simulations in four directions and in tensile tests of varying load rates. The model-predicted results correlated reasonably with the joint bending stiffnesses and rate-dependent tensile responses measured in experiments, supporting the validity of the estimated material coefficients and overall modeling approach. This study represents an important and necessary step in the eventual development of biofidelic pelvis models to investigate symphysis response under high-energy impact conditions, such as motor vehicle collisions.

  10. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  11. Matrix elements of Yale potential and level properties of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N; Prakash, O [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-07-01

    Shell model calculations using bare and renormalized matrix elements of the Yale potential are reported for the normal-parity states of A = 6-9 nuclei. Renormalization of the two-body matrix elements using second-order perturbation theory is not found to improve the agreements with the experimental data. Inclusion of the energy shifts of ground state rotational bands in /sup 8/Be and /sup 9/Be are, however, found to improve the agreements with the excitation energies of nuclear levels. The need for carrying out more calculations of these nuclei with realistic forces is pointed out.

  12. Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virtanen, S.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; for the EURAMIC Study Group

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of adipose tissue alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and toenail selenium and their determinants. Design: Control subjects from multicentre case-control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction and cancer of the breast. Subjects and setting: 686 male and 339

  13. The Effects of Bougie Diameters on Tissue Oxygen Levels After Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Randomized Experimental Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Konca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staple-line leak is the most frightening complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and several predisposing factors such as using improper staple sizes regardless of gastric wall thickness, narrower bougie diameter and ischemia of the staple line are asserted. Aims: To evaluate the effects of different bougie diameters on tissue oxygen partial pressure at the esophagogastric junction after sleeve gastrectomy. Study Design: A randomized and controlled animal experiment with 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 8 each. While 12-Fr bougies were used in groups 1 and 3, 8-Fr bougies were used in groups 2 and 4. Fibrin sealant application was also carried out around the gastrectomy line after sleeve gastrectomy in groups 3 and 4. Burst pressure of gastrectomy line, tissue oxygen partial pressure and hydroxyproline levels at the esophagogastric junction were measured and compared among groups. Results: Mortality was detected in 2 out of 32 rats (6.25% and one of them was in group 2 and the cause of this mortality was gastric leak. Gastric leak was detected in 2 out of 32 rats (6.25%. There was no significant difference in terms of burst pressures, tissue oxygen partial pressure and tissue hydroxyproline levels among the 4 groups. Conclusion: The use of narrower bougie along with fibrin sealant has not had a negative effect on tissue perfusion and wound healing.

  14. Mechanical behaviour of a fibrous scaffold for ligament tissue engineering: finite elements analysis vs. X-ray tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Cédric P; Latil, Pierre; Durville, Damien; Rahouadj, Rachid; Geindreau, Christian; Orgéas, Laurent; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    The use of biodegradable scaffolds seeded with cells in order to regenerate functional tissue-engineered substitutes offers interesting alternative to common medical approaches for ligament repair. Particularly, finite element (FE) method enables the ability to predict and optimise both the macroscopic behaviour of these scaffolds and the local mechanic signals that control the cell activity. In this study, we investigate the ability of a dedicated FE code to predict the geometrical evolution of a new braided and biodegradable polymer scaffold for ligament tissue engineering by comparing scaffold geometries issued from FE simulations and from X-ray tomographic imaging during a tensile test. Moreover, we compare two types of FE simulations the initial geometries of which are issued either from X-ray imaging or from a computed idealised configuration. We report that the dedicated FE simulations from an idealised reference configuration can be reasonably used in the future to predict the global and local mechanical behaviour of the braided scaffold. A valuable and original dialog between the fields of experimental and numerical characterisation of such fibrous media is thus achieved. In the future, this approach should enable to improve accurate characterisation of local and global behaviour of tissue-engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to compare lettuce performance under conventional hydroponics at pH 5.8 (referred to as H5, hydroponics at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7, and recirculated aquaponic water at pH 7.0 (referred to as A7. Aquaponic nutrients were supplied by continuously recirculating water between a fish rearing system (recirculating aquaculture system or RAS and the lettuce growing system (with the sole addition being chelated iron. This paper builds upon our previous research where we found that H7 produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW growth than H5 and an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. In this research, we also evaluated the inorganic hydroponics nutrient solution at pH 7.0 (H7 to provide continuity between experiments and to isolate the pH effect. The A7 plant biomass responses were not different from H5 in all biomass response categories. H7 was different from H5 in shoot FW, DW, and DW/FW, as well as root FW and DW. H7 was different from the A7 in shoot FW, DW/FW, and root DW. There were no tissue elemental differences between H5 and H7 except Cu. The Ca and Na contents differed between H5 and A7, while the microelements Mn, Mo, and Zn differed. Generally, the elemental tissue differences between treatments were proportional to the differences for the same elements in the nutrient solutions. Aquaponic systems are often viewed to be more complicated and more risky because two complex systems are being joined (hydroponics plus RAS. However, the aquaponics system proved to be surprisingly simple to manage in daily operations. Our data suggested that the aquaponics system (A7, which was operated at a higher pH 7.0, was able to offset any negative biomass and elemental effects that occurred in the inorganic hydroponic pH 7.0 treatment (H7 from its increased pH and less optimized nutrient solution elemental concentrations.

  16. Aldolase A isoenzyme levels in serum and tissues of patients with liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, M.; Nagase, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Alpert, E.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay specific for human aldolase A was used to measure human aldolase A levels in human tissue and serum of patients with various liver diseases. The method was a double-antibody technique using radio-iodinated purified aldolase A, chicken antibody to aldolase A, and rabbit antibody to chicken immunoglobulin G. Normal liver tissue contains only a small amount of aldolase A. In contrast, aldolase A predominates in liver cell carcinoma tissue. Aldolase A levels in the sera of normal subjects were 171 +/- 39 ng/ml (mean +/- 2 SD). In almost all of the nonmalignant liver diseases, the aldolase A levels remained less than 210 ng/ml. The serum aldolase A levels increased remarkable only in fulminant hepatitis. in contrast, 32 of 34 patients with liver cell carcinoma and all of 29 patients with metastatic liver carcinoma showed clearly increased serum aldolase A levels. More patients with primary liver cell carcinoma had increased serum aldolase A levels than elevations of serum alpha-fetoprotein. These results suggest that the determination of aldolase A by radioimmunoassay may be useful to differentiate malignant form nonmalignant liver diseases

  17. Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

  18. Fundamental study on the extraction of transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Tochiyama, Osamu; Inoue, Yasushi.

    1988-01-01

    A great many extractants have been studied for the separation of transuranium elements. The present study deals with the survey and classification of the extractants appearing in literature, bearing in mind the relationship between the molecular structure of extractants and their extractability for the transuranium elements from the standpoint of their selective separation from high-level liquid waste (HLW) generated from fuel reprocessing. The extractants surveyed were classified into six groups; unidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, acidic organophosphorus compounds, amines and ammonium salts, N,N-disubstituted amides and the other compounds. These extractants are not always applicable to the separation of transuranium elements from HLW because of their limitations in extractability and radiation durability. Only a limited number of extractants belonging to the bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds and the acidic organophosphorus compounds are considered to be suitable for the present purpose. (author)

  19. Atomic energy levels of the iron-period elements: potassium through nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar, J.; Corliss, C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimentally derived energy levels of the elements from potassium to nickel in all stages of ionization are critically compiled. The data for each level include its position in /cm (relative to the ground state), configuration, term designation, J-value, and, where available, the g-value and two leading percentages of the eigenvector composition in the most appropriate coupling scheme. For the He I and H I isoelectronic sequences, calculated level positions are given because they are considered more accurate than the measurements presently available. Ionization energies for each ion are derived either from Rydberg series, extrapolation, or calculation. Complete references are given for the compiled data

  20. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon

    2016-01-01

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time

  1. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time.

  2. Levels of aqueous humor trace elements in patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohberger, Bettina; Chaudhri, M Anwar; Michalke, Bernhard; Lucio, Marianna; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Grieb, Pawel; Rejdak, Robert; Jünemann, Anselm G M

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. The aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of trace elements in aqueous humor samples of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). Thirty-three aqueous humor samples were obtained from patients undergoing cataract surgery: 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3±10.50, female 8, male 4), 10 patients with PEXG (age 65.9±11.27, female 6, male 4) and 11 patients without glaucoma (age 69.5±13.70, female 7, male 4) serving as controls. Aqueous humor levels of cadmium, iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS). From the statistical evaluation, we observed that patients with POAG had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of zinc (p=0.006) compared to controls. Increased aqueous humor levels of zinc were also observed in patients with PEXG in relation to control (p=0.0006). For iron we observed a significantly reduction in PEXG compared to control (p=0.002) and a significant difference between POAG and PEXG (p=0.0091). No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese, cobalt, copper, cadmium between glaucoma and control patients. No differences were seen for iron (POAG vs. controls). Analysis of trace element ratios was added. Significant differences in aqueous humor levels of zinc and iron between glaucoma and control patients support the hypothesis that these trace elements are involved in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary study of the effect of phytoadditive carvacrol on the trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn content in fish tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU YILMAZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoadditives have gained increasing interest as feed additives for fish. The aim of the present study was to determine whether selected dietary phytoadditive can influence the bioavailability of several trace elements (Cu, Mn and Zn, which play an important role in the physiological processes. The experiments were carried out at a commercial trout farm. A total of 420 juvenile rainbow trout (mean weight ± SD = 10.79±0.57, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were randomly allocated into four different treatments with three replicates each. Fish were kept in raceways (3X0.8X0.4 m at 10±1°C with a natural photoperiod. Proper amount of carvacrol was sprayed on 1 kg of commercial trout diet to prepare four diets with 0 (Control, C0, 1 (C1, 3 (C3 and 5 (C5 carvacrol g/kg diet. Fish were fed to apparent satiation three times per day. The feeding trial lasted four weeks. Then, in different type of fish tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca from fish fed with diets enriched in carvacrol, beneficial elements (Cu, Mn and Zn were analysed by atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the levels of Cu, Zn and Mn were especially significantly increase by C1 diet in all tissues (muscle, liver and pyloric caeca except muscle and pyloric caeca Zn. The results of this experiment indicate that the carvacrol had the ability to potentiate the trace element retention. Although bioaccumulations of Cu, Zn and Mn in the muscle, liver and pyloric caeca are well demonstrated, the exact mechanisms of phytoadditives are still only partially understood. More investigations are required to detail the mechanisms involved in phytoadditives this enhancement.

  4. Elemental trace analysis of hepatomas and normal tissues by proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Shishido, Fumio; Sera, Koichiro; Sato, Tachio; Morita, Tasuku.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens taken from liver, brain, serum and ascites hepatoma 130 in rats, were bombarded with 3.5 MeV protons accelerated by a Van de graaff generator, and the induced x-ray fluorescence was analysed with a Si(Li) detector. Absolute concentrations were determined with reference to a known concentration of uranium in the specimen. Small amounts of Ga, Yb and Tl which are known as metals having tumor affinity were injected into rats implanted with ascites hepatoma and several of its derivatives. Twenty-four hours after injection, liver, brain, serum and hepatoma were removed from the rats and these specimens were analysed by the same method. Relative concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in liver, brain, serum and hepatoma specimens showed characteristic patterns. Patterns of liver and ascites hepatoma were quite similar, but the total amount of metals in liver was greater. The serum contained a large quantity of Br. Each AH 130 tumor cell line and its derivatives showed a different accumulation rate for Ga, Yb and Tl. Tl accumulated peculiarly in the brain. There was excellent co-relation between the concentrations of the elements and the biological characteristics of the tumor. (Evans, J.)

  5. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.; Taraschewski, H.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentrated in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.

  6. Vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the vitamin E levels in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its correlation with oxidative stress injury and apoptosis. Methods: A total of 60 pregnant women with preeclampsia who received treatment and gave birth in our hospital between July 2012 and January 2016 were collected and divided into mild preeclampsia group (n=41 and severe preeclampsia group (n=19 according to the disease severity; 38 normal pregnant women who received pregnancy test and gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. The placental tissue samples of three groups of research subjects were retained, high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to detect VitE levels in tissue grinding fluid, automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of oxidative stress injury indexes, and fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the mRNA expression of apoptosis molecules. Results: VitE, SOD and CAT levels in grinding fluid of severe preeclampsia group were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while ROS and AOPP levels were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group; Fas, caspase and Apaf-1 mRNA expression were higher than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group while anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-2 and p57kip2 mRNA expression were lower than those of mild preeclampsia group and healthy control group. Spearman correlation analysis showed that VitE level in the preeclampsia placenta tissue was directly correlated with oxidative stress injury and cell apoptosis. Conclusion: VitE deficiency is the direct factor that results in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in patients with preeclampsia, and the VitE supplementation in time is expected to become the auxiliary treatment means for patients with preeclampsia.

  7. Validation of freezing tissues and cells for analysis of DNA strand break levels by comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The comet analysis of DNA strand break levels in tissues and cells has become a common method of screening for genotoxicity. The large majority of published studies have used fresh tissues and cells processed immediately after collection. However, we have used frozen tissues and cells for more than 10 years, and we believe that freezing samples improve efficiency of the method. We compared DNA strand break levels measured in fresh and frozen bronchoalveolar cells, and lung and liver tissues from mice exposed to the known mutagen methyl methanesulphonate (0, 25, 75, 112.5mg/kg). We used a high-throughput comet protocol with fully automated scoring of DNA strand break levels. The overall results from fresh and frozen samples were in agreement [R 2 = 0.93 for %DNA in tail (%TDNA) and R 2 = 0.78 for tail length (TL)]. A slightly increased %TDNA was observed in lung and liver tissue from vehicle controls; and TL was slightly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavage cells from the high-dose group. In our comet protocol, a small block of tissue designated for comet analysis is frozen immediately at tissue collection and kept deep frozen until rapidly homogenised and embedded in agarose. To demonstrate the feasibility of long-term freezing of samples, we analysed the day-to-day variation of our internal historical negative and positive comet assay controls collected over a 10-year period (1128 observations, 11 batches of frozen untreated and H2O2-treated A549 lung epithelial cells). The H2O2 treatment explained most of the variation 57–77% and the day-to-day variation was only 2–12%. The presented protocol allows analysis of samples collected over longer time span, at different locations, with reduced variation by reducing number of electrophoreses and is suitable for both toxicological and epidemiological studies. The use of frozen tissues; however, requires great care during preparation before analysis, with handling as a major risk factor. PMID:24136994

  8. Links between geodiversity and cultural elements on three scale levels, a neglected part of geoconservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The best-known landscape map of The Netherlands is a simplified version of the first geological map of The Netherlands and was made between 1856 and 1867 by Winand Staring. It still is the basis of our vegetation districts. The main landscape units of this map are the sand landscape, the peat landscape, the river landscape, the marine landscape, the coastal dunes and the hills. On this scale level there is general awareness of the relationships between the geo aspects (geomorphology, geology, geohydrology and soil science) of the landscape and historical land use, e.g. in field patterns and other cultural elements (archaeology and historical geography). From three of these units, examples of interactions between geo-aspects and cultural elements are given for two different scale levels: first on a more regional scale level, then on site level. Especially the last level requires field study. The relationships between the geo and cultural aspects appear to be most intact and are most variable at the site level. Earth scientists as yet hardly involve themselves in geoconservation studies re these relationships, for which reason the geo-aspects of the cultural elements, especially those at the site level, often are not noticed and disappear during land development projects or gardening efforts. It also is a missed opportunity as these sites offer a chance to raise interest of a broader public for geomorphology and soils, which are in general more difficult to communicate. The development and management of cultural landscapes and sites, by Dutch law is the domain of land owners and landscape architects, who in the course of a project consult other experts. Our plea for future planning projects is to work with a team of experts including archaeologists, historical geographers, flora and fauna experts, geologists, geomorphologists and soil specialists. Although the costs of preparing a plan will be slightly higher, our experience is that it will improve the quality of

  9. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Bøge Søndergaard, Annette; Bøknæs, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while...... summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p

  10. Computing the dynamics of biomembranes by combining conservative level set and adaptive finite element methods

    OpenAIRE

    Laadhari , Aymen; Saramito , Pierre; Misbah , Chaouqi

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The numerical simulation of the deformation of vesicle membranes under simple shear external fluid flow is considered in this paper. A new saddle-point approach is proposed for the imposition of the fluid incompressibility and the membrane inextensibility constraints, through Lagrange multipliers defined in the fluid and on the membrane respectively. Using a level set formulation, the problem is approximated by mixed finite elements combined with an automatic adaptive ...

  11. Separation of transuranium elements from high-level waste by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Kubota, M.; Tani, S.

    1991-01-01

    Separation of transuranic elements (TRU) by extraction with diisodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA) has been studied to develop a partitioning process for high-level waste (HLW). In the present study, experiments of counter-current continuous extraction and back-extraction using a miniature mixer-settler were carried out to find the optimum process condition for the separation of Np initially in the pentavalent state and to examine the extraction behaviors of fission and corrosion products. (J.P.N.)

  12. Determination of elemental levels in radiopharmaceuticals by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, Gil; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria; Hernandez Rivero, Tulio

    2001-01-01

    .3 % relative to a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) crystal at 1.33 MeV and a 25 cm source to detector distance. Data collection was performed using a P C equipped with a 4096 multichannel analyzer. Gamma-ray spectra were evaluated for peak position and intensity by the GAMANAL analyzing routine. Elemental composition was determined by INAA, using the absolute parametric method. The thermal, epithermal and fast fluxes were obtained in each irradiation run using Co, Au and Ni monitors and the nuclear data needed to calculate the elemental concentrations in the samples were taken from the literature. The accuracy and precision of the analytical results were evaluated by analyzing three Certified Reference Materials: IAEA Lake Sediment SL-1, IAEA-393 (algae) and NIST Buffalo River Sediment BRS. The procedure used for the analysis allowed to obtain the concentration levels of forty-two elements. With the use of INAA, important information on the concentration levels of several toxic elements (Hg, Cd, As, Se, Sb, U and Th) was obtained. In addition, thirty-five other trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf and Ta) were determined in the active components of three radiopharmaceuticals. The technique used for the irradiation arrangement allowed to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the INAA. The results of the elemental levels of trace elements in three radiopharmaceuticals were used in their registration. The feasibility of applying INAA in order to obtain quick information on the concentration levels of several important minor and trace elements in radiopharmaceutical samples was demonstrated. (author)

  13. Radical Surgery of Only the Anterior Elements of the Spine at the Posterior Element Fusion Level due to Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuto Tsuchiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer can have a favorable prognosis if radical surgery is performed. We encountered a case of spinal metastasis involving three anterior vertebral bodies at the posterior element fusion level and successfully achieved adequate stability by radical surgery involving only the anterior elements. A 67-year-old woman who had numbness and muscle weakness in the lower limbs caused by metastatic spinal tumor at the posterior element fusion level of L1–L3 vertebrae was treated with radical surgery of only the anterior element to gain stability. Similar situations may occur in cases involving other malignant tumor metastases or spinal primary tumors. If such a case occurs, this method could be useful in preventing metastasis to the posterior element.

  14. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Natalino Lourenço; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Rodini, Camila Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy. (paper)

  15. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  16. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  17. [Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Ma, K J; Li, Z H; Gu, J; Bao, J Y; Yang, Z F; Gao, J; Zeng, Y; Tao, L; Chen, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the expression levels of several RNA markers in human brain tissue and early postmortem interval (PMI). Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including β -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. RNA markers normalized by internal reference were inserted into the mathematic model established by previous research for PMI estimation using R software. Model quality was judged by the error rate calculated with estimated PMI. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b showed quite stable expression and their expression levels had no relation with age, gender and cause of death. The error rate of estimated PMI using β -actin was 24.6%, while GAPDH was 41.0%. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b are suitable as internal reference markers of human brain tissue owing to their stable expression in early PMI. The expression level of β -actin correlates well with PMI, which can be used as an additional index for early PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  18. Inorganic arsenic levels in tissues and ingesta of poisoned cattle: an eight-year survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, R C; Funnell, H S

    1969-05-01

    During the period 1959 to 1967, arsenic analyses were performed on food, liver and kidney tissue of 21 cattle which died of inorganic arsenic poisoning. The average levels of arsenic measured were: food 35.7 ppm; liver 14.0 ppm; and kidneys 13.3 ppm. Levels as low as 1.5 to 5.0 ppm and as high as 30.0 to 38.0 ppm were found in liver and kidney tissue of some of these cattle. There was a direct relationship between arsenic levels in food and levels in liver and kidney. The relationship between kidney arsenic levels and liver levels of the metal in the same animals was not significantly different from 1:1. Individual animal data varied considerably from the group averages. Diagnosis of arsenic poisoning requires details of the past history of the animal and an account of characteristic clinical signs and lesions observed at post-mortem examination, as well as a detectable level of the metal which may be as low as 1.5 to 5.0 ppm in the liver or kidneys.

  19. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  20. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Kathryn M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Carpenter, R Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S; Goldstrohm, David A; Crapo, James D; Kohrt, Wendy M; Bowler, Russell P; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Regan, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Blood lead level and its relationship to essential elements in preschool children from Nanning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Li, Muyan; Lv, Qun; Chen, Guoli; Li, Yong; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Yuhuan; Ou, Shiyan; Yuan, Zongxiang; Huang, Mingli; Jiang, Yueming

    2015-04-01

    Our study aimed to assess the distribution of blood lead level and its relationship to essential elements in preschool children in an urban area of China. A total of 6741 children aged 0- to 6-year-old were recruited. Levels of lead, zinc, copper, iron, calcium, and magnesium in whole blood samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean blood lead level (BLL) and the prevalence of BLL≥10μg/dl (5.26±4.08μg/dl and 6.84%, respectively) increased with age gradually, and there was a gender-difference for blood lead, copper, zinc and iron levels. Compared with the group of children who had BLLslead with zinc, iron and magnesium, and a negative correlation of lead with calcium were found in the group of children with BLLintoxication prevalence in preschool children. Metabolic disorder of essential elements was found even with a low level of lead exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. In-Field, In Situ, and In Vivo 3-Dimensional Elemental Mapping for Plant Tissue and Soil Analysis Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjiang Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.

  3. Finite Element Methods for real-time Haptic Feedback of Soft-Tissue Models in Virtual Reality Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andreas O.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Barth, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have applied the linear elastic finite element method to compute haptic force feedback and domain deformations of soft tissue models for use in virtual reality simulators. Our results show that, for virtual object models of high-resolution 3D data (>10,000 nodes), haptic real time computations (>500 Hz) are not currently possible using traditional methods. Current research efforts are focused in the following areas: 1) efficient implementation of fully adaptive multi-resolution methods and 2) multi-resolution methods with specialized basis functions to capture the singularity at the haptic interface (point loading). To achieve real time computations, we propose parallel processing of a Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method applied to a reduced system of equations resulting from surface domain decomposition. This can effectively be achieved using reconfigurable computing systems such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), thereby providing a flexible solution that allows for new FPGA implementations as improved algorithms become available. The resulting soft tissue simulation system would meet NASA Virtual Glovebox requirements and, at the same time, provide a generalized simulation engine for any immersive environment application, such as biomedical/surgical procedures or interactive scientific applications.

  4. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim; Koning, Tom J. de; Sijens, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  6. Levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, determinants and health effects in metro systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Gómez-Perales, J. E.; Colvile, R. N.

    The aim of this study was to review and summarise the levels of particulate air pollution, its elemental composition, its determinants, and its potential health effects in metro systems. A number of studies have been conducted to assess the levels of particulate matter and its chemical composition in metro systems. The monitoring equipment used varied and may have led to different reporting and makes it more difficult to compare results between metro systems. Some of the highest average levels of particulate matter were measured in the London metro system. Whereas some studies have reported higher levels of particulate matter in the metro system (e.g. London, Helsinki, Stockholm) compared to other modes of transport (London) and street canyons (Stockholm and Helsinki), other studies reported lower levels in the metro system (e.g. Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Mexico City). The differences may be due to different material of the wheel, ventilation levels and breaking systems but there is no good evidence to what extent the differences may be explained by this, except perhaps for some elements (e.g. Fe, Mn). The dust in the metro system was shown to be more toxic than ambient airborne particulates, and its toxicity was compared with welding dust. The higher toxicity may be due to the higher iron content. Although the current levels of particulate matter and toxic matter are unlikely to lead to any significant excess health effects in commuters, they should be reduced where possible. It will be difficult to introduce measures to reduce the levels in older metro systems, e.g. by introducing air conditioning in London, but certainly they should be part of any new designs of metro systems.

  7. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and NGAL levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Ugurlu, Yavuz; Ergul, Elif; Gur, Emine Uslu; Alyildiz, Nese; Bostan, Mehmet

    2014-02-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and early atherosclerosis. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is clinically related to subclinical atherosclerosis. In the present study, considering the major role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which is an acute phase protein rapidly releasing upon inflammation and tissue injury, we aimed to evaluate NGAL levels and EATT in PCOS patients and assess their relationship with cardiometabolic factors. 64 patients with PCOS and 50 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. We evaluated anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. EATT was measured by echocardiography above the free wall of the right ventricle. Serum NGAL and high-sensitive C- reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by ELISA. Mean EATT was 0,38 +/-0,16 mm in the PCOS group and 0,34 +/-0,36 mm in the control group (p = 0,144). In the obese PCOS group (n = 44) EAT was thicker compared to the obese control group (n = 41) (p = 0.026). Mean NGAL levels of the patients with PCOS were 101,98 +/-21,53 pg/ml, while mean NGAL levels were 107,40 +/-26,44 pg/ml in the control group (p = 0,228). We found a significant positive correlation between EATT and age, BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride and hsCRP levels in PCOS group. Thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue can be used to follow the risk of CVD development in obese PCOS cases. However serum NGAL levels do not differ in patients with PCOS and control group.

  8. [Effect of cupping on hemodynamic levels in the regional sucked tissues in patients with lumbago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Xiao, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2012-10-01

    To observe hemodynamic changes in the local sucked tissue of lower back undergoing negative pressure after cupping in patients with lumbago. Twenty-two lumbago outpatients were recruited in the present study and 32 sucked tissues accepted measurements. The cupping was applied to the tenderpoint of the patients' lower back for 10 min by using a glass-mug (5 cm in diameter). Hemodynamic indexes [peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI)] of the sucked skin and subcutaneous tissues at the lower back were detected before and after cupping by using a color Doppler flow imaging. After cupping intervention at the lower back, the PSV [(14.2 +/- 1.8) cm/s] and EDV [(5.5 +/- 0.7) cm/s] levels were increased significantly in comparison with those [(5.9 +/- 0.9) and (1.9 +/- 0.3) cm/s] before cupping (P cupping (0.61 +/- 0.05 vs 0.68 +/- 0.06, P Cupping therapy can increase the peak systolic velocity and end-diastolic velocity and lower vascular resistance of the subcutaneous arterioles in the regional tissue, which may contribute to its effect in relieving lumbago.

  9. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chieh Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P=0.06. There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P<0.05. The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327.

  10. Comprehensive Wavelengths, Energy Levels, and Hyperfine Structure Parameters of Singly-Ionized Iron-Group Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy

  11. Effect of anti-sclerostin therapy and osteogenesis imperfecta on tissue-level properties in growing and adult mice while controlling for tissue age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Lloyd, William R; Salemi, Joseph D; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Morris, Michael D; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly➔Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2-4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages>3wks) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages>4wks) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels, adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age and

  12. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  13. Relationship between the level of essential metal elements in human hair and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Ying-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on epidemics have demonstrated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and mineral substances, such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and vanadium, in human bodies. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were applied to evaluate the levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in healthy individuals and CHD patients. Hair samples were collected from 42 healthy participants and 28 diagnosed CHD patients. Calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc levels in healthy individuals are significantly higher than the levels found in the patients (p < 0.01). Calcium/selenium ratio is also significantly higher in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Based on the possible synergies and/or antagonisms of elements and their absorption and metabolism, magnesium/calcium, zinc/copper, and sodium/potassium ratios showed positive relevance (p < 0.01). (author)

  14. Level set methods for detonation shock dynamics using high-order finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grogan, F. C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, T. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tomov, V. Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Level set methods are a popular approach to modeling evolving interfaces. We present a level set ad- vection solver in two and three dimensions using the discontinuous Galerkin method with high-order nite elements. During evolution, the level set function is reinitialized to a signed distance function to maintain ac- curacy. Our approach leads to stable front propagation and convergence on high-order, curved, unstructured meshes. The ability of the solver to implicitly track moving fronts lends itself to a number of applications; in particular, we highlight applications to high-explosive (HE) burn and detonation shock dynamics (DSD). We provide results for two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems as well as applications to DSD.

  15. Correlation Between Preoperative Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels and Expression on Pancreatic and Rectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSF Boogerd

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA–targeted imaging and therapeutic agents are being tested in clinical trials. If CEA overexpression in malignant tissue corresponds with elevated serum CEA, serum CEA could assist in selecting patients who may benefit from CEA-targeted agents. This study aims to assess the relationship between serum CEA and CEA expression in pancreatic (n = 20 and rectal cancer tissues (n = 35 using histopathology. According to local laboratory standards, a serum CEA >3 ng/mL was considered elevated. In pancreatic cancer patients a significant correlation between serum CEA and percentage of CEA-expressing tumor cells was observed ( P  = .04, ρ = .47. All 6 patients with homogeneous CEA expression in the tumor had a serum CEA >3 ng/mL. Most rectal cancer tissues (32/35 showed homogeneous CEA expression, independent of serum CEA levels. This study suggests that selection of pancreatic cancer patients for CEA-targeted agents via serum CEA appears adequate. For selection of rectal cancer patients, serum CEA levels are not informative.

  16. Sequential determination of environmental levels of isotopic thorium, uranium and the light rare earth elements within the terrestrial food chain by induced coupled plasma (ICP) and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Morse, R.; Ford, H.

    1986-01-01

    A radioecological study designed to measure soil to plant and soil to animal (livestock) transfer of Th, U, Ra and the light rare earth elements (REE) in typical and naturally-enhanced radiation environments required the development of radiochemical methods suitable for low-level determinations in a broad suite of environmental matrices including soil, edible vegetables and vegetation, and the major organs and tissues of various livestock. Earlier work has demonstrate the reliability of the methods summarized here for measuring the isotopic thorium and REE content of human feces, and that in the edible portions of various vegetables grown under field conditions. The very high degree of biological discrimination against Th and REE uptake in plants as well as in animal soft tissues necessitated the analysis of typical sample masses of 1-4 kg (fresh weight) to insure reasonably precise (eg., 10-20%) concentration estimates for most of the elements and isotopes of interest. As a result of the ''bone-seeking'' nature and relatively long retention times for these elements in skeletal tissue, typical analytical masses required for analysis of bone range from 40 to 70 g (fresh weight) except for the REE's in which a larger aliquot is recommended when determination is by induced coupled plasma spectrometry

  17. Effect of kombucha on some trace element levels in different organs of electromagnetic field exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Gharib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have increased exponentially all over the world. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of kombucha (KT on some trace element levels of brain, spleen and intestine in male albino rats exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF. Four experimental groups labelled as controls, EMF group, KT group and KT + EMF group were formed with six randomly chosen animals in each group. After EMF exposure for eight weeks and the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Brain, spleen and intestine samples were collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves caused significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. Combined treatment of kombucha with EMF resulted in a successful attenuation of these adverse effects of EMF. From present findings we can state that kombucha as a supplement has an ameliorative signs against the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Method and system for in vivo measurement of bone tissue using a two level energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Cameron, J.R.; Judy, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for radiologically determining the bone mineral content of living human bone tissue independently of the concurrent presence of adipose and other soft tissues. A target section of the body of the subject is irradiated with a beam of penetrative radiations of preselected energy to determine the attenuation of such beam with respect to the intensity of each of two radiations of different predetermined energy levels. The resulting measurements are then employed to determine bone mineral content according to the following relationship: I = (I 0 ) exp [(μBM/sup M/BM) - (μST/sup M/ST)] wherein I 0 is the unattentuated intensity of the radiations in the beam, μ is the mass attenuation coefficient, M is mass in g/cm 2

  19. Effect of cystamine on rat tissue GSH level and glutathione reductase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, H.; Pulpanova, J.

    1979-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione reductase activity were determined by means of the spectrophotometric method in various rat tissues after i.p. administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). GSH amount dropped in the spleen and kidney at 10 and 20 min; following this interval, an increase of GSH level was observed in the liver at 20-30 min, in the spleen and kidney at 60 min after the treatment with a radioprotective cystamine dose (50 mg/kg). The changes in GSH level induced by a non-radioprotective cystamine dose (20 mg/kg) had an opposite tendency. The activity of glutathione reductase was decreased in all tissues studied. As to the mechanism of the radioprotective action, both the inactivation of glutathione reductase activity and the changes in GSH level seem to be the factors contributing to the radioprotective effect of cystamine by strengthening the cellular radioresistance. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RKD [de

  20. Blood and tissue tocopherol levels in rats following intraperitoneally administered alpha-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, C D; Greenwood, C E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-01-01

    The correction or maintenance of blood and tissue alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) levels by intraperitoneally administered all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-Tac) was compared with RRR- alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) in vitamin E-depleted and control rats. Rats received 1.3 TE vitamin E daily for 7 days. alpha-Tac was detected in plasma of one-third of alpha-Tac-treated rats 24 hr after the first treatment, although not in subsequent samplings. Both alpha-Tac and alpha-Toc increased tocopherol levels in plasma and liver of E-deprived rats, while little or no change was observed in adipose tissue and brain. Similarly, control rats treated with alpha-Tac or alpha-Toc had significantly greater (p less than 0.05) plasma and liver alpha-Toc levels at day 3 and day 7 than did saline-treated rats. There was no significant difference in adipose alpha-Toc levels among treatment groups of control rats. The results of this study suggest that alpha-Tac is rapidly hydrolyzed to its biologically active alcohol form and results in similar effects to that of intraperitoneally administered alpha-Toc.

  1. Addictive drugs and their duration affecting on trace elements levels in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Iqbal, K.; Shafiq, T.; Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the drug addiction the blood biochemistry particularly level of trace elements in blood is widely affected. Eighty male addicts of various age groups along with seventeen normal subjects were studied. The plasma Zinc and manganese concentration was high in addict person as compared to normal subjects. Where as a significant decrease in iron concentration was observed in addicts. The plasma copper concentration was also low in addicts as compared to normal subjects. In conclusion drug addiction leads to many biochemical changes that may have detritus effects on health status of addicts. (author)

  2. Segregation of the elements of the platinum group in a simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, H.; Banba, T.; Kamizono, H.; Kiriyama, Y.; Kumata, M.; Murakami, T.; Tashiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Segregation of the elements of the platinum group occurred during vitrification of the borosilicate glass containing 20 wt% simulated high-level waste oxides. The segregated materials were composed of two crystalline phases: one was the solid solution of ruthenium and rhodium dioxides and the other was that of palladium and rhodium metals also with tellurium. The segregated materials were not distributed homogeneously throughout the glass: (i) on the surface of the glass, there occurred palladium, rhodium and tellurium alloy alone; and (ii) at the inner part of the glass, the agglomerates of the two phases were concentrated in one part and dispersed in the other

  3. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  4. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  5. Trace elements in home-produced eggs in Belgium: Levels and spatiotemporal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Hoenig, Michel; Goeyens, Leo; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in home-produced eggs, soils and kitchen waste samples of private chicken owners in Belgium, and to determine spatiotemporal differences in trace element contents in eggs. Eggs were sampled in all provinces of Belgium in autumn 2006 and spring 2007. A total number of 59 private chicken owners participated in the study. Trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry except for mercury, which was determined by atomic absorption of mercury vapour. The mean fresh weight concentrations in eggs in autumn and spring respectively were < 8.0 and < 8.0 μg/kg for arsenic, 0.5 and < 0.5 μg/kg for cadmium, 116 and 74 μg/kg for lead, 0.43 and 0.52 mg/kg for copper, 20.3 and 19.2 mg/kg for zinc, and 3.15 and 4.44 μg/kg for mercury. Analysis of variance determined significant differences in some trace element concentrations in eggs among seasons and regions in Belgium. Average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and mercury corresponded well with values measured in other countries, while copper and zinc concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as in other countries. Average lead concentrations were high compared to concentrations in eggs from other countries and correlated well with lead concentrations in soil, indicating that the soil is an important source. Other sources of trace elements in eggs might be home-grown vegetables and forage (grass and herbs), and indirectly, air pollution.

  6. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...... (n=3) or adenocarcinoma (n=7). Results: Free and total TIMP-1 in plasma were weakly but significantly correlated with age; urinary TIMP-1 was not. A strong correlation between free and total TIMP-1 in plasma was observed, with an average ratio of 0.85. No correlation between total TIMP-1 in urine...... and plasma was found (p=0.55). No significant differences in free or total TIMP-1 in plasma were found between healthy individuals, patients with cystitis or bladder cancer (p=0.4). Urinary TIMP-1 levels were significantly increased in patients with cystitis (p=0.001). No apparent differences in TIMP-1...

  7. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemik, Ozgur; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Sümer, Aziz; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Adas, Mine; Begenik, Huseyin; Hasirci, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ozkan; Purisa, Sevim; Kisli, Erol; Tuzun, Sefa; Kotan, Cetin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the levels of preoperative serum matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in gastric cancer. METHODS: One hundred gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. The serum concentrations of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in these patients and in fifty healthy controls were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Higher serum MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were observed in patients than in controls (P < 0.001). Serum MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels were positively associated with morphological appearance, tumor size, depth of wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, perineural invasion, and pathological stage. They were not significantly associated with age, gender, tumor location, or histological type. CONCLUSION: Increased MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were associated with gastric cancer. Although these markers are not good markers for diagnosis, these markers show in advanced gastric cancer. PMID:21547130

  8. Lead levels in tissues and stomach contents of poisoned cattle: a fifteen-year survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, R C; Funnell, H S

    1969-10-01

    During the period 1954 to 1969, samples of ingesta, liver, or kidney from 175 cattle which died of lead poisoning were analyzed for lead content. The average lead levels, and the extremes, were: ingesta, 3427 ppm (zero to 146,200 ppm); liver, 43 ppm (zero to 1300 ppm); and kidney, 137 ppm (two to 2355 ppm). There were no relationships between ingesta levels of lead and levels in the tissues tested. Taken with published results of natural and experimental lead poisoning in other cattle, the data indicate that the mere presence of lead in kidney (or liver) and ingesta should lead to a presumptive diagnosis of lead poisoning in cattle which die with signs, lesions, and histories characteristic of lead poisoning. Diagnosis may be confirmed by proof of access to, or ingestion of, a source of lead.

  9. Organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of pregnant women in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Valencia-Quintana, R; Caba, M; Hernández-Chalate, F; García-Aguilar, E; Villalba, R

    2010-06-01

    DDT and Lindane (gamma-HCH) which were used until 1999 in Mexico, have provided great benefits in the combat of vectors that spread infection-borne diseases and in agriculture for crop protection. The persistence in the environment and their accumulative properties results in bioconcentration in lipid rich tissues of the human body that reflect the extent of environmental pollution. Human adipose tissue samples were taken during 2009 from abdominal cavities of 69 pregnant women by cesarean surgery and from 34 samples of control donors by autopsy in Veracruz State. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with ECD. The results of mean levels (mg/kg on fat basis) were higher in controls compared to pregnant women beta-HCH 0.064 vs 0.027; pp'DDE 1.187 vs. 0.745; op'DDT 0.016 vs. 0.011; pp'DDT 0.117 vs. 0.099 and Sigma-DDT 1.337 vs. 0.854. The pregnant women group was divided according to age: up to 20, 20-30, and more than 30 years, and presented an increase for the more persistent pesticides with age in terms of mean concentrations and a more pronounced higher correlation in medians levels. Pairing Body Mass Index to organochlorine pesticide mean levels revealed no correlation between these factors in pregnant women.

  10. Effect of low to normal dietary phosphorus levels on zinc metabolism and tissue distribution in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflamme, D.P.; Miller, W.J.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Blackmon, D.M.; Logner, K.R.; Fielding, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen 10-wk-old, phosphorus (P)-depleted Holstein bull calves were fed for 6 wk a control diet containing .08% P or P-supplemented diets containing .14, .20 or .32% P with supplemental P from two sources (CDP and Dynafos). The diets contained .45, .56, .66 and .87% Ca. After 5 wk of the experiment, the calves were dosed orally with 65 Zn, and daily total fecal collections were initiated. At the end of the experimental period, the calves were killed and tissue samples were taken for total Zn and 65 Zn analyses. Growth, feed intake and feed efficiency improved with increasing dietary P levels. Level of dietary P and Ca had little or no effect on total Zn content of rib, tibia, liver, heart, kidney, muscle or blood. Likewise, 65 Zn absorption and content in most tissues were not affected. The results do not preclude the possibility of some minor effects of P levels on Zn metabolism. However, it is apparent that when adequate Zn is fed, any effects are likely to be of little or no practical importance

  11. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  13. Effects of a low level laser on periodontal tissue in hypofunctional teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hayashi

    Full Text Available Malocclusions, such as an open bite and high canines, are often encountered in orthodontic practice. Teeth without occlusal stimuli are known as hypofunctional teeth, and numerous atrophic changes have been reported in the periodontal tissue, including reductions in blood vessels in the periodontal ligament (PDL, heavy root resorption, and reduced bone mineral density (BMD in the alveolar bone. Low Level Laser (LLL has been shown to have a positive effect on bone formation and the vasculature. Although the recovery of hypofunctional teeth remains unclear, LLL is expected to have a positive influence on periodontal tissue in occlusal hypofunction. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between LLL and periodontal tissue in occlusal hypofunction. Twenty-four male rats aged 5 weeks were randomly divided into control and hypofunctional groups. An anterior metal cap and bite plate were attached to the maxillary and mandibular incisors in the hypofunctional group to simulate occlusal hypofunction in the molars. LLL irradiation was applied to the maxillary first molar through the gingival sulcus in half of the rats. Rats were divided into four groups; control, control+LLL, hypofunctional, and hypofunctional+LLL. Exposure to LLL irradiation was performed for 3 minutes every other day for 2 weeks. Animals were examined by Micro-CT at 5 and 7 weeks and were subsequently sacrificed. Heads were resected and examined histologically and immunohistologically. The hypofunctional group had obvious stricture of the PDL. However, no significant differences were observed in the PDL and alveolar bone between the hypofunctional+LLL and the control groups. In addition, the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-positive cells were higher in the hypofunctional + LLL group than in the hypofunctional group. These results indicated that LLL enhanced the production of bFGF and VEGF in the

  14. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Water Quality Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Vandam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Carmel was grown in a conventional glass greenhouse under three different nutrient solution treatments. Lighting and temperature conditions were identical. Six growing systems were used to provide a duplicate trough system for each of these three treatments. Six trials were harvested from each system over a two month time period. Two treatments received hydroponic nutrient inputs, with one treatment at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7 and the other at pH 5.8 (H5, and the third treatment was aquaponic (A7, receiving all of its nutrients from a single fish tank with koi (Cyprinus carpio except for chelated iron. System pH was regulated by adding K2CO3 to aquaponic systems and KOH to hydroponic systems. Comparisons made between treatments were total yield, leaf surface area, tissue elemental content, and dry weight to fresh weight ratio. Dry weight biomass yield values were not different in pairwise comparisons between treatments (A7 vs. H5: p = 0.59 fresh weight, p = 0.42 dry weight. Similarly, surface area results were not different between treatments. The important comparison was that A7 achieved the same growth as H5, the conventional pH with a complete inorganic nutrient solution, despite unbalanced and less than “ideal” nutrient concentrations in the A7 condition.

  15. Tumor tissue levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P.; Gelder, Marion E. Meijer-van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome...... an association between shorter survival after treatment in TIMP-1 high patients compared with TIMP-1 low patients, especially in patients receiving anthracycline-based therapy. This suggests that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 might be associated with reduced benefit from classical adjuvant chemotherapy. Our...... after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. METHODS: From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we...

  16. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  17. A finite element evaluation of mechanical function for 3 distal extension partial dental prosthesis designs with a 3-dimensional nonlinear method for modeling soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshinori; Kanbara, Ryo; Ochiai, Kent T; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical evaluation of the function of partial removable dental prostheses with 3-dimensional finite element modeling requires the accurate assessment and incorporation of soft tissue behavior. The differential behaviors of the residual ridge mucosa and periodontal ligament tissues have been shown to exhibit nonlinear displacement. The mathematic incorporation of known values simulating nonlinear soft tissue behavior has not been investigated previously via 3-dimensional finite element modeling evaluation to demonstrate the effect of prosthesis design on the supporting tissues. The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate the functional differences of 3 different partial removable dental prosthesis designs with 3-dimensional finite element analysis modeling and a simulated patient model incorporating known viscoelastic, nonlinear soft tissue properties. Three different designs of distal extension removable partial dental prostheses were analyzed. The stress distributions to the supporting abutments and soft tissue displacements of the designs tested were calculated and mechanically compared. Among the 3 dental designs evaluated, the RPI prosthesis demonstrated the lowest stress concentrations on the tissue supporting the tooth abutment and also provided wide mucosa-borne areas of support, thereby demonstrating a mechanical advantage and efficacy over the other designs evaluated. The data and results obtained from this study confirmed that the functional behavior of partial dental prostheses with supporting abutments and soft tissues are consistent with the conventional theories of design and clinical experience. The validity and usefulness of this testing method for future applications and testing protocols are shown. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Levels of platinum group elements and rare-earth elements in wild mushroom species growing in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Kalač, Pavel; Siwulski, Marek; Rzymski, Piotr; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Due to limited data-describing abilities of mushrooms to accumulate platinum group elements (PGEs) and rare-earth elements (REEs), the aim of this study was to determine, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry followed by microwave-assisted sample digestion by nitric acid, the content of these elements in 20 mushroom species (10 above ground and 10 growing on wood), mostly edible, collected near a busy trunk road. The highest content of PGEs in above-ground mushroom species was observed in Lepista gilva and Suillus bovinus fruit bodies (0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while in mushrooms growing on wood, the highest content was observed in Pleurotus ostreatus (0.35 ± 0.04 mg kg(-1) DW). The mean content of PGEs for both these groups was 0.23 ± 0.08 and 0.26 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. The highest content of REEs in Suillus luteus and Tricholoma equestra was 5.03 ± 0.50 and 2.18 ± 0.56 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, but within mushrooms growing on wood in Ganoderma applanatum fruiting bodies it was 4.19 ± 0.78 mg kg(-1) DW. Mean contents of REEs were 1.39 ± 1.21 and 1.61 ± 0.97 mg kg(-1) DW in above-ground species and species growing on wood, respectively. Generally, the group of mushroom species growing on wood was capable of slightly higher accumulation of both REEs and PGEs. No limits have been established for both the groups until now.

  19. Negative association of acetate with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layden BT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian T Layden1, Sudha K Yalamanchi1, Thomas MS Wolever2, Andrea Dunaif1, William L Lowe Jr11Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine (BTL, SKY, AD, WLL, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 2Department of Nutritional Sciences (TMSW, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaBackground: The composition of gut flora has been proposed as a cause of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess whether serum short chain fatty acids, a major by-product of fermentation in gut flora, are associated with obesity and/or diabetes-related traits (insulin sensitivity and secretion.Methods: The association of serum short chain fatty acids levels with measures of obesity was assessed using body mass index, computerized tomography scan, and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were both determined from an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was also determined from a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp.Results: In this population of young, obese women, acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue determined by computerized tomography scan and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan, but not body mass index. The level of the short chain fatty acids acetate, but not propionate or butyrate, was also negatively associated with fasting serum insulin and 2 hour insulin levels in the oral glucose tolerance test.Conclusions: In this population, serum acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels. Future studies need to verify these findings and expand on these observations in larger cohorts of subjects.Keywords: obesity, insulin, gut flora, short chain fatty acids 

  20. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  1. Oral Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide: Plasma and Tissue Levels and Spinal Anti-hyperalgesic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Petrosino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is a pleiotropic lipid mediator with established anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activity. Ultramicronized PEA (PEA-um has superior oral efficacy compared to naïve (non-micronized PEA. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1 to evaluate whether oral PEA-um has greater absorbability compared to naïve PEA, and its ability to reach peripheral and central tissues under healthy and local inflammatory conditions (carrageenan paw edema; (2 to better characterize the molecular pathways involved in PEA-um action, particularly at the spinal level. Rats were dosed with 30 mg/kg of [13C]4-PEA-um or naïve [13C]4-PEA by oral gavage, and [13C]4-PEA levels quantified, as a function of time, by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry. Overall plasma levels were higher in both healthy and carrageenan-injected rats administered [13C]4-PEA-um as compared to those receiving naïve [13C]4-PEA, indicating the greater absorbability of PEA-um. Furthermore, carrageenan injection markedly favored an increase in levels of [13C]4-PEA in plasma, paw and spinal cord. Oral treatment of carrageenan-injected rats with PEA-um (10 mg/kg confirmed beneficial peripheral effects on paw inflammation, thermal hyperalgesia and tissue damage. Notably, PEA-um down-regulated distinct spinal inflammatory and oxidative pathways. These last findings instruct on spinal mechanisms involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of PEA-um in inflammatory pain.

  2. Effects of chemical elements in the trophic levels of natural salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Piotr; Barczak, Tadeusz; Bennewicz, Janina; Jerzak, Leszek; Bogdzińska, Maria; Aleksandrowicz, Oleg; Koim-Puchowska, Beata; Szady-Grad, Małgorzata; Klawe, Jacek J; Woźniak, Alina

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between the bioaccumulation of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, and Pb, acidity (pH), salinity (Ec), and organic matter content within trophic levels (water-soil-plants-invertebrates) were studied in saline environments in Poland. Environments included sodium manufactures, wastes utilization areas, dumping grounds, and agriculture cultivation, where disturbed Ca, Mg, and Fe exist and the impact of Cd and Pb is high. We found Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, and Cd accumulation in the leaves of plants and in invertebrates. Our aim was to determine the selectivity exhibited by soil for nutrients and heavy metals and to estimate whether it is important in elucidating how these metals are available for plant/animal uptake in addition to their mobility and stability within soils. We examined four ecological plant groups: trees, shrubs, minor green plants, and water macrophytes. Among invertebrates, we sampled breastplates Malacostraca, small arachnids Arachnida, diplopods Diplopoda, small insects Insecta, and snails Gastropoda. A higher level of chemical elements was found in saline polluted areas (sodium manufactures and anthropogenic sites). Soil acidity and salinity determined the bioaccumulation of free radicals in the trophic levels measured. A pH decrease caused Zn and Cd to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Ca, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in the anthropogenic sites. pH increase also caused Na, Mg, and Fe to increase in sodium manufactures and an increase in Na, Fe, Mn, and Co in the anthropogenic sites. There was a significant correlation between these chemical elements and Ec in soils. We found significant relationships between pH and Ec, which were positive in saline areas of sodium manufactures and negative in the anthropogenic and control sites. These dependencies testify that the measurement of the selectivity of cations and their fluctuation in soils provide essential information on the affinity and binding strength in these environments. The

  3. Background levels of some major, trace, and rare earth elements in indigenous plant species growing in Norway and the influence of soil acidification, soil parent material, and seasonal variation on these levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjengedal, Elin; Martinsen, Thomas; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2015-06-01

    Baseline levels of 43 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REEs) in several native plant species growing in boreal and alpine areas, are presented. Focus is placed on species metal levels at different soil conditions, temporal variations in plant tissue metal concentrations, and interspecies variation in metal concentrations. Vegetation samples were collected at Sogndal, a pristine site in western Norway, and at Risdalsheia, an acidified site in southernmost Norway. Metal concentrations in the different species sampled in western Norway are compared with relevant literature data from Norway, Finland, and northwest Russia, assumed to represent natural conditions. Except for aluminium (Al) and macronutrients, the levels of metals were generally lower in western Norway than in southern Norway and may be considered close to natural background levels. In southern Norway, the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in particular appear to be affected by air pollution, either by direct atmospheric supply or through soil acidification. Levels of some elements show considerable variability between as well as within plant species. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are higher in most species at Sogndal compared to Risdalsheia, despite increased extractable concentrations in surface soil in the south, probably attributed to different buffer mechanisms in surface soil. Antagonism on plant uptake is suggested between Ca, Mg, and K on one hand and Al on the other. Tolerance among calcifuges to acid conditions and a particular ability to detoxify or avoid uptake of Al ions are noticeable for Vaccinium vitis-idaea.

  4. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  5. Organ and tissue level properties are more sensitive to age than osteocyte lacunar characteristics in rat cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Nina; Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Birkbak, Mie Elholm

    2016-01-01

    orientation with animal age. Hence, the evolution of organ and tissue level properties with age in rat cortical bone is not accompanied by related changes in osteocyte lacunar properties. This suggests that bone microstructure and bone matrix material properties and not the geometric properties...... of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte...

  6. Comparison of serum vaspin levels and vaspin expression in adipose tissue and smooth muscle tissue in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuping; Qiao, Ping; Qu, Xiaoxian; Bao, Yirong; Li, Yuhong; Liao, Yini; Ying, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Vaspin is associated with metabolic parameters and insulin resistance. However, the expression of vaspin in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not been fully explored, and the contribution of vaspin to the biological mechanisms underlying GDM remains unclear. This study aimed to compare circulating vaspin levels and its expression in different insulin target tissues including subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), VAT and smooth muscle tissue (SMT) in pregnant women with and without GDM. A total of 37 women with GDM (GDM group) and 37 normal pregnant women (control group) were selected. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS) and serum vaspin levels were quantified at term, and homeostasis model of assessment2-insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) values were calculated. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein levels of vaspin in VAT, SAT and SMT of 15 GDM women and normal pregnant women. In the GDM group, serum vaspin concentrations were significantly higher than in the control group. Serum vaspin levels were positively correlated with HOMA2-IR in the GDM group but not in the control group. In the GDM group, vaspin mRNA and protein expression levels in SAT and VAT were both significantly higher than in controls, but no difference was found in SMT. Moreover, relative mRNA but not protein expression levels of vaspin in SAT were highest among the three tissues in both groups. Circulating vaspin levels and expression of vaspin in SAT and VAT were higher in GDM women than in normal pregnant women. However, the specific role of vaspin from SAT and VAT in the pathogenesis of GDM needs further study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

  8. Comparative analysis of elements and models of implementation in local-level spatial plans in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local-level spatial plans is of paramount importance to the development of the local community. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of and offer further directions for research into the implementation of spatial plans by presenting the results of a study on models of implementation. The paper describes the basic theoretical postulates of a model for implementing spatial plans. A comparative analysis of the application of elements and models of implementation of plans in practice was conducted based on the spatial plans for the local municipalities of Arilje, Lazarevac and Sremska Mitrovica. The analysis includes four models of implementation: the strategy and policy of spatial development; spatial protection; the implementation of planning solutions of a technical nature; and the implementation of rules of use, arrangement and construction of spaces. The main results of the analysis are presented and used to give recommendations for improving the elements and models of implementation. Final deliberations show that models of implementation are generally used in practice and combined in spatial plans. Based on the analysis of how models of implementation are applied in practice, a general conclusion concerning the complex character of the local level of planning is presented and elaborated. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 36035: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social Aspects of Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts and Grant no. III 47014: The Role and Implementation of the National Spatial Plan and Regional Development Documents in Renewal of Strategic Research, Thinking and Governance in Serbia

  9. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  10. Determination of a tissue-level failure evaluation standard for rat femoral cortical bone utilizing a hybrid computational-experimental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruoxun; Liu, Jie; Jia, Zhengbin; Deng, Ying; Liu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Macro-level failure in bone structure could be diagnosed by pain or physical examination. However, diagnosing tissue-level failure in a timely manner is challenging due to the difficulty in observing the interior mechanical environment of bone tissue. Because most fractures begin with tissue-level failure in bone tissue caused by continually applied loading, people attempt to monitor the tissue-level failure of bone and provide corresponding measures to prevent fracture. Many tissue-level mechanical parameters of bone could be predicted or measured; however, the value of the parameter may vary among different specimens belonging to a kind of bone structure even at the same age and anatomical site. These variations cause difficulty in representing tissue-level bone failure. Therefore, determining an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard is necessary to represent tissue-level bone failure. In this study, the yield and failure processes of rat femoral cortical bones were primarily simulated through a hybrid computational-experimental method. Subsequently, the tissue-level strains and the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains in cortical bones were predicted. The results indicated that certain differences existed in tissue-level strains; however, slight variations in the ratio were observed among different cortical bones. Therefore, the ratio between tissue-level failure and yield strains for a kind of bone structure could be determined. This ratio may then be regarded as an appropriate tissue-level failure evaluation standard to represent the mechanical status of bone tissue.

  11. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Froyland, Livar; Julshamn, Kare

    2006-01-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 μg/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 μg/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 μg/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 μg/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were higher

  12. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høgdall, Estrid VS; Christensen, Lise H; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakaer, Jan; Ostenfeld-Møller, Lene; Price, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of 'mammalian chitinase-like proteins'. The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor cell expression was higher in OC than in borderline tumors (p = 0.001), and associated with FIGO stage (p < 0.0001) and histological subtype (p = 0.0009). Positive YKL-40 expression (≥ 5% staining) was not associated with reduced survival. Plasma YKL-40 was also higher in patients with OC than in patients with borderline tumors (p < 0.0001), and it was positively correlated to serum CA-125 (p < 0.0001) and FIGO stage (p = 0.0001). Univariate Cox analysis of plasma YKL-40 showed association with overall survival (p < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis, including plasma YKL-40, serum CA125, FIGO stage, age and radicality after primary surgery as variables, showed that elevated plasma YKL-40 was associated with a shorter survival (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.40–3.25, p = 0.0004). YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic biomarker in patients with OC

  13. Effects of Different Dietary Cadmium Levels on Growth and Tissue Cadmium Content in Juvenile Parrotfish,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of different dietary cadmium levels on growth and tissue cadmium content in juvenile parrotfish, Oplegnathus fasciatus, using cadmium chloride (CdCl2 as the cadmium source. Fifteen fish averaging 5.5±0.06 g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into each of twenty one rectangular fiber tanks of 30 L capacity. Each tank was then randomly assigned to one of three replicates of seven diets containing 0.30 (C0, 21.0 (C21, 40.7 (C41, 83.5 (C83, 162 (C162, 1,387 (C1,387 and 2,743 (C2,743 mg cadmium/kg diet. At the end of sixteen weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR and feed efficiency (FE of fish fed C21 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C83, C162, C1,387 and C2,743 (p<0.05. Weight gain, SGR and FE of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed C0, C21 and C41 were significantly higher than those of fish fed C1,387 and C2,743. Average survival of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C162 were significantly higher than that of fish fed C2,743. Tissue cadmium concentrations increased with cadmium content of diets. Cadmium accumulated the most in liver, followed by gill and then muscle. Muscle, gill and liver cadmium concentrations of fish fed C0, C21, C41 and C83 were significantly lower than those of fish fed C162, C1,387 and C2,743. Based on the ANOVA results of growth performance and tissue cadmium concentrations the safe dietary cadmium level could be lower than 40.7 mg Cd/kg diet while the toxic level could be higher than 162 mg Cd/kg diet.

  14. The determination of low level trace elements in coals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.; Krause, P.; Cox, A.G. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-11-01

    The rapid determination of elements present in low level concentrations in bituminous coals is possible using laser abalation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (l.a.-i.c.p.-m.s.). A wide range of trace elements can routinely be determined using this technique but it is for environmentally sensitive elements, such as As, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Hg, that it is of most use due to the low levels of detection. Calibration of the i.c.p.-m.s. was achieved using a series of uncertified coals and the method evaluated using the South African certified coals, Sarm 18, 19 and 20. A critical evaluation of the data obtained shows that for many of the elements studied the results obtained are both accurate and precise, even at very low concentrations, with the limits of detection for all of the elements being in the {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) range. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Influence of dietary sodium selenite on tissue selenium levels of growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moksnes, K.; Tollersrud, S.; Larsen, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty Norwegian Landrace pigs were divided into 5 groups and fed a basal diet consisting of a mixture of dried skim milk and whey powder together with ground barley. The diet was supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 μg/g selenium as sodium selenite and was fed for 12 weeks. The muscle selenium level was increased by a factor of about 4 and the liver selenium by a factor of about 12 when the dietary selenium supplement was increased from zero to 2.2μg/g. There was a significant linear correlation between dietary selenium and selenium concentrations in tissues. Possible benefit for humans consuming meat from animals having received the selenium doses used in this experiment are discussed. (author)

  16. Levels of Cs-137 and pathological shifts in the organs and tissues of dead humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikov, E.F.; Koleganov, Yu.F.; Lantsov, S.I.; Mozhaev, V.K.; Solov'eva, L.P.; Fomin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the levels of Cs-137, alpha- and beta-radionuclides in the organs and tissues of 30 subjects dead 6 years after the accident, assessment of the pathological shifts and relationships between these shifts and exposure was carried out at territories contaminated with radionuclides in the Bryansk and Kaluga districts, in the town of Obninsk, and in region of Russia free of radionuclides. Study of radioautographs did not show alpha- or beta-radionuclides in any of the dead subjects. Cs-137 was detected in small quantities in the organs of all cadavers (3 to 424 Bq/kg) irrespective of their residence. The extent of radioactivity varied for different organs and was unrelated to organ pathology. Moreover, Cs-137 was detected in the organs of dead newborns and two-month-old infants, whose patients lived at territories contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  17. Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Yuksel, Oguz; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Gumus, Hikmet; Karakilic, Aslı; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Kandis, Sevim; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-05-29

    We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the open arms of elevated plus maze test; both which are indicators of low anxiety levels. Our results suggest that decrease in anxiolytic behavior due to regular voluntary exercise may be associated with locally produced brain irisin. White adipose tissue irisin levels also correlated very strongly with low anxiety. However, no serum irisin increase was detected, ruling out the possibility of increased peripheral irisin levels affecting the brain via the bloodstream. Further research is necessary to explain the mechanisms of which peripheral and central irisin effects anxiety and the brain region affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of red and infrared low-level laser therapy in endodontic sealer on subcutaneous tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivieri-Araujo, G.; Berbert, F. L. C. V.; Ramalho, L. T. O.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Crisci, F. S.; Bonetti-Filho, I.; Tanomaru-Filho, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the reactions of connective tissue after the implant of one endodontic sealer (Endofill) that was irradiated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Sixty mice were distributed into three Groups ( n = 20): GI—the tubes filled with Endofill were implanted in the animals and were not irradiated with LLLT; GII—the tubes containing Endofill were implanted in the animals and then irradiated with red LLLT (InGaAlP, λ = 685 nm, P = 35 mW, t = 58 s, D = 72 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous mode) and GIII—the tubes with Endofill were implanted and irradiated with infrared LLLT (AsGaAl, λ = 830 nm, P = 50 mW, t = 40 s, D = 70 J/cm2, E = 2 J, Ø = 0.60 mm, continuous wave) both are semiconductor diode laser device. The animals were killed after 7 and 30 days. Series sections of 6 μm thickness were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson Trichrome. The data of the histopathological evaluation were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5% significance level. At the 7th day: GI showed the presence of inflammation; GII and GIII reduced inflammation. At 30th day: GI showed low inflammation; GII and GII the absence of inflammation. It was possible show that LLLT reduced the irritating effect promoted by the Endofill, in the period of 7 days ( p > 0.05). The tissue repair occurred in 30 days, regardless of the use of LLLT.

  19. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-06-01

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-04-01

    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting protein folding pathways at the mesoscopic level based on native interactions between secondary structure elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since experimental determination of protein folding pathways remains difficult, computational techniques are often used to simulate protein folding. Most current techniques to predict protein folding pathways are computationally intensive and are suitable only for small proteins. Results By assuming that the native structure of a protein is known and representing each intermediate conformation as a collection of fully folded structures in which each of them contains a set of interacting secondary structure elements, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the conformation space while still being able to predict the most energetically favorable folding pathway of large proteins with hundreds of residues at the mesoscopic level, including the pig muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with 416 residues. The model is detailed enough to distinguish between different folding pathways of structurally very similar proteins, including the streptococcal protein G and the peptostreptococcal protein L. The model is also able to recognize the differences between the folding pathways of protein G and its two structurally similar variants NuG1 and NuG2, which are even harder to distinguish. We show that this strategy can produce accurate predictions on many other proteins with experimentally determined intermediate folding states. Conclusion Our technique is efficient enough to predict folding pathways for both large and small proteins at the mesoscopic level. Such a strategy is often the only feasible choice for large proteins. A software program implementing this strategy (SSFold is available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/ssfold.

  2. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  3. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  4. Reduction of lns-1 gene expression and tissue insulin levels in n5-STZ rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Vargas Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The high global incidence of type 2 diabetes has challenged researchers to establish animal models that resemble the chronic stage observed in type 2 diabetes patients. One such model is induced by neonatal streptozotocin (n-STZ administration to rat pups at 0, 2, or 5 days after birth. In this study, we assessed lns-1 gene expression and tissue insulin levels as well as serum concentration of glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, and histological changes of the islets of Langerhans in n5-STZ rats after 20-weeks post-induction. Methods: Wistar rat pups were randomly distributed into a control group and a streptozotocin-induced group. Experimental induction involved a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg into neonates at five days after birth. Results: At 20 weeks post-induction, streptozotocin-induced rats exhibited increased serum glucose levels, reduced serum insulin levels, impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance compared to control rats. Histologically, streptozotocin-induced rats exhibited atrophic islets, vacuolization, and significantly fewer insulin-positive cells. lns-1 gene expression was significantly decreased in n5-STZ rats in comparison to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings support that the n5-STZ model 20 weeks post-induction represents an appropriate experimental tool to study T2D and to evaluate novel therapeutic agents and targets that involve insulin gene expression and secretion, as well as complications caused by chronic diabetes.

  5. The Effect of Smoking on the Serum Level of Some Trace Elements in Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghetany, SH.M.; Ahmad, M.H.; Marei, E.S.; Ashrey, H. A.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a cause of many adverse outcomes, not only during fetal life, but may also extend to childhood and even early adulthood. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on some trace elements on pregnant mothers who smoke and their newborns. The study was carried out on 150 pregnant women and their newborns; fifty smokers (group I), fifty passive smoker subjects (group II) and 50 non-smokers served as controls (group III). Their neonates were also categorized into three groups accordingly. Maternal urine cotinine was determined by radioimmunoassay as an indicator for the degree of influence of smoking, it confirmed a significant elevation among groups I and II. The serum levels of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) were measured in the serum of pregnant mothers and the cord serum of their newborns by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This study demonstrated significant lower concentrations of serum Zn and Se in group I and II and their newborns when compared to the control group and control newborns. Significant increases in serum Cd and Cu were observed in-group I and II and their neonates versus the controls. As regards Mn and Mg no significant difference was established between the three studied groups. Our results suggested that tobacco smoking had definite effect on some trace elements that absolutely had drawbacks on both pregnant mothers and their babies. Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, mutagenic and teratogenic substances. Several epidemiological studies illustrated that cigarette smoking among females during the reproductive period have a direct insult on the nutritional and health status of their babies (Jauniaux et al, 1999). Cigarette smoking

  6. Content of alpha-linolenic acid in human atrial tissue correlates with plasma levels of alpha-linolenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jiwei; Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Andreasen, Annette

    and ALA levels were compared by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There was a statistical significant correlation (r=0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.71) between levels of ALA in plasma phospholipids and atrial tissue. Conclusion: The content of ALA in plasma phospholipids is a short term...... indicator of intake of ALA and this correlated well with the content of ALA in atrial tissue. Atrial tissue is not readily available but this study shows that determination of plasma phospholipids may be useful to further investigate an antiarrhythmic effect of ALA on AF....

  7. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in patients with incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sørensen, Lars T; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    Incisional hernia formation is a common complication to laparotomy and possibly associated with alterations in connective tissue metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closely involved in the metabolism of the extracellular matrix. Our...

  8. Adipose Tissue Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Metabolism Modulates Circulating BCAA Levels*

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Mark A.; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D.; Lynch, Christopher J.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent obse...

  9. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  10. Expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belmonte, Luis M.; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Cabrera-Bueno, Fernando; Sánchez-Espín, Gemma; Castellano, Daniel; Such, Miguel; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Carrasco-Chinchilla, Fernando; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis; López-Garrido, Miguel; Ruiz-Salas, Amalio; Becerra-Muñoz, Víctor M.; Gómez-Doblas, Juan J.; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) genes are crucial in lipid biosynthesis and cardiovascular homeostasis. Their expression in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and their influence in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus remain to be determined. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of SREBP genes in EAT in patients with CAD according to diabetes status and its association with clinical and biochemical data. Methods: SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 mRNA expression levels were measured in EAT from 49 patients with CAD (26 with diabetes) and 23 controls without CAD or diabetes. Results: Both SREBPs mRNA expression were significantly higher in patients with CAD and diabetes (pcardiovascular risk factor for coronary artery disease in patients with type-2 diabetes (SREBP-1: OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5, p=0.02; SREBP-2: OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2-3, p=0.02) and were independently associated with the presence of multivessel CAD, left main and anterior descending artery stenosis, and higher total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower HDL cholesterol levels, in patients with CAD and diabetes. Conclusions: SREBP genes are expressed in EAT and were higher in CAD patients with diabetes than those patients without CAD or diabetes. SREBP expression was associated as cardiovascular risk factor for the severity of CAD and the poor lipid control. In this preliminary study we suggest the importance of EAT in the lipid metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis for coronary atherosclerosis of patients with diabetes and highlight a future novel therapeutic target. PMID:28367087

  11. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  12. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  13. Effect of the diet amended with risk elements contaminated soil on risk elements content in tissues and hematological parameters of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Novosadová, Z.; Zídek, Václav; Fučíková, A.; Zídková, J.; Miholová, D.; Tlustoš, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2012), s. 430-441 ISSN 1212-1819 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400806 Program:IA Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : risk elements * soil ingestion * liver * kidney * bones * Rattus norvegicus Subject RIV: GG - Livestock Rearing Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2012

  14. Selected maternal, fetal and placental trace element and heavy metal and maternal vitamin levels in preterm deliveries with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Zehra; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Demir, Halit; Yoruk, Ibrahim H

    2018-01-25

    To compare maternal, fetal and placental trace element (magnesium, zinc and copper) and heavy metal (cadmium and lead) and maternal vitamin (retinol, α [alpha]-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) levels in preterm deliveries with and without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Sixty-eight patients giving birth preterm were grouped into preterm deliveries with PPROM (n = 35) and without PPROM (n = 33). Following delivery, maternal and umbilical cord blood sera and placental tissue samples were obtained. While magnesium, zinc, copper, cadmium and lead levels were measured in all samples, the levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, vitamin D 3 , 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 were measured only in maternal serum. While magnesium level in maternal serum and zinc levels in both maternal and umbilical cord sera were lower, placental magnesium level was higher in preterm deliveries with PPROM (P 0.05). In preterm deliveries with PPROM, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and retinol levels were higher, while vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 levels were lower in maternal serum (P < 0.05). Maternal serum α-tocopherol levels were similar between the groups. Compared to spontaneous preterm births, PPROM is associated with low maternal serum together with high placental tissue magnesium and low maternal and umbilical cord sera zinc levels. Higher retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 and lower vitamin D 3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 maternal serum levels are also evident in these patients. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Is There a Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Tissue Fibrillin-1 Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Eser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pelvic organ prolapse is a multifactorial disorder in which extracellular matrix defects are implicated. Fibrillin-1 level is reduced in stress urinary incontinence. In Marfan syndrome, which is associated with mutations in Fibrillin-1, pelvic floor disorders are commonly observed. We hypothesize that Fibrillin-1 gene expression is altered in pelvic organ prolapse. Methods: Thirty women undergoing colporrhaphy or hysterectomy because of cystocele, rectocele, cystorectocele, or uterine prolapse were assigned to a pelvic prolapse study group, and thirty women undergone hysterectomy for nonpelvic prolapse conditions were assigned to a control group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted on vaginal tissue samples to measure the expression of Fibrillin-1. Expression levels were compared between study and control groups by Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni revision. Results: Fibrillin-1 gene expression was not significantly lower in the study group than in the control group. Similarly, no significant correlation between Fibrillin-1 levels and grade of pelvic prolapse was found. Age over 40 years (P=0.018 and menopause (P=0.027 were both associated with reduced Fibrillin-1 levels in the pelvic prolapse group, whereas the delivery of babies weighing over 3,500 g at birth was associated with increased Fibrillin-1 expression (P=0.006. Conclusions: The results did not indicate a significant reduction in Fibrillin-1 gene expression in pelvic prolapse disorders; however, reduced Fibrillin-1 may contribute to increased pelvic organ prolapse risk with age and menopause. Increased Fibrillin-1 gene expression may be a compensatory mechanism in cases of delivery of babies with high birth weight. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of these observations.

  16. Tissue Liver X-Receptor Alpha (LXRα) Level In Acne Vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, E.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Increased sebum lipogenesis by sebaceous gland is the major factor in the pathophysiology of acne. LXRα have been recognized in the regulation of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. Activation of LXRα inhibits proliferation, increase lipogenesis and improve differentiation of sebocytes. Aim: To investigate the level of tissue expression of LXRα in inflammatory and non inflammatory acne lesions and in comparison with normal skin. Patients and methods: Seventeen patients with inflammatory and non inflammatory acne lesions and sixteen age and sex comparable healthy volunteers as control were included in the study. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the acne lesions and normal skin of the volunteers for detection of gene expression of LXRα by RT- PCR. Results: the level of LXRα was significantly higher in the lesional skin either inflammatory (with a mean of 1188.52 ± 129.5) or comedonal acne (with a mean of 892.52 ± 66.08) in a statistically significant manner than the controls (with a mean of 600.50 ± 95.30) where the P value was <0.001. In addition, the level of LXRα was significantly higher in inflammatory acne (with a mean of 1188.52 ± 129.5) in a statistically significant manner) than comedonal acne (with a mean of 892.52 ± 66.08) where the P value was <0.001. Conclusion: the significant increase in the level of LXRα in acne lesions compared to controls suggesting that LXRα may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris itself and is not a consequence of inflammation. In addition, it may play a role in the progression of the disease from comedonal to inflammatory. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the therapeutic benefits of the use of LXRα antagonists as a new therapeutic modality for acne vulgaris.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the implantation in the lateral part of the mandible between short tissue level (TE) and bone level (BL) implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzik, Jakub; Botzenhart, Ute; Krawiec, Maciej; Gedrange, Tomasz; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Vegh, Andras; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-09-01

    Short dental implants can be an alternative method of treatment to a vertical bone augmentation procedure at sites of reduced alveolar height. However, for successful treatment, an implant system that causes a minimal marginal bone loss (MBL) should be taken into consideration. The aim of the study has been to evaluate implantation effectiveness for bone level and tissue level short implants provided in lateral aspects of partially edentulous mandible and limited alveolar ridge height. The MBL and primary as well as secondary implant stability were determined in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the method of treatment provided. Sixteen short Bone Level Implants (OsseoSpeed TX, Astra tech) and 16 short Tissue Level Implants (RN SLActive ® , Straumann) were successfully placed in the edentulous part of the mandible. The determination of the marginal bone level was based on radiographic evaluation after 12 and 36 weeks. Implant stability was measured immediately after insertion and after 12 weeks. The marginal bone level of Bone Level Implants was significantly lower compared to Tissue Level Implants. Furthermore, the Bone Level Implants had greater primary and secondary stability in comparison with Tissue Level Implants (Primary: 77.8 ISQ versus 66.5 ISQ; Secondary: 78.9 ISQ versus 73.9 ISQ, respectively). Since short Bone Level Implants showed a significantly decreased MBL 12 and 36 weeks after implantation as well as better results for the primary stability compared to Tissue Level Implants, they should preferentially be used for this mentioned indication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of pentraxin-3 levels in the gingival tissues of chronic and aggressive periodontitis participants: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Reema; Jayakumar, N D; Sankari, Malaiappan; Padmalatha, Ogoti; Varghese, Sheeja

    2014-02-01

    Pentraxins are acute-phase proteins that belong to a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins, and they are considered markers of inflammation. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a prototype of the long pentraxin group. It is suggested to play an important role in innate resistance against pathogens, regulation of inflammation, and clearance of apoptotic cells. The aim of this study is to estimate the level of PTX3 in gingival tissues of individuals with chronic (CP) and aggressive (AgP) periodontitis and control participants and further correlate the level of PTX3 with clinical parameters. The study population consisted of 50 participants ranging in age from 20 to 55 years and attending the outpatient section of Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. The study groups included the following: 1) group A, patients with generalized CP (n = 20); 2) group B (n = 20), patients with generalized AgP (GAgP); and 3) group C (n = 10), healthy controls. Tissue samples from participants were assayed for PTX3 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gingival tissues from patients with GAgP (8.349 ± 5.076 ng/mL) had a higher mean concentration of PTX3 than tissues from patients with generalized CP (5.068 ± 3.274 ng/mL) and controls (0.251 ± 0.277). The PTX3 levels in the gingival tissues correlated positively with clinical parameters in all the groups. Among the parameters, probing depth was the most significant predictor variable associated with PTX3 in cases with periodontitis. PTX3 concentration in gingival tissues of patients with GAgP was higher than in tissues from patients with CP, and the levels correlated positively with clinical parameters. Hence, tissue PTX3 level can be considered a marker of inflammation in periodontal disease.

  19. Study of the influencing factors of the blood levels of toxic elements in Africans from 16 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Almeida-González, Maira; Barry-Rodríguez, Carlos; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María

    2017-01-01

    Africa's economy is growing faster than any other continent and it has been estimated that the middle class in Africa now exceeds 350 million people. This has meant a parallel increase in the importation of consumer goods and in the implementation of communication and information technologies (ICT), but also in the generation of large quantities of e-waste. However, inadequate infrastructure development remains a major constraint to the continent's economic growth and these highly toxic residues are not always adequately managed. Few studies have been conducted to date assessing the possible association between socioeconomic development factors, including e-waste generation, and blood levels of inorganic elements in African population. To disclose the role of geographical, anthropogenic, and socioeconomic development determinants on the blood levels of Ag, Al, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and V —all of them frequently found in e-waste—, an immigrant population-based study was made including a total of 245 subjects from 16 countries recently arrived to the Canary Islands (Spain). Women presented higher levels of blood elements than men, and Northern Africans (Moroccans) were the most contaminated. People from low-income countries exhibited significantly lower blood levels of inorganic elements than those from middle-income countries. We found a significant association between the use of motor vehicles and the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the level of contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment, telephone and internet use had higher levels of inorganic elements. In general terms, the higher level of economic development the higher the blood levels of inorganic pollutants, suggesting that the economic development of Africa, in parallel to e-waste generation and the existence of informal recycling sites, have directly affected the level of

  20. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihaly; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyo, David; Fabian, Istvan; Tothmeresz, Bela

    2011-01-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: → We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. → We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. → Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. → Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. → Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  2. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2011-05-15

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  3. Intrinsic MYH7 expression regulation contributes to tissue level allelic imbalance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Judith; Syring, Mandy; Rose, Julia; Weber, Anna-Lena; Ernstberger, Pia; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Becker, Edgar; Keyser, Britta; Dos Remedios, Cristobal; Perrot, Andreas; van der Velden, Jolanda; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francesco; Ho, Carolyn Yung; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2017-08-01

    HCM, the most common inherited cardiac disease, is mainly caused by mutations in sarcomeric genes. More than a third of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding for the β-myosin heavy chain. In HCM-patients, expression of the mutant and the wildtype allele can be unequal, thus leading to fractions of mutant and wildtype mRNA and protein which deviate from 1:1. This so-called allelic imbalance was detected in whole tissue samples but also in individual cells. There is evidence that the severity of HCM not only depends on the functional effect of the mutation itself, but also on the fraction of mutant protein in the myocardial tissue. Allelic imbalance has been shown to occur in a broad range of genes. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether the MYH7-alleles are intrinsically expressed imbalanced or whether the allelic imbalance is solely associated with the disease. We compared the expression of MYH7-alleles in non-HCM donors and in HCM-patients with different MYH7-missense mutations. In the HCM-patients, we identified imbalanced as well as equal expression of both alleles. Also at the protein level, allelic imbalance was determined. Most interestingly, we also discovered allelic imbalance and balance in non-HCM donors. Our findings therefore strongly indicate that apart from mutation-specific mechanisms, also non-HCM associated allelic-mRNA expression regulation may account for the allelic imbalance of the MYH7 gene in HCM-patients. Since the relative amount of mutant mRNA and protein or the extent of allelic imbalance has been associated with the severity of HCM, individual analysis of the MYH7-allelic expression may provide valuable information for the prognosis of each patient.

  4. Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues. Part II: Mixed hybrid finite element solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakpoor, K.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The swelling and shrinkage of biological tissues are modelled by a four-component mixture theory [J.M. Huyghe and J.D. Janssen, Int. J. Engng. Sci. 35 (1997) 793-802; K. Malakpoor, E.F. Kaasschieter and J.M. Huyghe, Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues.

  5. Micro-finite-element method to assess elastic properties of trabecular bone at micro- and macroscopic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Auregan, J C; Hoc, T

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the mechanical behavior of trabecular bone based on microCT imaging and micro-finite-element analysis. In this way two methods are detailed: (i) direct determination of macroscopic elastic property of trabecular bone; (ii) inverse approach to assess mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. Thirty-five females and seven males (forty-two subjects) mean aged (±SD) 80±11.7 years from hospitals of Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) diagnosed with osteoporosis following a femoral neck fracture due to a fall from standing were included in this study. Fractured heads were collected during hip replacement surgery. Standardized bone cores were removed from the femoral head's equator by a trephine in a water bath. MicroCT images acquisition and analysis were performed with CTan ® software and bone volume fraction was then determined. Micro-finite-element simulations were per-formed using Abaqus 6.9-2 ® software in order to determine the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of the trabecular bone. After microCT acquisition, a longitudinal compression test was performed and the experimental macroscopic Young's Modulus was extracted. An inverse approach based on the whole trabecular bone's mechanical response and micro-finite-element analysis was performed to determine microscopic mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the present study, elasticity of the tissue was shown to be similar to that of healthy tissue but with a lower yield stress. Classical histomorphometric analysis form microCT imaging associated with an inverse micro-finite-element method allowed to assess microscopic mechanical trabecular bone parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Second level semi-degenerate fields in W{sub 3} Toda theory: matrix element and differential equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky Avenue 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudnyi, 141700 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Cao, Xiangyu [LPTMS, CNRS (UMR 8626), Université Paris-Saclay,15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France); Estienne, Benoit [LPTHE, CNRS and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Sorbonne Universités,4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Santachiara, Raoul [LPTMS, CNRS (UMR 8626), Université Paris-Saclay,15 rue Georges Clémenceau, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2017-03-02

    In a recent study we considered W{sub 3} Toda 4-point functions that involve matrix elements of a primary field with the highest-weight in the adjoint representation of sl{sub 3}. We generalize this result by considering a semi-degenerate primary field, which has one null vector at level two. We obtain a sixth-order Fuchsian differential equation for the conformal blocks. We discuss the presence of multiplicities, the matrix elements and the fusion rules.

  7. Alteration of putative amino acid levels and morphological findings in neural tissues of methylmercury-intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, K.; Inouye, M.; Fujisaki, T.

    1985-04-01

    Methylmercury chloride was administered PO to male Kud:ddY mice at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 20 days. The contents of taurine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid were determined in tissue and crude synaptosomal (P/sub 2/) fraction of cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord of methylmercury-treated mice with or without ataxia. In the cerebellum of ataxic mice, increased levels of taurine and glycine were found in the tissue and P/sub 2/ fraction, and increased levels of glutamate were found in the P/sub 2/ fraction. In the cerebral cortex, the levels of ..gamma..-aminobutylic acid decreased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction of ataxic mice, but increased levels were found in the tissue of non-ataxic mice. A decreased asparate level in the cerebral cortex of ataxic mice and an increased taurine level in the cerebral cortex of non-ataxic mice were also found. In the spinal cord of ataxic mice, taurine increased in the tissue and in the P/sub 2/ fraction. Glutamate level decreased in the spinal cord of ataxic mice, but increased in the P/sub 2/ fraction of non-ataxic mice. Increased glycine levels in the P/sub 2/ fraction of the spinal cord were also found in non-axtaxic mice. Histologically, some degenerative changes were demonstrated in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices of ataxic mice. Such changes were also present to a mild degree in non-ataxic mice. In conclusion, methylmercury treatment altered the levels of putative neurotransmitter amino acids in neutral tissue of mice. These alterations might be caused by specific neural cell dysfunction and could be related to the appearance of ataxia.

  8. Examining the best-fit paradigm for FEM at element level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interestingly, an esoteric branch of pure mathematics called “functional analysis”, more general and profound than variational calculus and originally developed by mathematicians, can be employed to explain clearly how the finite element machinery works. In a very abstract way, finite element results can be portrayed as ...

  9. Levels of trace elements in different varieties of wheat determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.E.; Taha, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements Ag, Au, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in six wheat samples purchased from the open market in different localities (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Dubai and Australia). The dried powdered samples were decomposed in HNO3-HClO4 acids mixtures and elements were determined using recording atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements. Certified biological standards, Brown's Kale (BK), Orchard Leaves (OL) and tomato leaves (TOML) were used to assure the accuracy of results. However, Co, Pb and Sr were absent from samples except the Egyptian samples. The obtained databases were statistically treated. Several significant and strong positive correlation coefficients (r=0.506-1.00) between the groups of elements were observed. On the other hand, strong negative correlations (r=0.492-0.873) between another group of elements were also shown. (author)

  10. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Michelle S.M.; Townsend, Kathy A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Fernando, Daniel; Villa, Cesar A.; Gaus, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  11. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    , isoform, and transcription start site (TSS), and promoter level showed that several of the genes differed at all four levels. Interestingly, these genes were mainly annotated to the "electron transport chain" and neuronal differentiation, emphasizing that "tissue important" genes are regulated at several...

  12. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, van J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; van't Veer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  13. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; Veer, L.J. van 't

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  14. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler Walker, Jody; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87μg/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51μg/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35μg/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P 8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for ongoing public health action directed at tobacco prevention, reduction, and cessation for women of reproductive age. Pb and THg were detected in more than 95% of all cord blood samples, with GMs of 21 μg/L and 2.7μg/L, respectively, and Cd was detected in 26% of all cord samples, with a GM of 0.08μg/L. Cord:maternal ratios from paired samples ranged from 0.44 to 4.5 for THg, from 0.5 to 10.3 for MeHg, and 0.1 to 9.0 for Pb. On average, levels of THg, MeHg, and Zn were significantly higher in cord blood than in maternal blood (P<0.0001), whereas maternal Cd, Pb, Se, and Cu levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0

  15. Elevated levels of CXC chemokine connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP)-III in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gina; Gardner, Brian K; Elashoff, David A; Purcell, Colleen M; Sandha, Harpavan S; Mao, Jenny T; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Lee, Jay M; Dubinett, Steven M

    2011-05-15

    Despite advances in treatments, lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States for the past several decades. Recent findings from the National Lung Screening Trial reveal that low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan screening of high-risk individuals reduces lung cancer mortality. This suggests that early detection is of key importance to improving patient outcome. However, of those screened with CT scans, 25% had positive scans that require further follow-up studies which often involve more radiation exposure and invasive tests to reduce false positive results. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate plasma biomarkers to aid in diagnosis of lung cancer in at-risk individuals. We found increased expression of the CXC chemokine connective tissue-activating peptide (CTAP)-III from plasma specimens of lung cancer patients compared to at-risk control subjects. Identification of the peptide was confirmed by the addition of an anti-NAP-2 antibody that recognizes CTAP-III and NAP-2. We also quantified and verified the increased levels of plasma CTAP-III with ELISA in patients with lung cancer (mean ± SD, 1859 ± 1219 ng/mL) compared to controls (698 ± 434 ng/mL; Pcancer patients. Further studies are required to determine if this chemokine could be utilized in a blood-based biomarker panel for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  16. The diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels in children with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Song, Xueqing; Xia, Jiyi; Li, Jing; Jia, Peng; Chen, Pengyuan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor in children with heart failure. Methods and results Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor was determined in 61 children, including 41 children with heart failure, 20 children without heart failure, and 30 healthy volunteers. The correlations between plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels and clinical parameters were investigated. Moreover, the diagnostic value of N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers and children without heart failure, plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly elevated in those with heart failure (p0.05), but it obviously improved the ability of diagnosing heart failure in children, as demonstrated by the integrated discrimination improvement (6.2%, p=0.013) and net re-classification improvement (13.2%, p=0.017) indices. Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a promising diagnostic biomarker for heart failure in children.

  17. Determination of trace element levels in leaves of Nerium oleander using X-Ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Luis F.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollution by human activity has been one of the most concerns in the last years, principally due to rapid urban growth in the cities and the industrialization process. The air pollution can be increased due to several different kinds of emissions: urban traffic, industrial activities, burning fuel, civil industry of construction/demolition, fires and natural phenomena. Many of these emissions move from long distances due to convections currents and finally tend to deposit mainly in the plants leaves and in the soil. Thus, the plants leaves works as a natural sampler by the emissions deposit in these ones. In this study Nerium oleander leaves were used to measure the environmental pollutions levels in different sampling urban regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ: Andarai, Benfica, Bonsucesso, Caju, Engenho de Dentro, Engenho Novo, Estacio, Grajau, Inhauma, Lins, Maracana, Maria da Graca, Meier, Praca da Bandeira, Riachuelo, Rio Comprido, Sao Cristovao, Tijuca, Vila Isabel and city Center. The control samples were collected in Campo Grande near of Parque Nacional da Pedra Branca/RJ (National Park of Pedra Branca/RJ). The leaves were collected from adult plants and after the collection the samples were cleaned and placed in the greenhouse for drying, then were mashed and pressed into tablets forms. The analyses were performed using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), developed on the own laboratory and based in a SiPIN detector and a mini X ray tube. It was possible to detect 16 elements in the analyzed samples: K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The results shows that, in the studied areas, the analysis of the Nerium oleander plant shows a low-cost option and with a substantial efficiency as an environmental pollution biomonitor. (author)

  18. Determination of trace element levels in leaves of Nerium oleander using X-Ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Sanches, Francis A.C.R.A.; Neves, Arthur O.P.; Oliveira, Luis F.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada e Termodinamica

    2013-07-01

    The environmental pollution by human activity has been one of the most concerns in the last years, principally due to rapid urban growth in the cities and the industrialization process. The air pollution can be increased due to several different kinds of emissions: urban traffic, industrial activities, burning fuel, civil industry of construction/demolition, fires and natural phenomena. Many of these emissions move from long distances due to convections currents and finally tend to deposit mainly in the plants leaves and in the soil. Thus, the plants leaves works as a natural sampler by the emissions deposit in these ones. In this study Nerium oleander leaves were used to measure the environmental pollutions levels in different sampling urban regions in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ: Andarai, Benfica, Bonsucesso, Caju, Engenho de Dentro, Engenho Novo, Estacio, Grajau, Inhauma, Lins, Maracana, Maria da Graca, Meier, Praca da Bandeira, Riachuelo, Rio Comprido, Sao Cristovao, Tijuca, Vila Isabel and city Center. The control samples were collected in Campo Grande near of Parque Nacional da Pedra Branca/RJ (National Park of Pedra Branca/RJ). The leaves were collected from adult plants and after the collection the samples were cleaned and placed in the greenhouse for drying, then were mashed and pressed into tablets forms. The analyses were performed using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), developed on the own laboratory and based in a SiPIN detector and a mini X ray tube. It was possible to detect 16 elements in the analyzed samples: K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. The results shows that, in the studied areas, the analysis of the Nerium oleander plant shows a low-cost option and with a substantial efficiency as an environmental pollution biomonitor. (author)

  19. Investigation of waste form materials suitable for immobilizing actinide elements in high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Issei; Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1992-07-01

    The microstructure of waste form materials suitable for immobilizing actinide elements can be classified into the following two categories. (1) Actinide elements are immobilized in an crystallized matrix after the formation of solid solution or compounds. (2) Actinide elements are immobilized in a durable material by encapsulation. Based on crystal chemistry, durability data, phase diagrams, compositions of natural minerals, eleven oxide compounds and one non-oxide compound are pointed out to be new candidates included in category (1). The other survey on material compositions, manufacturing conditions and feasibility shows that SiC, glassy carbon, ZrO 2 , Ti-O-Si-C ceramics are preferable matrix materials included in category (2). Polymers and fine powders are suitable as starting materials for the encapsulation of actinide elements because of their excellent sinterability. (author) 50 refs

  20. Examining the best-fit paradigm for FEM at element level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mathematical physics that are not always amenable to analytical methods. ... Invoking the virtual work principle, one can use an approximate ...... Reddy J N 2003 An introduction to the finite element method (New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill).

  1. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  2. Effects of cadmium and copper on sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Güner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on sialic acid levels of brain and blood tissues of Cyprinus carpio. Methods: Adult carps were exposed to 0.1, 0.5 mg/L Cu, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cd and 0.1 mg/ L Cu+0.1 mg/L Cd under static experiment conditions for 1 week. At the end of exposure period, heavy metal accumulations and sialic acid levels in blood and brain tissues of the test animals were analyzed. Results: Cu and Cd accumulated in tissues in a dramatically increasing dose-dependent manner. Sialic acids level of the fish exposed to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L Cu and Cd and control grups for 1 week were 0.834, 1.427, 0.672, 0.934, 2.968, 4.714 mg/mL respectively. The results also showed that Cu has an antagonistic effect on tissue sialic acid level. Conclusions: We propose that Cd and Cu make a complex with sialic acids of membranes in the tissues researched. This complex between metal ions and sialic acid migth account for the cellular toxicity based on Cu and Cd.

  3. Tissue metal levels in Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) collected near the Sudbury (Ontario) ore-smelters; prospects for biomonitoring marsh pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.H

    2004-05-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) revealed that animals collected in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Cd and Ni in their liver and kidneys. Respective tissue concentrations averaged 2-fold and 3- to 6-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting from food chain contamination in regional marshes, including that reportedly characterizing Typha latifolia stands--their primary food source--and adherent sediments which may be consumed inadvertently while feeding. No evidence of site-influence or enhanced tissue metal levels was seen for Cu, Pb or Zn. While Cd : Ni accumulations were positively correlated in both the liver (r=0.78) and the kidneys (r=0.65), between-tissue comparisons indicated that hepatic : renal burdens were significantly correlated (r=0.75) only in the case of Ni. With the exception of 30-35% lower hepatic Zn levels in females relative to males within the Sudbury population, tissue metal levels did not vary according to sex or age class at either site. Our findings substantiate the potential of muskrat to serve as useful bioindicators/monitors of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments. - Muskrats appear to be useful bioindicators of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments.

  4. Tissue metal levels in Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) collected near the Sudbury (Ontario) ore-smelters; prospects for biomonitoring marsh pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) revealed that animals collected in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Cd and Ni in their liver and kidneys. Respective tissue concentrations averaged 2-fold and 3- to 6-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting from food chain contamination in regional marshes, including that reportedly characterizing Typha latifolia stands--their primary food source--and adherent sediments which may be consumed inadvertently while feeding. No evidence of site-influence or enhanced tissue metal levels was seen for Cu, Pb or Zn. While Cd : Ni accumulations were positively correlated in both the liver (r=0.78) and the kidneys (r=0.65), between-tissue comparisons indicated that hepatic : renal burdens were significantly correlated (r=0.75) only in the case of Ni. With the exception of 30-35% lower hepatic Zn levels in females relative to males within the Sudbury population, tissue metal levels did not vary according to sex or age class at either site. Our findings substantiate the potential of muskrat to serve as useful bioindicators/monitors of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments. - Muskrats appear to be useful bioindicators of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments

  5. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health Effects and Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Liu, Zhiwei [FMC Corporation, 701 Princeton South Corporate Center, Ewing, NJ (United States); Schlosser, Christopher [Health Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Spanogle, Terri L.; Chandrasekaran, Appavu [FMC Corporation, 701 Princeton South Corporate Center, Ewing, NJ (United States); McDaniel, Katherine L. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health Effects and Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administered dose, the differences based on internal concentrations were less, with γ-cyhalothrin being 1.3- to 1.6-fold more potent than λ-cyhalothrin. These potency differences are consistent with the purity of the λ-isomer (approximately 43%) compared to the enriched isomer γ-cyhalothrin (approximately 98%). Thus, administered dose as well as differences in cyhalothrin isomers is a good predictor of behavioral effects. - Highlights: • Acute changes in locomotor activity were produced by λ- and γ-cyhalothrin. •

  6. Alzheimer's disease: neuroprogesterone, epoxycholesterol, and ABC transporters as determinants of neurodesmosterol tissue levels and its role in amyloid protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, Norman B

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that during the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in the synthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and progesterone are occurring that may or may not affect the progression of the disease. The concept arose from the recognition that dehydrocholesterol 24-reductase (DHCR24/Seladin-1), one of the nine enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum that determines the transformation of lanosterol to cholesterol, is selectively reduced in late AD. As a consequence, the tissue level of desmosterol increases, affecting the expression of ABC transporters and the structure of lipid rafts, both determinants of amyloid-β processing. However, the former effect is considered beneficial and the latter detrimental to processing. Other determinants of desmosterol tissue levels are 24,25 epoxycholesterol and the ABCG1 and ABCG4 transporters. Progesterone and its metabolites are determinants of tissue levels of desmosterol and several other sterol intermediates in cholesterol synthesis. Animal models indicate marked elevations in the tissue levels of these sterols at early time frames in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The low level of neuroprogesterone and metabolites in AD are consonant with the low level of desmosterol and may have a role in amyloid-β processing. The sparse data that has accumulated appears to be a sufficient basis for proposing a systematic evaluation of the biologic roles of sterol intermediates in the slowly progressive neurodegeneration characteristic of AD.

  7. Bioprinted 3D Primary Liver Tissues Allow Assessment of Organ-Level Response to Clinical Drug Induced Toxicity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah G Nguyen

    Full Text Available Modeling clinically relevant tissue responses using cell models poses a significant challenge for drug development, in particular for drug induced liver injury (DILI. This is mainly because existing liver models lack longevity and tissue-level complexity which limits their utility in predictive toxicology. In this study, we established and characterized novel bioprinted human liver tissue mimetics comprised of patient-derived hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells in a defined architecture. Scaffold-free assembly of different cell types in an in vivo-relevant architecture allowed for histologic analysis that revealed distinct intercellular hepatocyte junctions, CD31+ endothelial networks, and desmin positive, smooth muscle actin negative quiescent stellates. Unlike what was seen in 2D hepatocyte cultures, the tissues maintained levels of ATP, Albumin as well as expression and drug-induced enzyme activity of Cytochrome P450s over 4 weeks in culture. To assess the ability of the 3D liver cultures to model tissue-level DILI, dose responses of Trovafloxacin, a drug whose hepatotoxic potential could not be assessed by standard pre-clinical models, were compared to the structurally related non-toxic drug Levofloxacin. Trovafloxacin induced significant, dose-dependent toxicity at clinically relevant doses (≤ 4uM. Interestingly, Trovafloxacin toxicity was observed without lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in the absence of resident macrophages in contrast to earlier reports. Together, these results demonstrate that 3D bioprinted liver tissues can both effectively model DILI and distinguish between highly related compounds with differential profile. Thus, the combination of patient-derived primary cells with bioprinting technology here for the first time demonstrates superior performance in terms of mimicking human drug response in a known target organ at the tissue level.

  8. Modes of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The modes of occurrence of the potentially hazardous elements in coal will be of significance in any attempt to reduce their mobilization due to coal combustion. Antimony and selenium may be present in solid solution in pyrite, as minute accessory sulfides dispersed throughout the organic matrix, or in organic association. Because of these modes of occurrence it is anticipated that less than 50% of these elements will be routinely removed by conventional coal cleaning procedures. Arsenic and mercury occur primarily in late-stage coarse-grained pyrite therefore physical coal cleaning procedures should be successful in removing substantial proportions of these elements. Cadmium occurs in sphalerite and lead in galena. Both of these minerals exhibit a wide range of particle sizes and textural relations. Depending on the particle size and textural relations, physical coal cleaning may remove as little as 25% of these elements or as much as 75%. Manganese in bituminous coal occurs in carbonates, especially siderite. Physical coal cleaning should remove a substantial proportion of this element. More information is needed to elucidate the modes of occurrence of beryllium, chromium, cobalt, and nickel. ?? 1994.

  9. A finite element/level set model of polyurethane foam expansion and polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunini, Victor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noble, David R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tinsley, James [Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States); Mondy, Lisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Polyurethane foams are used widely for encapsulation and structural purposes because they are inexpensive, straightforward to process, amenable to a wide range of density variations (1 lb/ft3 - 50 lb/ft3), and able to fill complex molds quickly and effectively. Computational model of the filling and curing process are needed to reduce defects such as voids, out-of-specification density, density gradients, foam decomposition from high temperatures due to exotherms, and incomplete filling. This paper details the development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a moderate density PMDI structural foam, PMDI-10. PMDI is an isocyanate-based polyurethane foam, which is chemically blown with water. The polyol reacts with isocyanate to produces the polymer. PMDI- 10 is catalyzed giving it a short pot life: it foams and polymerizes to a solid within 5 minutes during normal processing. To achieve a higher density, the foam is over-packed to twice or more of its free rise density of 10 lb/ft3. The goal for modeling is to represent the expansion, filling of molds, and the polymerization of the foam. This will be used to reduce defects, optimize the mold design, troubleshoot the processed, and predict the final foam properties. A homogenized continuum model foaming and curing was developed based on reaction kinetics, documented in a recent paper; it uses a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. The chemo-rheology of PMDI is measured experimentally and fit to a generalized- Newtonian viscosity model that is dependent on the extent of cure, gas fraction, and temperature. The conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and three rate equations are solved via a stabilized finite element method. The equations are combined with a level set method to determine the location of the foam-gas interface as it evolves to fill the mold. Understanding the thermal history and loads on the foam due to exothermicity and oven

  10. Normal breast tissue DNA methylation differences at regulatory elements are associated with the cancer risk factor age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin C; Houseman, E Andres; King, Jessica E; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-07-10

    The underlying biological mechanisms through which epidemiologically defined breast cancer risk factors contribute to disease risk remain poorly understood. Identification of the molecular changes associated with cancer risk factors in normal tissues may aid in determining the earliest events of carcinogenesis and informing cancer prevention strategies. Here we investigated the impact cancer risk factors have on the normal breast epigenome by analyzing DNA methylation genome-wide (Infinium 450 K array) in cancer-free women from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (n = 100). We tested the relation of established breast cancer risk factors, age, body mass index, parity, and family history of disease, with DNA methylation adjusting for potential variation in cell-type proportions. We identified 787 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites that demonstrated significant associations (Q value breast cancer risk factors. Age-related DNA methylation changes are primarily increases in methylation enriched at breast epithelial cell enhancer regions (P = 7.1E-20), and binding sites of chromatin remodelers (MYC and CTCF). We validated the age-related associations in two independent populations, using normal breast tissue samples (n = 18) and samples of normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue (n = 97). The genomic regions classified as age-related were more likely to be regions altered in both pre-invasive (n = 40, P = 3.0E-03) and invasive breast tumors (n = 731, P = 1.1E-13). DNA methylation changes with age occur at regulatory regions, and are further exacerbated in cancer, suggesting that age influences breast cancer risk in part through its contribution to epigenetic dysregulation in normal breast tissue.

  11. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the influence of climatic factors on the accumulation of radio-elements in plant tissue (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gilly-Heuze, C.; Nizia, J.

    1962-01-01

    1. Here is proposed an appropriate treatment of soil able to promote absorption and accumulation of radioisotopes in aerial parts of young trees. 2. Thanks to such treatment, young trees belonging to several species appropriately selected can probably be used to detect possible contamination of soil by a radioisotope during a whole vegetation cycle. The concentration power of tissues of these trees is considerable: after being cultivated on contaminated soil for only 4 weeks, the concentration rate is about 85 in spruce-needles. Activity measurements of samples of plant tissues may become a routine process in control of soil contamination. (authors) [fr

  13. Effect of spatial resolution of soil data on predictions of eggshell trace element levels in the Rook Corvus frugilegus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2016-12-01

    Although a considerable research effort has gone into studying the dietary pathways of metals to the bodies of laying female birds and their eggs in recent years, no detailed investigations have yet been carried out relating the properties of the biogeochemical environment at large spatial scales to eggshell trace element levels in typical soil-invertebrate feeding birds under natural conditions. We used data from a large-scale nationwide monitoring survey of soil quality in Poland (3724 sampling points from the 43 792 available) to predict levels of five trace elements (copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd], nickel [Ni], zinc [Zn] and lead [Pb]) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 42 breeding colonies. Our major aim was to test whether differences exist in the explanatory power of soil data (acidity, content of elements and organic matter, and particle size) used as a correlate of concentrations of eggshell trace elements among four different distances (5, 10, 15 and 20 km) around rookeries. Over all four distances around the rookeries only the concentrations of Cu and Cd in eggshells were positively correlated with those in soil, while eggshell Pb was correlated with the soil Pb level at the two longest distances (15 and 20 km) around the rookeries. The physical properties of soil (primarily the increase in pH) adversely affected eggshell Cd and Pb concentrations. The patterns and factors governing metal bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates and eggshells appear to be coincident, which strongly suggests a general similarity in the biochemical pathways of elements at different levels of the food web. The increasing acidification of arable soil as a result of excessive fertilisation and over-nitrification can enhance the bioavailability of toxic elements to laying females and their eggs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, A. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)]. E-mail: sukumarindia@rediffmail.com; Subramanian, R. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110 067 (India)

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed.

  15. Relative element levels in the paired samples of scalp hair and fingernails of patients from New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukumar, A.; Subramanian, R.

    2007-01-01

    Specific elements are bioconcentrated in human hair and nails, which have unique advantages of application in population monitoring studies thereby, recognized as biological tools for disease diagnosis and prevention. However, investigations are meager for relative element profile in hair and nails of same subjects. In this study, hair and nails were analyzed to find effects of age, sex, smoking habit, diet, urban and rural exposure gradients, occupation, and health on element levels. Scalp hair and fingernails were sampled along with a questionnaire from urban and rural subjects of New Delhi; patients of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes were identified clinically. Cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc concentrations were determined by AAS in both the samples; CRM (human hair powder) analysis showed acceptable precision and accuracy in element measurement. In comparison to controls, Cr-H and Zn-H levels were lower respectively in female hypertensive and total hypertensive subjects, whereas, Zn-N and Cu-N were lower respectively in total CHD and diabetic subjects, and hypertensive and CHD urban subjects. Cd concentrations were higher in both the samples of tobacco smoking rural subjects than that of non-smokers. Farmers had lower Pb-H than rural businessmen did. Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were different due to rural and urban gradient but not to the influence of age, sex, and diet. Pb value was alone correlated between the paired samples. Thus, higher Cd levels in the smokers and lower Cr, Cu and Zn levels in the patients were observed

  16. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cmsup 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed. 1 ref

  17. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cm 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed

  18. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the five toxic elements studied, the highest mean concentration (mg/kg) of 133.74±10.60 was recorded for Pb followed by Cr (22.27±3.03), Ni (8.14±0.33) and As (5.97±0.32) in the soils while the least mean concentration of 1.64±0.11 was recorded for Cd. The toxic elements were examined for dependency upon some ...

  19. The mechanical heterogeneity of the hard callus influences local tissue strains during bone healing: a finite element study based on sheep experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A; Liu, Y; Witt, F; Manjubala, I; Sander, O; Epari, D R; Fratzl, P; Duda, G N; Weinkamer, R

    2011-02-03

    During secondary fracture healing, various tissue types including new bone are formed. The local mechanical strains play an important role in tissue proliferation and differentiation. To further our mechanobiological understanding of fracture healing, a precise assessment of local strains is mandatory. Until now, static analyses using Finite Elements (FE) have assumed homogenous material properties. With the recent quantification of both the spatial tissue patterns (Vetter et al., 2010) and the development of elastic modulus of newly formed bone during healing (Manjubala et al., 2009), it is now possible to incorporate this heterogeneity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this heterogeneity on the strain patterns at six successive healing stages. The input data of the present work stemmed from a comprehensive cross-sectional study of sheep with a tibial osteotomy (Epari et al., 2006). In our FE model, each element containing bone was described by a bulk elastic modulus, which depended on both the local area fraction and the local elastic modulus of the bone material. The obtained strains were compared with the results of hypothetical FE models assuming homogeneous material properties. The differences in the spatial distributions of the strains between the heterogeneous and homogeneous FE models were interpreted using a current mechanobiological theory (Isakson et al., 2006). This interpretation showed that considering the heterogeneity of the hard callus is most important at the intermediate stages of healing, when cartilage transforms to bone via endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What Level Design Elements Determine Flow? : How Light and Objects Guide the Player in Overwatch and Doom

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, David

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study between Overwatch (2016) and Doom (2016) to determine how these fast-paced games facilitate flow in their gameplay. The second chapter looks at formal definitions of flow and level design to establish a vocabulary for following chapters. Through formal analysis the level designs of both games are then examined to establish what elements in them guide players and keep the flow in gameplay. The thesis also examines how the initial gameplay design princip...

  1. THE FEEDING AND PHYSICAL GROWTH OF THE SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH THE HIGHER LEVEL OF THE BONE TISSUE MINERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Vishnevetskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes feeding organization and quality for the children aged between 10 and 16 with the higher level of the bone tissue mineralization. The authors noted down the radical excess of the ration calorie content together with the excess of the protein and especially fat components. The researchers revealed the reduced content of the main vitamins, which contributes to the increase of the bone tissue mineralization levels among children and change in their morphofunctional status with the obesity development. in the given situation, it is necessary to speak of the ration correction according to the main components and distribution of its daily calorie content, as well as the ration supplements by introducing missing vitamins, which the polyvitaminic complexes may prove to be a good alternative to.Key words: children, bone tissue mineralization, food ration, vitamins.

  2. The serum levels of connective tissue growth factor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F-M; Yu, F; Tan, Y; Liu, G; Zhao, M-H

    2014-06-01

    The expression of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in human kidneys may serve as an early marker for lupus nephritis progression. Therefore, we speculated that connective tissue growth factor may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. In this study, we set out to investigate the associations between serum connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. Serum samples from patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus, renal biopsy-proven lupus nephritis and healthy control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum connective tissue growth factor levels. The associations between connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of the patients were further analysed. The levels of serum connective tissue growth factor in patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis were both significantly higher than those in the normal control group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 22.8 ± 3.0 ng/ml, plupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 44.1 ± 46.8 ng/ml, p = 0.183). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly higher in lupus nephritis patients with the following clinical manifestations, including anaemia (51.3 ± 51.4 ng/ml vs. 23.4 ± 9.7 ng/ml, plupus nephritis (63.3 ± 63.4 ng/ml vs. 38.3 ± 37.9 ng/ml, p = 0.035, respectively). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.46, plupus nephritis (plupus and correlated with chronic renal interstitial injury and doubling of serum creatinine in patients with lupus nephritis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Structural evaluation of the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge : element level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The primary objective of the structural evaluation of the John A. Roebling Bridge is to determine the maximum allowable gross vehicle weight (GVW) that can be carried by the bridge deck structural elements such as the open steel grid deck, channels, ...

  4. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  5. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  6. ACCUMULATION AND TISSUE DISPOSITION OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATED ELEMENTS IN THE RAT AFTER REPEATED INTRATRACHAEL ADMINISTRATION OF SOURCE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of source particle tracer elements following repeated intratracheal instillation (IT) to rats. PM samples comprised Mt. St. Helens ash (MSH) with no water-soluble metals, and oil flyash emission PM (EPM) with water-leachable solubl...

  7. HE4 Tissue Expression and Serum HE4 Levels in Healthy Individuals and Patients with Benign or Malignant Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Nikoline S; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus K

    2014-01-01

    , this review aims to systematically outline published results of HE4 tissue expression and serum HE4 levels in healthy individuals and patients with benign or malignant tumors. Our findings suggest scientific basis for a potential diagnostic ability of HE4 in gynecologic cancer and lung cancer, and further...

  8. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after

  9. A compact, in vivo screen of all 6-mers reveals drivers of tissue-specific expression and guides synthetic regulatory element design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robin P; Riesenfeld, Samantha J; Holloway, Alisha K; Li, Qiang; Murphy, Karl K; Feliciano, Natalie M; Orecchia, Lorenzo; Oksenberg, Nir; Pollard, Katherine S; Ahituv, Nadav

    2013-07-18

    Large-scale annotation efforts have improved our ability to coarsely predict regulatory elements throughout vertebrate genomes. However, it is unclear how complex spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression driven by these elements emerge from the activity of short, transcription factor binding sequences. We describe a comprehensive promoter extension assay in which the regulatory potential of all 6 base-pair (bp) sequences was tested in the context of a minimal promoter. To enable this large-scale screen, we developed algorithms that use a reverse-complement aware decomposition of the de Bruijn graph to design a library of DNA oligomers incorporating every 6-bp sequence exactly once. Our library multiplexes all 4,096 unique 6-mers into 184 double-stranded 15-bp oligomers, which is sufficiently compact for in vivo testing. We injected each multiplexed construct into zebrafish embryos and scored GFP expression in 15 tissues at two developmental time points. Twenty-seven constructs produced consistent expression patterns, with the majority doing so in only one tissue. Functional sequences are enriched near biologically relevant genes, match motifs for developmental transcription factors, and are required for enhancer activity. By concatenating tissue-specific functional sequences, we generated completely synthetic enhancers for the notochord, epidermis, spinal cord, forebrain and otic lateral line, and show that short regulatory sequences do not always function modularly. This work introduces a unique in vivo catalog of short, functional regulatory sequences and demonstrates several important principles of regulatory element organization. Furthermore, we provide resources for designing compact, reverse-complement aware k-mer libraries.

  10. Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver, and lung tissue of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunda, Edgar C; Othman, Othman C; Akwilapo, Leonard D; Bouwman, Hindrik; Mwevura, Haji

    2017-09-15

    Concentrations of metallic elements in kidney, liver and lung tissues of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus from coastal waters of Zanzibar were determined using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc were quantifiable in all tissues at concentration ranges of 0.10-150, 0.08-3.2, 1.1-88 and 14-210μg/g dry mass, respectively. Copper and zinc was significantly higher in liver, and females had significantly higher Cd in liver, and chromium in lung. Generally, T. aduncus dolphins from coastal waters around Zanzibar carry low concentrations of metals compared with dolphins from other areas. Cadmium increased significantly with age in kidney and lung. Copper decreased significantly with age in liver, probably due to foetal metallothionein. This study supplied baseline data against which future trends in marine mammals in the Indian Ocean, the world's third largest, can be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computing dispersion curves of elastic/viscoelastic transversely-isotropic bone plates coupled with soft tissue and marrow using semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Tran, Tho N H T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Naili, Salah; Le, Lawrence H

    2017-08-01

    We present a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) scheme for accurately computing the velocity dispersion and attenuation in a trilayered system consisting of a transversely-isotropic (TI) cortical bone plate sandwiched between the soft tissue and marrow layers. The soft tissue and marrow are mimicked by two fluid layers of finite thickness. A Kelvin-Voigt model accounts for the absorption of all three biological domains. The simulated dispersion curves are validated by the results from the commercial software DISPERSE and published literature. Finally, the algorithm is applied to a viscoelastic trilayered TI bone model to interpret the guided modes of an ex-vivo experimental data set from a bone phantom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining tissue-lead levels in large game mammals harvested with lead bullets: human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; VanSpronsen, E P; Liberda, E N

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the use of lead isotope ratios has definitively identified lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people, but the isotope ratios for lead pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden; however, few studies have determined if lead bullet fragments are present in big game carcasses. We found elevated tissue-lead concentrations (up to 5,726.0 microg/g ww) in liver (5/9) and muscle (6/7) samples of big game harvested with lead bullets and radiographic evidence of lead fragments. Thus, we would advise that the tissue surrounding the wound channel be removed and discarded, as this tissue may be contaminated by lead bullet fragments.

  13. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K

    2009-01-01

    survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...... stage, age and radicality after primary surgery as variables, showed that elevated plasma YKL-40 was associated with a shorter survival (HR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.40-3.25, p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: YKL-40 in OC tissue and plasma are related to stage and histology, but only plasma YKL-40 is a prognostic...

  14. Determination of the levels of trace elements in ten years old children from Antofagasta city, Chile by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, N.; Munoz, A.L.; Jamett J, A.; Pena C, L.; Santander M, M.

    1988-01-01

    The levels of trace elements in scalp hair of ten years old children of Antofagasta city were determined. For this study, the city was divided in convenient areas. Comparisons between levels of concentrations considering residential areas, sex, values obtained for children of Santiago, and the ranges given in the literature were established. Fifty samples of hair were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analisis. The elements selected were: As, Br, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Na. Sb, and Zn. The effectiveness of wash procedure before irradiation was studied. Ten samples were taken with sufficient amount of hair and each was divided into two, only one of them was washed and both were analyzed. The levels of concentrations were compared. (author)

  15. Beneficial effects of a N-terminally modified GIP agonist on tissue-level bone material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilleau, Guillaume; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Simon, Yannick; Audran, Maurice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Bone remodeling is under complex regulation from nervous, hormonal and local signals, including gut hormones. Among the gut hormones, a role for the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been suggested. However, the rapid degradation of GIP in the bloodstream by the ubiquitous enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) precludes therapeutic use. To circumvent this problem, a series of N-terminally modified GIP agonists have been developed, with N-AcGIP being the most promising. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of N-AcGIP on bone at the micro-level using trabecular and cortical microstructural morphology, and at the tissue-level in rats. Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned into control or N-AcGIP-treated groups and received daily injection for 4 weeks. Bone microstructural morphology was assessed by microCT and dynamic histomorphometry and tissue-level properties by nanoindentation, qBEI and infra-red microscopy. Four week treatment with N-AcGIP did not alter trabecular or cortical microstructural morphology. In addition, no significant modifications of mechanical response and properties at the tissue-level were observed in trabecular bone. However, significant augmentations in maximum load (12%), hardness (14%), indentation modulus (13%) and dissipated energy (16%) were demonstrated in cortical bone. These beneficial modifications of mechanical properties at the tissue-level were associated with increased mineralization (22%) and collagen maturity (13%) of the bone matrix. Taken together, the results support a beneficial role of GIP, and particularly stable analogs such as N-AcGIP, on tissue material properties of bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue expression and plasma levels of adrenomedullin in renal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Jens; Thiesson, Helle; Walter, Steen

    2006-01-01

    that AM is increased in CC-RCC tumours and that AM is a plasma biomarker for CC-RCC. Tumours and non-malignant kidney tissue were obtained from patients that underwent unilateral nephrectomy. Blood samples were drawn at the day of surgery, 3-6 days after surgery and 4-5 weeks after surgery. AM m...... conclude that elevated tissue AM is a distinguishing feature of CC-RCC compared with other kidney tumours. Plasma AM is not suited as a tumour marker for this disease....

  17. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S., E-mail: ozolinst@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Program in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Queen’s University, Botterell Hall, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Weston, Andrea D. [Currently at Applied Biotechnology/Lead Discovery, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 5 Research Pkwy Wallingford, CT 06492-1996 (United States); Perretta, Anthony [Currently at Pfizer Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Thomson, Jason J. [Currently at Yale Stem Cell Center, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208073, New Haven, CT 06520-8073 (United States); Brown, Nigel A. [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St. George’s University of London, UK SW17 0RE (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  18. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozolinš, Terence R.S.; Weston, Andrea D.; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J.; Brown, Nigel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40–100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12 h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome. - Highlights: • Dimethadione (DMO) induces septation defects (VSD) in rat offspring. • Despite high rate of VSD defects inter-litter variability is 40–100%. • Maternal and embryonic concentrations of DMO were assessed. • Neither serum nor tissue levels of DMO were correlated with embryotoxicity.

  19. Volume concentration of 41 elements in ground level of atmosphere in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Meresova, J.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry in Bratislava. The obtained results confirmed the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. (authors)

  20. Finite-element analysis of NiTi wire deflection during orthodontic levelling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali, M F; Mahmud, A S; Abdullah, J; Mokhtar, N

    2016-01-01

    Finite-element analysis is an important product development tool in medical devices industry for design and failure analysis of devices. This tool helps device designers to quickly explore various design options, optimizing specific designs and providing a deeper insight how a device is actually performing. In this study, three-dimensional finite-element models of superelastic nickel-titanium arch wire engaged in a three brackets system were developed. The aim was to measure the effect of binding friction developed on wire-bracket interaction towards the remaining recovery force available for tooth movement. Uniaxial and three brackets bending test were modelled and validated against experimental works. The prediction made by the three brackets bending models shows good agreement with the experimental results. (paper)

  1. Finite-element analysis of NiTi wire deflection during orthodontic levelling treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.

    2016-02-01

    Finite-element analysis is an important product development tool in medical devices industry for design and failure analysis of devices. This tool helps device designers to quickly explore various design options, optimizing specific designs and providing a deeper insight how a device is actually performing. In this study, three-dimensional finite-element models of superelastic nickel-titanium arch wire engaged in a three brackets system were developed. The aim was to measure the effect of binding friction developed on wire-bracket interaction towards the remaining recovery force available for tooth movement. Uniaxial and three brackets bending test were modelled and validated against experimental works. The prediction made by the three brackets bending models shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Levels of some trace elements in serum of esophageal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, D. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of six trace elements (Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb, Hg) in the serum of patients with esophageal cancer who were newly diagnosed before undergoing any type of treatment. Biopsy was taken from diseased esophagus and examined histologically. A total of 43 samples of patients and 36 samples from healthy control group was collected, which were then dried by freeze drying. Then analyzed by neutron activation analysis technology, using research reactor in Syria (the miniature neutron source, MNSR) with neutron flux of 1x10''1''2 n.cm ''-''2 s''-''1 was performed. Certified reference sample from the International Agency were obtained for quality control analysis to ensure the reliability of the device. All six elements were statistically analyzed, the study proved statistical significant difference concentration of following five elements, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb in the serum of patients compared to the serum samples of healthy people. The concentration of Zn and Se in patients serum were less compared to serum of healthy individuals, and the concentrations of Fe, Co, Rb in serum of patients were higher than its that the serum of healthy individuals. While the concentrations of Hg was found to be higher in serum of healthy individuals compared to patients serum, but without statistical significant. The concentration presented by means with standard deviation. The findings were compared to results obtained from literature. All five elements compatible with literature. Hg has not been investigated in such studies before. Selenium and zinc supplementation are need by cancer patient in order to enhance and increase the chances for natural immunological of cancer.(Author)

  3. Levels of some trace elements in serum of esophageal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, D M. A. [Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of six trace elements (Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb, Hg) in the serum of patients with esophageal cancer who were newly diagnosed before undergoing any type of treatment. Biopsy was taken from diseased esophagus and examined histologically. A total of 43 samples of patients and 36 samples from healthy control group was collected, which were then dried by freeze drying. Then analyzed by neutron activation analysis technology, using research reactor in Syria (the miniature neutron source, MNSR) with neutron flux of 1x10''1''2 n.cm ''-''2 s''-''1 was performed. Certified reference sample from the International Agency were obtained for quality control analysis to ensure the reliability of the device. All six elements were statistically analyzed, the study proved statistical significant difference concentration of following five elements, Zn, Se, Fe, Co, Rb in the serum of patients compared to the serum samples of healthy people. The concentration of Zn and Se in patients serum were less compared to serum of healthy individuals, and the concentrations of Fe, Co, Rb in serum of patients were higher than its that the serum of healthy individuals. While the concentrations of Hg was found to be higher in serum of healthy individuals compared to patients serum, but without statistical significant. The concentration presented by means with standard deviation. The findings were compared to results obtained from literature. All five elements compatible with literature. Hg has not been investigated in such studies before. Selenium and zinc supplementation are need by cancer patient in order to enhance and increase the chances for natural immunological of cancer.(Author)

  4. Planing of land use of structural elements of ecological network at local level

    OpenAIRE

    Tretiak V.; Hun'ko L.

    2016-01-01

    and Management projecting of structural elements of land use of the ecological network on the territory of the village council begins with ecological and landscape micro zoning of the territory of village council, held during the preparatory work for the drafting of land and are finished by the formation of environmentally homogeneous regions, to which the system components of ecological network are tied, as well as environmental measures in the form of local environmental restrictions (encum...

  5. Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we selected a group of 525 pre-menopausal lymph node-positive patients (adjuvant treatment: CMF, 324 patients; anthracycline-based, 99 patients; no adjuvant chemotherapy, 102 patients). TIMP-1 levels were measured using ELISA in cytosolic extracts of frozen primary tumors. TIMP-1 was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a dichotomized one using the median TIMP-1 concentration as a cut point between high and low TIMP-1 groups. We analyzed the benefit of adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines in univariate and multivariable survival models; endpoints were disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this selected cohort of high-risk patients, and in the subgroup of patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, TIMP-1 was not associated with prognosis. In the subgroup of patients treated with anthracyclines, when analyzed as a continuous variable we observed a tendency for increasing TIMP-1 levels to be associated with shorter DFS (multivariable analysis, HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.00-3.07, P = 0.05) and a significant association between increasing TIMP-1 and shorter OS in both univariate (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.54-8.06, P = 0.003) and multivariable analyses (HR 4.19, 95% CI 1.67-10.51, P = 0.002). No statistically significant association between TIMP-1 and DFS was observed in the CMF-treated patients although high TIMP-1 was associated with shorter OS when analyzed as a dichotomized variable (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02-2.65, P

  6. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  7. k0-INAA measurement of levels of toxic elements in oil sludge and their leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Kok Siong Khoo; Sukiman Sarmani; Majid, A.A.; Ainon Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Development of the petroleum industry has resulted in increasing production of oil sludge, the disposal of which risks introducing hazardous elements into the environment. In the frames of these studies the presence of the toxic metals arsenic, chromium and zinc in oil sludge and the leachability of those toxins. Samples were obtained from a refinery plant in Sg Udang, Melaka and from the Miri Crude Oil Terminal, Sarawak, both in Malaysia. k 0 -Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was used to measure mass fractions of elements. The samples were packed and irradiated in a TRIGA Mark II reactor. Mass fraction of arsenic in the oil sludge samples were found to be higher than the EPA pollutant mass fraction limit; mass fractions of chromium and zinc were below of this limit. Samples were also tested for leachability, which was found to be contributed to by controlled diffusion. Slow leachability of arsenic was found to be higher than the EPA limit in these oil sludge samples, influenced by such factors as redox condition. It was found however, that the most leachable of these elements in all samples from both sites was zinc, followed by arsenic and chromium, indicating that zinc may present a more serious threat of environmental contamination than the other two. (author)

  8. A fibre optic fluorescence sensor to measure redox level in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Qi; Morrison, Janna L.; Darby, Jack R. T.; Plush, Sally; Sorvina, Alexandra; Brooks, Doug; Monro, Tanya M.; Afshar Vahid, Shahraam

    2018-01-01

    We report the design of a fibre optic-based redox detection system for investigating differences in metabolic activities of tissues. Our system shows qualitative agreement with the results collected from a commercial two- photon microscope system. Thus, demonstrating the feasibility of building an ex vivo and in vivo redox detection system that is low cost and portable.

  9. Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels are influenced by sex and strain but do not predict tissue iron levels in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Stela; Page, Kathryn E; Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alex; Valore, Erika; Hui, Simon T; Jung, Grace; Zhou, Jie; Lusis, Aldons J; Fuqua, Brie; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Vulpe, Chris D

    2017-11-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated, and the peptide hormone hepcidin is considered to be a principal regulator of iron metabolism. Previous studies in a limited number of mouse strains found equivocal sex- and strain-dependent differences in mRNA and serum levels of hepcidin and reported conflicting data on the relationship between hepcidin ( Hamp1 ) mRNA levels and iron status. Our aim was to clarify the relationships between strain, sex, and hepcidin expression by examining multiple tissues and the effects of different dietary conditions in multiple inbred strains. Two studies were done: first, Hamp1 mRNA, liver iron, and plasma diferric transferrin levels were measured in 14 inbred strains on a control diet; and second, Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels in both sexes and iron levels in the heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, and spleen in males were measured in nine inbred/recombinant inbred strains raised on an iron-sufficient or high-iron diet. Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). However, liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice fed iron-sufficient or high-iron diets, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least in males. We also measured plasma erythroferrone, performed RNA-sequencing analysis of liver samples from six inbred strains fed the iron-sufficient, low-iron, or high-iron diets, and explored differences in gene expression between the strains with the highest and lowest hepcidin levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both sex and strain have a significant effect on both hepcidin mRNA (primarily a sex effect) and plasma hepcidin levels (primarily a strain effect). Liver iron and diferric transferrin levels are not predictors of Hamp1 mRNA levels in mice, nor are the Hamp1 mRNA and plasma hepcidin levels good predictors of tissue iron levels, at least

  10. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  11. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, S O A; Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon tissue during exercise or training can affect local synthesis and degradation of type I collagen. Degradation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins is controlled by an interplay between matrix metalloproteinases...... (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). However, it is unknown whether local levels of MMPs and TIMPs are affected by tendon loading in humans in vivo. In the present experiment, six healthy young men performed 1 h of uphill (3%) treadmill running. Dialysate was collected from microdialysis probes...... (placed in the peritendinous tissue immediately anterior to the Achilles tendon) before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after an exercise bout. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured in dialysate by gelatin zymography, and amounts were quantified by densitometry in relation to total protein...

  12. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  13. High Performance Microaccelerometer with Wafer-level Hermetic Packaged Sensing Element and Continuous-time BiCMOS Interface Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Hyoungho; Park, Sangjun; Paik, Seung-Joon; Choi, Byoung-doo; Park, Yonghwa; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sungwook; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Ahra; Yoo, Kwangho; Lim, Jaesang; Cho, Dong-il

    2006-01-01

    A microaccelerometer with highly reliable, wafer-level packaged MEMS sensing element and fully differential, continuous time, low noise, BiCMOS interface circuit is fabricated. The MEMS sensing element is fabricated on a (111)-oriented SOI wafer by using the SBM (Sacrificial/Bulk Micromachining) process. To protect the silicon structure of the sensing element and enhance the reliability, a wafer level hermetic packaging process is performed by using a silicon-glass anodic bonding process. The interface circuit is fabricated using 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The capacitance change of the MEMS sensing element is amplified by the continuous-time, fully-differential transconductance input amplifier. A chopper-stabilization architecture is adopted to reduce low-frequency noise including 1/f noise. The fabricated microaccelerometer has the total noise equivalent acceleration of 0.89 μg/√Hz, the bias instability of 490 μg, the input range of ±10 g, and the output nonlinearity of ±0.5 %FSO

  14. Periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica G Corrêa

    Full Text Available This study investigated some immunological features by experimental periodontitis (EP and rheumatoid arthritis (RA disease interact in destructive processes in arthritic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: EP +RA; RA; EP; and Negative Control. RA was induced by immunizations with type-II collagen and a local immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the paw. Periodontitis was induced by ligating the right first molars. The serum level of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACCPA were measured before the induction of EP (T1 and at 28 days after (T2 by ELISA assay. ACCPA levels were also measured in the gingival tissue at T2. The specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss, and the gingival tissue surrounding the first molar was collected for the quantification of interleukin IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α using a Luminex/MAGpix assay. Paw edema was analyzed using a plethysmometer. Periodontitis increased the RF and ACCPA levels in the serum and in the gingival tissue, respectively. Besides, the level of paw swelling was increased by EP and remained in progress until the end of the experiment, when EP was associated with RA. Greater values of IL-17 were observed only when RA was present, in spite of PE. It can be concluded that periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins level in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats; at the same time, arthritis increases periodontal destruction, confirming the bidirectional interaction between diseases.

  15. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  16. SU-E-T-573: Normal Tissue Dose Effect of Prescription Isodose Level Selection in Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q; Lei, Y; Zheng, D; Zhu, X; Wahl, A; Lin, C; Zhou, S; Zhen, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dose fall-off in normal tissue for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases planned with different prescription isodose levels (IDLs), by calculating the dose dropping speed (DDS) in normal tissue on plans computed with both Pencil Beam (PB) and Monte-Carlo (MC) algorithms. Methods: The DDS was calculated on 32 plans for 8 lung SBRT patients. For each patient, 4 dynamic conformal arc plans were individually optimized for prescription isodose levels (IDL) ranging from 60% to 90% of the maximum dose with 10% increments to conformally cover the PTV. Eighty non-overlapping rind structures each of 1mm thickness were created layer by layer from each PTV surface. The average dose in each rind was calculated and fitted with a double exponential function (DEF) of the distance from the PTV surface, which models the steep- and moderate-slope portions of the average dose curve in normal tissue. The parameter characterizing the steep portion of the average dose curve in the DEF quantifies the DDS in the immediate normal tissue receiving high dose. Provided that the prescription dose covers the whole PTV, a greater DDS indicates better normal tissue sparing. The DDS were compared among plans with different prescription IDLs, for plans computed with both PB and MC algorithms. Results: For all patients, the DDS was found to be the lowest for 90% prescription IDL and reached a highest plateau region for 60% or 70% prescription. The trend was the same for both PB and MC plans. Conclusion: Among the range of prescription IDLs accepted by lung SBRT RTOG protocols, prescriptions to 60% and 70% IDLs were found to provide best normal tissue sparing

  17. Background levels of some trace elements in egyptian soils determined by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Sabour, M F [Soil pollution unit, Soil and water dept., Nuclear res.center, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Haleen, A S [Hot Labs, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Zohny, E E [Physics Dept. Faculty of Science, Cairo Univ. Ain shams Univ., Cairo, (Egypt); Sroor, A [Nuclear Physics Dep., Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Zaghloul, R [Mubarak city for scientific research and technology, Ministry of scientific research, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    As part of a research program on the influence of agricultural practices and activities on soil content of heavy metals. The present work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of instrumental neutron activation analysis for this purpose. Elements studied were, Fe, Zn, Co, Sc, Sb, As, Cd, Hg and Cr. The soil samples analyzed were from different locations to represent different land uses and types. Results revealed that As, Cd and Hg show a pronounced accumulation in soils especially those exposed to industrial and organic wastes disposal. 2 tabs.

  18. Low-level determination of transuranic elements in marine environment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures developed and currently employed in the Monaco Laboratory for determining transuranic elements in seawater, marine sediments and organisms are described and discussed. While the standard anion-exchange procedure from the hydrochloric acid medium is used for the separation of plutonium isotopes from americium, purification of americium and curium is achieved by an ion-exchange sorption from the methanol-nitric acid medium, followed by an elution with the methanol-hydrochloric acid mixture. Satisfactory clean-up of plutonium as well as americium and curium can be achieved by applying the described procedures. (author)

  19. Selected elements and organic chemicals in bed sediment and fish tissue of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Bernadine A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of elements and organic compounds have entered the environment as a result of human activities. Such substances find their way to aquatic sediments from direct discharges to waterways, atmospheric emissions, and runoff. Some of these chemicals are known to harm fish or wildlife, either by direct toxicity, by reducing viability, or by limiting reproductive success. In aquatic systems, sediments become the eventual sink for most of these chemicals. Analyzing the sediments provides a first step in a chemical inventory that can lead to an assessment of potential biological impacts (Kennicutt and others, 1994).

  20. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic Conditions at Different pH and Alkalinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and tissue elemental differences were quantified for lettuce grown in deep-water conventional hydroponic conditions at two pH and alkalinity conditions. Nutrient solutions were created using inorganic salts and either reverse osmosis (RO water or municipal water with high alkalinity. Three treatments were evaluated: (a nutrient solution created with reverse osmosis (RO water and maintained at pH 5.8 (H5; (b same as H5 but maintained at pH 7.0 (H7; and (c nutrient solution created using municipal water and maintained at pH 7.0, referred to as HA7. Averaged across three trials, the HA7 and H7 treatments produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW than the H5 treatment with an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. The H5 treatment had the least biomass in root FW and DW. In tissue elemental analyses, both the pH 7.0 treatments showed lower concentrations than H5 in Cu, N, Mo, and Sr, and increased concentrations in Ba, Mg, Na, and Zn. There were no differences in Al, C, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, P, S, and Si concentrations among treatments (p = 0.05. The results from this experiment can be used to isolate the effects of pH and alkalinity in aquaponic conditions where pH and alkalinity will mimic HA7 conditions.

  1. Reduced Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases in UVB-Irradiated Corneal Epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Němcová, Lucie; Bohuslavová, Božena; Klezlová, A.; Popelka, Štěpán; Studenovská, Hana; Hrnčiarová, Eva; Čejková, Jitka; Motlík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2016), s. 720-727 ISSN 0031-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P155; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases * matrix metalloproteinases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2016

  2. A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athma A Pai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, and kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data were also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for 7,723 genes, we were able to study the role of promoter DNA methylation in the evolution of gene regulation across tissues and species. We found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are often conserved between humans and chimpanzees. However, we also found a large number of gene expression differences between species that might be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation levels. In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees.

  3. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers—An Explorative Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Neuhaus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH, seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7, and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2 in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  4. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers-An Explorative Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schiffer, Eric; Mannello, Ferdinando; Horn, Lars-Christian; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2017-05-04

    Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  5. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  6. Effects of epidermal growth factor in artificial tear on vitamin C levels of corneal wounded eye tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, B; Kaplan, B; Bilgihan, K; Budak, M T

    2001-04-01

    To investigate the effect of artificial tear (AT) solution and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment on the cornea and aqueous humour ascorbic acid (AA) levels of full-thickness corneal wounded eyes. The effect of EGF on the AA levels of aqueous humour and corneal wound tissue was determined in full-thickness corneal wounded rabbit eyes on the seventh post-operative day. There were three groups: untreated controls, AT-treated controls and an EGF+AT-treated experimental group (n = 6 in each group). Corneal wounded eyes were topically treated with 5 microl AT or 5 microl EGF in AT (1 mg/l EGF in AT prepaaration which contained 3.0% carbopol 940) twice daily for 6 days after operation. The wound strengths were also measured on the seventh post-operative day as a measure of wound healing. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U-test by Statview program. The wound strengths of corneas, and AA levels of wound tissues and aqueous humour, increased significantly following AT and EGF treatment (p < 0.05). In the corneal wounded eye, aqueous humour serves as a source of vitamin C and there may be a relation between EGF treatment in AT and AA levels of corneal wounded eye tissues.

  7. [Changes in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate Levels in Blood and Brain Tissue after Craniocerebral Trauma and Cardiac Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdörfer, J; Heller, W; Junger, H; Oldenkott, P; Stunkat, R

    1976-10-01

    The response of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) levels in the blood and brain tissue to a craniocerebral trauma of varying severity was studied in anaesthetized rats. A trauma producing cerebral contusion was followed within two hours by a highly significant rise in DPG concentration in the blood as compared with the control animals or only mildly traumatized rats. The DPG levels in the brain tissue showed no significant differences. Similar changes in DPG concentration were observed in the blood of patients with craniocerebral injuries. The DPG-mediated increased release of oxygen to the tissues represents a compensatory mechanism and is pathognomic for craniocerebral trauma. Patients undergoing surgery with extracorporeal circulation lack this mechanism for counteracting hypoxaemia; already during thoracotomy the DPG concentration in the blood fell significantly and did not reach its original level until 72 hours after the operation. In stored, ACD stabilized, blood the DPG concentration gradually decreases. Estimations carried out over 28 days showed a continuous statistically significant loss of DPG. After 24 hours the DPG levels in stored blood had already dropped to the lower limits of normal - a fact that has to be taken into account in massive blood transfusions.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  9. System-Level Coupled Modeling of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Systems by Joint Finite Element and Circuit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is usually composed of two coupled parts: a harvesting structure and an interface circuit. Thus, it is much necessary to build system-level coupled models for analyzing PVEH systems, so that the whole PVEH system can be optimized to obtain a high overall efficiency. In this paper, two classes of coupled models are proposed by joint finite element and circuit analysis. The first one is to integrate the equivalent circuit model of the harvesting structure with the interface circuit and the second one is to integrate the equivalent electrical impedance of the interface circuit into the finite element model of the harvesting structure. Then equivalent circuit model parameters of the harvesting structure are estimated by finite element analysis and the equivalent electrical impedance of the interface circuit is derived by circuit analysis. In the end, simulations are done to validate and compare the proposed two classes of system-level coupled models. The results demonstrate that harvested powers from the two classes of coupled models approximate to theoretic values. Thus, the proposed coupled models can be used for system-level optimizations in engineering applications.

  10. Investigation of Elemental Mass Spectrometry in Pharmacology for Peptide Quantitation at Femtomolar Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cordeau

    Full Text Available In the search of new robust and environmental-friendly analytical methods able to answer quantitative issues in pharmacology, we explore liquid chromatography (LC associated with elemental mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to monitor peptides in such complex biological matrices. The novelty is to use mass spectrometry to replace radiolabelling and radioactivity measurements, which represent up-to now the gold standard to measure organic compound concentrations in life science. As a proof of concept, we choose the vasopressin (AVP/V1A receptor system for model pharmacological assays. The capacity of ICP-MS to provide highly sensitive quantitation of metallic and hetero elements, whatever the sample medium, prompted us to investigate this technique in combination with appropriate labelling of the peptide of interest. Selenium, that is scarcely present in biological media, was selected as a good compromise between ICP-MS response, covalent tagging ability using conventional sulfur chemistry and peptide detection specificity. Applying selenium monitoring by elemental mass spectrometry in pharmacology is challenging due to the very high salt content and organic material complexity of the samples that produces polyatomic aggregates and thus potentially mass interferences with selenium detection. Hyphenation with a chromatographic separation was found compulsory. Noteworthy, we aimed to develop a straightforward quantitative protocol that can be performed in any laboratory equipped with a standard macrobore LC-ICP-MS system, in order to avoid time-consuming sample treatment or special implementation of instrumental set-up, while allowing efficient suppression of all mass interferences to reach the targeted sensitivity. Significantly, a quantification limit of 57 ng Se L-1 (72 femtomoles of injected Se was achieved, the samples issued from the pharmacological assays being directly introduced into the LC-ICP-MS system. The established method was successfully

  11. Thyroid Hormone Receptor β (TRβ) and Liver X Receptor (LXR) Regulate Carbohydrate-response Element-binding Protein (ChREBP) Expression in a Tissue-selective Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Karine; Billon, Cyrielle; Bissler, Marie; Beylot, Michel; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc; Vanacker, Jean-Marc; Samarut, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TR) and liver X (LXR) receptors are transcription factors involved in lipogenesis. Both receptors recognize the same consensus DNA-response element in vitro. It was previously shown that their signaling pathways interact in the control of cholesterol elimination in the liver. In the present study, carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP), a major transcription factor controlling the activation of glucose-induced lipogenesis in liver, is characterized as a direct target of thyroid hormones (TH) in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT), the two main lipogenic tissues in mice. Using genetic and molecular approaches, ChREBP is shown to be specifically regulated by TRβ but not by TRα in vivo, even in WAT where both TR isoforms are expressed. However, this isotype specificity is not found in vitro. This TRβ specific regulation correlates with the loss of TH-induced lipogenesis in TRβ−/− mice. Fasting/refeeding experiments show that TRβ is not required for the activation of ChREBP expression particularly marked in WAT following refeeding. However, TH can stimulate ChREBP expression in WAT even under fasting conditions, suggesting completely independent pathways. Because ChREBP has been described as an LXR target, the interaction of LXR and TRβ in ChREBP regulation was assayed both in vitro and in vivo. Each receptor recognizes a different response element on the ChREBP promoter, located only 8 bp apart. There is a cross-talk between LXR and TRβ signaling on the ChREBP promoter in liver but not in WAT where LXR does not regulate ChREBP expression. The molecular basis for this cross-talk has been determined in in vitro systems. PMID:20615868

  12. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. [The level of superoxide dismutase expression in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cells in hypoxia and tissue normoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Chrzanowska, Alicja; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide oxidase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress, which might induce cancerogenesis. In tumor cells SOD influences the level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) allowing for survival and proliferation. High rate of cells proliferation in tumor leads to their temporary hypoxia due to lower rate of angiogenesis. Therefore during tumor development, cancer cells function in conditions of hypoxia or tissue normoxia. The aim of study was to evaluate of SOD isoenzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) expression level in cell lines of primary (SW 480) and metastatic (SW 620) colorectal cancer, cultured in hypoxia (1% oxygen), tissue normoxia (10% oxygen), and atmospheric normoxia (21% oxygen). Cells were cultured in MEM medium in different oxygen concentrations (1%, 10%, 21%) in hypoxic chamber with oxygenation regulator. The number of living cells in lines SW 480 and 620 was determined by trypan blue method. Expression of SOD1 and SOD2 at the mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR and PCR. In both studied cell lines (SW 480 and SW 620), the number of living cells (viability) was increased in hypoxia and atmospheric normoxia. The expression level of SOD1 and SOD2 in studied cell lines was different. The lowest level of expression of both SOD isoenzymes was observed in hypoxia. In conditions of atmospheric normoxia the expression level of SOD1 in SW480 cell line was increased, and similar in SW620 cell line comparing to tissue normoxia. Whereas the SOD2 expression level in atmospheric normoxia conditions in both cell lines was significantly increased. Observed differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0,05). The profile of expression of SOD1 and SOD2 in cell lines SW480 and SW620 indicates differentiated response of tumor cells depending on access to oxygen. Low level of SOD isoenzymes expression in SW480 and SW620 cells in hypoxia indicates decreased production of ROS. Differences of SOD isoenzymes expression level in tissue normoxia

  14. Correlation between the serum and tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and the extent of inflammation in acute appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Birkan; Yildirim, Murat Baki; Ergin, Merve; Yalçin, Abdussamed; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and tissue levels of markers of impaired oxidative metabolism and correlate these levels with the histopathology and Alvarado score of acute appendicitis patients. METHOD: Sixty-five acute appendicitis patients (mean age, 31.4±12.06 years; male/female, 30/35) and 30 healthy control subjects were studied. The Alvarado score was recorded. Serum samples were obtained before surgery and 12 hours postoperatively to examine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase, stimulated paraoxonase, arylesterase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, ceruloplasmin, oxidative stress markers (advanced oxidized protein products and total thiol level) and ischemia-modified albumin. Surgical specimens were also evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n = 37), perforated appendicitis (n = 8), phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 12), perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 4), or no appendicitis (n = 4). The Alvarado score of the acute appendicitis group was significantly lower than that of the perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis group (p = 0.004). The serum total antioxidant status, total thiol level, advanced oxidized protein products, total oxidant status, catalase, arylesterase, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly different between the acute appendicitis and control groups. There was no correlation between the pathological extent of acute appendicitis and the tissue levels of the markers; additionally, there was no correlation between the tissue and serum levels of any of the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems plays a role in the pathogenesis acute appendicitis. The Alvarado score can successfully predict the presence and extent of acute appendicitis. PMID:25518019

  15. Low Levels of NDRG1 in Nerve Tissue Are Predictive of Severe Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Sundar

    Full Text Available Sensory peripheral neuropathy caused by paclitaxel is a common and dose limiting toxicity, for which there are currently no validated predictive biomarkers. We investigated the relationship between the Charcot-Marie-Tooth protein NDRG1 and paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.Archived mammary tissue specimen blocks of breast cancer patients who received weekly paclitaxel in a single centre were retrieved and NDRG1 immunohistochemistry was performed on normal nerve tissue found within the sample. The mean nerve NDRG1 score was defined by an algorithm based on intensity of staining and percentage of stained nerve bundles. NDRG1 scores were correlated with paclitaxel induced neuropathy.111 patients were studied. 17 of 111 (15% developed severe paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. The mean nerve NDRG1 expression score was 5.4 in patients with severe neuropathy versus 7.7 in those without severe neuropathy (p = 0.0019. A Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis of the mean nerve NDRG1 score revealed an area under the curve of 0.74 (p = 0.0013 for the identification of severe neuropathy, with a score of 7 being most discriminative. 13/54 (24% subjects with an NDRG1 score 7 (p = 0.017.Low NDRG1 expression in nerve tissue present within samples of surgical resection may identify subjects at risk for severe paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Since nerve biopsies are not routinely feasible for patients undergoing chemotherapy for early breast cancer, this promising biomarker strategy is compatible with current clinical workflow.

  16. Obesity-associated insulin resistance is correlated to adipose tissue vascular endothelial growth factors and metalloproteinase levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinahones Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature, which appears to have the potential to regulate the onset of obesity. However, at present, there are no studies highlighting the relationship between human adipose tissue angiogenesis and obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR. Results Our aim was to analyze and compare angiogenic factor expression levels in both subcutaneous (SC and omentum (OM adipose tissues from morbidly obese patients (n = 26 with low (OB/L-IR (healthy obese and high (OB/H-IR degrees of IR, and lean controls (n = 17. Another objective was to examine angiogenic factor correlations with obesity and IR. Here we found that VEGF-A was the isoform with higher expression in both OM and SC adipose tissues, and was up-regulated 3-fold, together with MMP9 in OB/L-IR as compared to leans. This up-regulation decreased by 23% in OB/-H-IR compared to OB/L-IR. On the contrary, VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, together with MMP15 was down-regulated in both OB/H-IR and OB/L-IR compared to lean patients. Moreover, MMP9 correlated positively and VEGF-C, VEGF-D and MMP15 correlated negatively with HOMA-IR, in both SC and OM. Conclusion We hereby propose that the alteration in MMP15, VEGF-B, VEGF-C and VEGF-D gene expression may be caused by one of the relevant adipose tissue processes related to the development of IR, and the up-regulation of VEGF-A in adipose tissue could have a relationship with the prevention of this pathology.

  17. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Mo

    Full Text Available For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective.We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position.The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree.The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  18. Is Preventative Long-Segment Surgery for Multi-Level Spondylolysis Necessary? A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Wen; Zhong, Dongyan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yu, Jia; Luo, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    For multi-level spondylolysis patients, surgeons commonly choose to fix all the segments with pars interarticularis defect even those without slippage and not responsible for clinical symptoms. In this study, we tried to study the necessity of the preventative long-segment surgery for the defected segment without slippage in treatment of multi-level spondylolysis patients from a biomechanical perspective. We established a bi-level spondylolysis model with pars defects at L4 and L5 segments, and simulated posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and pedicle screw fixation at L5-S1 level. Then we compared the biomechanical changes at L4 segment before and after surgery in neutral, flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation position. The stress on L4 pars interarticularis was very similar before and after surgery, and reached the highest in axial rotation. The L3-L4 intradiscal pressure was almost the same, while L4-L5 intradiscal pressure changed a little in lateral bending (increase from 1.993 to 2.160 MPa) and axial rotation (decrease from 1.639 to 1.307 MPa) after surgery. The PLIF surgery caused a little increase of range of motion at adjacent L4-L5 and L3-L4 levels, but the change is very tiny (1 degree). The PLIF surgery will not cause significant biomechanical change at adjacent segment with pars defect in multi-level spondylolysis. On the contrary, excessive long-segment surgery will damage surrounding soft tissues which are important for maintaining the stability of spine. So a preventative long-segment surgery is not necessary for multi-level spondylolysis as long as there are no soft tissue degeneration signs at adjacent level.

  19. PSA Level 2 as element of an integral safety assessment before plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Steinroetter, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina the Central Nuclear Atucha II is near to completion. This is a pressurized heavy water reactor. PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) level 1, level 2 and level 3 have to be performed in order to show compliance with the Argentinean dose limit. Such studies have been done first by the former KWU in the 1980's to get the construction license (FABIAN 1985). Nowadays the plant owner NA-SA performs PSA level 1 and provides information about the core damage states to GRS, who does the subsequent PSA level 2 part. GRS delivers source terms to the environment and the associated frequencies to the Argentinean research institute CNEA, which performs level 3 together with NA-SA. Since GRS is situated in the middle of the chain, interface definition with both ends has been a significant task of the GRS activities. Experience gained during this process will be highlighted in the presentation. The analysis of PSA level 2 proper follows a traditional approach: -) deterministic accident simulation with integral code MELCOR; -) analyses of specific issues which are not covered by MELCOR; and -) probabilistic accident progression analysis with EVNTRE event tree methodology. It appears that MELCOR and EVNTRE and PSA guidelines in general are flexible enough to analyse new or uncommon reactor designs. It also appears that the plant specific design features may require analyses beyond present code capabilities, calling for expert judgment and they can largely determine PSA results. The behaviour of iodine is not yet covered satisfactorily by state-of-the-art models in MELCOR

  20. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selenite modulates the level of phenolics and nutrient element to alleviate the toxicity of arsenite in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Tripathi, Preeti; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Niranjan, Abhishek; Mallick, Shekhar; Tripathi, Pratibha; Pande, Veena; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of paddy rice is a serious threat all over the world particularly in South East Asia. Selenium (Se) plays important role in protection of plants against various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. Moreover, arsenite (AsIII) and selenite (SeIV) can be biologically antagonistic due to similar electronic configuration and sharing the common transporter for their uptake in plant. In the present study, the response of oxidative stress, phenolic compounds and nutrient elements was analyzed to investigate Se mediated As tolerance in rice seedlings during AsIII and SeIV exposure in hydroponics. Selenite (25µM) significantly decreased As accumulation in plant than As (25µM) alone treated plants. Level of oxidative stress related parameters viz., reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, electrical conductivity, nitric oxide and pro-oxidant enzyme (NADPH oxidase), were in the order of As>As+Se>control>Se. Selenium ameliorated As phytotoxicity by increased level of phenolic compounds particularly gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and rutin and thiol metabolism related enzymes viz., serine acetyl transferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS). Selenium supplementation enhanced the uptake of nutrient elements viz., Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, and improved plant growth. The results concluded that Se addition in As contaminated environment might be an important strategy to reduce As uptake and associated phytotoxicity in rice plant by modulation of phenolic compounds and increased uptake of nutrient elements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms and manifestations of toxic actions at the bone tissue level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The principal abnormalities determined by toxic at the bone level are: osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis or osteopetrosis. The principal toxics having a noxiousness at the bone level are: the fluorine, the phosphorus, the lead, the bismuth, the cadmium and the strontium. The strontium 90 has an important radioactivity that gives at the bone level osteosarcomas or at low doses, leukemoid reactions and marrow angiosarcoma. (N.C.)

  3. Association between tumor tissue TIMP-1 levels and objective response to first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintman, Marie; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    .07). This OR is very similar to the result from our previous study. Increasing levels of TIMP-1 were also associated with a shorter disease-free survival and overall survival, however, not statistically significant. The results from the present study support previous data that TIMP-1 is associated with objective......In a previous study from our laboratory, high tumor levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) have been associated with an adverse response to chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer suggesting that TIMP-1, which is known to inhibit apoptosis, may be a new predictive marker...

  4. Measurements of natural levels of 14C in human's and rat's tissues by accelerator mass spectrometry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Khu, H.J.; Kang, J.H.; Yoon, M.Y.; Kim, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive, safe and precise analytical method for quantifying long-lived isotope in biomedical research with animals as well as human beings. In Korea, AMS Laboratory has been operating successfully for years measuring especially archaeological samples for 14 C dating. In this year, a biological sample pretreatment facility was setup to work on biomedical applications. As a preliminary study, we have measured the natural background levels of 14 C in tissues and blood of humans and rats have been measured. The results were agreed with the other reported levels and gave stable and reproducible results within 1-2%. (author)

  5. Finite Element Quadrature of Regularized Discontinuous and Singular Level Set Functions in 3D Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ponara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Regularized Heaviside and Dirac delta function are used in several fields of computational physics and mechanics. Hence the issue of the quadrature of integrals of discontinuous and singular functions arises. In order to avoid ad-hoc quadrature procedures, regularization of the discontinuous and the singular fields is often carried out. In particular, weight functions of the signed distance with respect to the discontinuity interface are exploited. Tornberg and Engquist (Journal of Scientific Computing, 2003, 19: 527–552 proved that the use of compact support weight function is not suitable because it leads to errors that do not vanish for decreasing mesh size. They proposed the adoption of non-compact support weight functions. In the present contribution, the relationship between the Fourier transform of the weight functions and the accuracy of the regularization procedure is exploited. The proposed regularized approach was implemented in the eXtended Finite Element Method. As a three-dimensional example, we study a slender solid characterized by an inclined interface across which the displacement is discontinuous. The accuracy is evaluated for varying position of the discontinuity interfaces with respect to the underlying mesh. A procedure for the choice of the regularization parameters is proposed.

  6. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  7. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, S., E-mail: suene@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Santos, I.D.A.O.; Oliveira, A.F.; Shie, J.N. [São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Sarkis, J.E.S.; Oliveira, T. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Laboratory of Chemical Characterization (LCQ), Center for Chemistry and the Environment - CQMA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients’ chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differe