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Sample records for tissue damage due

  1. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  2. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heru Prasetyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Materials and Methods: Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1 expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. Results: There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Conclusion: Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1 Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45; (2 Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3 regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  3. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R Heru; Hestianah, Eka Pramyrtha

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v) honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1) expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1) Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45); (2) Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3) regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  4. Toe Tissue Transfer for Reconstruction of Damaged Digits due to Electrical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Do Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical burns are one of the most devastating types of injuries, and can becharacterized by the conduction of electric current through the deeper soft tissue such asvessels, nerves, muscles, and bones. For that reason, the extent of an electric burn is veryfrequently underestimated on initial impression.Methods From July 1999 to June 2006, we performed 15 cases of toe tissue transfer for thereconstruction of finger defects caused by electrical burns. We performed preoperative rangeof motion exercise, early excision, and coverage of the digital defect with toe tissue transfer.Results We obtained satisfactory results in both functional and aesthetic aspects in all 15cases without specific complications. Static two-point discrimination results in the transferredtoe cases ranged from 8 to 11 mm, with an average of 9.5 mm. The mean range of motionof the transferred toe was 20° to 36° in the distal interphalangeal joint, 16° to 45° in theproximal interphalangeal joint, and 15° to 35° in the metacarpophalangeal joint. All of thepatients were relatively satisfied with the function and appearance of their new digits.Conclusions The strategic management of electrical injury to the hands can be both challengingand complex. Because the optimal surgical method is free tissue transfer, maintenance ofvascular integrity among various physiological changes works as a determining factor for thepostoperative outcome following the reconstruction.

  5. Effects of high repetition rate and beam size on hard tissue damage due to subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Eichler, Juergen; Stoller, Patrick C.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the effects of the repetition rate and the beam size on the threshold for ultrashort laser pulse induced damage in dentin. The observed results are explained as cumulative thermal effects. Our model is consistent with the experimental results and explains the dependence of the threshold on repetition rate, beam size, and exposure time. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  7. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  8. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  9. Ovarian damage due to cyst removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Signe; Kjer, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of endometriomas and potential damage to the ovary have been debated. Studies have described the inconsistent risk of unintended removal of ovarian tissue when a cystectomy of an endometrioma is performed. We evaluated the risk of inadvertently removed ovarian tis...

  10. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  11. Damage Models for Soft Tissues: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenguang

    Damage to soft tissues in the human body has been investigated for applications in healthcare, sports, and biomedical engineering. This paper reviews and classifies damage models for soft tissues to summarize achievements, identify new directions, and facilitate finite element analysis. The main ideas of damage modeling methods are illustrated and interpreted. A few key issues related to damage models, such as experimental data curve-fitting, computational effort, connection between damage and fractures/cracks, damage model applications, and fracture/crack extension simulation, are discussed. Several new challenges in the field are identified and outlined. This review can be useful for developing more advanced damage models and extending damage modeling methods to a variety of soft tissues.

  12. Comparison of the predictions of the LQ and CRE models for normal tissue damage due to biologically targeted radiotherapy with exponentially decaying dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; West of Schotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    For biologically targeted radiotherapy organ dose rates may be complex functions of time, related to the biodistribution kinetics of the delivery vehicle and radiolabel. The simples situation is where dose rates are exponentially decaying functions of time. Two normal tissue isoeffect models enable the effects of exponentially decaying dose rates to be addressed. These are the extension of the linear-quadratic model and the cumulative radiation effect model. This communication will compare the predictions of these models. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Leads to Persistent Inflammation and Tissue Damage Following Uveitis Due to Reduced Levels of Ciliary Body Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU in diabetic streptozotocin (STZ-hyperglycemic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats had impaired levels of the enzyme HO-1 within the ciliary bodies if compared with the nondiabetic rats. STZ-hyperglycemic rats also predisposed the eye to produce high levels of both the cytokines IL-1 β and CXCL8. Subsequent EIU further and significantly P<.01 increased the cytokines production, an effect partly prevented by hemin treatment. Most importantly, hemin, an inducer of heme oxygenase expression and activity, recovered the huge number of infiltrated polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMN within the ciliary bodies associated with STZ-hyperglycemic state and EIU damage. Impairment of the stress-sensitive enzyme HO-1 in STZ-hyperglycemic rats increases and prolongs the inflammatory response to EIU.

  14. Continuum theory of fibrous tissue damage mechanics using bond kinetics: application to cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Dusséaux, Antoine; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-02-06

    This study presents a damage mechanics framework that employs observable state variables to describe damage in isotropic or anisotropic fibrous tissues. In this mixture theory framework, damage is tracked by the mass fraction of bonds that have broken. Anisotropic damage is subsumed in the assumption that multiple bond species may coexist in a material, each having its own damage behaviour. This approach recovers the classical damage mechanics formulation for isotropic materials, but does not appeal to a tensorial damage measure for anisotropic materials. In contrast with the classical approach, the use of observable state variables for damage allows direct comparison of model predictions to experimental damage measures, such as biochemical assays or Raman spectroscopy. Investigations of damage in discrete fibre distributions demonstrate that the resilience to damage increases with the number of fibre bundles; idealizing fibrous tissues using continuous fibre distribution models precludes the modelling of damage. This damage framework was used to test and validate the hypothesis that growth of cartilage constructs can lead to damage of the synthesized collagen matrix due to excessive swelling caused by synthesized glycosaminoglycans. Therefore, alternative strategies must be implemented in tissue engineering studies to prevent collagen damage during the growth process.

  15. DNA-repair, cell killing and normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Brammer, I.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Side effects of radiotherapy in normal tissue is determined by a variety of factors of which cellular and genetic contributions are described here. Material and methods: Review. Results: Normal tissue damage after irradiation is largely due to loss of cellular proliferative capacity. This can be due to mitotic cell death, apoptosis, or terminal differentiation. Dead or differentiated cells release cytokines which additionally modulate the tissue response. DNA damage, in particular non-reparable or misrepaired double-strand breaks are considered the basic lesion leading to G1-arrest and ultimately to cell inactivation. Conclusion: Evidence for genetic bases of normal tissue response, cell killing and DNA-repair capacity is presented. However, a direct link of all 3 endpoints has not yet been proved directly. (orig.) [de

  16. Coupled analysis of building damage due to tunneling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Rots, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Excavation works in urban areas require a preliminary risk damage assessment. In historical cities, the prediction of building response to settlements is necessary to reduce the risk of damage of the architectural heritage. The current method used to predict the building damage due to ground

  17. Endothelial damage due to air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dei Cas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The first human deaths due to air pollution were recorded in the mid-20th century. There were 6,000 cases of illness recorded in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and 20,000 in London in 1952; 15 and 4,000 cases of death, respectively, were allegedly ascribed to air pollution. Since then, many countries have adopted standards of air quality in order to protect environmental and human health, although the quality of the air in some industrialized countries remains worrying. Emerging countries in the Far East and South America are also cause for concern because of the growth in the population, industrialization and transport. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimated that air pollutants, particularly PM10, are associated with a mortality rate of 5% for cancer of the respiratory system, 2% for cardiovascular diseases and about 1% for respiratory tract infections. These estimates consider the mortality but not the morbidity rate, which would increase proportionally the number of cases of these pathologies, despite the difficulty in evaluation.

  18. Radiation-induced normal tissue damage: implications for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important treatment modality for many malignancies, either alone or as a part of combined modality treatment. However, despite technological advances in physical treatment delivery, patients suffer adverse effects from radiation therapy due to normal tissue damage. These side effects may be acute, occurring during or within weeks after therapy, or intermediate to late, occurring months to years after therapy. Minimizing normal tissue damage from radiotherapy will allow enhancement of tumor killing and improve tumor control and patients quality of life. Understanding mechanisms through which radiation toxicity develops in normal tissue will facilitate the development of next generation radiation effect modulators. Translation of these agents to the clinic will also require an understanding of the impact of these protectors and mitigators on tumor radiation response. In addition, normal tissues vary in radiobiologically important ways, including organ sensitivity to radiation, cellular turnover rate, and differences in mechanisms of injury manifestation and damage response. Therefore, successful development of radiation modulators may require multiple approaches to address organ/site-specific needs. These may include treatments that modify cellular damage and death processes, inflammation, alteration of normal flora, wound healing, tissue regeneration and others, specifically to counter cancer site-specific adverse effects. Further, an understanding of mechanisms of normal tissue damage will allow development of predictive biomarkers; however harmonization of such assays is critical. This is a necessary step towards patient-specific treatment customization. Examples of important adverse effects of radiotherapy either alone or in conjunction with chemotherapy, and important limitations in the current approaches of using radioprotectors for improving therapeutic outcome will be highlighted. (author)

  19. Damage of plants due to peroxyacyl nitrates (PAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Terakado, K.

    1974-02-01

    In Japan plant damages began to resemble those due to PAN about 1972. Exposure experiments with artifically synthesized PAN in an environment simulation room determined the concentration of PAN and its duration to examine the relationship between these data in the field and crop damage. Synthesized PAN created by irradiating a mixture of ethyl nitrate and oxygen with ultraviolet light gave results similar to those seen in fields. From the end of April to the end of November, damages to petunias seemingly due to PAN appeared 15 times. The symptoms differed with the variety of petunia. After 14 experiments in fields from September 20 to November 30 with a continuous determination of the environmental concentration of PAN, damages to petunia were confirmed on 6 days when the maximum PAN concentration range was 3.0-6.7 ppb. The duration of concentrations higher than 3 ppb was 2-13 hr. The most serious damage appeared on September 20 when a concentration of more than 5 ppb continued for 7 hours. No damage appeared with a long continuation (6-12 hr) of a lower concentration of PAN of 2 ppb. Inter-varietal grafting showed that the symptoms and the degree of damage due to PAN were influenced only by the physiological specificity of the aerial portion of the plant. Leaves which are most affected by PAN differed with the variety of petunia.

  20. Electrocautery causes more ischemic peritoneal tissue damage than ultrasonic dissection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.P.G ten; Wilbers, J.; Goor, H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing peritoneal tissue injury during abdominal surgery has the benefit of reducing postoperative inflammatory response, pain, and adhesion formation. Ultrasonic dissection seems to reduce tissue damage. This study aimed to compare electrocautery and ultrasonic dissection in terms

  1. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements correlated with the extent of tissue injury observed in histological stains. After proof of concept in animals, a human study was conducted and optical data was collected from 20 healthy

  2. Renal tissue damage induced by focused shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioritani, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Kambe, K.; Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, T.; Shirai, S.; Orikasa, S.; Takayama, K.; Lush, P. A.

    1990-07-01

    Biological evidence of renal arterial wall damage induced by the microjet due to shock wave-cavitation bubble interaction was demonstrated in living dog kidneys. We also intended to clarify the mechanism of renal tissue damage and the effects of different conditions of shock wave exposure (peak pressure of focused area, number of shots, exposure rate) on the renal tissue damage in comparison to stone disintegration. Disruption of arterial wall was the most remarkable histological change in the focused area of the kidneys. This lesion appeared as if the wall had been punctured by a needle. Large hematoma formation in the renal parenchym, and interstitial hemorrhage seemed to be the results of the arterial lesion. This arterial disorder also led to ischemic necrosis of the tubules surrounding the hematoma. Micro-angiographic examination of extracted kidneys also proved such arterial puncture lesions and ischemic lesions. The number of shots required for model stone disintegration was not inversely proportional to peak pressure. It decreased markedly when peak pressure was above 700 bar. Similarly thenumber of shots for hematoma formation was not inversely proportional to peak pressure, however, this decreased markedly above 500 bar. These results suggested that a hematoma could be formed under a lower peak pressure than that required for stone disintegration.

  3. 78 FR 66852 - Housing Assistance Due to Structural Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... constructed. This type of housing would have a life expectancy of more than 5 years, but less than 25 years... FEMA-2010-0035] RIN 1660-AA68 Housing Assistance Due to Structural Damage AGENCY: Federal Emergency...'s repair, replacement, and housing construction assistance regulations that clarify the eligibility...

  4. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  5. Radiation damages in solids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevc, P.; Kogovsek, F.; Kanduser, A.; Peternelj, M.; Skaleric, U.; Funduk, N.

    1977-01-01

    In submitted research work we have studied radiation damages in ferroelectric crystals and application of ferroelectric crystals. Studying the radiation damages we have introduced new technique of EPR measurements under high hydrostatic pressure, that will enable us to obtain additional data on crystal lattice dynamics. A change of piroelectric coefficient with high radiation doses in dopped TGS has been measured also

  6. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (i) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (ii) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (iii) the rate of technological advance and diffusion (iv) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper we will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. We believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change.

  7. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (1) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (2) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (3) the rate of technological advance and diffusion, (4) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper the authors will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. The authors believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change

  8. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Cuenca, Argelia; Richardson, James E; Vrielink-van Ginkel, Ria; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Bakker, Freek T

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4-3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0-1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens.

  9. Localized Tissue Surrogate Deformation due to Controlled Single Bubble Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    studies using ultrasound shock waves also support cavitation induced damage, e.g. hemorrhage and cellular membrane poration 26-28. In addition...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Cavitation -induced shock wave, as might occur in the head during exposure to blast waves, was investigated as a possible...damage mechanism for soft brain tissues. A novel experimental scheme was developed to visualize and control single bubble cavitation and its

  10. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Cuenca, A.; Richardson, J.E.; Ginkel, R.V.; Petersen, G.; Seberg, O.; Bakker, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of

  11. Validity of reciprocity rule on mouse skin thermal damage due to CO2 laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, P.; Dehghanpour, H. R.; Moghadam, M. S.; Daneshafrooz, V.

    2013-07-01

    CO2 laser (10.6 μm) is a well-known infrared coherent light source as a tool in surgery. At this wavelength there is a high absorbance coefficient (860 cm-1), because of vibration mode resonance of H2O molecules. Therefore, the majority of the irradiation energy is absorbed in the tissue and the temperature of the tissue rises as a function of power density and laser exposure duration. In this work, the tissue damage caused by CO2 laser (1-10 W, ˜40-400 W cm-2, 0.1-6 s) was measured using 30 mouse skin samples. Skin damage assessment was based on measurements of the depth of cut, mean diameter of the crater and the carbonized layer. The results show that tissue damage as assessed above parameters increased with laser fluence and saturated at 1000 J cm-2. Moreover, the damage effect due to high power density at short duration was not equivalent to that with low power density at longer irradiation time even though the energy delivered was identical. These results indicate the lack of validity of reciprocity (Bunsen-Roscoe) rule for the thermal damage.

  12. Preliminary observations of environmental damage due to the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1992-01-01

    Preparing for and conducting the Gulf War resulted in much damage to the environment of the region. The first and most visible effect is related to the damage caused by oil well fires in terms of air pollution as well as the potential damage to the petroleum reservoirs. The second detrimental effect has been caused by the oil spill in the Gulf water. Hundreds of miles of the western coastline of the Gulf are already covered with oil. Petroleum 'mats' have settled on coral reefs and have reduced Gulf water productivity. Foremost among the irreparable damages are changes to the terrain due to the digging of trenches, building walls of soil and otherwise disturbing the desert pavement in and around Kuwait. Disruption of the, usually, one-grain thick layer of pebbles on the desert floor exposes soil to wind action. Changing the contours of the normally flat land increases resistance to the wind and increases the potential of particle transport until the land is peneplained. This condition will increase the frequency and the ferocity of dust storms in the region. It will also result in the formation of new sand dunes; sand drifts already exist along roads in northern Kuwait. It is believed that the detrimental effects on the atmosphere will last for years, on the Gulf water for decades, and on the desert surface for centuries. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  13. Preliminary observations of environmental damage due to the Gulf War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, F [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Remote Sensing

    1992-02-01

    Preparing for and conducting the Gulf War resulted in much damage to the environment of the region. The first and most visible effect is related to the damage caused by oil well fires in terms of air pollution as well as the potential damage to the petroleum reservoirs. The second detrimental effect has been caused by the oil spill in the Gulf water. Hundreds of miles of the western coastline of the Gulf are already covered with oil. Petroleum 'mats' have settled on coral reefs and have reduced Gulf water productivity. Foremost among the irreparable damages are changes to the terrain due to the digging of trenches, building walls of soil and otherwise disturbing the desert pavement in and around Kuwait. Disruption of the, usually, one-grain thick layer of pebbles on the desert floor exposes soil to wind action. Changing the contours of the normally flat land increases resistance to the wind and increases the potential of particle transport until the land is peneplained. This condition will increase the frequency and the ferocity of dust storms in the region. It will also result in the formation of new sand dunes; sand drifts already exist along roads in northern Kuwait. It is believed that the detrimental effects on the atmosphere will last for years, on the Gulf water for decades, and on the desert surface for centuries. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig.

  14. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part III: Normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This is the third part of a course designed for residents in radiation oncology preparing for their boards. This part of the course will focus on the mechanisms underlying damage in normal tissues. Although conventional wisdom long held that killing and depletion of a critical cell(s) in a tissue was responsible for the later expression of damage, histopathologic changes in normal tissue can now be explained and better understood in terms of the new molecular biology. The concept that depletion of a single cell type is responsible for the observed histopathologic changes in normal tissues has been replaced by the hypothesis that damage results from the interaction of many different cell systems, including epithelial, endothelial, macrophages and fibroblasts, via the production of specific autocrine, paracrine and endocrine growth factors. A portion of this course will discuss the clinical and experimental data on the production and interaction of those cytokines and cell systems considered to be critical to tissue damage. It had long been suggested that interindividual differences in radiation-induced normal tissue damage was genetically regulated, at least in part. Both clinical and experimental data supported this hypothesis but it is the recent advances in human and mouse molecular genetics which have provided the tools to dissect out the genetic component of normal tissue damage. These data will be presented and related to the potential to develop genetic markers to identify sensitive individuals. The impact on clinical outcome of the ability to identify prospectively sensitive patients will be discussed. Clinically it is well-accepted that the volume of tissue irradiated is a critical factor in determining tissue damage. A profusion of mathematical models for estimating dose-volume relationships in a number of organs have been published recently despite the fact that little data are available to support these models. This course will review the

  15. Tracheoesophageal Fistula due to a Damaged Tracheal Stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the management of a tracheoesophageal fistula due to a damaged tracheal stent, which was first inserted to treat tracheal stenosis. A 29-year-old woman with a history of treated epilepsy had a seizure and suffered from smoke inhalation during a fire. Breathing difficulties appeared and gradually worsened; consultation was obtained two years afterward. After undergoing a thorough examination, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal strangulation. A noncovered, metallic stent was inserted. When the patient was 37 years old, she was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a tracheoesophageal fistula. We diagnosed it as a tracheoesophageal fistula due to the collapse of the damaged tracheal stent toward the esophageal side, and we decided to perform a mediastinal tracheostomy. Granulation may be formed in the circumference of a stent that has been present for a prolonged period, and removal of the stent may become difficult. This case suggests that insertion of a noncovered, metallic stent is contraindicated for a benign disease.

  16. Damage studies on tungsten due to helium ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.J.; Buzarbaruah, N.; Mohanty, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Used plasma focus helium ion source to study radiation induced damage on tungsten. • Surface analyses confirm formation of micro-crack, bubbles, blisters, pinholes, etc. • XRD patterns confirm development of compressive stress due to thermal load. • Reduction in hardness value is observed in the case of exposed sample. - Abstract: Energetic and high fluence helium ions emitted in a plasma focus device have been used successfully to study the radiation induced damage on tungsten. The reference and irradiated samples were characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by hardness testers. The micrographs of the irradiated samples at lower magnification show uniform mesh of cracks of micrometer width. However at higher magnification, various types of crystalline defects such as voids, pinholes, bubbles, blisters and microcracks are distinctly noticed. The prominent peaks in X-ray diffraction spectrum of irradiated samples are seen shifted toward higher Bragg angles, thus indicating accumulation of compressive stress due to the heat load delivered by helium ions. A marginal reduction in hardness of the irradiated sample is also noticed

  17. [Scanning electron microscopy of heat-damaged bone tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsanyl, L

    1977-02-01

    Parts of diaphyses of bones were exposed to high temperature of 200-1300 degrees C. Damage to the bone tissue caused by the heat was investigated. The scanning electron microscopic picture seems to be characteristic of the temperature applied. When the bones heated to the high temperature of 700 degrees C characteristic changes appear on the periostal surface, higher temperatura on the other hand causes damage to the compact bone tissue and can be observed on the fracture-surface. Author stresses the importance of this technique in the legal medicine and anthropology.

  18. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  19. MRI findings of brain damage due to neonatal hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Fan Guoguang; Ji Xu; Sun Baohai; Guo Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report the MRI findings of brain damage observed in neonatal patients who suffered from isolated hypoglycemia and to explore the value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in early detection of neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury. Methods: Twelve neonates with isolated hypoglycemia (10 of the 12 were diagnosed to suffer from hypoglycemic encephalopathy) were enrolled in this study. They were first scanned at age from 3 days to 10 days with T 1 WI, T 2 WI and DWI(b is 0 s/mm 2 , 1000 s/mm 2 ), and 4 of them were then scanned from 7 days to 10 days following the initial scan. All acquired MR images were retrospectively analysed. Results: First series of DWI images showed distinct hyperintense signal in 11 cases in several areas including bilateral occipital cortex (2 cases), right occipital cortex (1 case), left occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(1 case), bilateral occipital cortex and subcortical white matter (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex (2 cases), bilateral parieto-occipital cortex and subcortical white matter(2 cases), the splenium of corpus callosum (4 cases), bilateral corona radiata( 2 cases), left caudate nucleus and globus pallidus (1 case), bilateral thalamus (1 case), bilaterally posterior limb of internal capsule (1 case). In the initial T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, there were subtle hypointensity in the damaged cortical areas (3 cases), hyperintensity in the bilaterally affected occipital cortex( 1 case) on T 1 weighted images, and hyperintensity in the affected cortex and subcortical white matter with poor differentiation on T 2 weighted images. The followed-up MRI of 4 cases showed regional encephalomalacia in the affected occipital lobes(4 cases), slightly hyperintensity on T 2 weighted images in the damaged occipital cortex (2 cases), extensive demyelination (1 case), disappearance of hyperintensity of the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case), and persistent hyperintensity in the splenium of corpus callosum (1 case

  20. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  1. Damage symptoms of plants due to PAN exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I; Sawada, T; Ohashi, T; Odaira, T

    1974-11-01

    In order to identify the cause of plant damage which differed from that by ozone, a series of exposure experiments was carried out on Beta vulgaris, Japanese radish, French bean, luthern, tomato, and spinach in a controlled weather room by artificially synthesized PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate). The damage appeared generally on younger leaves as a lustering and bronzing on the lower surface; there was a specific symptom in which the interveinary part of the lower surface depressed, leaving the veins in relief. At higher concentrations of PAN, damages appeared on the upper surface of leaves, however, bronzing and lustering were clearer during exposure to lower concentrations of PAN. The position of the leaves and the part of a leaf which was damaged were constant in the petunia, morning glory, and tobacco. There was a hyperbolic relationship between the concentration of PAN and the time period of appearance of the damage as was seen during sulfur dioxide and ozone exposures.

  2. Disease related tissue damage and subsequent changes in fillet structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the fish and subsequent a reduction in price. Despite this, the impact of infectious diseases on the meat quality and the mechanisms behind are poorly investigated. Wound repair is a dynamic, interactive response to tissue injury that involves a complex interaction and cross talk of various cell types......, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble mediators and cytokines. In order to describe the molecular mechanisms and processes of wound repair, a panel of genes covering immunological factors and tissue regeneration were used to measure changes at the mRNA level following mechanical tissue damage in rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Needle disrupted muscle tissue was sampled at different time points and subject to real-time RT-PCR for measuring the expression of the genes IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-β, Myostatin-1ab, MMP-2, CTGF, Collagen-1α, VEGF, iNOS, Arg-2 and FGF. The results showed an initial phase with up...

  3. Enamel subsurface damage due to tooth preparation with diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Kelly, J R; Jahanmir, S; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1997-10-01

    In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface damage produced in enamel during tooth preparation by means of diamond burs, and to examine the dependence of such damage on enamel rod orientation, diamond particle size, and removal rate. Subsurface damage was evaluated by a bonded-interface technique. Tooth preparation was carried out on two enamel rod orientations, with four clinical diamond burs (coarse, medium, fine, and superfine) used in a dental handpiece. The results of this study showed that subsurface damage in enamel took the form of median-type cracks and distributed microcracks, extending preferentially along the boundaries between the enamel rods. Microcracks within individual enamel rods were also observed. The median-type cracks were significantly longer in the direction parallel to the enamel rods than perpendicular to the rods. Preparation with the coarse diamond bur produced cracks as deep as 84 +/- 30 microns in enamel. Finishing with fine diamond burs was effective in crack removal. The crack lengths in enamel were not significantly different when the removal rate was varied. Based on these results, it is concluded that subsurface damage in enamel induced by tooth preparation takes the form of median-type cracks as well as inter- and intra-rod microcracks, and that the lengths of these cracks are sensitive to diamond particle size and enamel rod orientation, but insensitive to removal rate.

  4. Local stem cell depletion model for normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaes, R.J.; Keland, A.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that radiation causes normal tissue damage by completely depleting local regions of tissue of viable stem cells leads to a simple mathematical model for such damage. In organs like skin and spinal cord where destruction of a small volume of tissue leads to a clinically apparent complication, the complication probability is expressed as a function of dose, volume and stem cell number by a simple triple negative exponential function analogous to the double exponential function of Munro and Gilbert for tumor control. The steep dose response curves for radiation myelitis that are obtained with our model are compared with the experimental data for radiation myelitis in laboratory rats. The model can be generalized to include other types or organs, high LET radiation, fractionated courses of radiation, and cases where an organ with a heterogeneous stem cell population receives an inhomogeneous dose of radiation. In principle it would thus be possible to determine the probability of tumor control and of damage to any organ within the radiation field if the dose distribution in three dimensional space within a patient is known

  5. Protective Effect of HSP25 on Radiation Induced Tissue Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Control of cancer by irradiation therapy alone or in conjunction with combination chemotherapy is often limited by organ specific toxicity. Ionizing irradiation toxicity is initiated by damage to normal tissue near the tumor target and within the transit volume of radiotherapy beams. Irradiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ damage is mediated by acute effects, which can be dose limiting. A latent period follows recovery from the acute reaction, then chronic irradiation fibrosis (late effects) pose a second cause of organ failure. HSP25/27 has been suggested to protect cells against apoptotic cell death triggered by hyperthermia, ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, Fas ligand, and cytotoxic drugs. And several mechanisms have been proposed to account for HSP27-mediated apoptotic protection. However radioprotective effect of HSP25/27 in vivo system has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of exogenous HSP25 expression, as delivered by adenoviral vectors, to protect animal from radiation induced tissue damage

  6. A Study on health damage due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Oh, So Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the domestic and foreign change in given conditions of air preservation policy, the air preservation policy in Korea should be implemented scientifically and reasonably. A gradual turnover to receptor-oriented reflecting human health and ecological effect is needed to establish and promote the air preservation policy systemically and in a long-term basis. Based on the quantified health damage of a people, air preservation policy in Korea should develop as a management policy to develop and implement an optimum management mechanism to minimized health damage of receptor. 19 refs., 2 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. The neuroimaging evidence for chronic brain damage due to boxing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, I.F. [Lysholm Radiological Department, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    A number of imaging techniques have been used to investigate changes produced in the brain by boxing. Most morphological studies have failed to show significant correlations between putative abnormalities on imaging and clinical evidence of brain damage. Fenestration of the septum pellucidum, with formation of a cavum, one of the most frequent observations, does not appear to correlate with neurological or physiological evidence of brain damage. Serial studies on large groups may be more informative. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cerebral blood flow studies have been reported in only small numbers of boxers; serial studies are not available to date. (orig.)

  8. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.

    2007-05-01

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  9. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure.

  10. Videodensitometry in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegenius, G.; Wegener, T.; Ruhn, G.; Saldeen, T.; Erikson, U.

    1985-01-01

    Serial pulmonary angiography with videodensitometry was performed in 18 rats with pulmonary damage caused by administration of a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid (200 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally) and bovine thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight injected into the right femoral vein). The mean transit time (MTT) was calculated from videodensitometry, the observed area of interest consisting of approximately one-third of the right lung, including both central and peripheral parts. The impact of the pulmonary damage was analysed by morphologic methods and correlated to MTT. Although a pressure rise presumably occurred in the pulmonary circulation, no change in MTT was found after induction of pulmonary damage, indicating opening of actual and potential anastomoses between pulmonary arterioles and venules to serve as by-pass portions and as a safety-valve mechanism for the capillary bed and the right heart, respectively. Another explanation to unchanged MTT may be opening of resting capillary beds. Two rats with very severe pulmonary damage showed prolonged MTT. These rats may have suffered from cardiac failure. (orig.)

  11. A tissue phantom for visualization and measurement of ultrasound-induced cavitation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Yuan, Lingqian; Duryea, Alexander P; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2010-12-01

    Many ultrasound studies involve the use of tissue-mimicking materials to research phenomena in vitro and predict in vivo bioeffects. We have developed a tissue phantom to study cavitation-induced damage to tissue. The phantom consists of red blood cells suspended in an agarose hydrogel. The acoustic and mechanical properties of the gel phantom were found to be similar to soft tissue properties. The phantom's response to cavitation was evaluated using histotripsy. Histotripsy causes breakdown of tissue structures by the generation of controlled cavitation using short, focused, high-intensity ultrasound pulses. Histotripsy lesions were generated in the phantom and kidney tissue using a spherically focused 1-MHz transducer generating 15 cycle pulses, at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz with a peak negative pressure of 14 MPa. Damage appeared clearly as increased optical transparency of the phantom due to rupture of individual red blood cells. The morphology of lesions generated in the phantom was very similar to that generated in kidney tissue at both macroscopic and cellular levels. Additionally, lesions in the phantom could be visualized as hypoechoic regions on a B-mode ultrasound image, similar to histotripsy lesions in tissue. High-speed imaging of the optically transparent phantom was used to show that damage coincides with the presence of cavitation. These results indicate that the phantom can accurately mimic the response of soft tissue to cavitation and provide a useful tool for studying damage induced by acoustic cavitation. Copyright © 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Un-repairable DNA damage in cell due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Giichi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell reproductive deactivation is caused by damage to DNA. In a cell, cellular DNA radical reacts with diffusion controlled rate and generates DNA peroxide radical. The chemical repair of DNA radical with hydrogen donation by thiol competes with the reaction of oxygen with same radicals in the DNA molecules. From the point reaction rates, the prolongation of radical life time is not as great as expected from the reduction in the glutathione content of the cell. This indicates that further reducting compounds (protein bound thiol) are present in the cell. The residual radicals are altered to strand breaks, base damages and so on. The effective lesions for a number of endpoints is un-repaired double strand break, which has been discovered in a cluster. This event gives risk to high LET radiation or to a track end of X-rays. For X- or electron irradiations the strand breaks are frequently induced by the interactions between sublesions on two strands in DNA. A single strand break followed by radical action may be unstable excited state, because of remaining sugar radical action and of having negative charged phosphates, in which strands breaks will be rejoined in a short time to stable state. On the same time, a break in the double helix will be immediately produced if two breaks are on either or approximately opposite locations. The formation of a double strand break in the helix depends on the ion strength of the cell. The potassium ions are largely released from polyanionic strand during irradiation, which results in the induction of denatured region. Double strand break with the denatured region seems to be un-repairable DNA damage. (author)

  13. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.

  14. The Damage To The Armour Layer Due To Extreme Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztunali Ozbahceci, Berguzar; Ergin, Aysen; Takayama, Tomotsuka

    2010-05-01

    The sea waves are not regular but random and chaotic. In order to understand this randomness, it is common to make individual wave analysis in time domain or spectral analysis in frequency domain. Characteristic wave heights like Hmax, H%2,H1-10, H1-3, Hmean are obtained through individual wave analysis in time domain. These characteristic wave heights are important because they are used in the design of different type of coastal structures. It is common to use significant wave height, H1-3,for the design of rubble mound structures. Therefore, only spectrally derived or zero-crossing significant wave height is usually reported for the rubble mound breakwaters without any information on larger waves. However, even the values of H1-3are similar; some train of irregular waves may exhibit a large fluctuation of instantaneous wave energy, while another train may not show such a fluctuation (Goda, 1998). Moreover, freak or rogue wave, simply defined as the wave exceeding at least twice the significant wave height may also occur. Those larger waves were called as extreme waves in this study and the effect of extreme waves on the damage to the armour layer of rubble mound breakwaters was investigated by means of hydraulic model experiment. Rock armored rubble mound breakwater model with 1:1.5 slope was constructed in the wave channel of Hydraulics Laboratory of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute of Kyoto University, Japan. The model was consisted of a permeable core layer, a filter and armour layer with two stones thicknesses. Size of stones were same for both of the slopes as Dn50(armour)=0.034m, Dn50(filter)=0.021m and Dn50(core)=0.0148m for armour, filter and core layers, respectively. Time series which are approximately equal to 1000 waves, with similar significant wave height but different extreme wave height cases were generated. In order to generate necessary time series in the wave channel, they were firstly computed by numerically. For the numerical

  15. Contribution Of Brain Tissue Oxidative Damage In Hypothyroidism-associated Learning and Memory Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Baghcheghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a critical target organ for thyroid hormones, and modifications in memory and cognition happen with thyroid dysfunction. The exact mechanisms underlying learning and memory impairments due to hypothyroidism have not been understood yet. Therefore, this review was aimed to compress the results of previous studies which have examined the contribution of brain tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairments.

  16. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T. (ROB, DCT, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (US))

    1991-05-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the {alpha} and {beta} terms reflect lethal damage created {ital during} the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD.

  17. Extra lethal damage due to residual incompletely repaired sublethal damage in hyperfractionated and continuous radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; van de Geijn, J.; Goffman, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional linear--quadratic model of single-dose response, the α and β terms reflect lethal damage created during the delivery of a dose, from two different presumed molecular processes, one linear with dose, the other quadratic. With the conventional one-fraction-per-day (or less) regimens, the sublethal damage (SLD), presumably repairing exponentially over time, is essentially completely fixed by the time of the next dose of radiation. If this assumption is true, the effects of subsequent fractions of radiation should be independent, that is, there should be little, if any, reversible damage left from previous fractions, at the time of the next dose. For multiple daily fractions, or for the limiting case, continuous radiation, this simplification may overlook damaged cells that have had insufficient time for repair. A generalized method is presented for accounting for extra lethal damage (ELD) arising from such residual SLD for hyperfractionation and continuous irradiation schemes. It may help to predict differences in toxicity and tumor control, if any, obtained with ''unconventional'' treatment regimens. A key element in the present model is the finite size and the dynamic character of the pool of sublethal damage. Besides creating the usual linear and quadratic components of lethal damage, each new fraction converts a certain fraction of the existing SLD into ELD, and creates some new SLD

  18. Uncertainty in urban flood damage assessment due to urban drainage modelling and depth-damage curve estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, G; La Loggia, G; Notaro, V

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased occurrence of flooding events in urban areas, many procedures for flood damage quantification have been defined in recent decades. The lack of large databases in most cases is overcome by combining the output of urban drainage models and damage curves linking flooding to expected damage. The application of advanced hydraulic models as diagnostic, design and decision-making support tools has become a standard practice in hydraulic research and application. Flooding damage functions are usually evaluated by a priori estimation of potential damage (based on the value of exposed goods) or by interpolating real damage data (recorded during historical flooding events). Hydraulic models have undergone continuous advancements, pushed forward by increasing computer capacity. The details of the flooding propagation process on the surface and the details of the interconnections between underground and surface drainage systems have been studied extensively in recent years, resulting in progressively more reliable models. The same level of was advancement has not been reached with regard to damage curves, for which improvements are highly connected to data availability; this remains the main bottleneck in the expected flooding damage estimation. Such functions are usually affected by significant uncertainty intrinsically related to the collected data and to the simplified structure of the adopted functional relationships. The present paper aimed to evaluate this uncertainty by comparing the intrinsic uncertainty connected to the construction of the damage-depth function to the hydraulic model uncertainty. In this way, the paper sought to evaluate the role of hydraulic model detail level in the wider context of flood damage estimation. This paper demonstrated that the use of detailed hydraulic models might not be justified because of the higher computational cost and the significant uncertainty in damage estimation curves. This uncertainty occurs mainly

  19. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A method for the estimation of the probability of damage due to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1979-07-01

    The available information on seismicity within the United Kingdom has been combined with building damage data from the United States to produce a method of estimating the probability of damage to structures due to the occurrence of earthquakes. The analysis has been based on the use of site intensity as the major damage producing parameter. Data for structural, pipework and equipment items have been assumed and the overall probability of damage calculated as a function of the design level. Due account is taken of the uncertainties of the seismic data. (author)

  1. Damage formation and annealing in InP due to swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarou, A.; Wesch, W.; Wendler, E.; Klaumuenzer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Virgin and pre-damaged InP samples were irradiated at room temperature (RT) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) with different fluences of 140 MeV Kr, 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au ions. The pre-damaging was performed with 600 keV Ge ions at LNT to obtain different damage levels. The samples were analysed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in random and channelling geometry. A relatively weak damage accumulation in virgin InP and a very significant defect annealing in pre-damaged InP occurs due to 140 MeV Kr irradiation. The damaging of virgin InP with 390 MeV Xe and 600 MeV Au is much more efficient in comparison with that of 140 MeV Kr. Further, annealing of the pre-damaged InP due to 390 MeV Xe irradiation is hardly visible. At LNT InP appears to be much more radiation-resistant to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation than at RT. Our results show that during SHI irradiation of InP both damage formation and damage annealing occur simultaneously. Whether the first or the second one plays a more important role depends on the SHI mass and energy

  2. Thermal damage produced by high-irradiance continuous wave CO2 laser cutting of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Walsh, J T; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1990-01-01

    Thermal damage produced by continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser ablation of tissue in vitro was measured for irradiances ranging from 360 W/cm2 to 740 kW/cm2 in order to investigate the extent to which ablative cooling can limit tissue damage. Damage zones thinner than 100 microns were readily produced using single pulses to cut guinea pig skin as well as bovine cornea, aorta, and myocardium. Multiple pulses can lead to increased damage. However, a systematic decrease in damage with irradiance, predicted theoretically by an evaporation model of ablation, was not observed. The damage-zone thickness was approximately constant around the periphery of the cut, consistent with the existence of a liquid layer which stores heat and leads to tissue damage, and with a model of damage and ablation recently proposed by Zweig et al.

  3. An experimental study on tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of water soluble contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Il

    1989-01-01

    The water soluble contrast media cause tissue necrosis infrequently by extravasation during intravenous injection in various radiological examinations. However, it has not been well documented that what kind and what concentration of contrast media can cause tissue necrosis. And also, the mechanism of tissue necrosis by extravasated contrast media has not been well known. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of tissue damage following subcutaneous injection of various water soluble contrast media to investigate the characteristics of the contrast media acting on the tissue damage, and to provide the basic data for the clinical application. Meglumine ioxithalamate,sodium and meglumine ioxithalamate, iopromide, iopamidol, ioxaglate,meglumine diatrizoate and sodium diatrizoate of various iodine content and osmolality were injected into subcutaneous tissue of the dorsum of 970 feet of 485 rats. The tissue reaction of injection sites were grossly examined with period from 1 day to 8 weeks after the injection. Representative gross changes were correlated with histologic findings. The results were as follows; 1. The basic tissue damage by extravasated contrast media was acute and chronic inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue with subsequent progress into the hemorrhagic and necrotizing lesion. 2. Lager volume of contrast media caused more severe tissue damage. 3. Contrast media of higher osmolality caused more severe tissue damage. 4. At same osmolality, contrast media of higher iodine content caused more severe tissue damage

  4. Nd : YAG surgical laser effects in canine prostate tissue: temperature and damage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, S. A.; L'Eplattenier, H. F.; Rem, A. I.; van der Lugt, J. J.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to predict short-term, laser-induced, thermal damage in canine prostate tissue. Canine prostate tissue samples were equipped with thermocouple probes to measure tissue temperature at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm depths. The tissue surface was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser in contact

  5. Regulation of annexins following infection like tissue damage – investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    are regulated after tissue damaged on the protein level. These proteins have been assign to functions like regulation of coagulation, apoptosis, and exocytosis, indicating their importance following infection and subsequent repair in fish. In addition the regulation observed in this study are supported...... an established model. In the model infection is mimicked by a well-defined tissue damage allowing each fish to be equally affected. Samples were taken 7 days after tissue damage and included samples from the damaged tissue, internal control and an external control. Changes in protein expression between the wound...... by previous findings on the mRNA level, where both proteins are regulated following infection. In conclusion this study show regulation on the protein level of two members of the annexin protein family after infection like tissue damage....

  6. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  7. Genipin crosslinker releasing sutures for improving the mechanical/repair strength of damaged connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Sharath; Slusarewicz, Paul; Brown, Matt; Hedman, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness). Sutures were successfully coated with a biodegradable polymer layer loaded with the crosslinking agent genipin, without compromising the mechanical properties of the suture. The rapid-release of genipin was achieved under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Exogenous crosslinking using these genipin releasing sutures was demonstrated using equine tendons. The tendons treated with genipin releasing sutures showed significant improvement in failure load, energy required for pull-out failure, and stiffness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2199-2205, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hepatic tissue of female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehane I. Eid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting compound widely spread in our living environment. It is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to the limited information concerning the effect of BPA on the liver, the present study was designed to assess hepatic tissue injury induced by early life exposure to BPA in female rat offspring. Rat dams (n = 9 were gavaged with 0.5 and 50 mg of BPA/kg b.w./day throughout lactation until weaning. The sham group received olive oil for the same duration while the control group did not receive any injection. The liver tissue was collected from female pups at different pubertal periods (PND50, 90 and 110 to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers, extent of DNA damage and histopathological changes. Our results indicated that early life exposure to BPA significantly increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, induced DNA damage and chronic severe inflammation in the hepatic tissue in a time dependent manner. These data suggested that BPA causes long-term adverse effects on the liver, which leads to deleterious effects in the liver of female rat offspring.

  9. Quantification of change in vocal fold tissue stiffness relative to depth of artificial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Schmolke, Sebastian; Clauditz, Till; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Püschel, Klaus; Roemer, Frank W; Schumacher, Udo; Goodyer, Eric

    2017-10-01

    To quantify changes in the biomechanical properties of human excised vocal folds with defined artificial damage. The linear skin rheometer (LSR) was used to obtain a series of rheological measurements of shear modulus from the surface of 30 human cadaver vocal folds. The tissue samples were initially measured in a native condition and then following varying intensities of thermal damage. Histological examination of each vocal fold was used to determine the depth of artificial alteration. The measured changes in stiffness were correlated with the depth of cell damage. For vocal folds in a pre-damage state the shear modulus values ranged from 537 Pa to 1,651 Pa (female) and from 583 Pa to 1,193 Pa (male). With increasing depth of damage from the intermediate layer of the lamina propria (LP), tissue stiffness increased consistently (compared with native values) following application of thermal damage to the vocal folds. The measurement showed an increase of tissue stiffness when the depth of tissue damage was extending from the intermediate LP layer downwards. Changes in the elastic characteristics of human vocal fold tissue following damage at defined depths were demonstrated in an in vitro experiment. In future, reproducible in vivo measurements of elastic vocal fold tissue alterations may enable phonosurgeons to infer the extent of subepithelial damage from changes in surface elasticity.

  10. Thermal damage control of dye-assisted laser tissue welding: effect of dye concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Buckley, Lisa A.; Prahl, Scott A.; Shaffer, Brian S.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2001-05-01

    Successful laser-assisted tissue welding was implemented to provide proper weld strength with minimized tissue thermal injury. We investigated and compared the weld strengths and morphologic changes in porcine small intestinal submucose (SIS) and porcine ureteral tissues with various concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) and with a solid albumin sheet. The study showed that the tissues were welded at lower ICG concentration (0.05 mM) with minimized tissue thermal damage using an 800-nm wavelength diode laser.

  11. A case of lethal soft tissue injuries due to assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagawa Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia

  12. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  13. An overview of road damages due to flooding: Case study in Kedah state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Muhd Shahril Nizam; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Flooding occurs frequently in many countries including Malaysia. Floods in Malaysia are usually due to heavy and prolonged rainfall, uncontrolled development, and drainage systems that are not being monitored. Road damage due to flooding event can cause huge expenditures for the post-flooding rehabilitation and maintenance. The required maintenance and rehabilitation could upset the original life cycle cost estimations. Data on road statistics were obtained from the Highway Planning Division, Ministry of Works Malaysia and data on flooding was collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia for events between 2012 and 2015. The pilot sites were selected based on its historical cases of floods that caused road damages in Kedah. The pilot site indicated that the impact of flooding on road infrastructures systems can be used to plan better road design and maintenances. It also revealed that it costs more than RM 1 million to reinstate roads damaged by flooding in a typical district annually.

  14. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  15. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.; Al-Ajmi, D.

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of ''oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait

  16. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  17. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J

    2006-01-01

    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  18. Acrolein: An Effective Biomarker for Tissue Damage Produced from Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Uemura, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    It is thought that the major factor responsible for cell damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS), but our recent studies have shown that acrolein (CH 2 =CH-CHO) produced from spermine and spermidine is more toxic than ROS. Thus, (1) the mechanism of acrolein production during brain stroke, (2) one of the mechanisms of acrolein toxicity, and (3) the role of glutathione in acrolein detoxification are described in this chapter.

  19. A decreased subchondral trabecular bone tissue elastic modulus is associated with pre-arthritic cartilage damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC

    2001-01-01

    determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...

  20. Using electrolyte leakage tests to determine lifting windows and detect tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Tinus

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing is rapidly coming into use as a means to determine the condition of nursery stock and predict how it will respond to treatment or use. One such test, the electrolyte leakage test, can be used to measure cold hardiness and detect tissue damage. The principle of this test is that when cell membranes are damaged, electrolytes leak out into the water...

  1. Numerical assessment of wind turbine blade damage due to contact/impact with tower during installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Verma, Amrit; Petter Vedvik, Nils; Gao, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    The use of floating crane vessel for installation of offshore wind turbine blades presents a great challenge in terms of its random motions and is likely to increase the probability of the blade hitting the preassembled tower during lifting operation. To evaluate the consequences of such scenarios and to determine the allowable motions or sea states for such operations, it is very important to understand the damage development in the blade due to impact. The present paper employs the application of high fidelity finite element method to investigate the damage behavior in the blade when the leading edge of the blade hits the tower. A nonlinear time domain structural analysis using ABAQUS was conducted on the DTU 10 MW reference blade model which is based on shell elements. Damage assessment along with the nature of evolution of various energies is examined and presented for two different impact velocities with modified layup stacking sequence at the contact region.

  2. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  3. MRI in diagnostic of soft tissue damages by fractures of lateral tibial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, D.; Proichev, V.; Popov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The knee is one of the most often injured joint. Fractures of tibial condyles are the most common articular damages. Koton and Berg call them „bumper“ fractures the tibia plateau is vulnerable to both high- and low-energy injury mechanisms due to its vulnerable position in the lower extremity. It must bear significant weight and sustain significant impact and deceleration forces with little skeletal constraint, and has scant surrounding soft tissue and a tethered medial and lateral integument. Furthermore, the tibial plateau has relatively forgiving ligamentous attachments that must allow for a large range of motion in a single plane. Not surprisingly, given the diversity of injury, management of these fractures has come to include a wide variety of treatment strategies. traditionally, ligament injury associated with plateau fractures has been diagnosed indirectly with stress radiographs and physical examination. With increasing use of more sensitive MRI and arthroscopy, associated ligament and meniscus injuries have been found in significant percentages of plateau fractures. these soft tissue injuries consist primarily of MCL lesions, meniscal injuries, and ACL disruptions. However, studies addressing associated soft tissue injuries all agree that neither the type of plateau fracture nor the presence or absence of ligament injury correlates with the incidence of meniscal tears

  4. Probing multi-scale mechanical damage in connective tissues using X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fabio; Hofmann, Felix; Smith, Andrew J; Thompson, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    The accumulation of microstructural collagen damage following repetitive loading is linked to painful and debilitating tendon injuries. As a hierarchical, semi-crystalline material, collagen mechanics can be studied using X-ray diffraction. The aim of the study was to describe multi-structural changes in tendon collagen following controlled plastic damage (5% permanent strain). We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to interrogate the spacing of collagen molecules within a fibril, and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) to measure molecular strains under macroscopic loading. Simultaneous recordings of SAXS and WAXS patterns, together with whole-tissue strain in physiologically hydrated rat-tail tendons were made during increments of in situ tensile loading. Results showed that while tissue level modulus was unchanged, fibril modulus decreased significantly, and molecular modulus significantly increased. Further, analysis of higher order SAXS peaks suggested structural changes in the gap and overlap regions, possibly localising the damage to molecular cross-links. Our results provide new insight into the fundamental damage processes at work in collagenous tissues and point to new directions for their mitigation and repair. This article reports the first in situ loading synchrotron studies on mechanical damage in collagenous tissues. We provide new insight into the nano- and micro-structural mechanisms of damage processes. Pre-damaged tendons showed differential alteration of moduli at macro, micro and nano-scales as measured using X-ray scattering techniques. Detailed analysis of higher order diffraction peaks suggested damage is localised to molecular cross-links. The results are consistent with previous X-ray scattering studies of tendons and also with recent thermal stability studies on damaged material. Detailed understanding of damage mechanisms is essential in the development of new therapies promoting tissue repair. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  5. Nonstructural damages of reinforced concrete buildings due to 2015 Ranau earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyanto, Mohd Irwan; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    On 15th June 2016 a moderate earthquake with magnitude Mw5.9 was occurred in Sabah, Malaysia. Specifically, the epicentre was located at 16 km northwest of Ranau. Less than two days after the first event, a reconnaissance mission took action to investigate the damages on buildings. Since the reinforced concrete buildings in Ranau were designed based on gravity and wind load only, a lot of minor to severe damages was occurred. This paper presents the damages on the nonstructural elements of reinforced concrete buildings due to Ranau earthquake. The assessment was conducted via in-situ field investigation covering the visual observation, taking photo, and interview with local resident. Based on in-situ field investigation, there was a lot of damages occurred on the nonstructural elements like the brick walls. Such damages cannot be neglected since it can cause injury and fatality to the victims. Therefore, it can be concluded that the installation of nonstructural elements should be reviewed for the sake of safety.

  6. An investigation on damaged buildings in Ranau due the 2015 Sabah earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yang Soh; Tan, Jun Pin; Chiew, Lerk Qing; Chang, Wai Hoe; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-10-01

    A magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck near Ranau district in Sabah, Malaysia on June 5, 2015. The epicenter was located 14 km from Ranau. Various buildings were damaged by the earthquake. This paper discusses the extent of the destruction to two severely damaged structures in Ranau. An assessment of damaged buildings in Ranau Hospital using microtremor data was conducted after the earthquake event. The building consists of two identical blocks with similar soft-story structural forms. Two microtremor observations were carried out before and after the repair work. The predominant frequencies of the damaged buildings were determined by using the Nakamura's H/V method. Based on the assumption that both identical blocks of building in Ranau Hospital have similar predominant frequencies due to the same structural design and construction quality, results show that B block of Ranau Hospital suffered more damage compared with another block of the building. The predominant frequency of B block is 10% lower than that of A Block. Results obtained are consistent with the observed building performance during the site reconnaissance. The predominant frequency of both buildings measured after the repair work shows 11% to 21% increment, which implies that the lateral stiffness of both buildings has been improved.

  7. Telomere elongation protects heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage in rats exposed to severe hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Zhen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Li, Pingying; Li, Xiaolin; Xue, Xiaohong; Duo, Jie; Ma, Yingcai

    2018-02-17

    The effects of acute hypoxia at high altitude on the telomere length of the cells in the heart and lung tissues remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the change in telomere length of rat heart and lung tissue cells in response to acute exposure to severe hypoxia and its role in hypoxia-induced damage to heart and lung tissues. Forty male Wistar rats (6-week old) were randomized into control group (n = 10) and hypoxia group (n = 30). Rats in control group were kept at an altitude of 1500 m, while rats in hypoxia group were exposed to simulated hypoxia with an altitude of 5000 m in a low-pressure oxygen chamber for 1, 3, and 7 days (n = 10). The left ventricular and right middle lobe tissues of each rat were collected for measurement of telomere length and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the mRNA and protein levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-1α), and hypoxia-inducible factor1α (HIF-2α). Increased exposure to hypoxia damaged rat heart and lung tissue cells and increased ROS production and telomere length. The mRNA and protein levels of TERT and HIF-1α were significantly higher in rats exposed to hypoxia and increased with prolonged exposure; mRNA and protein levels of HIF-2α increased only in rats exposed to hypoxia for 7 days. TERT was positively correlated with telomere length and the levels of HIF-1α but not HIF-2α. Acute exposure to severe hypoxia causes damage to heart and lung tissues due to the production of ROS but promotes telomere length and adaptive response by upregulating TERT and HIF-1α, which protect heart and lung tissue cells from fatal damage.

  8. Mechanical damage due to corrosion of parts of pump technology and valves of LWR power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, J.; Krumpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types are described of uneven corrosion of austenitic chromium-nickel steel: pitting and slit corrosion. The occurrence of slit corrosion is typical of parts of pumping technology and valves. The corrosion damage of austenitic chromium-nickel steels spreads as intergranular, transgranular or mixed corrosion. In nuclear power facilities with LWR's, intergranular corrosion is due to chlorides and sulphur compounds while transgranular corrosion is due to the presence of dissolved oxygen and chlorides. In mechanically stressed parts, stress corrosion takes place. The recommended procedures are discussed of reducing the corrosion-mechanical damage of pumping equipment of light water reactors during design, production and assembly. During the service of the equipment, corrosion cracks are detected using nondestructive methods and surface cracks are repaired by grinding and welding. (E.S.)

  9. Aag DNA glycosylase promotes alkylation-induced tissue damage mediated by Parp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jennifer A; Moroski-Erkul, Catherine A; Lake, Annabelle; Eichinger, Lindsey W; Shah, Dharini; Jhun, Iny; Limsirichai, Prajit; Bronson, Roderick T; Christiani, David C; Meira, Lisiane B; Samson, Leona D

    2013-04-01

    Alkylating agents comprise a major class of front-line cancer chemotherapeutic compounds, and while these agents effectively kill tumor cells, they also damage healthy tissues. Although base excision repair (BER) is essential in repairing DNA alkylation damage, under certain conditions, initiation of BER can be detrimental. Here we illustrate that the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) mediates alkylation-induced tissue damage and whole-animal lethality following exposure to alkylating agents. Aag-dependent tissue damage, as observed in cerebellar granule cells, splenocytes, thymocytes, bone marrow cells, pancreatic β-cells, and retinal photoreceptor cells, was detected in wild-type mice, exacerbated in Aag transgenic mice, and completely suppressed in Aag⁻/⁻ mice. Additional genetic experiments dissected the effects of modulating both BER and Parp1 on alkylation sensitivity in mice and determined that Aag acts upstream of Parp1 in alkylation-induced tissue damage; in fact, cytotoxicity in WT and Aag transgenic mice was abrogated in the absence of Parp1. These results provide in vivo evidence that Aag-initiated BER may play a critical role in determining the side-effects of alkylating agent chemotherapies and that Parp1 plays a crucial role in Aag-mediated tissue damage.

  10. Aag DNA glycosylase promotes alkylation-induced tissue damage mediated by Parp1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Calvo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents comprise a major class of front-line cancer chemotherapeutic compounds, and while these agents effectively kill tumor cells, they also damage healthy tissues. Although base excision repair (BER is essential in repairing DNA alkylation damage, under certain conditions, initiation of BER can be detrimental. Here we illustrate that the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG mediates alkylation-induced tissue damage and whole-animal lethality following exposure to alkylating agents. Aag-dependent tissue damage, as observed in cerebellar granule cells, splenocytes, thymocytes, bone marrow cells, pancreatic β-cells, and retinal photoreceptor cells, was detected in wild-type mice, exacerbated in Aag transgenic mice, and completely suppressed in Aag⁻/⁻ mice. Additional genetic experiments dissected the effects of modulating both BER and Parp1 on alkylation sensitivity in mice and determined that Aag acts upstream of Parp1 in alkylation-induced tissue damage; in fact, cytotoxicity in WT and Aag transgenic mice was abrogated in the absence of Parp1. These results provide in vivo evidence that Aag-initiated BER may play a critical role in determining the side-effects of alkylating agent chemotherapies and that Parp1 plays a crucial role in Aag-mediated tissue damage.

  11. Effect of mechanical tissue properties on thermal damage in skin after IR-laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, M.; Romano, V.; Forrer, M.; Weber, H.P. (Inst. of Applied Physics, Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Mischler, C.; Mueller, O.M. (Anatomical Inst., Bern Univ. (Switzerland))

    1991-04-01

    The damage created instantaneously in dorsal skin and in the subjacent skeletal muscle layer after CO{sub 2} and Er{sup 3+} laser incisions is histologically and ultrastructurally investigated. Light microscopical examinations show an up to three times larger damage zone in the subcutaneous layer of skeletal muscle than in the connective tissue above. The extent of thermally altered muscle tissue is classified by different zones and characterized by comparison to long time heating injuries. The unexpectedly large damage is a result of the change of elastic properties occurring abruptly at the transition between different materials. This leads to a discontinuity of the cutting dynamics that reduces the ejection of tissue material. We show that the degree of thermal damage originates from the amount of hot material that is not ejected out of the crater acting as a secondary heat source. (orig.).

  12. Oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue from patients with COPD is clustered in functionally significant sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M Pastukh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Viktor M Pastukh1, Li Zhang2, Mykhaylo V Ruchko1, Olena Gorodnya1, Gina C Bardwell1, Rubin M Tuder2, Mark N Gillespie11Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, USA; 2Program in Translational Lung Research, Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Lung tissue from COPD patients displays oxidative DNA damage. The present study determined whether oxidative DNA damage was randomly distributed or whether it was localized in specific sequences in either the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. The DNA damage-specific histone, gamma-H2AX, was detected immunohistochemically in alveolar wall cells in lung tissue from COPD patients but not control subjects. A PCR-based method was used to search for oxidized purine base products in selected 200 bp sequences in promoters and coding regions of the VEGF, TGF-β1, HO-1, Egr1, and β-actin genes while quantitative Southern blot analysis was used to detect oxidative damage to the mitochondrial genome in lung tissue from control subjects and COPD patients. Among the nuclear genes examined, oxidative damage was detected in only 1 sequence in lung tissue from COPD patients: the hypoxic response element (HRE of the VEGF promoter. The content of VEGF mRNA also was reduced in COPD lung tissue. Mitochondrial DNA content was unaltered in COPD lung tissue, but there was a substantial increase in mitochondrial DNA strand breaks and/or abasic sites. These findings show that oxidative DNA damage in COPD lungs is prominent in the HRE of the VEGF promoter and in the mitochondrial genome and raise the intriguing possibility that genome and sequence-specific oxidative DNA damage could contribute to transcriptional dysregulation and cell fate decisions in COPD.Keywords: DNA damage, VEGF hypoxic response element, mtDNA, COPD

  13. Damage costs due to automotive air pollution and the influence of street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Using the methodology of the ExternE Project of the European Commission, we have evaluated the damage costs of automotive air pollution by way of two case studies in France: a trip across Paris, and a trip from Paris to Lyon. This methodology involves an analysis of the impact pathways, starting with the emissions (e.g., g/km of particles form tailpipe), followed by local and regional dispersion (e.g., incremental μg/m 3 of particles), calculation of the physical impacts using exposure-response functions (e.g., cases of respiratory hospital admissions), and finally multiplication by unit costs factors (e.g., ε per hospital admission). Damages are aggregated over all affected receptors in Europe. In addition to the local and regional dispersion calculations carried out so far by ExternE, we also consider the increased microscale impacts due to the trapping of pollutants in street canyons, using numerical simulations with the FLUENT software. We have evaluated impacts to human health, agricultural crops and building materials, due to particles, NO x , CO, HC and CO 2 . Health impacts, especially reduced life expectancy, dominate in terms of cost. Damages for older cars (before 1997) range from 2 to 41Euro cents/km, whereas for newer cars (since 1997), the range 1-9 Euro cents/km, and there is continuing progress in reducing the emissions further. In large cities, the particulate emissions of diesel cars lead to the highest damages, exceeding those of gasoline cars by a factor of 7. For cars before 1997 the order of magnitude of the damage costs is comparable to the price of gasoline, and the loss of life expectancy is comparable to that from traffic accidents. (Author)

  14. Apoptosis modulation in the immune system reveals a role of neutrophils in tissue damage in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortel, Tom; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Kirschnek, Susanne; Häcker, Georg

    2018-03-07

    Chlamydial infection frequently causes damage to the female genital tract. The precise mechanisms of chlamydial clearance and tissue damage are unknown but studies suggest immunopathology with a particular role of neutrophils. The goal of this study was to understand the contribution of the immune system, in particular neutrophils. Using Chlamydia muridarum, we infected mice with a prolonged immune response due to expression of Bcl-2 in haematopoietic cells (Bcl-2-mice), and mice where mature neutrophils are lacking due to the deletion of Mcl-1 in myeloid cells (LysM-cre-mcl-1-flox-mice; Mcl-1-mice). We monitored bacterial clearance, cellular infiltrate and long-term tissue damage. Both mutant strains showed slightly delayed clearance of the acute infection. Bcl-2-mice had a strongly increased inflammatory infiltrate concerning almost all cell lineages. The infection of Bcl-2-mice caused increased tissue damage. The loss of neutrophils in Mcl-1-mice was associated with substantial quantitative and qualitative alterations of the inflammatory infiltrate. Mcl-1-mice had higher chlamydial burden and reduced tissue damage, including lower incidence of hydrosalpinx and less uterine dilation. Inhibition of apoptosis in the haematopoietic system increases inflammation and tissue damage. Neutrophils have broad functions, including a role in chlamydial clearance and in tissue destruction.

  15. A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Chen, Ying; Fasciano, Alyssa C; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan

    2018-04-01

    Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O 2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Legal termination of a pregnancy resulting from transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue due to cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Emil Hagen; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer.......To report on a woman who conceived naturally and had a normal intrauterine pregnancy following transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue but decided to have an early abortion due to recurrence of breast cancer....

  17. Usage of prestressed vertical bolts for retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed S. Askar

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation with the objective of retrofitting flat slabs damaged due to punching shear using prestressed vertical bolts is presented in this paper. The parameters examined in this study are vertical prestressed bolts with different ratios within the slab thickness, slab thickness and central column size. Through the experimental tests the load carrying capacity, deformation characteristics and the cracking behavior have been investigated. A comparison between the behavior of retrofitted slabs and their references showed that the proposed system of repair is effective and could be used in practice. A comparison between the experimental results and calculated punching failure load based on the formulas adopted by different codes, showed a reasonable agreement.

  18. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat.

  19. Computed chest tomography in rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, T.; Wegenius, G.; Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.; Saldeen, T.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Computed chest tomography was performed in 13 rats with pulmonary damage due to microembolism, caused by injection of thrombin (500 NIH/kg body weight) and tranexamic acid, a fibrinolytic inhibitor (200 mg/kg body weight), and in 9 control rats. The purpose of the investigation was to perform attenuation measurements at two levels of the right lung, each with three regions of interest (anterior, mid and posterior). Alterations in attenuation, compared with controls, were correlated with lung weight. Compared with controls, the attenuation was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior regions at both levels in animals with pulmonary damage, but not in the mid regions. There was a statistically significant correlation between increasing attenuation and increasing lung weight. A significant difference was found between damaged and control lungs regarding the microscopic grade of interstitial oedema, alveolar oedema and fibrin. Histograms of attenuation values in computed tomograms might be of value in detecting alveolar oedema. It is concluded that computed chest tomography is a good method for detection pulmonary oedema at an early stage of experimental microembolism in the rat. (orig.)

  20. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: matsuonm@usp.br, nelsonk@pea.usp.br; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  1. Effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shicheng; Luo Qiong; Yang Mingliang; Yang Jiajuan; Yan Jun; Li Zhuoneng; Wang Lihong; Cui Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on local radiation damage of testis tissue in male rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the normal group, the model group, positive control group and LJP treatment group (50 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ). LJP was applied to the treatment group for 10 d before local irradiation with γ-ray (6.0 Gy). The morphological change of the testis, organ index of testis and epididymides, sperm count, motility rate, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonic aldehyde (MDA) contents were measured. Results: LJP could make the damaged testis recover to near normal, elevate the organ index of testis and epididymides, promote the sperm count and motility rate, increase the activity of SOD and decrease the contents of MDA in testis tissue. Conclusions: LJP could inhibit testis tissue damage induced by local radiation, hence enhance the significant radioprotective effect to testis tissue. LJP has the conspicuous protective effect on radiation damage of testis tissue. (authors)

  2. Infrared laser damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Adam R.; Clary, Joseph E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a fixture in many biomedical, industrial, telecommunications, and defense applications in recent years. These sources are capable of generating extremely high peak power that can cause laser-induced tissue breakdown through the formation of a plasma upon exposure. Despite the increasing prevalence of such lasers, current safety standards (ANSI Z136.1-2014) do not include maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values for the cornea with pulse durations less than one nanosecond. This study was designed to measure damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms in the near-infrared and mid-infrared to identify the wavelength dependence of laser damage thresholds from 1200-2500 nm. A high-energy regenerative amplifier and optical parametric amplifier outputting 100 femtosecond pulses with pulse energies up to 2 mJ were used to perform exposures and determine damage thresholds in transparent collagen gel tissue phantoms. Three-dimensional imaging, primarily optical coherence tomography, was used to evaluate tissue phantoms following exposure to determine ablation characteristics at the surface and within the bulk material. The determination of laser damage thresholds in the near-IR and mid-IR for ultrafast lasers will help to guide safety standards and establish the appropriate MPE levels for exposure sensitive ocular tissue such as the cornea. These data will help promote the safe use of ultrafast lasers for a wide range of applications.

  3. Radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced normal tissue damage. The role of cytokines and adhesion molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plevova, P.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Ionising radiation and cytostatic agents used in cancer therapy exert damaging effects on normal tissues and induce a complex response at the cellular and molecular levels. Cytokines and adhesion molecules are involved in this response. Methods. Published data on the given topic have been reviewed. Results and conclusions. Various cytokines and adhesion molecules, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins- 1,-2,-4, and -6, interferon γ, granulocyte macrophage- and macrophage- colony stimulating factors, transforming growth factor β, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, fibroblast and epidermal growth factors, platelet-activating factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E- and P-selectins are involved in the response of normal tissues to ionizing radiation- and chemotherapy- induced normal tissues damage and are co-responsible for some side effects of these treatment modalities, including fever, anorexia and fatigue, suppression of hematopoiesis, both acute and late local tissue response. (author)

  4. Tissue repair in myxobacteria: A cooperative strategy to heal cellular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Damage repair is a fundamental requirement of all life as organisms find themselves in challenging and fluctuating environments. In particular, damage to the barrier between an organism and its environment (e.g. skin, plasma membrane, bacterial cell envelope) is frequent because these organs/organelles directly interact with the external world. Here, we discuss the general strategies that bacteria use to cope with damage to their cell envelope and their repair limits. We then describe a novel damage-coping mechanism used by multicellular myxobacteria. We propose that cell-cell transfer of membrane material within a population serves as a wound-healing strategy and provide evidence for its utility. We suggest that--similar to how tissues in eukaryotes have evolved cooperative methods of damage repair--so too have some bacteria that live a multicellular lifestyle. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Estimation of health damage due to emission of air pollutants by cars: the canyon effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.V. [Ecole des Mines, Centre d' Energetique, Paris, 75 (France); Rabl, A.

    1999-07-01

    Since current epidemiological evidence suggests that air pollution has harmful effects even at typical ambient concentrations and the dispersion is significant over hundreds to thousands of km, the estimation of total health damage involves consideration of local and regional effects. In recent years, several estimates have been published of health damage due to air pollution from cars, in particular by Delucchi et al of UC Davis and by the ExternE Project of the European Commission. To capture the geographic extent of pollutant dispersion, local and regional models have been used in combination. The present paper addresses a potentially significant contribution of the total damage, not yet taken into account in these studies: the increased concentration of pollutants inside urban street canyons. This canyon effect is appreciable only for primary pollutants, the time constants for the formation of secondary pollutants being long compared to the residence time in the canyon. We assumed linearity of incremental health impact with incremental concentration, in view of the lack of epidemiological evidence for no-effect thresholds or significant deviations from linearity at typical ambient concentrations; therefore, only long term average concentrations matter. We use the FLUENT software to model the dispersion inside a street canyon for a wide range of rectangular geometries and wind velocities. Our results suggest that the canyon effect is of marginal significance for total damages, the contribution of the canyon effect being roughly 10 to 20% of the total. The relative importance of the canyon effect is, of course, highly variable with local conditions; it could be much smaller but it is unlikely to add more than 100% to the flat terrain estimate. (Author)

  6. Assessment of damage from reduction of expected lifespan due to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical and methodological approaches to the assessment of damage from premature mortality and reduction of life expectancy due to various reasons. The concepts measuring the price of a human life are analyzed: the evaluation from the standpoint of the theory of human capital; indirect estimation taking into account non-monetary social costs; evaluation of individuals’ willingness to pay for the elimination of the risk of death; estimation based on the determination of insurance premiums and compensations under court decision; evaluation of the social investments, aimed to reduce the risk of premature mortality of the individual. The following indexes were calculated for all subordinate entities of the Russian Federation: reduction of life expectancy, lost years of potential life in the working age, and gross regional product lost due to the reduction of years of potential life in the working-age population as a result of cancer

  7. The assessment of damages due to climate change in a situation of uncertainty: the contribution of adaptation cost modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research is to introduce new elements for the assessment of damages due to climate changes within the frame of compact models aiding the decision. Two types of methodologies are used: sequential optimisation stochastic models and simulation stochastic models using optimal assessment methods. The author first defines the damages, characterizes their different categories, and reviews the existing assessments. Notably, he makes the distinction between damages due to climate change and damages due to its rate. Then, he presents the different models used in this study, the numerical solutions, and gives a rough estimate of the importance of the considered phenomena. By introducing a new category of capital in an optimal growth model, he tries to establish a framework allowing the representation of adaptation and of its costs. He introduces inertia in macro-economical evolutions, climatic variability, detection of climate change and damages due to climate hazards

  8. Vulnerability Assessment of Housing Damage in the Philippines Due to an Increase Increase in Typhoon Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Stromberg, Per; Gasparatos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    south is almost unaffected due to its proximity to the equator. The estimation of the damage shows that the number of houses partially or totally destroyed could increase by up to 58% in certain regions by 2085. The historical damage data shows how the adaptive capacity values of each region given by Yusuf and Herminia (2009) are crucial to the amount of damage recorded. These authors defined this parameter as the degree to which adjustments in practices, processes or structures can moderate or offset potential damage or take advantage of opportunities from climate change. This clearly highlights the importance of mitigation measures to increase the resilience of communities in the future. This is a significant conclusion of the present paper, independent of whether tropical cyclones increase in intensity or not.

  9. Comparison of tissue damage caused by various laser systems with tissue tolerable plasma by light and laser scan microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersee, Staffan; Lademann, Jürgen; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) represents a novel therapeutic method with promising capabilities in the field of dermatological interventions, in particular disinfection but also wound antisepsis and regeneration. The energy transfer by plasma into living tissue is not easily educible, as a variety of features such as the medium’s actual molecule-stream, the ions, electrons and free radicals involved, as well as the emission of ultraviolet, visible and infrared light contribute to its increasingly well characterized effects. Thus, relating possible adversary effects, especially of prolonged exposure to a single component of the plasma’s mode of action, is difficult. Until now, severe adverse events connected to plasma exposure have not been reported when conducted according to existing therapeutic protocols. In this study, we have compared the tissue damage-potential of CO 2 and dye lasers with TTP in a porcine model. After exposure of pig ear skin to the three treatment modalities, all specimens were examined histologically and by means of laser scan microscopy (LSM). Light microscopical tissue damage could only be shown in the case of the CO 2 laser, whereas dye laser and plasma treatment resulted in no detectable impairment of the specimens. In the case of TTP, LSM examination revealed only an impairment of the uppermost corneal layers of the skin, thus stressing its safety when used in vivo. (letter)

  10. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  11. The Sensitization Model to Explain How Chronic Pain Exists Without Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; Keizer, Doeke

    The interaction of nurses with chronic pain patients is often difficult. One of the reasons is that chronic pain is difficult to explain, because no obvious anatomic defect or tissue damage is present. There is now enough evidence available indicating that chronic pain syndromes such as low back

  12. Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, Rob P.; van der Goot, Annemieke; Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.

    Normal tissue damage after radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced side effects and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in stem cell research with respect to their

  13. Stem cell therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapel, A.; Benderitter, M.; Gourmelon, P.; Lataillade, J.J.; Gorin, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy may induce irreversible damage on healthy tissues surrounding the tumour. In Europe, per year, 1.5 million patients undergo external radiotherapy. Acute adverse effect concern 80% of patients. The late adverse effect of radiotherapy concern 5 to 10% of them, which could be life threatening. Eradication of these manifestations is crucial. The French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) contribute to understand effect of radiation on healthy tissue. IRSN is strongly implicated in the field of regeneration of healthy tissue after radiotherapy or radiological accident and in the clinical use of cell therapy in the treatment of irradiated patients. Our first success in cell therapy was the correction of deficient hematopoiesis in two patients. The intravenous injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has restored bone marrow micro-environment after total body irradiation necessary to sustain hematopoiesis. Cutaneous radiation reactions play an important role in radiation accidents, but also as a limitation in radiotherapy and radio-oncology. We have evidenced for the first time, the efficiency of MSC therapy in the context of acute cutaneous and muscle damage following irradiation in five patients. Concerning the medical management of gastrointestinal disorder after irradiation, we have demonstrated the promising approach of the MSC treatment. We have shown that MSC migrate to damaged tissues and restore gut functions after radiation damage. The evaluation of stem cell therapy combining different sources of adult stem cells is under investigation

  14. Microbeam Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage Depends on the Stage of Vascular Maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatasso, Sara; Laissue, Jean Albert; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Graber, Werner; Bravin, Alberto; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Corde, Stephanie; Blattmann, Hans; Gruber, Guenther; Djonov, Valentin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of microbeam radiation (MR) on vascular biology, we used the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of an almost pure vascular system with immature vessels (lacking periendothelial coverage) at Day 8 and mature vessels (with coverage) at Day 12 of development. Methods and Materials: CAMs were irradiated with microplanar beams (width, ∼25 μm; interbeam spacing, ∼200 μm) at entrance doses of 200 or 300 Gy and, for comparison, with a broad beam (seamless radiation [SLR]), with entrance doses of 5 to 40 Gy. Results: In vivo monitoring of Day-8 CAM vasculature 6 h after 200 Gy MR revealed a near total destruction of the immature capillary plexus. Conversely, 200 Gy MR barely affected Day-12 CAM mature microvasculature. Morphological evaluation of Day-12 CAMs after the dose was increased to 300 Gy revealed opened interendothelial junctions, which could explain the transient mesenchymal edema immediately after irradiation. Electron micrographs revealed cytoplasmic vacuolization of endothelial cells in the beam path, with disrupted luminal surfaces; often the lumen was engorged with erythrocytes and leukocytes. After 30 min, the capillary plexus adopted a striated metronomic pattern, with alternating destroyed and intact zones, corresponding to the beam and the interbeam paths within the array. SLR at a dose of 10 Gy caused growth retardation, resulting in a remarkable reduction in the vascular endpoint density 24 h postirradiation. A dose of 40 Gy damaged the entire CAM vasculature. Conclusions: The effects of MR are mediated by capillary damage, with tissue injury caused by insufficient blood supply. Vascular toxicity and physiological effects of MR depend on the stage of capillary maturation and appear in the first 15 to 60 min after irradiation. Conversely, the effects of SLR, due to the arrest of cell proliferation, persist for a longer time.

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of potential damage to hernia repair materials due to fixation with helical titanium tacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdsirisopon, Sopon; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D; Deeken, Corey R

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the strength and extensibility of hernia repair materials are negatively influenced by the application of helical titanium tacks. This study evaluated 14 meshes including bare polypropylene, macroporous polytetrafluoroethylene, absorbable barrier, partially absorbable mesh, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene materials. Each mesh provided 15 specimens, which were prepared in 7.5 × 7.5-cm squares. Of these, 5 "undamaged" specimens were subjected to ball-burst testing to determine their biomechanical properties before application of helical titanium tacks (ProTack). To 10 "damaged" specimens 7 tacks were applied 1 cm apart in a 3.5-cm-diameter circle using a tacking force of 25 to 28 N. The tacks were removed from five of the specimens before ball-burst testing and left intact in the remaining five specimens. The application of tacks had no effect on the tensile strength of Dualmesh, ProLite Ultra, Infinit, Ultrapro, C-QUR Lite (6 in.). Most of the meshes did not exhibit significantly different tensile strengths between removal of tacks and tacks left intact. Exceptions included C-QUR, Prolene, Ultrapro, and Bard Soft Mesh, which were weaker with removal of tacks than with tacks left intact during the test. Damage due to the application of helical titanium tacks also caused increased strain at a stress of 16 N/cm for all the meshes except C-QUR Lite (>6 in.) and Physiomesh. Many of the meshes evaluated in this study exhibited damage in the form of reduced tensile strength and increased extensibility after the application of tacks compared with the corresponding "undamaged" meshes. Meshes with smaller interstices and larger filaments were influenced negatively by the application of helical titanium tacks, whereas mesh designs with larger interstices and smaller filaments tended to maintain their baseline mechanical properties.

  16. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  17. Analysis and evaluation of atom level composition variation and property change due to materials irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuo; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazuki; Song Menhi; Saito, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at general elucidation of atom level composition variation due to radiation damage and property change accompanied with this under intending to stressing application of the in-situ analysis and evaluation apparatus on material radiation damage. Then, by using the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) capable of showing a power in composition analysis at microscopic region, measurement of EELS on crystal structure change after heat treatment of Xe precipitation was carried out under parallel of its high resolution observation. As a result, a precipitation with less than 30 nm in diameter was observed on a specimen inserted at 473 K. Xe precipitates in crystalline state began to change at 623 K, to be perfectly gassy state at 773 K. In an energy filter image (EFI) using low loss of Xe, distribution of crystalline and non-crystalline Xe was observed. In EELS, peaks at 14.6 and 15.3 eV were observed in 300 and 773 K, respectively, which were thought to be plasmon. And, difference of peak position at the core loss was thought to reflex difference of Xe state at 300 and 773 K. (G.K.)

  18. Mechanical Properties and Elastic Constants Due to Damage Accumulation and Amorphization in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Damage accumulation due to cascade overlap, which was simulated previously, has been used to study the changes of elastic constants, bulk and elastic moduli as a function of dose. These mechanical properties generally decrease with increasing dose, and the rapid decrease at low-dose level indicates that point defects and small clusters play an important role in the changes of elastic constants rather than topological disorder. The internal strain relaxation has no effect on the elastic constants, C11 and C12, in perfect SiC, but it has a significant influence on all elastic constants calculated in damaged SiC. The elastic constants in the cascade-amorphized (CA) SiC decrease about 19%, 29% and 46% for C11, C12 and C44, respectively. The bulk modulus decrease 23% and the elastic modulus decreases 29%, which is consistent with experimental measurements. The stability of both the perfect SiC and CA-SiC under hydrostatic tension has been also investigated. All mechanical properties in the CA-SiC exhibit behavior similar to that in perfect SiC, but the critical stress at which the CA-SiC becomes structurally unstable is one order of magnitude smaller than that for perfect SiC

  19. The role of tissue damage in whiplash associated disorders: Discussion paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, Nikolai; Ivancic, Paul C.; McLean, Samuel A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Winkelstein, Beth

    2011-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Non-systematic review of cervical spine lesions in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). OBJECTIVE To describe whiplash injury models in terms of basic and clinical science, to summarize what can and cannot be explained by injury models, and to highlight future research areas to better understand the role of tissue damage in WAD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The frequent lack of detectable tissue damage has raised questions about whether tissue damage is necessary for WAD and what role it plays in the clinical context of WAD. METHODS Non-systematic review. RESULTS Lesions of various tissues have been documented by numerous investigations conducted in animals, cadavers, healthy volunteers and patients. Most lesions are undetected by imaging techniques. For zygapophysial (facet) joints, lesions have been predicted by bioengineering studies and validated through animal studies; for zygapophysial joint pain, a valid diagnostic test and a proven treatment are available. Lesions of dorsal root ganglia, discs, ligaments, muscles and vertebral artery have been documented in biomechanical and autopsy studies, but no valid diagnostic test is available to assess their clinical relevance. The proportion of WAD patients in whom a persistent lesion is the major determinant of ongoing symptoms is unknown. Psychosocial factors, stress reactions and generalized hyperalgesia have also been shown to predict WAD outcomes. CONCLUSION There is evidence supporting a lesion-based model in WAD. Lack of macroscopically identifiable tissue damage does not rule out the presence of painful lesions. The best available evidence concerns zygapophysial joint pain. The clinical relevance of other lesions needs to be addressed by future research. PMID:22020601

  20. Defective motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment due to periventricular white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D

    2012-07-01

    We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  1. Non-damaging laser therapy of the macula: Titration algorithm and tissue response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Lavinsky, Daniel; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Retinal photocoagulation typically results in permanent scarring and scotomata, which limit its applicability to the macula, preclude treatments in the fovea, and restrict the retreatments. Non-damaging approaches to laser therapy have been tested in the past, but the lack of reliable titration and slow treatment paradigms limited their clinical use. We developed and tested a titration algorithm for sub-visible and non-damaging treatments of the retina with pulses sufficiently short to be used with pattern laser scanning. The algorithm based on Arrhenius model of tissue damage optimizes the power and duration for every energy level, relative to the threshold of lesion visibility established during titration (and defined as 100%). Experiments with pigmented rabbits established that lesions in the 50-75% energy range were invisible ophthalmoscopically, but detectable with Fluorescein Angiography and OCT, while at 30% energy there was only very minor damage to the RPE, which recovered within a few days. Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR) have been treated over the edematous areas at 30% energy, using 200μm spots with 0.25 diameter spacing. No signs of laser damage have been detected with any imaging modality. In CSR patients, subretinal fluid resolved within 45 days. In DME patients the edema decreased by approximately 150μm over 60 days. After 3-4 months some patients presented with recurrence of edema, and they responded well to retreatment with the same parameters, without any clinically visible damage. This pilot data indicates a possibility of effective and repeatable macular laser therapy below the tissue damage threshold.

  2. Laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: optical, thermal, and tissue damage simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by laser thermal remodeling of subsurface tissues is studied. Light transport, heat transfer, and thermal damage simulations were performed for transvaginal and transurethral methods. Monte Carlo (MC) provided absorbed photon distributions in tissue layers (vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, urethral wall). Optical properties (n,μa,μs,g) were assigned to each tissue at λ=1064 nm. A 5-mm-diameter laser beam and power of 5 W for 15 s was used, based on previous experiments. MC output was converted into absorbed energy, serving as input for ANSYS finite element heat transfer simulations of tissue temperatures over time. Convective heat transfer was simulated with contact cooling probe set at 0 °C. Thermal properties (κ,c,ρ) were assigned to each tissue layer. MATLAB code was used for Arrhenius integral thermal damage calculations. A temperature matrix was constructed from ANSYS output, and finite sum was incorporated to approximate Arrhenius integral calculations. Tissue damage properties (Ea,A) were used to compute Arrhenius sums. For the transvaginal approach, 37% of energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia layer with 0.8% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 71°C, treatment zone was 0.8-mm-diameter, and almost all of 2.7-mm-thick vaginal wall was preserved. For transurethral approach, 18% energy was absorbed in endopelvic fascia with 0.3% deposited beyond it. Peak temperature was 80°C, treatment zone was 2.0-mm-diameter, and only 0.6 mm of 2.4-mm-thick urethral wall was preserved. A transvaginal approach is more feasible than transurethral approach for laser treatment of SUI.

  3. Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Härtig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM, perineuronal nets (PNs are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU, their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept. We analyzed brain tissues obtained 1 day after ischemia onset from: (a mice after filament-based permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO; (b rats subjected to thromboembolic MACO; and (c sheep at 14 days after electrosurgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. Multiple fluorescence labeling was applied to explore simultaneous alterations of NVU and ECM. Serial mouse sections labeled with the net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA displayed largely decomposed and nearly erased PNs in infarcted neocortical areas that were demarcated by up-regulated immunoreactivity for vascular collagen IV (Coll IV. Subsequent semi-quantitative analyses in mice confirmed significantly decreased WFA-staining along the ischemic border zone and a relative decrease in the directly ischemia-affected neocortex. Triple fluorescence labeling throughout the three animal models revealed up-regulated Coll IV and decomposed PNs accompanied by activated astroglia and altered immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein in fast-firing GABAergic neurons which are predominantly surrounded by neocortical PNs. Furthermore, ischemic neocortical areas in rodents simultaneously displayed less intense staining of WFA, aggrecan, the net components neurocan, versican and the

  4. Systematic bias in genomic classification due to contaminating non-neoplastic tissue in breast tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Fathi; Hu, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Parker, Joel S; Gulley, Margaret L; Amos, Keith D; Troester, Melissa A

    2011-06-30

    Genomic tests are available to predict breast cancer recurrence and to guide clinical decision making. These predictors provide recurrence risk scores along with a measure of uncertainty, usually a confidence interval. The confidence interval conveys random error and not systematic bias. Standard tumor sampling methods make this problematic, as it is common to have a substantial proportion (typically 30-50%) of a tumor sample comprised of histologically benign tissue. This "normal" tissue could represent a source of non-random error or systematic bias in genomic classification. To assess the performance characteristics of genomic classification to systematic error from normal contamination, we collected 55 tumor samples and paired tumor-adjacent normal tissue. Using genomic signatures from the tumor and paired normal, we evaluated how increasing normal contamination altered recurrence risk scores for various genomic predictors. Simulations of normal tissue contamination caused misclassification of tumors in all predictors evaluated, but different breast cancer predictors showed different types of vulnerability to normal tissue bias. While two predictors had unpredictable direction of bias (either higher or lower risk of relapse resulted from normal contamination), one signature showed predictable direction of normal tissue effects. Due to this predictable direction of effect, this signature (the PAM50) was adjusted for normal tissue contamination and these corrections improved sensitivity and negative predictive value. For all three assays quality control standards and/or appropriate bias adjustment strategies can be used to improve assay reliability. Normal tissue sampled concurrently with tumor is an important source of bias in breast genomic predictors. All genomic predictors show some sensitivity to normal tissue contamination and ideal strategies for mitigating this bias vary depending upon the particular genes and computational methods used in the predictor.

  5. Linking ontogeny and tissue regeneration: a study on tissue damage and wound healing in carp in connection to the developmental stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Schmidt, Jacob; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    regeneration since its genome is well-described and it is easy visually to follow the wound healing. In this study, carps were physically damaged in the musculature using sterile needles at day 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 post hatch. Muscle tissue samples were subsequently taken at day 1, 3 and 7 post damage...... healing and tissue regeneration, the developmental stage of the individual may influence the immune reaction initiated following damage and thus the proliferative responses, which usually cross-talk with the immune system. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an excellent fish specie to study tissue...

  6. The influence of parotid gland sparing on radiation damages of dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Seidel, Johannes; Schweyen, Ramona; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether radiation damage on dental hard tissue depends on the mean irradiation dose the spared parotid gland is subjected to or on stimulated whole salivary flow rate. Between June 2002 and October 2008, 70 patients with neck and cancer curatively irradiated were included in this study. All patients underwent dental treatment referring to the guidelines and recommendations of the German Society of Dental, Oral and Craniomandibular Sciences prior, during, and after radiotherapy (RT). During the follow-up period of 24 months, damages on dental hard tissues were classified according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. The mean doses (D(mean)) during spared parotid gland RT were determined. Stimulated whole saliva secretion flow rates (SFR) were measured before RT and 1, 6, 12, 24 months after RT. Thirty patients showed no carious lesions (group A), 18 patients developed sporadic carious lesions (group B), and 22 patients developed general carious lesions (group C). Group A patients received a D mean of 21.2 ± 11.04 Gy. Group B patients received a D(mean) of 26.5 ± 11.59 Gy and group C patients received a D(mean) of 33.9 ± 9.93 Gy, respectively. The D(mean) of group A was significantly lower than the D(mean) of group C (p dental hard tissue correlates with increased mean irradiation doses as well as decreased salivary flow rates. Parotid gland sparing resulting in a dose below 20 Gy reduces radiation damage on dental hard tissues, and therefore, the dose may act as a predictor for the damage to be expected.

  7. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.; Burian, M.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Hejčl, Aleš; Hanzelka, T.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2011), s. 840-844 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : piezosurgery * brain * tissue damage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  8. Comparison of renal artery, soft tissue, and nerve damage after irrigated versus nonirrigated radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Fuimaono, Kristine; Grunewald, Debby; O'Fallon, Patrick; Spognardi, Anna-Maria; Markham, Peter; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Shen, Kai; Kolodgie, Frank D; Joner, Michael; Virmani, Renu

    2015-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of radiofrequency ablation of renal autonomic nerves has been proven in nonrandomized studies. However, long-term safety of the renal artery (RA) is of concern. The aim of our study was to determine if cooling during radiofrequency ablation preserved the RA while allowing equivalent nerve damage. A total of 9 swine (18 RAs) were included, and allocated to irrigated radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, temperature setting: 50°C), conventional radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, nonirrigated, temperature setting: 65°C), and high-temperature radiofrequency (n=6 RAs, nonirrigated, temperature setting: 90°C) groups. RAs were harvested at 10 days, serially sectioned from proximal to distal including perirenal tissues and examined after paraffin embedding, and staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Movat pentachrome. RAs and periarterial tissue including nerves were semiquantitatively assessed and scored. A total of 660 histological sections from 18 RAs were histologically examined by light microscopy. Arterial medial injury was significantly less in the irrigated radiofrequency group (depth of medial injury, circumferential involvement, and thinning) than that in the conventional radiofrequency group (Pradiofrequency group (Pradiofrequency group and conventional radiofrequency group (P=0.36), there was a trend toward less nerve damage in the irrigated compared with conventional. Compared to conventional radiofrequency, circumferential medial damage in highest-temperature nonirrigated radiofrequency group was significantly greater (Pradiofrequency ablation, and there is a trend toward less nerve damage. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. [Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Corynebacterium ulcerans - Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Christian; Schwede, Ilona; Neumann, Volker; Pietsch, Cristine; Handrick, Werner

    2017-10-01

    History and clinical findings  We report on three patients suffering from skin and soft tissue infections of the legs due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. In all three patients, there was a predisposition due to chronic diseases. Three patients had domestic animals (cat, dog) in their households. Investigations and diagnosis  A mixed bacterial flora including Corynebacterium ulcerans was found in wound swab samples. Diphtheric toxin was produced by the Corynebacterium ulcerans strains in all three cases. Treatment and course  In all three patients, successful handling of the skin and soft tissue infections was possible by combining local treatment with antibiotics. Diphtheria antitoxin was not administered in any case. Conclusion  Based on a review of the recent literature pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and signs, diagnostics and therapy of skin and soft tissue infections due to Corynebacterium ulcerans are discussed. Corynebacterium ulcerans should be considered as a potential cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections. Occupational or domestic animal contacts should be evaluated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Cell Nucleus Serves as a Mechanotransducer of Tissue Damage-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedi, Balázs; Jelcic, Mark; Niethammer, Philipp

    2016-05-19

    Tissue damage activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing arachidonic acid (AA), which is oxidized to proinflammatory eicosanoids by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) on the nuclear envelope. How tissue damage is sensed to activate cPLA2 is unknown. We investigated this by live imaging in wounded zebrafish larvae, where damage of the fin tissue causes osmotic cell swelling at the wound margin and the generation of a chemotactic eicosanoid signal. Osmotic swelling of cells and their nuclei activates cPla2 by translocating it from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope. Elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) was necessary but not sufficient for cPla2 translocation, and nuclear swelling was required in parallel. cPla2 translocation upon nuclear swelling was reconstituted in isolated nuclei and appears to be a simple physical process mediated by tension in the nuclear envelope. Our data suggest that the nucleus plays a mechanosensory role in inflammation by transducing cell swelling and lysis into proinflammatory eicosanoid signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in mice: impact on lung tissue and diaphragm muscle,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Portão de Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate oxidative damage (lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and carbonylation and inflammation (expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin [p-AMPK and p-mTOR, respectively] in the lung parenchyma and diaphragm muscles of male C57BL-6 mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, or 60 days. METHODS: Thirty-six male C57BL-6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 6/group: a control group; and five groups exposed to CS for 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control mice, CS-exposed mice presented lower body weights at 30 days. In CS-exposed mice (compared with control mice, the greatest differences (increases in TBARS levels were observed on day 7 in diaphragm-muscle, compared with day 45 in lung tissue; the greatest differences (increases in carbonyl levels were observed on day 7 in both tissue types; and sulfhydryl levels were lower, in both tissue types, at all time points. In lung tissue and diaphragm muscle, p-AMPK expression exhibited behavior similar to that of TBARS. Expression of p-mTOR was higher than the control value on days 7 and 15 in lung tissue, as it was on day 45 in diaphragm muscle. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CS exposure produces oxidative damage, not only in lung tissue but also (primarily in muscle tissue, having an additional effect on respiratory muscle, as is frequently observed in smokers with COPD.

  12. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  13. High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Goethem, Marc-Jan van; Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

  14. Cell kinetical aspect of normal tissue damages in relation to radiosensitivity of cells, especially from the points of LQ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Oohara, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    Several points on the early and late radiation induced-normal tissue damages in terms of LQ model in multifractionation experiments of isoeffect were discussed from two fractors, (1) dose-responses of cell survivals or of tissue damages and (2) principles of the model. Application of the model to the both early and late tissue damages was fairly difficult in several tissues and several experimental conditions. In early damages, cell survival curve of single irradiation did not always fit to LQ model and further more incomlete repair as well as repopulation in multifractionation experiment contradicted the model especially in low dose fractionation. In late damages, the damages themselves did not express directly cell survival but probably indicate the degree of functional cell damage at the level of 10 -1 . As most isoeffects in early damages were taken at the level of 10 -3 , the comparison of two results from early and late tissue damages indicated the lack of coordinations both conceptionally and experimentally. (author)

  15. Damages to masonry due to interaction(s) between mortar and brick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugt, L.J.A.R. van der

    1995-01-01

    Masonry consists of brick and mortar. Next to the laying mortar there can be a separate pointing mortar as well. Each of these components can suffer damage. Such damages, of course, have to do with the properties of the components and with the agressiveness of the environment. However, next to their

  16. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  17. LYCOPENE EFFICIENCY IN THE MODULATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-TAHAWY, N.A.; NADA, A.S.; REZK, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation induces oxidative stress that has been recognized as an important etiological factor in the causation of several chronic diseases. Lycopene, a carotenoid almost exclusively present in tomatoes and tomatoes products, is a lipid soluble antioxidant claimed to possess cardio protective and anticancer properties. The present study was designed to determine the possible modulator effects of lycopene on radiation-induced oxidative damage to liver, spleen and lung tissues. Animals were supplemented with lycopene (5 mg/kg body weight/ day) by gavages for two weeks before whole body exposure to gamma rays and within the period of irradiation (3 successive doses, each of 3 Gy at 72 hours intervals). Animals were sacrificed on the 3 r d day post the last irradiation session.The results obtained in the present study showed that whole body gamma irradiation produced oxidative stress manifested by significant elevation in lipid peroxides levels measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with significant decrease of nitric oxide (NO) content. Non-significant change in total cupper (Cu) in the three tissues was recorded while significant increase of total iron (Fe) was observed in liver and spleen tissues only. Liver tissue of irradiated rats showed significant decrease in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In spleen tissues, there was a significant increase of SOD and significant decrease of CAT activities while in lung tissues, both SOD and CAT activities showed significant increase.Histological observations of photomicrograph of liver sections showed that radiation-induced sever damage obvious by dilated portal vein, ruptured hepatocytes, necrotic, pyknotic, karyolitic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. In spleen tissue, radiation was induced degeneration of lymphatic nodules, dilation follicular artery and marked hemorrhage. In lung tissue, radiation- induces ill

  18. Protective Effect of Pyruvate Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Collagenized Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Y. V.; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation produces both acute and late effects on the collagenized tissues and have profound effects on wound healing. Because of the crucial practical importance for new radioprotective agents, our study has been focused on evaluation of the efficacy of non-toxic naturally occurring compounds to protect tissue integrity against high-dose gamma radiation. Here, we demonstrate that molecular integrity of collagen may serve as a sensitive biological marker for quantitative evaluation of molecular damage to collagenized tissue and efficacy of radioprotective agents. Increasing doses of gamma radiation (0-50kGy) result in progressive destruction of the native collagen fibrils, which provide a structural framework, strength, and proper milieu for the regenerating tissue. The strategy used in this study involved the thermodynamic specification of all structural changes in collagenized matrix of skin, aortic heart valve, and bone tissue induced by different doses and conditions of g-irradiation. This study describes a simple biophysical approach utilizing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the structural resistance of the aortic valve matrix exposed to different doses of g-irradiation. It allows us to identify the specific response of each constituent as well as to determine the influence of the different treatments on the characteristic parameters of protein structure. We found that pyruvate, a substance that naturally occurs in the body, provide significant protection (up to 80%) from biochemical and biomechanical damage to the collagenized tissue through the effective targeting of reactive oxygen species. The recently discovered role of pyruvate in the cell antioxidant defense to O2 oxidation, and its essential constituency in the daily human diet, indicate that the administration of pyruvate-based radioprotective formulations may provide safe and effective protection from deleterious effects of ionizing

  19. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  20. Hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in primary degenerations of excitable tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Defects in DNA-repair mechanisms render xeroderma pigmentosum cells hypersensitive to killing by the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Some xeroderma pigmentosum patients develop a primary neuronal degeneration, and cell lines from patients with the earliest onset of neurodegeneration are the most sensitive to killing by uv radiation. These findings led to the neuronal DNA integrity theory which holds that when the integrity of neuronal DNA is destroyed by the accumulation of unrepaired DNA damaged spontaneously or by endogenous metabolites, the neurons will undergo a primary degeneration. Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome, a demyelinating disorder with a primary retinal degeneration, are also hypersensitive to the uv-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from patients with the primary neuronal degeneration of ataxia telangiectasia are hypersensitive to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. Cells from other patients with primary degeneration of excitable tissue also have hypersensitivity to the x-ray-type of DNA-damaging agent. These disorders include (1) primary neuronal degenerations which are either genetic (e.g., Huntington disease, familial dysautonomia, Friedreich ataxia) or sporadic (e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease), (2) primary muscle degenerations (e.g., Duchenne muscular dystrophy), and (3) a primary retinal degeneration (Usher syndrome). Death of excitable tissue in vivo in these radiosensitive diseases may result from unrepaired DNA. This hypersensitivity provides the basis for developing suitable presymptomatic and prenatal tests for these diseases, for elucidating their pathogenesis, and for developing future therapies. 119 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  1. Relative binding affinity of carboxylate-, phosphonate-, and bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles targeted to damaged bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ryan D. [Rush University Medical Center, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology (United States); Cole, Lisa E.; Roeder, Ryan K., E-mail: rroeder@nd.edu [University of Notre Dame, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Bioengineering Graduate Program (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Functionalized Au NPs have received considerable recent interest for targeting and labeling cells and tissues. Damaged bone tissue can be targeted by functionalizing Au NPs with molecules exhibiting affinity for calcium. Therefore, the relative binding affinity of Au NPs surface functionalized with either carboxylate (l-glutamic acid), phosphonate (2-aminoethylphosphonic acid), or bisphosphonate (alendronate) was investigated for targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue in vitro. Targeted labeling of damaged bone tissue was qualitatively verified by visual observation and backscattered electron microscopy, and quantitatively measured by the surface density of Au NPs using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The surface density of functionalized Au NPs was significantly greater within damaged tissue compared to undamaged tissue for each functional group. Bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs exhibited a greater surface density labeling damaged tissue compared to glutamic acid- and phosphonic acid-functionalized Au NPs, which was consistent with the results of previous work comparing the binding affinity of the same functionalized Au NPs to synthetic hydroxyapatite crystals. Targeted labeling was enabled not only by the functional groups but also by the colloidal stability in solution. Functionalized Au NPs were stabilized by the presence of the functional groups, and were shown to remain well dispersed in ionic (phosphate buffered saline) and serum (fetal bovine serum) solutions for up to 1 week. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bisphosphonate-functionalized Au NPs have potential for targeted delivery to damaged bone tissue in vitro and provide motivation for in vivo investigation.

  2. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  3. Effect of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Seo, Eul Won [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Tae Jeong [Kaya Univ., Goryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of propolis feeding on rat tissues damaged by X-ray irradiation. It was shown that the number of white blood cell in X-ray irradiated group supplemented with propolis increased as much to those of the control group and also the GOT activities among the blood components were decreased after propolis feeding. The mineral contents such as Mg, Fe, Ca, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, As in liver were increased as compared with those of the control group but maintained lower level than those of only irradiated groups, implying that the propolis feeding elevated the recovery capability of white blood cell effectively and propolis have a potential resistance to cell damage by X-ray. According to histological observations of the testis, intestine and liver tissues which are irradiated after feeding propolis, the numbers of damaged undifferentiated cells were decreased in testis and the shape of the goblet cells and inner and outer muscular layers in intestine were restored to the original state and the hepatocytes and interlobular veins were shown intact in liver, suggesting that propolis has a potential capacity to restore cell shapes or resist deformation of cell.

  4. The number of bleaching sessions influences pulp tissue damage in rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching is claimed to cause alterations in dental tissue structures. This study investigated the influence of the number of bleaching sessions on pulp tissue in rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups (groups 1S-5S) of 10 each, which differed by the number (1-5) of bleaching sessions. In each session, the animals were anesthetized, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was applied to 3 upper right molars. Two days after the experimental period, the animals were killed, and their jaws were processed for light microscope evaluation. Pulp tissue reactions were scored as follows: 1, no or few inflammatory cells and no reaction; 2, session, necrotic tissue in the pulp horns and underlying inflammatory changes were observed. The extent and intensity of these changes increased with the number of bleaching sessions. After 5 sessions, the changes included necrotic areas in the pulp tissue involving the second third of the radicular pulp and intense inflammation in the apical third. The number of bleaching sessions directly influenced the extent of pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  6. Evaluating temperature changes of brain tissue due to induced heating of cell phone waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worries have recently been increased in the absorption of radiofrequency waves and their destructing effects on human health by increasing use of cell phones (mobile phones. This study performed to determine the thermal changes due to mobile phone radio frequency waves in gray and white brain tissue. Methods: This study is an empirical study, where the thermal changes of electromagnetic waves resulted from cell phones (900 MHZ, specific absorption rate for head 1.18 w/kg on the 15 brain tissue of a cow were analyzed in a compartment with three different thickness of 2 mm, 12 mm, and 22 mm, for 15 min. The Lutron thermometer (model: MT-917 with 0.01°C precision was used for measuring the tissue temperature. For each thickness was measured three times. Data analysis is done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results: In confronting of the tissue with the cell phone, the temperature was increased by 0.53°C in the 2 mm thickness that is the gray matter of the brain, increased by 0.99°C in the 12 mm thickness, and also increased by 0.92°C in the 22 mm thickness. Brain temperature showed higher rates than the base temperature after 15 min of confrontation with cell phone waves in all the three thicknesses. Conclusions: Cell phone radiated radio frequency waves were effective on increasing brain tissue temperature, and this temperature increase has cumulative effect on the tissue, being higher, for some time after the confrontation than the time with no confrontation.

  7. Effects of heavy ions on rabbit tissues: damage to the forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.B.; Keng, P.C.; Lee, A.C.; Lett, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a study of progressive radiation effects in normal tissues, the forebrains of New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (about 6 weeks old) were irradiated locally with single acute doses of 60 Co γ-photons (LETsub(infinity)=0.3 keV/μm), Ne ions (LETsub(infinity)=35+-3 keV/μm) or Ar ions (LETsub(infinity)=90+-5 keV/μm). Other rabbits received fractionated doses of 60 Co γ-photons according to a standard radiotherapeutic protocol. Irradiated rabbits and appropriately aged controls were sacrificed at selected intervals, and whole sagittal sections of their brains were examined for pathological changes. Forebrain damage was scored with subjective indices based on histological differences between the anterior (irradiated) and posterior (unirradiated) regions of the brain. Those indices ranged from zero (no apparent damage) to five (severe infarctions, etc.). At intermediate levels of forebrain damage, the relative biological effectiveness (r.b.e.) of each heavy ion was similar to that found for alopecia and cataractogenesis, and the early expression of the damage was also accelerated as the LETsub(infinity) increased. Late deterioration of the forebrain appeared also to be accelerated by increasing LETsub(infinity), although its accurate quantification was not possible because other priorities in the overall experimental design limited systematic sacrifice of the animals. (author)

  8. Leaf hairs of Olea europaea protect underlying tissues against ultraviolet-B radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, G.; Kyparissis, A.; Manetas, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence induction, was not affected in de-haired olive leaves kept in the dark or intact leaves irradiated with a moderate (3.75 W m-2) ultraviolet-B (UV-B) intensity. In de-haired, UV-B-irradiated leaves, however, the ratio of variable to maximum (F(v)/F(m)) chlorophyll fluorescence declined significantly and irreversibly. Reduction in F(v)/V(m) was associated with an increase in instantaneous and a decrease in maximum (F(m)) fluorescence, indicating perturbation by the UV-B exposure of more than one photosynthetic site. Extensive epidermal browning in de-haired, UV-B irradiated leaves was also observed, indicating possible damage to cell membranes. The results strengthen the hypothesis that leaf hairs protect the underlying tissues against UV-B radiation damage

  9. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients

  10. Pain and Tissue Damage in Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Are They Correlated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, Osmar A; Topolski, Francielle; de Faria, Lorraine P; de Mendonça, Marcos R

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the correlation between pain and tissue damage in response to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such as hyalinization and external apical root resorption (EARR). The literature review was used as a methodological strategy, following the knowledge development process - constructivist (ProKnow-C). Study axes were defined and keywords that best represented each axis were selected. The terms were submitted to an adherence test and validation, resulting in 12 keyword combinations. Searches were carried out in the most representative databases for the selected terms, without restriction as for language or publication dates. Retrieved studies were filtered using the EndNote X6 program and classified according to analysis of title, abstract, and keywords. The final portfolio of articles was submitted to bibliometric and systematic analysis. A total of 1,091 studies were retrieved, out of which 719 were repeated and 335 were removed in the classification stage. A total of 37 articles remained in the final portfolio. Only one article was in line with the purpose of this study, indicating absence of correlation between pain and EARR in response to OTM. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether orthodontic pain might serve as a criterion for the use of appropriate mechanical forces, contributing to minimize tissue damage following OTM. This article presents a systematic literature review, in which scientific evidence of the correlation between pain and tissue damage during orthodontic movement was studied, providing a scientific answer for the following question: Is pain reported by patients associated with application of inappropriate orthodontic force? Thus, it aims at aiding the orthodontist in the definition of clinical parameters for the use of optimal orthodontic force.

  11. Effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of dexmedetomidine combined with propofol on brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.Methods: A total of 74 patients who received brain glioma resection in our hospital between May 2014 and December 2016 were selected and randomly divided into Dex group and control group who received dexmedetomidine intervention and saline intervention before induction respectively. Serum brain tissue damage marker, PI3K/AKT/iNOS and oxidation reaction molecule contents as well as cerebral oxygen metabolism index levels were determined before anesthesia (T0), at dura mater incision (T1), immediately after recovery (T2) and 24 h after operation (T3).Results: Serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of both groups at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those at T0 and T1 while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2levels were significantly lower than those at T0 and T1, and serum NSE, S100B, MBP, GFAP, PI3K, AKT, iNOS and MDA contents as well as AVDO2 and CERO2 levels of Dex group at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than those of control group while serum SOD and CAT contents as well as SjvO2 levels were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine combined with propofol can reduce the brain tissue damage in brain glioma resection.

  12. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Reduces Oxidative Damage to Pancreatic Tissue and Combats Hyperglycaemia in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sithara; Waly, Mostafa Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Kindi, Mohamed Abdullah Badar; Al-Issaei, Halima Khalfan Ahmed; Al-Maskari, Sultan Nasser Mohd; Al-Ruqaishi, Bader Rashid Said; Al-Salami, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes and hyperglycaemia. The protective effects of natural extracts against diabetes are mainly dependent on their antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties. Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea ) exerts beneficial health effects in several diseases including diabetes; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated yet. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential hypoglycaemic and antioxidant properties of aqueous broccoli extracts (BEs) in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) drug was used as a diabetogenic agent in a single intraperitoneal injection dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The blood glucose level for each rat was measured twice a week. After 8 weeks, all animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed; pancreatic tissues were homogenized and used for measuring oxidative DNA damage, biochemical assessment of glutathione (GSH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as histopathological examination for pancreatic tissues was examined. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage, GSH depletion, and impaired TAC levels in comparison to non-diabetics ( P <0.05). The treatment of diabetic rats with BE significantly reduced DNA damage and conserved GSH and TAC values ( P <0.01). BE attenuated pancreatic histopathological changes in diabetic rats. The results of this study indicated that BE reduced the STZ mediated hyperglycaemia and the STZ-induced oxidative injury to pancreas tissue. The used in vivo model confirmed the efficacy of BE as an anti-diabetic herbal medicine and provided insights into the capacity of BE to be used for phytoremediation purposes for human type 2 diabetes.

  13. Fibrosis of the pancreas: the initial tissue damage and the resulting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Günter; Detlefsen, Sönke; Feyerabend, Bernd

    2004-07-01

    Fibrosis in the pancreas is caused by such processes as necrosis/apoptosis, inflammation or duct obstruction. The initial event that induces fibrogenesis in the pancreas is an injury that may involve the interstitial mesenchymal cells, the duct cells and/or the acinar cells. Damage to any one of these tissue compartments of the pancreas is associated with cytokine-triggered transformation of resident fibroblasts/pancreatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts and the subsequent production and deposition of extracellular matrix. Depending on the site of injury in the pancreas and the involved tissue compartment, predominantly inter(peri)lobular fibrosis (as in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis), periductal fibrosis (as in hereditary pancreatitis), periductal and interlobular fibrosis (as in autoimmune pancreatitis) or diffuse inter- and intralobular fibrosis (as in obstructive chronic pancreatitis) develops.

  14. Fracture mechanics model of stone comminution in ESWL and implications for tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Sturtevant, Bradford

    2000-07-01

    Focused shock waves administered during extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) cause stone fragmentation. The process of stone fragmentation is described in terms of a dynamic fracture process. As is characteristic of all brittle materials, fragmentation requires nucleation, growth and coalescence of flaws, caused by a tensile or shear stress. The mechanisms, operative in the stone, inducing these stresses have been identified as spall and compression-induced tensile microcracks, nucleating at pre-existing flaws. These mechanisms are driven by the lithotripter-generated shock wave and possibly also by cavitation effects in the surrounding fluid. In this paper, the spall mechanism has been analysed, using a cohesive-zone model for the material. The influence of shock wave parameters, and physical properties of stone, on stone comminution is described. The analysis suggests a potential means to exploit the difference between the stone and tissue physical properties, so as to make stone comminution more effective, without increasing tissue damage.

  15. Lovastatin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced normal tissue damage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrau, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Herzog, Melanie; Schad, Arno; Torzewski, Michael; Lackner, Karl J.; Fritz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely used lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, they have pleiotropic effects on cellular stress responses, proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Here, we investigated whether lovastatin attenuates acute and subchronic ionizing radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity in vivo. Materials and methods: Four hours to 24 h after total body irradiation (6 Gy) of Balb/c mice, acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses were analyzed. To comprise subchronic radiation toxicity, mice were irradiated twice with 2.5 Gy and analyses were performed 3 weeks after the first radiation treatment. Molecular markers of inflammation and fibrosis as well as organ toxicities were measured. Results: Lovastatin attenuated IR-induced activation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of cell adhesion molecules and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic marker genes (i.e. TNFα, IL-6, TGFβ, CTGF, and type I and type III collagen) in a tissue- and time-dependent manner. γH2AX phosphorylation stimulated by IR was not affected by lovastatin, indicating that the statin has no major impact on the induction of DNA damage in vivo. Radiation-induced thrombopenia was significantly alleviated by lovastatin. Conclusions: Lovastatin inhibits both acute and subchronic IR-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses and cell death in normal tissue in vivo. Therefore, lovastatin might be useful for selectively attenuating acute and subchronic normal tissue damage caused by radiotherapy.

  16. DNA damage in human lymphocytes due to synergistic interaction between ionizing radiation and pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. H.; Chun, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological risks may arise from the possibility of the synergistic interaction between harmful factors such as ionizing radiation and pesticide. The effect of pesticide on radiation-induced DNA damage in human in human blood lymphocytes was evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the pesticide, were exposed to 2.0 Gy of gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in SCGE assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The present study confirms that the pesticide has the cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes and that it interacts synergistically with ionizing radiationon DNA damage, as well

  17. Damage reconstruction due to impact of high-energetic particles on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 (U)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Safety Board (DSB) investigates the crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 which occurred on Thursday July 17, 2014 in the Donetsk region (Ukraine). The DSB wants to provide a clear picture of the cause of the crash. A possible cause is fatal damage to the aircraft due to detonation of the

  18. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  19. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in human visceral adipose tissue from subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Prior, S L; Barry, J D; Caplin, S; Baxter, J N; Stephens, J W

    2014-12-01

    In the past 30 years, prevalence of obesity has almost trebled resulting in an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other co-morbidities. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a vital role, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate changes in markers of oxidative damage in human visceral adipose tissue to determine levels of oxidative burden that may be attributed to obesity and/or diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue samples from 61 subjects undergoing abdominal surgery grouped as lean, obese and obese with type 2 diabetes mellitus, were examined using 3 different markers of oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was measured as a marker of lipid peroxidation, telomere length and Comet assay as markers of oxidative DNA damage. No significant difference in MDA concentration, telomere length and DNA damage was observed between groups, although longer telomere lengths were seen in the obese with diabetes group compared to the obese group (Pstress and DNA damage was observed in samples from subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further work is required to investigate this further, however this phenomenon may be due to an up regulation of antioxidant defences in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  2. Protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage due to UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicheng; Zhao Hongguang; Du Xiang; Li Yanbo; Guo Wei; Gong Shouliang; Xiao Jian; Yao Chongshun; Li Xiaokun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of oleum curcumae wenchowensis on skin damage exposed to UVB and its mechanism, and to provide the experimental basis for the protection of skin damage exposed to UVB. Methods: The skin of guinea pigs was exposed to UVB (28.38 J/cm 2 · 30 d) to establish the oxidative damage model. The skin erythema and the rough were observed during the experiment; the thickness of epiderm and the number of fibroblast were observed under light microscope after the experiment. The activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC and the contain of MDA in the supernate of skin homogenate were detected with biochemical methods. Results: The epiderm in UVB exposure group and blank group thickened, but that in protective group weren't observed; the number of fibroblast in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, while that in protective group increased, but that in control group didn't. The content of MDA in the supemate of skin homogenate in UVB exposure group and blank group increased, but that in protective group deceased, and the activities of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and T-AOC in UVB exposure group and blank group decreased, but those in protective group increased, and control group had no change. Conclusions: Oleum curcumae wenchowensis has the protective effects on skin damage exposed to UVB, which may be mediated by increasing the contain of antioxidases and eliminating the flee radical. (authors)

  3. Role of the immune system in cardiac tissue damage and repair following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Arman; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Nurgozhin, Talgat; Chen, William C W; Mansurov, Nurlan; Issabekova, Assel; Zhakupova, Jamilya

    2017-09-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation, development, and resolution of inflammation following myocardial infarction (MI). The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes the death of cardiomyocytes and leads to the exposure of danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by the immune system to initiate inflammation. At the initial stage of post-MI inflammation, the immune system further damages cardiac tissue to clear cell debris. The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells and the inability of the anti-oxidant system to neutralize ROS cause oxidative stress that further aggravates inflammation. On the other hand, the cells of both innate and adaptive immune system and their secreted factors are critically instrumental in the very dynamic and complex processes of regulating inflammation and mediating cardiac repair. It is important to decipher the balance between detrimental and beneficial effects of the immune system in MI. This enables us to identify better therapeutic targets for reducing the infarct size, sustaining the cardiac function, and minimizing the likelihood of heart failure. This review discusses the role of both innate and adaptive immune systems in cardiac tissue damage and repair in experimental models of MI.

  4. Damage estimation of subterranean building constructions due to groundwater inundation – the GIS-based model approach GRUWAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schinke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and management of flood risk commonly focuses on surface water floods, because these types are often associated with high economic losses due to damage to buildings and settlements. The rising groundwater as a secondary effect of these floods induces additional damage, particularly in the basements of buildings. Mostly, these losses remain underestimated, because they are difficult to assess, especially for the entire building stock of flood-prone urban areas. For this purpose an appropriate methodology has been developed and lead to a groundwater damage simulation model named GRUWAD. The overall methodology combines various engineering and geoinformatic methods to calculate major damage processes by high groundwater levels. It considers a classification of buildings by building types, synthetic depth-damage functions for groundwater inundation as well as the results of a groundwater-flow model. The modular structure of this procedure can be adapted in the level of detail. Hence, the model allows damage calculations from the local to the regional scale. Among others it can be used to prepare risk maps, for ex-ante analysis of future risks, and to simulate the effects of mitigation measures. Therefore, the model is a multifarious tool for determining urban resilience with respect to high groundwater levels.

  5. Study of dosimetric effects due to metallic heterogeneity of tissue expanders in post-mastectomy radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Rosa, Luiz A.R. da

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In each year approximately 20% of the new cases of cancer in women are breast cancers. Despite the increase in the use of breast-conserving treatment, some women still require mastectomy as their primary surgical management. A large part of these women, whom undergo a mastectomy, realize a breast reconstruction afterwards. The most common options for reconstruction include autogenous tissue techniques and tissue expansion followed by breast implant placement. Many trials have demonstrated a survival benefit associated with post-mastectomy radiotherapy mainly if the treatment starts right after the mastectomy. In such case patients whom were realizing the breast reconstruction using tissue expanders can be irradiated using this. These patients posses a material with high atomic number within the irradiated area, so this metallic port becomes an heterogeneity which can modify the calculated doses distribution for the treatment. The study was due through the quantification of the relative transmission of 6MV and 15MV radiotherapy beam, making use of computer simulations with Monte Carlo method implemented by the MCNPX code. The results show that the presence of this metallic heterogeneity changes the transmission of the beam, causing a reduction up to 13% in the geometric shadowed region. According to dosimetric protocols, which recommend that the reduction in the dose should be bellow of 5%, the difference found in the study could be significant. (author)

  6. On radiation damage to normal tissues and its treatment. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to transiently inhibiting cell cycle progression and sterilizing those cells capable of proliferation, irradiation disturbs the homeostasis effected by endogenous mediators of intercellular communication (humoral component of tissue response to radiation). Changes in the mediator levels may modulate radiation effects either by a assisting a return to normality (e.g., through a rise in H-type cell lineage-specific growth factors) or by aggravating the damage. The latter mode is illustrated with reports on changes in eicosanoid levels after irradiation and on results of empirical treatment of radiation injuries with anti-inflammatory drugs. Prodromal, acute and chronic effects of radiation are accompanied by excessive production of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclin, thromboxanes and leukotrienes). These endogenous mediators of inflammatory reactions may be responsible for the vasodilatation, vasoconstriction, increased microvascular permeability, thrombosis and chemotaxis observed after radiation exposure. Glucocorticoids inhibit eicosanoid synthesis primarily by interfering with phospholipase A 2 whilst non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin/thromboxane synthesis by inhibiting cycloxygenase. When administered after irradiation on empirical grounds, drugs belonging to both groups tend to attenuate a range of prodomal, acute and chronic effects of radiation in man and animals. Taken together, these two sets of observations are highly suggestive of a contribution of humoral factors to the adverse responses of normal tissues and organs to radiation. A full account of radiation damage should therefore consist of complementary descriptions of cellular and humoral events. Further studies on anti-inflammatory drug treatment of radiation damage to normal organs are justified and desirable. (orig.)

  7. Damage of plates due to impact, dynamic pressure and explosive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Jones

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this article to present design equations which can be used to predict the damage of ductile plating when subjected to mass impact, dynamic pressure or impulsive loadings. The external loadings are sufficiently severe to produce inelastic material behaviour and produce finite transverse displacement, or geometry change, effects. The damage is characterised as the final or permanent transverse displacement of a plate. The theoretical method predicts values for the maximum permanent transverse displacements which agree reasonably well with the corresponding experimental results generated on aluminium alloy circular, square and rectangular plates. Thus, the equations presented in this article are valuable for preliminary design purposes and for forensic studies, while the experimental data can be used for validating numerical schemes.

  8. Detection of system changes due to damage using a tuned hyperchaotic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkamani, S; Butcher, E A; Todd, M D; Park, G

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of a hyperchaotic signal as an excitation to probe a system for dynamic changes induced by damage events. In chaotic interrogation a deterministic chaotic input (rather than the more commonly employed stochastic white noise input) is applied to the structure and the dynamic response is mined for features derived from its state space reconstruction. The steady-state chaotic excitation is tuned to excite the structure in a way that optimal sensitivity to dimensionality changes in the response may be observed, resulting in damage-sensitive features extracted from the resulting attractors. The enhanced technique proposed in this paper explores a hyperchaotic excitation, which is fundamentally new in its use as an excitation. Hyperchaotic oscillators have at least two Lyapunov exponents, in contrast to simple chaotic oscillators. By using the Kaplan–Yorke conjecture and performing a parametric investigation, the steady-state hyperchaotic excitation is tuned to excite the structure in such a way that the optimal (as will be defined) dimensionality of the steady-state response is achieved. A feature called the 'average local attractor variance ratio' (ALAVR), which is based on attractor geometry, is used to compare the geometry of a baseline attractor to a test attractor. The enhanced technique is applied to analytically and experimentally analyze the response of an eight-degree-of-freedom system to the hyperchaotic excitation for the purpose of damage assessment. A comparison between the results obtained from current hyperchaotic excitation versus a chaotic excitation highlights the higher damage sensitivity in the system response to the hyperchaotic excitation

  9. Repair of radiation damage of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus due to gamma and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cells were irradiated in dry state with gamma radiation and UV radiation. The post-irradiation warming of freeze dried cells (2 hours to 60deg or to 80deg) influenced the ability to repair sublethal damage. Heating to 80deg caused a mild reduction in survival. The repair of irradiated and heated cells required more time than that of cells which had only been irradiated. (M.D.)

  10. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez,Juan Manuel Salgado; Alvarado,María Inés; Hernandez,Hector Vergara; Quiroz,José Trinidad Perez; Olmos,Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of...

  11. Damages in American Samoa due to the 29 September 2009 Samoa Islands Region Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2009-12-01

    A large earthquake of Mw 8.0 occurred in Samoa Islands Region in the early morning on 29 September 2009 (local time). A Large Tsunami generated by the earthquake hit Samoa, American Samoa, Tonga. Total 192 people were died or missing in these three countries (22 October 2009). The authors surveyed in Tutuila Island, American Samoa from 6 to 8 in October 2009 with the aim to find out damages in the disaster. In American Samoa, death and missing toll was 35. The main findings are as follows; first, human damages were little for tsunami run-up height of about 4 to 6 meters and tsunami arrival time of about 20 minutes. We can suppose that residents evacuated quickly after feeling shaking or something. Secondly, houses were severely damaged in some low elevation coastal villages such as Amanave, Leone, Pago Pago, Tula and so on. Third, a power plant and an airport, which are important infrastructures in relief and recovery phase, were also severely damaged. Inundation depth at the power plant was 2.31 meters. A blackout in the daytime lasted when we surveyed. On the other hand, the airport could use already at that time. But it was closed on the first day in the disaster because of a lot of disaster debris on the runway carried by tsunami. Inundation depth at the airport fence was measured in 0.7 to 0.8 meters. Other countries in the south-western Pacific region may have power plants or airports with similar risk, so it should be assessed against future tsunami disasters. Inundated thermal power plant in Pago Pago Debris on runway in Tafuna Airport (Provided by Mr. Chris Soti, DPA)

  12. Obesity-exposed oocytes accumulate and transmit damaged mitochondria due to an inability to activate mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoures, Anna L; Saben, Jessica; Drury, Andrea; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Modi, Zeel; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondria are the most prominent organelle in the oocyte. Somatic cells maintain a healthy population of mitochondria by degrading damaged mitochondria via mitophagy, a specialized autophagy pathway. However, evidence from previous work investigating the more general macroautophagy pathway in oocytes suggests that mitophagy may not be active in the oocyte. This would leave the vast numbers of mitochondria - poised to be inherited by the offspring - vulnerable to damage. Here we test the hypothesis that inactive mitophagy in the oocyte underlies maternal transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. To determine whether oocytes can complete mitophagy, we used either CCCP or AntimycinA to depolarize mitochondria and trigger mitophagy. After depolarization, we did not detect co-localization of mitochondria with autophagosomes and mitochondrial DNA copy number remained unchanged, indicating the non-functional mitochondrial population was not removed. To investigate the impact of an absence of mitophagy in oocytes with damaged mitochondria on offspring mitochondrial function, we utilized in vitro fertilization of high fat high sugar (HF/HS)-exposed oocytes, which have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and damaged mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that blastocysts generated from HF/HS oocytes have decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, lower metabolites involved in ATP generation, and accumulation of PINK1, a mitophagy marker protein. This mitochondrial phenotype in the blastocyst mirrors the phenotype we show in HF/HS exposed oocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms governing oocyte mitophagy are fundamentally distinct from those governing somatic cell mitophagy and that the absence of mitophagy in the setting of HF/HS exposure contributes to the oocyte-to-blastocyst transmission of dysfunctional mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Filtered air plastic chamber as an experimental facility to prove visible damage of crops due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y; Yoda, H; Omichi, S; Shiratori, K

    1975-01-01

    An experimental filtered air chamber was constructed to prove the visible damage of crops due to air pollution. The chamber was provided with another room into which non-filtered ambient air was introduced. The purified air was prepared by filtering ambient air with activated carbon. The average content of air pollutants in the purified air chamber was less than 10 to 20% of the ozone and 20% of the sulfur oxides in the ambient air. However, cultivated vegetables such as tobacco and spinach, which are susceptible to oxidant, showed no visible damage in the filtered air chamber, and showed the same damage in the nonfiltered air chamber as was seen in fields at the same time.

  14. Contribution to the microchemistry of smoke damage by fluoride. The migration of fluorides in plant tissue. 2. The visible damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P

    1953-01-01

    In continuation of former investigations, a theory of damage caused by fluorine compounds on green plants was developed. It is possible to differentiate between acute and chronic damages by use of microanalytical estimation of total fluorine and inorganic and organic fluorine compounds in the plants.

  15. Modulation of radiation induced DNA damage by natural products in hemopoietic tissue of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce oxidative stress through generation of ROS leading to a variety of DNA lesions. However, the most dangerous DNA lesions which are responsible for the origin of lethal effects, mutagenesis, genomic instability and carcinogenesis are the DSBs. During recent years efforts are being made to identify phytochemicals, antioxidants or neutraxeuticals which can reduce harmful effect of radiation during accidental exposure or prevent normal tissue injury during radiotherapy. In the present study, we have investigated the radioprotective role of curcumin, a dietary antioxidant, taurine, malabaricone-C, and umbelliferone, for their radioprotective properties in hemopoietic cells of mice. Groups of mice-were fed 1% of curcumin in diet for three weeks. Similarly other groups of mice were injected i.p. with 50 mg/kg body weight of taurine for five consecutive days. After the completion of the treatment mice pre-treated with curcumin and taurine were exposed to 3 Gy of gamma rays. Malabaricone-C was tested for its radiomodulation potential in vitro, in spleenocytes of mouse. Spleenocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations (0.5-25 ìM) of malabaricone-C. Immediately after irradiation, alkaline comet assay were performed using standard procedures. Twenty four post radiation exposure mice were sacrificed for micronucleus test. Results of these studies showed significant reduction in DNA damage by curcumin. The micronucleus data showed marginal increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in curcumin fed group as compared to the controls. Mice receiving curcumin for 3 weeks in diet followed by gamma radiation (3 Gy), showed approximately 50% reduction in the frequency of micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. Pre-treatment of mice with taurine significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the frequency of gamma rays induced mn-PCEs in bone marrow tissue. Malabaricone-C at 1.5 ìM concentration showed very good protection

  16. Radiation effects and damage formation in semiconductors due to high-energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamarou, A.

    2006-11-07

    The object of this thesis was the study of ion-beam induced damage formation and annealing in crystalline and conventionally predamaged Ge, GaAs, and InP. The samples were irradiated either at {approx}80 K or at room temperature with Kr, Xe, or Au ions with specific energy of about 0.3 MeV/u to 3 MeV/u. Thereafter the samples were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Radiation effects and damage formation in semiconductors due to high-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarou, A.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this thesis was the study of ion-beam induced damage formation and annealing in crystalline and conventionally predamaged Ge, GaAs, and InP. The samples were irradiated either at ∼80 K or at room temperature with Kr, Xe, or Au ions with specific energy of about 0.3 MeV/u to 3 MeV/u. Thereafter the samples were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy

  18. Extensive scarring induced by chronic intrathecal tubing augmented cord tissue damage and worsened functional recovery after rat spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-08-30

    Intrathecal infusion has been widely used to directly deliver drugs or neurotrophins to a lesion site following spinal cord injury. Evidence shows that intrathecal infusion is efficient for 7 days but is markedly reduced after 14 days, due to time dependent occlusion. In addition, extensive fibrotic scarring is commonly observed with intrathecal infusion. These anomalies need to be clearly elucidated in histology. In the present study, all adult Long-Evans rats received a 25 mm contusion injury on spinal cord T10 produced using the NYU impactor device. Immediately after injury, catheter tubing with an outer diameter of 0.38 mm was inserted through a small dural opening at L3 into the subdural space with the tubing tip positioned near the injury site. The tubing was connected to an Alzet mini pump, which was filled with saline solution and was placed subcutaneously. Injured rats without tubing served as control. Rats were behaviorally tested for 6 weeks using the BBB locomotor rating scale and histologically assessed for tissue scarring. Six weeks later, we found that the intrathecal tubing caused extensive scarring and inflammation, related to neutrophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The tubing's tip was occluded by scar tissue and inflammatory cells. The scar tissue surrounding the tubing consists of 20-70 layers of fibroblasts and densely compacted collagen fibers, seriously compressing and damaging the cord tissue. BBB scores of rats with intrathecal tubing were significantly lower than control rats (p<0.01) from 2 weeks after injury, implying serious impairment of functional recovery caused by the scarring. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Destruction of reactor building due to hydrogen explosion. Release of radioactive materials and health damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Among the effects of radiation dose on the failure of the organ, this paper mainly explains the calculation method of internal exposure dose and the examples of calculation. As for internal exposure, there is critical organ (organ where a certain nuclide is particularly easy to gather). Since cesium is evenly dispersed in all organs in the body, any internal organs may contract a disease after high internal exposure. Calculation procedures for internal exposure are defined by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). According to the pharmacokinetics model of cesium, even if the radiation temporarily stays in one organ or tissue, it gradually shifts and attacks the neighboring organ, so it never remains absorbed by only one organ. The dose of an exposed organ (equivalent dose) can be calculated by multiplying the various radiation dose ingested by the tissue weighing coefficient, and if the equivalent dose are summed up for all the organs, the total dose (effective dose) of the nuclide can be obtained. For the calculation, the following items are taken into account: ingested amount of radiation, equivalent dose, tissue weighing coefficient, radiation dose in an organ (compartment), biological half-life, effective half-life, and radiation dose accumulated in the organ. Calculation examples in the following are shown: risk of cancer onset when the internal exposure from food was 8x10"6 Bq, and incidence probability of a person who aspirated 100 mSv per year from air. (A.O.)

  20. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Salgado Lopez

    Full Text Available Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of AISI 304 stainless steel components where it is difficult to ensure that no detrimental phase is present in the HAZ microstructure. The need of microstructural inspection in repairs of AISI 304 is caused because it is not possible to manufacture coupons for destructive metallography, with which the microstructure can be analyzed. In this work, it is proposed to apply in situ metallography as non-destructive testing in order to identify microstructural damage in the microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel welds. The results of this study showed that the external surface micrographs of the weldment are representative of HAZ microstructure of the stainless steel component; because they show the presence of precipitated metallic carbides in the grain boundaries or sigma phase in the microstructure of the HAZ.

  1. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  2. Effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Lin Meng

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage.Methods: Patients with pulpal and periapical diseases who received root canal therapy in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and according to the different root canal filling materials they used, they were divided into epoxy group and bioceramic group who used epoxy paste and bioceramic paste as root canal filling materials respectively. Before and after treatment, gingival crevicular fluid was collected respectively to determine the levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress products, cell apoptosis molecules and protease-related molecules.Results: 2 weeks after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of epoxy group were not significantly different from those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of bioceramic group were significantly higher than those before treatment while Bcl-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly lower than those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly different between two groups of patients after treatment.Conclusion:Epoxy paste for dental restoration causes less damage to periodontal tissue than bioceramic paste.

  3. Effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Lin Meng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of dental restoration with epoxy and bioceramic paste on periodontal tissue damage. Methods: Patients with pulpal and periapical diseases who received root canal therapy in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and according to the different root canal filling materials they used, they were divided into epoxy group and bioceramic group who used epoxy paste and bioceramic paste as root canal filling materials respectively. Before and after treatment, gingival crevicular fluid was collected respectively to determine the levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress products, cell apoptosis molecules and protease-related molecules. Results: 2 weeks after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of epoxy group were not significantly different from those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid of bioceramic group were significantly higher than those before treatment while Bcl-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly lower than those before treatment; IL-1β, IL-6, CRP, ROS, MDA, AOPP, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt-C, caspase-3, Smac, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly different between two groups of patients after treatment. Conclusion: Epoxy paste for dental restoration causes less damage to periodontal tissue than bioceramic paste.

  4. Ultrasonic energy vs monopolar electrosurgery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of tissue damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive procedure whereby the gallbladder is removed using laparoscopic techniques. Monopolar electerosurgical energy is the method of dissection of gallbladder from liver bed. Ultrasonic energy causes less thermal damage and suggests an alternative to monopolar elevterocautery. Leptin is a tissue factor and C-reactive protein (CRP is an acute phase protein that builds up in surgical damages. In laparoscopy, pneumoperitoneum and thermal damage cause this increase. In this study, after completion of surgery with both methods, plasma leptin and CPR were measured. Next, the complications and benefits of the two methods were compared. Methods: This single blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 78 patients who were candidate for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in surgery clinic of Razi Teaching Hospital in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences from March 2013 to March 2015. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of ultrasonic and electerocautery. Then, leptin’s level and CRP’s level were measured at completion of surgery, 30 minutes after completion, 6 and 24 hours after completion of surgery in the two groups. Results: This study shows that the average rate of leptin at completion of surgery, 30 minutes after completion, 6 and 24 hours after completion of surgery in ultrasonic group had less increase than electerocautery group and the difference was statistically significant (P= 0.0001. The average rate of CRP at completion of surgery, 30 minutes after completion, 6 and 24 hours after completion of surgery in ultrasonic group had less increase than electerocautery group and the difference was statistically significant (P= 0.0001. Conclusion: The level of leptin and CRP shows that surgery with ultrasonic method will provoke the immune system less than electerocautery method.

  5. Real-Time Vehicle Routing for Repairing Damaged Infrastructures Due to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the task of repairing damaged infrastructures as a series of multidepot vehicle-routing problems with time windows in a time-rolling frame. The network size of the tackled problems changes from time to time, as new disaster nodes will be added to and serviced disaster nodes will be deleted from the current network. In addition, an inaccessible disaster node would become accessible when one of its adjacent disaster nodes has been repaired. By the “take-and-conquer” strategy, the repair sequence of the disaster nodes in the affected area can be suitably scheduled. Thirteen instances were tested with our proposed heuristic, that is, Chen et al.'s approach. For comparison, Hsueh et al.'s approach (2008 with necessary modification was also tested. The results show that Chen et al.'s approach performs slightly better for larger size networks in terms of objective value.

  6. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  7. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Tissue-selective effects of nucleolar stress and rDNA damage in developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Eliezer; Gu, Bo; Bowen, Margot E; Aryan, Fardin; Zalc, Antoine; Liang, Jialiang; Flynn, Ryan A; Swigut, Tomek; Chang, Howard Y; Attardi, Laura D; Wysocka, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    Many craniofacial disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in general regulators of housekeeping cellular functions such as transcription or ribosome biogenesis. Although it is understood that many of these malformations are a consequence of defects in cranial neural crest cells, a cell type that gives rise to most of the facial structures during embryogenesis, the mechanism underlying cell-type selectivity of these defects remains largely unknown. By exploring molecular functions of DDX21, a DEAD-box RNA helicase involved in control of both RNA polymerase (Pol) I- and II-dependent transcriptional arms of ribosome biogenesis, we uncovered a previously unappreciated mechanism linking nucleolar dysfunction, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) damage, and craniofacial malformations. Here we demonstrate that genetic perturbations associated with Treacher Collins syndrome, a craniofacial disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery or its cofactor TCOF1 (ref. 1), lead to relocalization of DDX21 from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, its loss from the chromatin targets, as well as inhibition of rRNA processing and downregulation of ribosomal protein gene transcription. These effects are cell-type-selective, cell-autonomous, and involve activation of p53 tumour-suppressor protein. We further show that cranial neural crest cells are sensitized to p53-mediated apoptosis, but blocking DDX21 loss from the nucleolus and chromatin rescues both the susceptibility to apoptosis and the craniofacial phenotypes associated with Treacher Collins syndrome. This mechanism is not restricted to cranial neural crest cells, as blood formation is also hypersensitive to loss of DDX21 functions. Accordingly, ribosomal gene perturbations associated with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia disrupt DDX21 localization. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that impaired rRNA synthesis elicits a DNA damage response, and that rDNA damage results in tissue-selective and

  9. Synchrotron X-ray CT of rose peduncles. Evaluation of tissue damage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herppich, Werner B.; Zabler, Simon; Dawson, Martin; Choinka, Gerard; Manke, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    ''Bent-neck'' syndrome, an important postharvest problem of cut roses, is probably caused by water supply limitations and/or the structural weakness of vascular bundles of the peduncle tissue. For this reason, advanced knowledge about the microstructures of rose peduncles and their cultivar specific variations may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT), especially phase-based CT, is a highly suitable technique to nondestructively investigate plants' micro anatomy. SXCT with monochromatic X-ray beams of 30, 40 and 50 keV photon energy was used to evaluate the three-dimensional inner structures of the peduncles of 3 rose cultivars that differ greatly in their bent-neck susceptibility. Results indicated that this technique achieves sufficiently high spatial resolution to investigate complex tissues. However, further investigations with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (CFA) and optical microscope imagery reveal different kinds of heavy damage of the irradiated regions induced by synchrotron X-rays; in a cultivar-specific manner, partial destruction of cell walls occurred a few hours after X-ray irradiation. Furthermore, a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis accompanied by the degradation of chlorophyll was obvious from CFA within hours and days after the end of CT measurements. Although SXCT is certainly well suited for three-dimensional anatomical analysis of rose peduncles, the applied technique is not nondestructive.

  10. Synchrotron X-ray CT of rose peduncles. Evaluation of tissue damage by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herppich, Werner B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Technik im Gartenbau; Matsushima, Uzuki [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Graf, Wolfgang [Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany); Zabler, Simon [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Integrierte Schaltungen (IIS), Wuerzburg (Germany). Project group NanoCT Systems (NCTS); Dawson, Martin [Salford Univ., Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Choinka, Gerard; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    ''Bent-neck'' syndrome, an important postharvest problem of cut roses, is probably caused by water supply limitations and/or the structural weakness of vascular bundles of the peduncle tissue. For this reason, advanced knowledge about the microstructures of rose peduncles and their cultivar specific variations may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT), especially phase-based CT, is a highly suitable technique to nondestructively investigate plants' micro anatomy. SXCT with monochromatic X-ray beams of 30, 40 and 50 keV photon energy was used to evaluate the three-dimensional inner structures of the peduncles of 3 rose cultivars that differ greatly in their bent-neck susceptibility. Results indicated that this technique achieves sufficiently high spatial resolution to investigate complex tissues. However, further investigations with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (CFA) and optical microscope imagery reveal different kinds of heavy damage of the irradiated regions induced by synchrotron X-rays; in a cultivar-specific manner, partial destruction of cell walls occurred a few hours after X-ray irradiation. Furthermore, a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis accompanied by the degradation of chlorophyll was obvious from CFA within hours and days after the end of CT measurements. Although SXCT is certainly well suited for three-dimensional anatomical analysis of rose peduncles, the applied technique is not nondestructive.

  11. The influence of combined treatment of Cd, and γ-irradiation on DNA damage and repair in lymphoid tissues of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privezentsev, K.V.; Sirota, N.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of combined treatment of Cd and γ-irradiation on DNA damage and repair was studied in lymphoid tissues of mice using single-cell gel assay. Single i.p. injection of CdCl 2 (1 mg Cd/kg body wt), 2 h prior to irradiation resulted in increasing of DNA lesions in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) when compared to non-injected animals. However, the same treatment, 48 h prior to irradiation is shown to decrease DNA damage in PBL and splenocytes in comparison with untreated mice. In thymocytes maximal protective effect of Cd was determined when mice were irradiated in 24 h after injection. The protective effect observed is due to decreasing of initial level of DNA damage in thymocytes as well as acceleration of DNA repair in PBL and splenocytes. 28 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Attenuation of radiation-induced DNA damage due to paracrine interactions between normal human epithelial and stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, V.A.; Nakazawa, Yu.; Rogounovitch, T.I.; Suzuki, K.; Mitsutake, N.; Matsuse, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Developmentally, every tissue accommodates different types of cells, such as epitheliocytes and stromal cells in parenchymal organs. To better understand the complexity of radiation response, it is necessary to evaluate possible cross-talk between different tissue components. This work was set out to investigate reciprocal influence of normal human epithelial cells and fibroblasts on the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage. Methods: Model cultures of primary human thyrocytes (PT), normal diploid fibroblasts (BJ), PT/BJ cell co-culture and conditioned medium transfer were used to examine DNA damage in terms of γ-H2AX foci number per cell or by Comet assay after exposure to different doses of γ-rays. Results: In co-cultures, the kinetics of γ-H2AX foci number change was dose-dependent and similar to that in individual PT and BJ cultures. The number of γ-H2AX foci in co-cultures was significantly lower (∼25%) in both types of cells comparing to individual cultures. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual counterpart cells prior to irradiation resulted in approximately 35% reduction in the number γ-H2AX foci at 1 Gy and lower doses in both PT and BJ demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. Comet assay corroborated the results of γ-H2AX foci counting in conditioned medium transfer experiments. In contrast to medium conditioned on PT cells, conditioned medium collected from several human thyroid cancer cell lines failed to establish DNA-protected state in BJ fibroblasts. In its turn, medium conditioned on BJ cells did not change the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in cancer cell lines tested. Conclusion: The results imply the existence of a network of soluble factor-mediated paracrine interactions between normal epithelial and stromal cells that could be a part of natural mechanism by which cells protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  13. Oxidative damage in synovial tissue is associated with in vivo hypoxic status in the arthritic joint.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Biniecka, Monika

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess levels of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanine; 8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; 4-HNE) in serum, synovial fluid and tissue of patients with inflammatory arthritis in relation to in vivo hypoxia levels, disease activity and angiogenic markers. METHODS: Oxygen levels in synovial tissue were assessed using an oxygen\\/temperature probe. Nuclear and cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE levels were assessed in synovial tissue from 23 patients by immunohistochemistry. 8-Oxo-dG and 4-HNE levels in serum and synovial fluid were determined using 8-oxo-dG and hexanoyl-Lys (HEL) adduct ELISAs, respectively. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) levels were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The median oxygen tension in synovial tissue was profoundly hypoxic at 19.35 mm Hg (2.5%). Nuclear 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly higher than nuclear 4-HNE levels in the lining and sublining layers (all p<0.001). In contrast, cytoplasmic 4-HNE levels were higher than cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG levels in both cell layers (all p<0.001). Reduced in vivo oxygen tension correlated with high lipid peroxidation in synovial fluid (p=0.027; r=0.54) and tissue (p=0.004; r=0.58). Serum VEGF levels were positively correlated with cytoplasmic 4-HNE expression (p=0.05; r=0.43) and intensity (p=0.006; r=0.59) in the lining layer. Serum Ang2 levels were positively correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression and intensity in both cell layers (all p < or = 0.05). DAS28-C-reactive protein was correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression in the sublining layer (p=0.02; r=0.48) and DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate was correlated with nuclear 4-HNE expression in both cell layers (p < or = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Lipid peroxidation is associated with low oxygen tension in vivo, disease activity and angiogenic marker expression in inflammatory arthritis.

  14. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  15. Improvement of oxygen supply by an artificial carrier in combination with normobaric oxygenation decreases the volume of tissue hypoxia and tissue damage from transient focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge, David J.; Lapina, Natalia E.; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Theisinger, Bastian; Henning, Robert H.; Schilling, Lothar

    Tissue hypoxia may play an important role in the development of ischemic brain damage. In the present study we investigated in a rat model of transient focal brain ischemia the neuroprotective effects of increasing the blood oxygen transport capacity by applying a semifluorinated alkane

  16. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  17. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  18. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  19. Comet assay optimization for assessment of DNA damage due to radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Ramadhani; Devita Tetriana; Viria Agesti Suvifan

    2016-01-01

    Comet assay can be used to measure the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage level caused by ionizing radiation exposure in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The principle of the comet assay is based on the amount of denatured DNA fragments that migrated out of the cell nucleus during electrophoresis. There are several aspects that must be concerned when doing the comet assay. For example the agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature, and voltage gradient), and the measurement parameters that used in analyze the comet. Percentage of DNA in the comet tail (% tail DNA) is strongly recommended as a parameter when analyze the comet because it can be converted to lesions per 106 base pairs (bp) using calibration curve that show relationship between the dose of ionizing radiation and % tail DNA. To obtain an accurate result, the calibration curve must be made and comet should be analyzing using image processing analysis software since it can be increase the precision and reduce the subjectivity of the measurement process. (author)

  20. Letter to Editor: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliandro Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Chalidis et al: Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. World J Surg Oncol 2007, 5:92.

  1. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  2. Cardiotoxic (Arrhythmogenic) Effects of 1,1-Difluoroethane Due to Electrolyte Imbalance and Cardiomyocyte Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kaushal; Barletta, Michael; Wurpel, John

    2017-06-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of chemical vapors to attain euphoric effects. Many common household products are abused by inhalation and one is 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE), which is a halogenated hydrocarbon used in refrigeration, dust-off spray, and airbrush painting. Although many human DFE abuse cases have been studied, the etiology and mechanism of sudden death is still unknown. In this study, an animal model was used to simulate the human conditions of DFE inhalation abuse that results in sudden death.Current research targets mechanistic studies involving electrolyte changes and cardiomyocyte damage after DFE administration in vivo. To investigate these changes, Sprague Dawley rats (N = 6) were exposed to 30 seconds of 20 L/min of DFE in multiple doses. Isoflurane acted as a control. Two additional groups, epinephrine and epinephrine + DFE, were included to simulate the clinical condition of DFE abuse. Plasma sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels were measured, followed by lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels. In addition, oxidative stress markers were also evaluated in all animal groups. Electrolyte levels showed a significant rise in plasma potassium and magnesium levels for the treated groups. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and cardiac troponin I levels in DFE and epinephrine + DFE administered rats were significantly elevated as compared with control. Some oxidative stress makers were also elevated significantly in treatment groups. Furthermore, histopathological analysis showed hyperemia/congestion in treated rats.These results support cardiotoxic effects indicating that DFE results in fatal arrhythmias, and the study can be important during clinical cases involving inhalant abuse.

  3. Estimation of the Past and Future Infrastructure Damage Due the Permafrost Evolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, D. O.; Chesnokova, I. V.; Morozova, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The geocryological processes such as thermokarst, frost heaving and fracturing, icing, thermal erosion are the source of immediate danger for the structures. The economic losses during the construction procedures in the permafrost area are linked also with the other geological processes that have the specific character in cold regions. These processes are swamping, desertification, deflation, flooding, mudflows and landslides. Linear transport structures are most vulnerable component of regional and national economy. Because the high length the transport structures have to cross the landscapes with different permafrost conditions that have the different reaction to climate change. The climate warming is favorable for thermokarst and the frost heaving is linked with climate cooling. In result the structure falls in the circumstances that are not predicted in the construction project. Local engineering problems of structure exploitation lead to global risks of sustainable development of regions. Authors developed the database of geocryological damage cases for the last twelve years at the Russian territory. Spatial data have the attributive table that was filled by the published information from various permafrost conference proceedings. The preliminary GIS-analysis of gathered data showed the widespread territorial distribution of the cases of negative consequences of geocryological processes activity. The information about maximum effect from geocryological processes was validated by detailed field investigation along the railways in Yamal and Transbaicalia Regions. Authors expect the expanding of database by similar data from other sectors of Arctic. It is important for analyzing the regional, time and industrial tendencies of geocryological risk evolution. Obtained information could be used in insurance procedures and in information systems of decisions support in different management levels. The investigation was completed with financial support by Russian

  4. DNA damage due to perfluorooctane sulfonate based on nano-gold embedded in nano-porous poly-pyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liping, E-mail: lipinglu@bjut.edu.cn; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage induced from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was further developed on a nano-porous bionic interface. The interface was formed by assembling DNA on nano-gold particles which were embedded in a nano-porous overoxidized polypyrrole film (OPPy). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical investigations indicate that OPPy can be treated to form nano-pore structures. DNA damage due to PFOS was proved using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and was investigated by detecting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of methylene blue (MB) which was used as electro-active indicator in the system. The current of MB attenuates obviously after incubation of DNA in PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that PFOS weakens DNA charge transport. The tentative binding ratio of PFOS: DNA base pair was obtained by analyzing XPS data of this system.

  5. Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetisir, M.; Fisher, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGSs. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of pressure tube fretting-wear damage due to fuel vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisir, M; Fisher, N J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Fretting marks between fuel bundle bearing pads and pressure tubes have been observed at the inlet end of some Darlington NGS (nuclear generating station) and Bruce NGS fuel channels. The excitation mechanisms that lead to fretting are not fully understood. In this paper, the possibility of bearing pad-to-pressure tube fretting due to turbulence-induced motion of the fuel element is investigated. Numerical simulations indicate that this mechanism by itself is not likely to cause the level of fretting experienced in Darlington and Bruce NGS`s (nuclear generating stations). (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  7. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  8. Surface structural damage study in cortical bone due to medical drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera R, Cesar G; De la Torre-I, Manuel H; Flores-M, Jorge M; Hernandez M, Ma Del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Briones-R, Manuel de J; Sanchez-P, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    A bone's fracture could be produced by an excessive, repetitive, or sudden load. A regular medical practice to heal it is to fix it in two possible ways: external immobilization, using a ferule, or an internal fixation, using a prosthetic device commonly attached to the bone by means of surgical screws. The bone's volume loss due to this drilling modifies its structure either in the presence or absence of a fracture. To observe the bone's surface behavior caused by the drilling effects, a digital holographic interferometer is used to analyze the displacement surface's variations in nonfractured post-mortem porcine femoral bones. Several nondrilled post-mortem bones are compressed and compared to a set of post-mortem bones with a different number of cortical drillings. During each compression test, a series of digital interferometric holograms were recorded using a high-speed CMOS camera. The results are presented as pseudo 3D mesh displacement maps for comparisons in the physiological range of load (30 and 50 lbs) and beyond (100, 200, and 400 lbs). The high resolution of the optical phase gives a better understanding about the bone's microstructural modifications. Finally, a relationship between compression load and bone volume loss due to the drilling was observed. The results prove that digital holographic interferometry is a viable technique to study the conditions that avoid the surgical screw from loosening in medical procedures of this kind.

  9. Acoustic radiation force due to arbitrary incident fields on spherical particles in soft tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treweek, Benjamin C., E-mail: btreweek@utexas.edu; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, TX 78713-8029 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic radiation force is of interest in a wide variety of biomedical applications ranging from tissue characterization (e.g. elastography) to tissue treatment (e.g. high intensity focused ultrasound, kidney stone fragment removal). As tissue mechanical properties are reliable indicators of tissue health, the former is the focus of the present contribution. This is accomplished through an investigation of the acoustic radiation force on a spherical scatterer embedded in tissue. Properties of both the scatterer and the surrounding tissue are important in determining the magnitude and the direction of the force. As these properties vary, the force computation shows changes in magnitude and direction, which may enable more accurate noninvasive determination of tissue properties.

  10. Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Ghobadi, Ghazale; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation. In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group. The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.

  11. Investigation and studies on plant damage due to Tokyo photochemical smog. Part II. On the damage of petunia which showed the symptoms like injuries by pan (peroxyacetyl nitrate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakado, K.

    1973-10-01

    Twice in the middle of June and in early Aug. 1972, petunia leaves were damaged by peroxyacetyl nitrate in Tokyo. The leaf damage, root activity, and pH and specific conductivity of the soil were studied. Similar plants were exposed experimentally to ozone for comparison. No damage was found on other types of plants in the same greenhouse, and different types of petunias were damaged to different degrees. The damage was studied by microscopy anbd by gross symptoms.

  12. Enhancement of First Wall Damage in Iter Type Tokamak due to Lenr Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J ~ 300-500 mA/cm2) D2-glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at Ed = 1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies) The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials.

  13. Enhancement of first wall damage in ITER type tokamak due to LENR effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, Andrei G.; Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    In recent experiments with pulsed periodic high current (J - 300-500 mA/cm 2 ) D 2 -glow discharge at deuteron energies as low as 0.8-2.45 keV a large DD-reaction yield has been obtained. Thick target yield measurement show unusually high DD-reaction enhancement (at E d =1 keV the yield is about nine orders of magnitude larger than that deduced from standard Bosch and Halle extrapolation of DD-reaction cross-section to lower energies). The results obtained in these LENR experiments with glow discharge suggest nonnegligible edge plasma effects in the ITER TOKAMAK that were previously ignored. In the case of the ITER DT plasma core, we here estimate the DT reaction yield at the metal edge due to plasma ion bombardment of the first wall and/or divertor materials. (author)

  14. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  15. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  16. A comparison between the irradiation damage response of spinel and zirconia due to Xe ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Wetteland, C.J.; Baker, N.P.; Yu Ning; Devanathan, R.; Nastasi, M.; Bordes, N.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe 2+ ion irradiation to high dose at cryogenic temperature (120 K), the Young's modulus of irradiated spinel falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the un-irradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe 2+ doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behave differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe 2+ ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe 2+ ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is consistent with point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe 2+ ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase. (orig.)

  17. Adult Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Primed for fhe Repair of Damaged Cardiac Tissue After Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Edward D.

    The burden of cardiovascular disease around the world is growing, despite improvements in hospital care and time to treatment. As more people survive an initial myocardial infarction (MI), the decompensated heart tissue is strained, leading to heart failure (HF) and an increased risk for a second MI. While extensive progress has been made in treating the symptoms after MI, including HF and angina, little success has come from repairing the damaged heart tissue to alleviate the progression to these end- stage symptoms. One promising area of regenerative research has been the use of adult stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow (BMSCs). These cells can differentiate towards the cardiac cell lineage in vitro while producing trophic factors that can repair damaged tissue. When placed in the heart after MI though, BMSCs have mixed results, producing profound changes in some patients but zero or even negative effects in others. In this report, we used BMSCs as a stem cell base for a regenerative medicine system for the repair of damaged cardiac tissue. These cells are seeded on a polycaprolactone nanoscaffolding support system, which provides a growth substrate for in vitro work, as well as a housing system for protected in vivo delivery. When the nanoscaffold is pre-coated with a novel combination of a cardiac protein, thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4), and a small molecule effector of the WNT protein pathway, IWP-2, BMSCs differentiated towards the cardiac lineage in as little as 24hours. When injected into rat hearts that have been given an ischemic MI, the nanoscaffolding system slowly dissolves, leaving the cells in place of the damaged cardiac tissue. After two weeks of monitoring, BMSCs are present within the damaged hearts, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and nanoparticle tracking. Injections of the nanoscaffolding/cell system led to robust healing of the rat hearts that had been given small- and medium- damage heart attacks, outperforming PBS sham and cell

  18. ALK1 heterozygosity delays development of late normal tissue damage in the irradiated mouse kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpfenecker, Marion; Floot, Ben; Korlaar, Regina; Russell, Nicola S.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor, which is mainly expressed in endothelial cells regulating proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Endothelial cells also express the co-receptor endoglin, which modulates ALK1 effects on endothelial cells. Our previous studies showed that mice with reduced endoglin levels develop less irradiation-induced vascular damage and fibrosis, caused by an impaired inflammatory response. This study was aimed at investigating the role of ALK1 in late radiation toxicity. Material and Methods: Kidneys of ALK +/+ and ALK1 +/- mice were irradiated with 14 Gy. Mice were sacrificed at 10, 20, and 30 weeks after irradiation and gene expression and protein levels were analyzed. Results: Compared to wild type littermates, ALK1 +/- mice developed less inflammation and fibrosis at 20 weeks after irradiation, but displayed an increase in pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression at 30 weeks. In addition, ALK1 +/- mice showed superior vascular integrity at 10 and 20 weeks after irradiation which deteriorated at 30 weeks coinciding with changes in the VEGF pathway. Conclusions: ALK1 +/- mice develop a delayed normal tissue response by modulating the inflammatory response and growth factor expression after irradiation.

  19. Relationship between X-ray irradiation and chromosomal damage in bone marrow tissue of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; George, K.P.; Sundaram, K.

    1976-01-01

    X-ray induced chromosomal damage in bone-marrow tissue of male mice was studied using micronucleus technique. Dose response relationship was evaluated. Male Swiss mice received whole body x-ray irradiation at different doses from 25-1000 rads. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 24 hours, bone-marrow smears were made and stained in May-Grunwald-Giemsa. The preparatians were scored for the following types of aberrations: micronuclei in young erythocytes-polychromatic cells and in the mature erythrocytes-normechromatic cells. A dose dependent increase in the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic cells up to a dose of 100 rads was observed. In addition the effect of post-irradiation duration on the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic and normochromatic cells were studied. Male Swiss mice were exposed to 200 rads x-rays and were then sacrificed at different time intervals after irradiation and bone-marrow preparations were made and scored. Maximum polychromatic cells with micronuclei were observed in 24 hours post-irradiated animals, thereafter a decrease in the frequency of polychromatic cells with micronuclei was observed in 40 hours post irradiated animals. (author

  20. Tissue plasminogen activator-assisted vitrectomy for submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment efficacy of vitrectomy combined with subretinal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA and factors affecting visual improvement in patients with submacular hemorrhage (SMH due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with SMH secondary to nAMD were retrospectively reviewed. The initial surgical procedure involved a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy, subretinal r-tPA application through a self-sealing inferior retinotomy, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for tamponade in all patients. The duration, size, and thickness of the hemorrhage and the pre- and post-operative visual acuity (VA using a Snellen chart were recorded. VA was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis. Results: The average duration and size of the SMH were 12.8 ± 18.2 days and 8.6 ± 5.3 disc areas, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 16.9 ± 4.7 months. A statistically significant visual improvement was found when comparing initial VA with postoperative best-corrected VA (BCVA and final BCVA (Wilcoxon rank test, P ≤ 0.01. There was no significant correlation between the size of the hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no statistically significant correlation between the initial VA and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. There was no significant correlation between the duration of hemorrhage and postoperative BCVA and final BCVA (Spearman's rho test. The preoperative thickness of hemorrhage (747.5 ± 30 μm was not correlated with postoperative BCVA or final BCVA (Pearson's test. Conclusions: Vitrectomy combined with subretinal r-tPA injection and gas tamponade is an effective surgical intervention to preserve VA in selected patients with apparent SMH.

  1. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  2. Tissue Damage Caused by Myeloablative, but Not Non-Myeloablative, Conditioning before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Results in Dermal Macrophage Recruitment without Active T-Cell Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter van Balen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. T-cell-depleted alloSCT with postponed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI may reduce GVHD, because tissue injury can be restored at the time of DLI. In this study, we investigated the presence of tissue injury and inflammation in skin during the period of hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution after alloSCT.MethodsSkin biopsies were immunohistochemically stained for HLA class II, CD1a, CD11c, CD40, CD54, CD68, CD86, CD206, CD3, and CD8. HLA class II-expressing cells were characterized as activated T-cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs, or tissue repairing macrophages. In sex-mismatched patient and donor couples, origin of cells was determined by multiplex analysis combining XY-FISH and fluorescent immunohistochemistry.ResultsNo inflammatory environment due to pretransplant conditioning was detected at the time of alloSCT, irrespective of the conditioning regimen. An increase in HLA class II-positive macrophages and CD3 T-cells was observed 12–24 weeks after myeloablative alloSCT, but these macrophages did not show signs of interaction with the co-localized T-cells. In contrast, during GVHD, an increase in HLA class II-expressing cells coinciding with T-cell interaction was observed, resulting in an overt inflammatory reaction with the presence of activated APC, activated donor T-cells, and localized upregulation of HLA class II expression on epidermal cells. In the absence of GVHD, patient derived macrophages were gradually replaced by donor-derived macrophages although patient-derived macrophages were detectable even 24 weeks after alloSCT.ConclusionConditioning regimens cause tissue damage in the skin, but this does not result in a local increase of activated APC. In contrast to the inflamed situation in GVHD, when interaction takes place between

  3. Damage of rat liver tissue caused by repeated and sustained +Gz exposure and the mechanism thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the mechanisms of positive acceleration (+Gz on the damage of rat liver tissue and the effect of +Gz on the expression of JNK/c-Jun in liver cells. Methods  Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6: control, +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group. With prone position, the rats in control group were fixed to the turning arm of centrifuge with head towards the axis for 5 minutes. The fixation method in +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group was the same as in the control group. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and each +Gz exposure repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of liver tissue, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression of hepatic c-Jun mRNA, and Western blotting to detect the hepatic protein expression of p-c-Jun, c-Jun, p-JNK and JNK. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined. Results  The levels of serum ALT and AST increased significantly in +6Gz and, especially, the +10Gz group than in control group and +2Gz group (P<0.05. The same situation also existed in the increase of c-Jun mRNA expression (P<0.05. Hepatic c-jun and p-c-Jun (c-Jun activated form protein expression increased with the increase of G value. Compared with control group, no change was found in JNK protein expression in the other three groups, but the expression of p-JNK (activated form of JNK increased in +6Gz and +10Gz groups (P<0.05. HE staining showed the disorganized liver cells with irregular shapes, the unclear cell gap and the vacuolar changes in +6Gz and +10Gz groups. Conclusions  Repeated and sustained +Gz may cause enhanced expression of c-Jun/ p-c-Jun and p-JNK in hepatic cells. JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway may play an important role in the process of hepatic stress injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.15

  4. Treatment of skin damage due to irradiation and post-irradiation skin tumours, at the Hornheide special clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    A short precis of 54 years of history of the Hornheide special clinic for tumours, tuberculosis, and plastic surgery of face and skin is followed by a description of the current tasks of the clinic as an interdisciplinary center for plastic surgery and rehabilitation with facilities for tumour surgery, radiotherapy, skin and tissue pathology, and psychotherapy. Important special areas of this interdisciplinary cooperation are the treatment of skin disorders due to radiation and of tumours on irradiated skin, as well as treatment and plastic surgery after removal of tumours by irradiation in order to make the affected areas fit for renewed irradiation. (TRV) [de

  5. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH 0126,top10% ). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH 0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP

  6. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin L; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J; Dicker, Adam P; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH0126,top10%). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed "high-quality," "low-quality," and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP reductions while maintaining the volume of the PTV

  7. Advances in detecting localized road damage due to sinkholes induced by engineering works using high resolution RASARSAT-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes often occur in karst terrains such as found in central and eastern Pennsylvania. Voids produced by dissolution of carbonate rocks can result in soil transport leading to localized, gradual or rapid, sinking of the land surface. A cluster of sinkholes developed in 2000 around a small rural community beside Bushkill creek near a limestone quarry, and severely destroyed road bridges and railway tracks. At a cost of $6 million, the Pennsylvania DoT replaced the bridge, which was damaged again in 2004 by newly developed sinkholes likely associated with quarry's pumping activity. Here we present high-resolution spaceborne interferometric radar images of sinkhole development on this community. We show that this technique may be used to monitor regions with high sinkhole damage risk and assist future infrastructure route planning, especially in rural areas where hydrogeologic information is limited. Specifically, we processed 66 RADARSAT-2 interferograms to extract deformation occurred over Bushkill creek between Jun. 2015 and Mar. 2016 with a temporal resolution of 24 days. We advanced recent persistent scatterer techniques to preserve meter-level spatial resolution in the interferograms while minimizing temporal decorrelation and phase unwrapping error. We observe periodic deformation due to pumping activity at the quarry and localized subsidence along Bushkill creek that is co-located with recent reported sinkholes. We plan to use the automatic processing techniques developed for this study to study road damage in another region in Pennsylvania, along Lewiston Narrows, and also to monitor urban infrastructure improvements in Seattle, both again with RASARSAT-2 data. Our results demonstrate that recent advances in satellite geodesy can be transferred to benefit society beyond the science community.

  8. In vitro prediction of in vivo skin damage associated with the wiping of dry tissue against skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, David W; Dvoracek, Barb; Vongsa, Rebecca

    2013-02-01

    The ideal gentle cleansing product is one that effectively removes soils while minimizing damage to the skin. Thus, measuring physical abrasion caused by cleansing tissues is critical to the continued development of gentle cleansing products. Current analysis of cleansing materials for skin gentleness is time consuming and requires expensive human subject testing. This report describes the development of a rapid and inexpensive bench assay for the assessment of skin abrasion caused by wiping. Coefficient of friction (COF) evaluations using bench methods were compared with results from clinical studies of repeated wiping and with confocal visualizations of excised skin. A Monitor/Slip and Friction instrument (model 32-06; TMI, Amityville, NY, USA) was used to measure tissue friction on simulated skin (Vitro-Skin, N19-5X; IMS, Milford, CT, USA). Clinical data from a 4-day repetitive forearm wiping study measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in 30 subjects was compared with results from the bench top assay. In addition, excised skin samples were also treated using the COF bench assay and examined using confocal microscopy to visualize stratum corneum damage caused by wiping. Using the bench COF assay, we were able to distinguish between bath tissue codes by comparing average static friction value (ASFV) for the test codes, where lower ASFV indicated less abrasive tissue. The ASFV followed the same gentleness trend observed in the clinical study. Confocal microscopy of excised skin wiped with the same materials indicated stratum corneum damage consistent with the bench COF and clinical TEWL observations. We observed significant correlation between bench and clinical methods for measuring skin damage caused by wiping of skin with tissue. The bench method will facilitate rapid and inexpensive skin gentleness assessment of cleansing materials. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The Addition of Manganese Porphyrins during Radiation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth and Simultaneously Protects Normal Prostate Tissue from Radiation Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Chatterjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs, ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days in the presence or absence of MnPs. With radiation, MnPs enhanced overall life expectancy and significantly decreased the average tumor volume, as compared to the radiated alone group. MnPs enhanced lipid oxidation in tumor cells but reduced oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in combination with radiation. Mechanistically, MnPs behave as pro-oxidants or antioxidants depending on the level of oxidative stress inside the treated cell. We found that MnPs act as pro-oxidants in prostate cancer cells, while in normal cells and tissues the MnPs act as antioxidants. For the first time, in the same in vivo model, this study reveals that MnPs enhance the tumoricidal effect of radiation and reduce oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in the presence of radiation. This study suggests that MnPs are effective radio-protectors for radiation-mediated prostate cancer treatment.

  10. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage due to cyclic stress loading at 77 K for MOCVD-YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, M; Yoshida, Y; Hojo, M; Shikimachi, K; Hirano, N; Nagaya, S

    2008-01-01

    Tensile fatigue tests were carried out at 77 K for YBCO-coated conductors fabricated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The S-N relationship, variation of critical current (I c ) during cyclic loading and microscopic fatigue damage were investigated. Fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles was evaluated to be σ max = 1300 MPa and 890 MPa under the stress ratios of 0.5 and 0.1. Two different mechanisms of fatigue damage, depending on the number of stress cycles to failure, were observed. In one of the fracture mechanisms, fatigue behavior is characterized by overall fracture which occurs at 10 4 -10 5 cycles. For these specimens, I c after unloading does not degrade before overall fracture. Although only shallow slip bands were found at the Ag surface, fatigue cracks were found on the Hastelloy C-276 surface of the fractured specimen. These results suggest that overall fracture due to cyclic stress was caused by fatigue of the Hastelloy substrate. In the other fracture mechanism, even though overall fracture did not occur at 10 6 cycles, a slight decrease of I c was detected after 10 5 cycles. No fatigue crack was found on the Hastelloy surface, while deep slip bands corresponding to the initial stage of fatigue crack were observed on the Ag surface. From these results, we concluded that I c degradation at a high cycle number is attributed to the fatigue of the Ag stabilizing layer

  11. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  12. Can cell survival parameters be deduced from non-clonogenic assays of radiation damage to normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.; Wheldon, T.E.; Kirk, J.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between dose-response curves for large scale radiation injury to tissues and survival curves for clonogenic cells is not necessarily simple. Sterilization of clonogenic cells occurs near-instantaneously compared with the protracted lag period for gross injury to tissues. Moreover, with some types of macroscopic damage, the shapes of the dose-response curves may depend on time of assay. Changes in the area or volume of irradiated tissue may also influence the shapes of these curves. The temporal pattern of expression of large scale injury also varies between tissues, and two distinct groups can be recognized. In rapidly proliferating tissues, lag period is almost independent of dose, whilst in slowly proliferating tissues, it is inversely proportional to dose. This might be explained by invoking differences in corresponding proliferative structures of the tissues. (Three compartmental Type H versus one compartmental Type F proliferative organization). For the second group of tissues particularly, mathematical modelling suggests a systematic dissociation of the dose-response curves for clonogenic cell survival and large scale injury. In particular, it may be difficult to disentangle the contributions made to inter-fraction sparing by cellular repair processes and by proliferation-related factors. (U.K.)

  13. Mutism and auditory agnosia due to bilateral insular damage--role of the insula in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M; Daquin, G; Milandre, L; Royere, M L; Rey, M; Lanteri, A; Salamon, G; Khalil, R

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of transient mutism and persistent auditory agnosia due to two successive ischemic infarcts mainly involving the insular cortex on both hemispheres. During the 'mutic' period, which lasted about 1 month, the patient did not respond to any auditory stimuli and made no effort to communicate. On follow-up examinations, language competences had re-appeared almost intact, but a massive auditory agnosia for non-verbal sounds was observed. From close inspection of lesion site, as determined with brain resonance imaging, and from a study of auditory evoked potentials, it is concluded that bilateral insular damage was crucial to both expressive and receptive components of the syndrome. The role of the insula in verbal and non-verbal communication is discussed in the light of anatomical descriptions of the pattern of connectivity of the insular cortex.

  14. Assessment of damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head due to thermal attack by core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Behling, S.R.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    Camera inspection of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) inlet plenum region has shown that approximately 10 to 20 percent of the core material loading may have relocated to the lower plenum. Although vessel integrity was maintained, a question of primary concern is ''how close to vessel failure'' did this accident come. This report summarizes the results of thermal analyses aimed at assessing damage potential to the TMI-2 lower head and attached instrument penetration tubes due to thermal attack by hot core debris. Results indicate that the instrument penetration nozzles could have experienced melt failure at localized hot spot regions, with attendant debris drainage and plugging of the instrument lead tubes. However, only minor direct thermal attack of the vessel liner is predicted

  15. Proton relaxation relationships of human and animal tissues in vitro. Changes due to autolysis and fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodd, W.; Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of proton relaxation times of various tissues from rats, pigs and humans are reported; these were obtained by a resonance spectroscope at 20 MHz and 40 0 C. There were specific differences in both relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the liver and spleen. There was a difference of more than 150 ms in the longitudinal relaxation time between grey and white cerebral tissue. Autolytic changes show an increase in both relaxation times. Fixation produced a reduction in T 1 only. The significance of these findings for NMR tomography is discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Chemical Facial Cellulitis Due to Inadvertent Injection of Formalin into Oral Tissue Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bector, Aditi; Virk, Pawandeep Sandhu; Arakeri, Gururaj

    2015-11-05

    This paper reports the accidental injection of formalin into oral tissue space, in an 8-year old child resulting in chemical facial necrotizing cellulitis and its management. The common practice of keeping formalin in local anesthesia vials should be avoided by dental clinics, to prevent such unfortunate incidents.

  18. Chemical facial cellulitis due to inadvertent injection of formalin into oral tissue space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bector

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the accidental injection of formalin into oral tissue space, in an 8-year old child resulting in chemical facial necrotizing cellulitis and its management. The common practice of keeping formalin in local anesthesia vials should be avoided by dental clinics, to prevent such unfortunate incidents.

  19. Brain Tissues Oxidative Damage as a Possible Mechanism of Deleterious Effects of Propylthiouracil- Induced Hypothyroidism on Learning and Memory in Neonatal and Juvenile Growth in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeil Farrokhi

    2014-11-01

    randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM. Then, samples of blood were collected to measure thyroxine. Finally, the brains were removed and total thiol groups and molondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were determined. Results: Compared to the control group’s offspring, serum thyroxine levels in the PTU group’s off spring were significantly low (P<0.001. In MWM, the escape latency and traveled path in the PTU group were significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01- P<0.001. In PTU group, the total thiol concentrations in both cortical and hippocampal tissues were significantly lower and MDA concentrations were higher than control group (P<0.001. Discussion: It seems that deleterious effect of hypothyroidism during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory is at least in part due to brain tissues oxidative damage.

  20. Tissue Damage, Temperature, and pH Induced by Different Electrode Arrays on Potato Pieces (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraelys Morales González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems of electrochemical therapy is the design and selection of suitable electrode array for cancer. The aim is to determine how two-dimensional spatial patterns of tissue damage, temperature, and pH induced in pieces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Mondial depend on electrode array with circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic shape. The results show the similarity between the shapes of spatial patterns of tissue damage and electric field intensity, which, like temperature and pH take the same shape of electrode array. The adequate selection of suitable electrodes array requires an integrated analysis that involves, in a unified way, relevant information about the electrochemical process, which is essential to perform more efficiently way the therapeutic planning and the personalized therapy for patients with a cancerous tumor.

  1. Oxidative damage parameters in renal tissues of aged and young rats based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzun D

    2013-06-01

    young control group for both genders. Conclusion: With respect to PCO and AOPP, impaired redox homeostasis is substantially more prominent in males than females. The decrease of G-SH levels in male groups could be attributed to stabilizing the redox status of protein thiol groups by the depletion of the GSH groups. Considering the results, the renal tissue proteins and lipids in different genders may have different susceptibilities to oxidative damage. Keywords: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, radicals, renal aging

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Lung Tissue Differentially Mitigate Lung and Distal Organ Damage in Experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Johnatas D; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Paz, Ana H R; Cruz, Fernanda F; Melo, Elga B; de Oliveira, Milena V; Xisto, Débora G; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Pelosi, Paolo; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2018-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapies have shown promising effects in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. Different mesenchymal stem cells sources may result in diverse effects in respiratory diseases; however, there is no information regarding the best source of mesenchymal stem cells to treat pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and lung tissue would lead to different beneficial effects on lung and distal organ damage in experimental pulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome. Animal study and primary cell culture. Laboratory investigation. Seventy-five Wistar rats. Wistar rats received saline (control) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (acute respiratory distress syndrome) intratracheally. On day 2, acute respiratory distress syndrome animals were further randomized to receive saline or bone marrow, adipose tissue, or lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 10 cells) IV. Lung mechanics, histology, and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and growth factors were analyzed 5 days after mesenchymal stem cells administration. RAW 264.7 cells (a macrophage cell line) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide followed by coculture or not with bone marrow, adipose tissue, and lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (10 cells/mL medium). Regardless of mesenchymal stem cells source, cells administration improved lung function and reduced alveolar collapse, tissue cellularity, collagen, and elastic fiber content in lung tissue, as well as decreased apoptotic cell counts in liver. Bone marrow and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells administration also reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, transforming growth factor-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as apoptotic cell counts in lung and kidney, while increasing expression of keratinocyte growth factor in lung tissue

  3. Probabilistic analysis and fatigue damage assessment of offshore mooring system due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun; Wang, Shuqing; Du, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Both wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) components of mooring tension are in principle non-Gaussian due to nonlinearities in the dynamic system. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of applicable probability density functions (PDFs) of mooring tension amplitudes used to assess mooring-line fatigue damage via the spectral method. Short-term statistical characteristics of mooring-line tension responses are firstly investigated, in which the discrepancy arising from Gaussian approximation is revealed by comparing kurtosis and skewness coefficients. Several distribution functions based on present analytical spectral methods are selected to express the statistical distribution of the mooring-line tension amplitudes. Results indicate that the Gamma-type distribution and a linear combination of Dirlik and Tovo-Benasciutti formulas are suitable for separate WF and LF mooring tension components. A novel parametric method based on nonlinear transformations and stochastic optimization is then proposed to increase the effectiveness of mooring-line fatigue assessment due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension responses. Using time domain simulation as a benchmark, its accuracy is further validated using a numerical case study of a moored semi-submersible platform.

  4. Mercuric dichloride induces DNA damage in human salivary gland tissue cells and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Katharina; Kroemer, Susanne [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Sassen, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Department of Pathology, Regensburg (Germany); Staudenmaier, Rainer [Technical University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Reichl, Franz-Xaver [University of Munich, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Harreus, Ulrich [University of Munich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Amalgam is still one of the most frequently used dental filling materials. However, the possible adverse effects especially that of the mercuric component have led to continued controversy. Considering that mercury may be released from amalgam fillings into the oral cavity and also reach the circulating blood after absorption and resorption, it eventually may contribute to tumorigenesis in a variety of target cells. The present investigation focuses on genotoxic effects below a cytotoxic dose level of mercuric dichloride (HgCl{sub 2}) in human samples of salivary glands and lymphocytes to elucidate a possible role in tumor initiation. DNA migration due to single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair was quantified with the aid of the single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The concepts of Olive Tail Moment, percentage of DNA in the Tail and Tail Length were used as measures of DNA damage. To control for cytotoxic effects, the trypan blue exclusion test was applied. Human samples of the parotid salivary gland and lymphocytes of ten donors were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} concentrations from 1 to 50 {mu}M. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) served as controls. Increasing dose-dependent DNA migration could be demonstrated after exposure to HgCl{sub 2} in cells of the salivary glands and lymphocytes. In both cell types a significant increase in DNA migration could be shown starting from HgCl{sub 2} concentrations of 5 {mu}M in comparison to the negative control. The viability of the cell systems was not affected except at the highest concentration (50 {mu}M) tested. These data indicate genotoxic effects of mercuric dichloride in human salivary glands and lymphocytes at concentrations not leading to cytotoxic effects or cell death. Consequently, a contributory role in oral salivary gland tumor initiation warrants further investigation. (orig.)

  5. Quantitatively characterizing microstructural variations of skin tissues during ultraviolet radiation damaging process based on Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wei; He, Honghui; Dong, Yang; Ma, Hui

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most fundamental features of light, polarization can be used to develop imaging techniques which can provide insight into the optical and structural properties of tissues. Especially, the Mueller matrix polarimetry is suitable to detect the changes in collagen and elastic fibres, which are the main compositions of skin tissue. Here we demonstrate a novel quantitative, non-contact and in situ technique to monitor the microstructural variations of skin tissue during ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced photoaging based on Mueller matrix polarimetry. Specifically, we measure the twodimensional (2D) backscattering Mueller matrices of nude mouse skin samples, then calculate and analyze the Mueller matrix derived parameters during the skin photoaging and self-repairing processes. To induce three-day skin photoaging, the back skin of each mouse is irradiated with UVR (0.05J/cm2) for five minutes per day. After UVR, the microstructures of the nude mouse skin are damaged. During the process of UV damage, we measure the backscattering Mueller matrices of the mouse skin samples and examine the relationship between the Mueller matrix parameters and the microstructural variations of skin tissue quantitatively. The comparisons between the UVR damaged groups with and without sunscreens show that the Mueller matrix derived parameters are potential indicators for fibrous microstructure variation in skin tissue. The pathological examinations and Monte Carlo simulations confirm the relationship between the values of Mueller matrix parameters and the changes of fibrous structures. Combined with smart phones or wearable devices, this technique may have a good application prospect in the fields of cosmetics and dermatological health.

  6. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extensive tissue damage of bovine ovaries after bipolar ovarian drilling compared to monopolar electrocoagulation or carbon dioxide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marja-Liisa; van der Valk, Paul; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Broeckaert, Mark A M; Homburg, Roy; Hompes, Peter G A

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the size of ovarian damage caused by ovarian drilling in polycystic ovary syndrome, the amount of inflicted damage was assessed for the most frequently used ovarian drilling techniques. Experimental prospective design. University clinic. Six fresh bovine ovaries per technique. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser, monopolar electrocoagulation, and bipolar electrocoagulation were used for in vitro ovarian drilling. Amount of inflicted ovarian damage per procedure. Bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more destruction per burn than the CO(2) laser and monopolar electrocoagulation (287.6 versus 24.0 and 70.0 mm(3), respectively). The damage found per lesion was multiplied by the regularly applied number of punctures per procedure in daily practice (based on the literature). Again, the bipolar electrocoagulation resulted in significantly more tissue damage than the CO(2) laser and monopolar coagulation (2,876 versus 599 and 700 mm(3), respectively). Ovarian drilling, especially bipolar electrocoagulation, causes extensive destruction of the ovary. Given the same clinical effectiveness of the various procedures, it is essential to use the lowest possible dose that works; thus, the first choice should be CO(2) laser or monopolar electrocoagulation. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  9. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  10. Modification by cystamine of radiation-induced free radical damages to biomolecules in tissues of mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svistunenko, D.A.; Gudtsova, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    The method of low-temperature ESR-spectroscopy was used to study a modifying effect of cystamine on the yield of radiation-induced free radicals in different biomolecules of liver and spleen tissues of mice. Intraperitoneal administration of cystamine (150 mg/kg) 15 min before isolation and freezing of the tissues was shown to reduce by 11 per cent the yield of radicals of H-adducts of thymine DNA bases, to decrease by 23 per cent the yield of radicals of triacyglycerol and phospholipid radiolysis, and to increase by 24 per cent the yield of radicals of lipid fatty acid residues in splenic tissues. According to the criterion used, cystamine has no modyfying action on the yield of free-radical damages to liver biomolecules

  11. Laser-induced damage in biological tissue: Role of complex and dynamic optical properties of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Elharith M.

    Since its invention in the early 1960's, the laser has been used as a tool for surgical, therapeutic, and diagnostic purposes. To achieve maximum effectiveness with the greatest margin of safety it is important to understand the mechanisms of light propagation through tissue and how that light affects living cells. Lasers with novel output characteristics for medical and military applications are too often implemented prior to proper evaluation with respect to tissue optical properties and human safety. Therefore, advances in computational models that describe light propagation and the cellular responses to laser exposure, without the use of animal models, are of considerable interest. Here, a physics-based laser-tissue interaction model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal temperature and pressure rise during laser exposure to biological tissues. Our new model also takes into account the dynamic nature of tissue optical properties and their impact on the induced temperature and pressure profiles. The laser-induced retinal damage is attributed to the formation of microbubbles formed around melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the damage mechanism is assumed to be photo-thermal. Selective absorption by melanin creates these bubbles that expand and collapse around melanosomes, destroying cell membranes and killing cells. The Finite Element (FE) approach taken provides suitable ground for modeling localized pigment absorption which leads to a non-uniform temperature distribution within pigmented cells following laser pulse exposure. These hot-spots are sources for localized thermo-elastic stresses which lead to rapid localized expansions that manifest themselves as microbubbles and lead to microcavitations. Model predictions for the interaction of lasers at wavelengths of 193, 694, 532, 590, 1314, 1540, 2000, and 2940 nm with biological tissues were generated and comparisons were made with available experimental data for the retina

  12. Radioprotection by WR-151327 against the late normal tissue damage in mouse hind legs from gamma ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Satoru; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of WR-151327 on late radiation-induced damaged to normal tissues in mice, the right hind legs of mice with or without WR-151327 administration (400 mg/kg) were irradiated with 137 Cs gamma rays. Leg contracture and skin shrinkage assays were performed at 380 days after irradiation. The mice were killed on day 400 postirradiation and histological sections of the legs were made. The thickness of the dermis, epidermis, and skin (dermis plus epidermis) was measured. The muscular area of the legs and the posterior knee angle between the femur and tibia were also measured. The left hind legs were similarly assessed as nonirradiated controls. Group means and standard deviations were calculated and dose-response curves were drawn for every endpoint. Then, the dose modifying factor (DMF) for each endpoint and the correlations among endpoints were determined. Latae damage assayed by leg contracture and skin shrinkage progressed with increasing radiation dose. However, it was reduced by drug treatment. The significant effect was indicated for skin shrinkage by a DMF of 1.8 at 35%. The DMF for leg contracture was 1.3 at 6 mm. In the irradiated legs, epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis in the skin, muscular atrophy, and extension disturbance of the knee joint were observed. These changes progressed with increasing radiation dose. Skin damage assayed by the present endpoints was also reduced by drug treatment by DMFs of 1.4 to 1.7. However, DMFs for damage to the muscle and knee were not determined because no isoeffect was observed. There were good correlations between leg contracture or skin shrinkage and the other endpoints in both untreated and drug-treated mice. WR-151327 has the potential to protect against radiation-induced late normal tissue damage. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. A theoretical analysis of damage evolution in skeletal muscle tissue with reference to pressure ulcer development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuls, R.G.M.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Bader, D.L.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2003-01-01

    Soft tissues are sensitive to prolonged compressive loading, eventually leading to tissue necrosis in the form of pressure ulcers [1]. Pressure ulcers can occur in situations where people are subjected to sustained mechanical loads, such as when bedridden, sitting in a wheelchair or from wearing

  14. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  15. Comparison of single, fractionated and hyperfractionated irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, P.G.S.; Kimler, B.F.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fractionated thoracic irradiation on the development of normal tissue damage in rats was compared to that produced by single doses. Animals received a single dose of 15 Gy, 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions of 3 Gy each (fractionation), or 30 Gy in 30 fractions of 1 Gy each 3 times a day (hyperfractionation). The treatments produced minimal lethality since a total of only 6 animals died between days 273 and 475 after the initiation of treatment, with no difference in survival observed between the control and any of the 3 treated groups. Despite the lack of lethality, evidence of lung damage was obtained by histological examination. Animals that had received either single doses or fractionated doses had more of the pulmonary parenchyma involved than did animals that had received hyperfractionated doses. The authors conclude that, in the rat lung model, a total radiation dose of 30 Gy fractionated over 14 days produces no more lethality nor damage to lung tissue than does 15 Gy delivered as a single dose. However, long-term effects as evidenced by deposits of collagen and development of fibrosis are significantly reduced by hyperfractionation when compared to single doses and daily fractionation

  16. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  17. Protective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus Terrestris on Cisplatin Induced Renal Tissue Damage in Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice. PMID:25789143

  18. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on Cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoofi, Amir; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS) (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria) induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6). The first group (control) was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) and experimental groups with CIS (E1), CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2), CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3), CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4) intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman's capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  19. Evaluation of an In Vitro of Human Immune Activation Induced by Freeze-Thaw Tissue Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuBose, D

    2002-01-01

    In training and in combat, soldiers are under the constant threat of injury. Injury that results in tissue necrosis can activate the immune system and ultimately enhance disturbances in organ function...

  20. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm 2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  1. Pathological research on acute hepatic and renal tissue damage in Wistar rats induced by cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The pattern of alanine aminotransferase activity being more active than aspartate aminotransferase one in serum appeared to correlate with the extent of disarrangement of hepatic tissue architecture. The experimental rat groups exhibited no hyperbilirubinemia. Also, diets containing processed cocoa bean and raw cocoa bean products did not substantially interfere with the capacity of the hepatocytes to biosynthesize plasma proteins and the functionality of renal tissues.

  2. Neuroprotection and enhanced neurogenesis by extract from the tropical plant Knema laurina after inflammatory damage in living brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häke, Ines; Schönenberger, Silvia; Neumann, Jens; Franke, Katrin; Paulsen-Merker, Katrin; Reymann, Klaus; Ismail, Ghazally; Bin Din, Laily; Said, Ikram M; Latiff, A; Wessjohann, Ludger; Zipp, Frauke; Ullrich, Oliver

    2009-01-03

    Inflammatory reactions in the CNS, resulting from a loss of control and involving a network of non-neuronal and neuronal cells, are major contributors to the onset and progress of several major neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic strategies should therefore keep or restore the well-controlled and finely-tuned balance of immune reactions, and protect neurons from inflammatory damage. In our study, we selected plants of the Malaysian rain forest by an ethnobotanic survey, and investigated them in cell-based-assay-systems and in living brain tissue cultures in order to identify anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. We found that alcoholic extracts from the tropical plant Knema laurina (Black wild nutmeg) exhibited highly anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in cell culture experiments, reduced NO- and IL-6-release from activated microglia cells dose-dependently, and protected living brain tissue from microglia-mediated inflammatory damage at a concentration of 30 microg/ml. On the intracellular level, the extract inhibited ERK-1/2-phosphorylation, IkB-phosphorylation and subsequently NF-kB-translocation in microglia cells. K. laurina belongs to the family of Myristicaceae, which have been used for centuries for treatment of digestive and inflammatory diseases and is also a major food plant of the Giant Hornbill. Moreover, extract from K. laurina promotes also neurogenesis in living brain tissue after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In conclusion, extract from K. laurina not only controls and limits inflammatory reaction after primary neuronal damage, it promotes moreover neurogenesis if given hours until days after stroke-like injury.

  3. In field damage of high and low cyanogenic cassava due to a generalist insect herbivore Cyrtomenus bergi (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Lisbeth; Bellotti, Anthony Charles; Castaño, Oscar

    2003-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanogenic potential in cassava roots deters polyphagous insects in the field is relevant to current efforts to reduce or eliminate the cyanogenic potential in cassava. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted in the field under natural selection pressure of the polyphagous root feeder Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). A number of cassava varieties (33) as well as 13 cassava siblings and their parental clone, each representing a determined level of cyanogenic potential (CNP), were scored for damage caused by C. bergi and related to CNP and nonglycosidic cyanogens, measured as hydrogen cyanide. Additionally, 161 low-CNP varieties (Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) were screened for resistance/tolerance to C. bergi. Low root damage scores were registered at all levels of CNP. Nevertheless, CNP and yield (or root size) partly explained the damage in cassava siblings (r2 = 0.82) and different cassava varieties (r2 = 0.42), but only when mean values of damage scores were used. This relation was only significant in one of two crop cycles. A logistic model describes the underlying negative relation between CNP and damage. An exponential model describes the underlying negative relation between root size and damage. Damage, caused by C. bergi feeding, released nonglycosidic cyanogens, and an exponential model fits the underlying positive relation. Fifteen low-CNP clones were selected for potential resistance/tolerance against C. bergi.

  4. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-01-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  5. Changing risk of spring frost damage in grapevines due to climate change? A case study in the Swiss Rhone Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg; Holzkämper, Annelie

    2018-06-01

    Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture. Twelve phenology models were calibrated for the developmental stage BBCH09 (bud burst) using measured or reconstructed temperature data for two vineyards in Changins (1958 to 2012) and Leytron (1977 to 2014) together with observed phenological data. The day of year (DOY) for BBCH09 was then modelled for the years 1951 to 2050 using the best performing phenology model in combination with ten downscaled and bias-corrected climate scenarios. A 100-day period starting with BBCH09 was defined, during which daily mean and minimum temperatures were used to calculate three frost risk indices in each year. These indices were compared between the periods 1961-1990 (reference) and 2021-2050 (climate change scenario). Based on the average of the ensemble of climate model chains, BBCH09 advanced by 9 (range 7-11) (Aigle) and 7 (range 5-8) (Sion) days between the two time periods, similar to the shift in the last day of frost. The separate results of the different model chains suggest that, in the near future, late spring frost risk may increase or decrease, depending on location and climate change projections. While for the reference, the risk is larger at the warmer site (Sion) compared to that at the cooler site (Aigle), for the period 2021-2050, small shifts in both phenology and occurrence of frost (i.e., days with daily minimum temperature below 0 °C) lead to a small decrease in frost risk at the warmer but an increase at the cooler

  6. 4-Aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) - DNA Damage in Breast Tissue and Relationship to p53 Mutations and Polymorphisms of Metabolizing Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niguidula, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    .... The analysis of the CYP1A2 gene is currently in progress. Due to the difficulty in obtaining large fragments of DNA from the tumor tissue sections required for PCR-RFLP, a new method is under development for genotyping NAT2...

  7. Analysis of DNA vulnerability to damage, repair and degradation in tissues of irradiated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Ivannik, B.P.

    1982-01-01

    Single-strand and paired ruptures of DNA were found to result in appearance of locally denaturated areas in its secondary structure and to disordered protein-DNA interaction. It was shown with the use of the viscosimeter method of measuring the molecular mass of single stranded high-polymeric DNA that cells of various tissues by the intensity of DNA repair can be divided into two groups, rapid- and slow-repair ones. Tissue specificity of enzyme function of the repair systems and systems responsible for post-irradiation DNA degradation depends on the activity of endonucleases synthesized by the cells both in health and in their irradiation-induced synthesis

  8. Electron Microscopy Study of Stainless Steel Radiation Damage Due to Long-Term Irradation by Alpha Particles Emitted From Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Kenan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Rios-Martinez, Carlos [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Saglam, Mehmet [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Hart, Ron R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, John D. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Rennie, John [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-04-16

    Radiation damage and associated surface and microstructural changes produced in stainless steel encapsulation by high-fluence alpha particle irradiations from weapons-grade plutonium of 316-stainless steel are being investigated.

  9. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  10. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova; Alexander M. Uzdin; Tatiana M. Chirkst

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thu...

  11. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, G; Foltán, R; Burian, M; Horká, E; Adámek, S; Hejčl, A; Hanzelka, T; Sedý, J

    2011-08-01

    Piezosurgery is a promising meticulous system for bone cutting, based on ultrasound microvibrations. It is thought that the impact of piezosurgery on the integrity of soft tissue is generally low, but it has not been examined critically. The authors undertook an experimental study to evaluate the brain tissue response to skull bone removal using piezosurgery compared with a conventional drilling method. In Wistar male rats, a circular bone window was drilled to the parietal bone using piezosurgery on one side and a conventional bone drill on the other side. The behavioural performance of animals was evaluated using the motor BBB test and sensory plantar test. The brains of animals were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology. The results of MRI showed significantly increased depth and width of the brain lesion in the region of conventional drilling compared with the region where piezosurgery was used. Cresylviolet and NF 160 staining confirmed these findings. There was no significant difference in any of the behavioural tests between the two groups. In conclusion, piezosurgery is a safe method for the performance of osteotomy in close relation to soft tissue, including an extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as brain. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory and regenerative responses in salmonids following mechanical tissue damage and natural infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Lunder, Tor; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2010-01-01

    are coding for immunological factors and tissue regeneration. Locale, inflammatory responses were seen as strong up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-8 in both groups of fish, but it was more pronounced in infected fish. Expression of the toll-like receptors showed induction of TLR-5m following infection, but TLR-9...

  13. C60 exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Heckmann, L.H.; Hout, van der A.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C60 exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock

  14. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  15. Relationship between opioid therapy, tissue-damaging procedures, and brain metabolites as measured by proton MRS in asphyxiated term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Ashwal, Stephen; Wycliffe, Nathaniel D; Ebner, Charlotte; Fayard, Elba; Sowers, Lawrence; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2007-05-01

    To examine the effects of opioid and tissue-damaging procedures (TDPs) [i.e. procedures performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) known to result in pain, stress, and tissue damage] on brain metabolites, we reviewed the medical records of 28 asphyxiated term neonates (eight opioid-treated, 20 non-opioid treated) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) within the first month of life as well as eight newborns with no clinical findings of asphyxial injury. We found that lower creatine (Cr), myoinositol (Ins), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/choline (Cho) (p OGM) NAA/Cr was decreased (p = 0.03) and lactate (Lac) was present in a significantly higher amount (40%; p = 0.03) in non-opioid-treated neonates compared with opioid-treated neonates. Compared with controls, untreated neonates showed larger changes in more metabolites in basal ganglia (BG), thalami (TH), and OGM with greater significance than treated neonates. Our data suggest that TDPs affect spectral metabolites and that opioids do not cause harm in asphyxiated term neonates exposed to repetitive TDPs in the first 2-4 DOL and may provide a degree of neuroprotection.

  16. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  17. Effects of cryotherapy combined with therapeutic ultrasound on oxidative stress and tissue damage after musculoskeletal contusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C N; Moraes, M B; Hauck, M; Guerreiro, L F; Rossato, D D; Varela, A S; da Rosa, C E; Signori, L U

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the combined effects of cryotherapy and pulsed ultrasound therapy (PUT) on oxidative stress parameters, tissue damage markers and systemic inflammation after musculoskeletal injury. Experimental animal study. Research laboratory. Seventy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control, lesion, cryotherapy, PUT, and cryotherapy+PUT. The gastrocnemius muscle was injured by mechanical crushing. Cryotherapy was applied immediately after injury (immersion in water at 10°C for 20minutes). PUT was commenced 24hours after injury (1MHz, 0.4W/cm 2SPTA , 20% duty cycle, 5minutes). All animals were treated every 8hours for 3 days. Oxidative stress in muscle was evaluated by concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), anti-oxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and catalase. Plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. When applied individually, cryotherapy and PUT reduced CK, LDH, CRP and LPO caused by muscle damage. Cryotherapy+PUT in combination maintained the previous results, caused a reduction in ROS [P=0.005, mean difference -0.9×10 -8 relative area, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.2 to -1.9], and increased ACAP {P=0.007, mean difference 0.34 1/[relative area with/without 2,2-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine)dihydrochloride], 95% CI 0.07 to 0.61} and catalase (P=0.002, mean difference 0.41units/mg protein, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.73) compared with the lesion group. Cryotherapy+PUT in combination reduced oxidative stress in muscle, contributing to a reduction in adjacent damage and tissue repair. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Zaccagnini

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time, diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1 T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2 Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3 K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows the Evaluation of Tissue Damage and Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnini, Germana; Palmisano, Anna; Canu, Tamara; Maimone, Biagina; Lo Russo, Francesco M; Ambrogi, Federico; Gaetano, Carlo; De Cobelli, Francesco; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Esposito, Antonio; Martelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides non-invasive, repetitive measures in the same individual, allowing the study of a physio-pathological event over time. In this study, we tested the performance of 7 Tesla multi-parametric MRI to monitor the dynamic changes of mouse skeletal muscle injury and regeneration upon acute ischemia induced by femoral artery dissection. T2-mapping (T2 relaxation time), diffusion-tensor imaging (Fractional Anisotropy) and perfusion by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (K-trans) were measured and imaging results were correlated with histological morphometric analysis in both Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles. We found that tissue damage positively correlated with T2-relaxation time, while myofiber regeneration and capillary density positively correlated with Fractional Anisotropy. Interestingly, K-trans positively correlated with capillary density. Accordingly, repeated MRI measurements between day 1 and day 28 after surgery in ischemic muscles showed that: 1) T2-relaxation time rapidly increased upon ischemia and then gradually declined, returning almost to basal level in the last phases of the regeneration process; 2) Fractional Anisotropy dropped upon ischemic damage induction and then recovered along with muscle regeneration and neoangiogenesis; 3) K-trans reached a minimum upon ischemia, then progressively recovered. Overall, Gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior muscles displayed similar patterns of MRI parameters dynamic, with more marked responses and less variability in Tibialis anterior. We conclude that MRI provides quantitative information about both tissue damage after ischemia and the subsequent vascular and muscle regeneration, accounting for the differences between subjects and, within the same individual, between different muscles.

  20. Identification of molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced vascular damage in normal tissues using microarray analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, J.J.C.M.; Te Poele, J.A.M.; Russell, N.S.; Boersma, L.J.; Stewart, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced telangiectasia, characterized by thin-walled dilated blood vessels, can be a serious late complication in patients that have been previously treated for cancer. It might cause cosmetic problems when occurring in the skin, and excessive bleeding requiring surgery when occurring in rectal mucosa. The mechanisms underlying the development of radiation-induced telangiectasia are unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether microarrays are useful for studying mechanisms of radiation-induced telangiectasia. The second aim is to test the hypotheses that telangiectasia is characterized by a final common pathway in different tissues. Microarray experiments were performed using amplified RNA from (sham)irradiated mouse tissues (kidney, rectum) at different intervals (1-30 weeks) after irradiation. After normalization procedures, the differentially expressed genes were identified. Control/repeat experiments were done to confirm that the observations were not artifacts of the array procedure. The mouse kidney experiments showed significant upregulation of 31 and 42 genes and downregulation of 9 and 4 genes at 10 and 20 weeks after irradiation, respectively. Irradiated mouse rectum has 278 upregulated and 537 downregulated genes at 10 weeks and 86 upregulated and 29 downregulated genes at 20 weeks. During the development of telangiectasia, 19 upregulated genes and 5 downregulated genes were common to both tissues. Upregulation of Jagged-1, known to play a role in angiogenesis, is particularly interesting in the context of radiation-induced telangiectasia. Microarrays are affective discovery tools to identify novel genes of interest, which may be involved in radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Using information from control arrays (particularly straight color, color reverse and self-self experiments) allowed for a more accurate and reproducible identification of differentially expressed genes than the selection of an arbitrary 2-fold change

  1. Cavitation Induced Structural and Neural Damage in Live Brain Tissue Slices: Relevance to TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-29

    objective of this project is to determine the conditions conducive for cavitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and corresponding tissue injury in 2-D brain...the radius of an isolated spherical bubble in an infinite, incompressible liquid is given by Where, R is the instantaneous bubble radius, which can...by the pressure transducer placed in the test chamber, and PR is the pressure in the liquid at the boundary of the bubble. The measurable bubble

  2. Quantitative assessment of intergranular damage due to PWR primary water exposure in structural Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît; Deleume, Julien; Cloué, Jean-Marc; Andrieu, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► IG damage occurred on Ni-base alloys during exposure at high temperature water. ► Two characterization methods yield a tomographic analysis of this IG damage. ► Connected or isolated intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations are quantified. ► Such quantitative description provides information on IGSCC susceptibility. - Abstract: Two nickel-based alloys, alloy 718 and alloy 600, known to have different resistances to IGSCC, were exposed to a simulated PWR primary water environment at 360 °C for 1000 h. The intergranular oxidation damage was analyzed in detail using an original approach involving two characterization methods (Incremental Mechanical Polishing/Microcopy procedure and SIMS imaging) which yielded a tomographic analysis of the damage. Intergranular oxygen/oxide penetrations occurred either as connected or isolated penetrations deep under the external oxide/substrate interface as far as 10 μm for alloy 600 and only 4 μm for alloy 718. Therefore, assessing this damage precisely is essential to interpret IGSCC susceptibility.

  3. ESTIMATION OF DAMAGED AREAS DUE TO THE 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI USING SAR IMAGERY OF ALOS/PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ni Made

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  4. Evaluation of creep damage due to stress relaxation in SA533 grade B class 1 and SA508 class 3 pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.L.; Urko, W.

    1993-01-01

    Creep damage can result from stress relaxation of residual stresses in components when exposed to high temperature thermal cycles. Pressure vessels, such as the reactor vessel of the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR), which normally operate at temperatures well below the creep range can develop relatively high residual stresses in high stress locations. During short term excursions to elevated-temperatures, creep damage can be produced by the loadings on the vessel. In addition, residual stresses will relax out, causing greater creep damage in the pressure vessel material than might otherwise be calculated. The evaluation described in this paper assesses the magnitude of the creep damage due to relaxation of residual stresses resulting from short term exposure of the pressure vessel material to temperatures in the creep range. Creep relaxation curves were generated for SA533 Grade B, Class 1 and SA508 Class 3 pressure vessel steels using finite element analysis of a simple uniaxial truss loaded under constant strain conditions to produce an initial axial stress equal to 1.25 times the material yield strength at temperature. The strain is held constant for 1000 hours at prescribed temperatures from 700 F to 1000 F. The material creep law is used to calculate the relaxed stress for each time increment. The calculated stress relaxation versus time curves are compared with stress relaxation test data. Creep damage fractions are calculated by integrating the stress relaxation versus time curves and performing a linear creep damage summation using the minimum stress to rupture curves at the respective relaxation temperatures. Cumulative creep damage due to stress relaxation as a function of time and temperature is derived from the linear damage summation

  5. Clinical implications of oral candidiasis: host tissue damage and disseminated bacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric F; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2015-02-01

    The clinical significance of polymicrobial interactions, particularly those between commensal species with high pathogenic potential, remains largely understudied. Although the dimorphic fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are common cocolonizers of humans, they are considered leading opportunistic pathogens. Oral candidiasis specifically, characterized by hyphal invasion of oral mucosal tissue, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) and immunocompromised individuals. In this study, building on our previous findings, a mouse model was developed to investigate whether the onset of oral candidiasis predisposes the host to secondary staphylococcal infection. The findings demonstrated that in mice with oral candidiasis, subsequent exposure to S. aureus resulted in systemic bacterial infection with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy of tongue tissue from moribund animals revealed massive C. albicans hyphal invasion coupled with S. aureus deep tissue infiltration. The crucial role of hyphae in the process was demonstrated using a non-hypha-producing and a noninvasive hypha-producing mutant strains of C. albicans. Further, in contrast to previous findings, S. aureus dissemination was aided but not contingent upon the presence of the Als3p hypha-specific adhesion. Importantly, impeding development of mucosal C. albicans infection by administering antifungal fluconazole therapy protected the animals from systemic bacterial disease. The combined findings from this study demonstrate that oral candidiasis may constitute a risk factor for disseminated bacterial disease warranting awareness in terms of therapeutic management of immunocompromised individuals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Stochastic Threshold Exponential (TE) Model for Hematopoietic Tissue Reconstitution Deficit after Radiation Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B R; Potter, C A

    2014-07-01

    Whole-body exposure to large radiation doses can cause severe loss of hematopoietic tissue cells and threaten life if the lost cells are not replaced in a timely manner through natural repopulation (a homeostatic mechanism). Repopulation to the baseline level N 0 is called reconstitution and a reconstitution deficit (repopulation shortfall) can occur in a dose-related and organ-specific manner. Scott et al. (2013) previously introduced a deterministic version of a threshold exponential (TE) model of tissue-reconstitution deficit at a given follow-up time that was applied to bone marrow and spleen cellularity (number of constituent cells) data obtained 6 weeks after whole-body gamma-ray exposure of female C.B-17 mice. In this paper a more realistic, stochastic version of the TE model is provided that allows radiation response to vary between different individuals. The Stochastic TE model is applied to post gamma-ray-exposure cellularity data previously reported and also to more limited X-ray cellularity data for whole-body irradiated female C.B-17 mice. Results indicate that the population average threshold for a tissue reconstitution deficit appears to be similar for bone marrow and spleen and for 320-kV-spectrum X-rays and Cs-137 gamma rays. This means that 320-kV spectrum X-rays could successfully be used in conducting such studies.

  7. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.ruebe@uks.eu

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm.

  8. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm

  9. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE [Department of Energy] N-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L.; Baxter, J.T.; Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P.; Brosseau, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs

  10. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  11. Alteration of gene expression profile in Niemann-Pick type C mice correlates with tissue damage and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Vázquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a neurovisceral lipid storage disorder mainly characterized by unesterified cholesterol accumulation in lysosomal/late endosomal compartments, although there is also an important storage for several other kind of lipids. The main tissues affected by the disease are the liver and the cerebellum. Oxidative stress has been described in various NPC cells and tissues, such as liver and cerebellum. Although considerable alterations occur in the liver, the pathological mechanisms involved in hepatocyte damage and death have not been clearly defined. Here, we assessed hepatic tissue integrity, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters of wild-type control (Npc1(+/+; WT and homozygous-mutant (Npc1(-/-; NPC mice. In addition, the mRNA abundance of genes encoding proteins associated with oxidative stress, copper metabolism, fibrosis, inflammation and cholesterol metabolism were analyzed in livers and cerebella of WT and NPC mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed various oxidative stress parameters in the liver and hepatic and cerebellum gene expression in 7-week-old NPC1-deficient mice compared with control animals. We found signs of inflammation and fibrosis in NPC livers upon histological examination. These signs were correlated with increased levels of carbonylated proteins, diminished total glutathione content and significantly increased total copper levels in liver tissue. Finally, we analyzed liver and cerebellum gene expression patterns by qPCR and microarray assays. We found a correlation between fibrotic tissue and differential expression of hepatic as well as cerebellar genes associated with oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation in NPC mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In NPC mice, liver disease is characterized by an increase in fibrosis and in markers associated with oxidative stress. NPC is also correlated with altered gene expression, mainly of genes involved in oxidative stress

  12. Modeling the yield of double-strand breaks due to formation of multiply damaged sites in irradiated plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xapsos, M.A.; Pogozelski, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    Although double-strand breaks have long been recognized as an important type of DNa lesion, it is well established that this broad class of damage does not correlate well with indicators of the effectiveness of radiation as the cellular level. Assays of double-strand breaks do not distinguish the degree of complexity or clustering of singly damaged sites produced in a single energy deposition event, which is currently hypothesized to be key to understanding cellular end points. As a step toward this understanding, double-strand breaks that are formed proportionally to dose in plasmid DNA are analyzed from the mechanistic aspect to evaluate the yield that arises from multiply damaged sites as hypothesized by Ward (Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 35, 95-125, 1988) and Goodhead (Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 65, 7-17, 1994) as opposed to the yield that arises form single hydroxyl radicals as hypothesized by Siddiqi and Bothe (Radiat. Res. 112, 449-463, 1987). For low-LET radiation such as γ rays, the importance of multiply damaged sites is shown to increase with the solution's hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity. For moderately high-LET radiation such as 100 keV/μm helium ions, a much different behavior is observed. In this case, a large fraction of double-strand breaks are formed as a result of multiply damaged sties over a broad range of scavenging conditions. Results also indicate that the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for common cellular end points correlates more closely with the RBE for multiply damaged sites than with the RBE for total double-strand breaks over a range of LET up to at least 100 keV/μm. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Sensitivity/uncertainty analysis for free-in-air tissue kerma due to initial radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Broadhead, B.L.; Pace, J.V. III

    1988-01-01

    Uncertainty estimates and cross correlations by range/survivor have been calculated for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki free-in-air (FIA) tissue kerma obtained from two-dimensional air/ground transport calculations. The uncertainties due to modeling parameter and basic nuclear transport data uncertainties were calculated for 700-, 1000-, and 1500-m ground ranges. Only the FIA tissue kerma due to initial radiation was treated in the analysis; the uncertainties associated with terrain and building shielding and phantom attenuation were not considered in this study. Uncertainties of --20% were obtained for the prompt neutron and secondary gamma kerma and 30% for the prompt gamma kerma at both cities. The uncertainties on the total prompt kerma at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are --18 and 15%, respectively. The estimated uncertainties vary only slightly by ground range and are fairly highly correlated. The total prompt kerma uncertainties are dominated by the secondary gamma uncertainties, which in turn are dominated by the modeling parameter uncertainties, particularly those associated with the weapon yield and radiation sources

  14. Mechanisms of Vascular Damage by Hemorrhagic Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: Tissue Distribution and In Situ Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Cristiani; Jamora, Colin; Yamanouye, Norma; Zorn, Telma M.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Envenoming by viper snakes constitutes an important public health problem in Brazil and other developing countries. Local hemorrhage is an important symptom of these accidents and is correlated with the action of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The degradation of vascular basement membrane has been proposed as a key event for the capillary vessel disruption. However, SVMPs that present similar catalytic activity towards extracellular matrix proteins differ in their hemorrhagic activity, suggesting that other mechanisms might be contributing to the accumulation of SVMPs at the snakebite area allowing capillary disruption. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we compared the tissue distribution and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins induced by jararhagin (highly hemorrhagic SVMP) and BnP1 (weakly hemorrhagic SVMP) using the mouse skin as experimental model. Jararhagin induced strong hemorrhage accompanied by hydrolysis of collagen fibers in the hypodermis and a marked degradation of type IV collagen at the vascular basement membrane. In contrast, BnP1 induced only a mild hemorrhage and did not disrupt collagen fibers or type IV collagen. Injection of Alexa488-labeled jararhagin revealed fluorescent staining around capillary vessels and co-localization with basement membrane type IV collagen. The same distribution pattern was detected with jararhagin-C (disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich domains of jararhagin). In opposition, BnP1 did not accumulate in the tissues. Conclusions/Significance These results show a particular tissue distribution of hemorrhagic toxins accumulating at the basement membrane. This probably occurs through binding to collagens, which are drastically hydrolyzed at the sites of hemorrhagic lesions. Toxin accumulation near blood vessels explains enhanced catalysis of basement membrane components, resulting in the strong hemorrhagic activity of SVMPs. This is a novel mechanism that underlies the difference between

  15. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwangwon [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jungkee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoon [Jeonbuk Technopark, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage.

  16. Prevention Effect of Poly-Gamma-Glutamic Acid on Tissue Damage Induced by Gamma Irradiation as a Natural Cross-Linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Sung, Nakyun; Kim, Jeongsoo; Jo, Euri; Choi, Jongil; Park, Jongheum; Lee, Juwoon; Lee, Kwangwon; Kwon, Jungkee; Kim, Taewoon

    2012-01-01

    This study was to determine the prevention effect of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGA) on tissue damage induced by gamma irradiation for development of xenograft. PGA (MW 2000 kDa) extracted from permeated soy bean (natto) was used in this study as natural compound, and glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) were used as a control, chemical based cross-linking agents. GA, EDC and PGA treated porcine tendons were gamma-irradiated at the dose of 30 kGy. Prevention effects against tissue damage were measured as the result of tensile strength, hydroxyproline contents and tissue morphological analysis. Tensile of porcine tendon was remarkably decreased by gamma irradiation, but increased in PGA treated group. Morphological analysis showed that collagen structure was broken by gamma irradiation, but attenuated by PGA treatment. Base on the results, it demonstrated that gamma irradiation can induce severe alteration of porcine tendon, but PGA can effectively improve the tissue damage

  17. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  18. Photodynamic damage to cartilage and synovial tissue grafted on a chick's chorioallantoic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M.; Nahir, A. M.; Kimel, Sol

    1997-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the synovial joints causing pain deformities and disability. The highly vascular inflamed synovium has aggressive and destructive characteristics, it invades, erodes and gradually destroys cartilage and underlying bone. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model to investigate the vitality of synovium and cartilage implanted on the CAM. Synovium, obtained from human patients, was grafted onto the CAM; gross microscopy and histology proved its vitality 7 days post grafting. Cartilage obtained from rabbit knee joint was also maintained on the CAM for 7 days. Its vitality was demonstrated by histology and by measuring metabolic and enzymatic activity of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) as well as the collagen and proteoglycans content. Selective PDT was performed using aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4), a hydrophilic compound, soluble in biological solutions, as a photosensitizer. After irradiation with a diode laser (lambda equals 670 nm, 10 mW) damage was observed in vascularized synovium grafts, whereas avascular cartilage remained intact.

  19. Core damage vulnerability due to the loss of ESW [essential service water] systems at multiplant sites: An assessment and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to establish the core damage vulnerability caused by the failure of the ESW systems in multiplant units that have only two sw pumps per unit with crosstie capability. Design and operating data have been surveyed to derive system failure frequency. A core damage model is constructed including operating configurations, specific recovery actions, and time and leak rate dependent RCP seal LOCA model. The estimated CDF SW = 2.55 x 10 -4 /yr is significant indicating the potential vulnerability of this particular SW design arrangement. A number of different potential improvements have been considered. The addition of a swing pump serving both units is shown to have the most significant CDF reduction potential (∼50%) combined with advantageous cost/benefit aspects. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  20. The influence of water/air cooling on collateral tissue damage using a diode laser with an innovative pulse design (micropulsed mode)-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, F; Körpert, W; Buchmair, A G; Passow, H; Meinl, A; Heimel, P; Moritz, A

    2013-05-01

    Since the diode laser is a good compromise for the daily use in dental offices, finding usage in numerous dental indications (e.g., surgery, periodontics, and endodontics), the minimization of the collateral damage in laser surgery is important to improve the therapeutical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water/air cooling on the collateral thermal soft tissue damage of 980-nm diode laser incisions. A total of 36 mechanically executed laser cuts in pork liver were made with a 980-nm diode laser in micropulsed mode with three different settings of water/air cooling and examined by histological assessment to determine the area and size of carbonization, necrosis, and reversible tissue damage as well as incision depth and width. In our study, clearly the incision depth increased significantly under water/air cooling (270.9 versus 502.3 μm-test group 3) without significant changes of incision width. In test group 2, the total area of damage was significantly smaller than in the control group (in this group, the incision depth increases by 65 %). In test group 3, the total area of damage was significantly higher (incision depth increased by 85 %), but the bigger part of it represented a reversible tissue alteration leaving the amount of irreversible damage almost the same as in the control group. This first pilot study clearly shows that water/air cooling in vitro has an effect on collateral tissue damage. Further studies will have to verify, if the reduced collateral damage we have proved in this study can lead to accelerated wound healing. Reduction of collateral thermal damage after diode laser incisions is clinically relevant for promoted wound healing.

  1. Shock-induced heating and millisecond boiling in gels and tissue due to high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, Michael S.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Bessonova, Olga V.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation causes high intensity ultrasound waves to distort and generate higher harmonics, which are more readily absorbed and converted to heat than the fundamental frequency. Although such nonlinear effects have previously been investigated and found not to significantly alter high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments, two results reported here change this paradigm. One is that at clinically relevant intensity levels, HIFU waves not only become distorted but form shock waves in tissue. The other is that the generated shock waves heat the tissue to boiling in much less time than predicted for undistorted or weakly distorted waves. In this study, a 2-MHz HIFU source operating at peak intensities up to 25,000 W/cm2 was used to heat transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver samples. Initiation of boiling was detected using high-speed photography, a 20-MHz passive cavitation detector, and fluctuation of the drive voltage at the HIFU source. The time to boil obtained experimentally was used to quantify heating rates and was compared to calculations using weak shock theory and the shock amplitudes obtained from nonlinear modeling and from measurements with a fiber optic hydrophone. As observed experimentally and predicted by calculations, shocked focal waveforms produced boiling in as little as 3 ms and the time to initiate boiling was sensitive to small changes in HIFU output. Nonlinear heating due to shock waves is therefore important to HIFU and clinicians should be aware of the potential for very rapid boiling since it alters treatments. PMID:20018433

  2. Protective effect of pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L. on fetal testicular tissue damage in alloxan- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of abnormalities in different organs of the fetus and newborn of diabetic mothers has been proven today. Considering the irreversible damages of the disease in newborns’ reproductive system any action to reduce the abnormalities has an especial importance and necessity. In this experimental study, the protective effects of pumpkin powder on reducing testicular tissue damages of rats born from diabetic mothers has been studied. The pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 rats, as follows: 1 treatment group with pumpkin powder, 2 diabetic control group, 3 treatment group (diabetic animals treated with pumpkin powder and 4 healthy control group. Experimental diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg b.w. alloxan monohydrate. The first and third groups received 2 g/kg b.w. pumpkin powder for 4 weeks via gavage. The histological and morphometric changes such as weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cell numbers were compared. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparisons test and p

  3. [Follow-up on an outbreak in Venezuela of soft-tissue infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus associated with Mesotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Mata Jardín, Omaira; Hernández-Pérez, Rolando; Corrales, Haideé; Cardoso-Leao, Sylvia; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2010-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NMT) are reported to be associated with injections, liposuction, plastic surgery, and acupuncture. Herein, we describe an outbreak of soft tissue infection due to NMT following mesotherapy, a cosmetic procedure involving injection of poorly defined mixtures alleged to reduce local adiposity. Patients with skin lesions and a history of mesotherapy treatment, who visited the dermatology department of the public hospital in Barinas, Venezuela, from November 2004 to February 2005 were interviewed. Clinical and environmental samples were taken for mycobacteria isolation. The interviews revealed that 68 patients who had been treated for cosmetic purposes at the same clinic by the same therapist had received injections with the same product and were infected with NMT. Clinical specimens from 5 patients grew Mycobacterium abscessus. No mesotherapy solution was available for analysis but M. abscessus was isolated from an environmental sample in the clinic. PCR-based strain typing techniques (ERIC-PCR, BOXA1R and RAPD) showed that the patient's isolates were undistinguishable from each other but different from the environmental isolate. This outbreak was likely caused by a contaminated injectable mesotherapy product and not by mycobacteria from the clinic environment. We emphasize the importance of better microbiological control of these products. To our knowledge, this outbreak, which affected at least 68 patients, appears to be the largest ever associated with mesotherapy and described in the literature. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate lymphoid cells: the role in respiratory infections and lung tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głobińska, Anna; Kowalski, Marek L

    2017-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases. Areas covered: In this review we highlighted the role of ILCs in the lungs, citing the most recent studies in this area. PubMed searches (2004- July 2017) were conducted using the term 'innate lymphoid cells respiratory viral infections' in combination with other relevant terms including various respiratory viruses. Expert commentary: Since studies of ILCs have opened new areas of investigation, understanding the role of ILCs in respiratory infections may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying viral-induced exacerbations of lung diseases, providing the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Potential therapeutic targets have already been identified. So far, the most promising strategy is cytokine-targeting, although further clinical trials are needed to verify its effectiveness.

  5. Can Rotational Atherectomy Cause Thermal Tissue Damage? A Study of the Potential Heating and Thermal Tissue Effects of a Rotational Atherectomy Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehani, Abdurrazzak A.; Rees, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal tissue damage (TTD) is customarily associated with some lasers. The thermal potential of rotational atherectomy (RA) devices is unknown. We investigated the temperature profile and potential TTD as well as the value of fluid flushing of an RA device. Methods: We used a high-resolution infrared imaging system that can detect changes as small as 0.1 deg. C to measure the temperature changes at the tip of a fast RA device with and without fluid flushing. To assess TTD, segments of porcine aorta were subjected to the rotating tip under controlled conditions, stained by a special histochemical stain (picrisirius red) and examined under normal and polarized light microscopy. Results: There was significant heating of the rotating cam. The mean 'peak' temperature rise was 52.8 ± 16.9 deg. C. This was related to rotational speed; thus the 'peak' temperature rise was 88.3 ± 12.6 deg. C at 80,000 rpm and 17.3 ± 3.8 deg. C at 20,000 rpm (p < 0.001, t-test). Fluid flushing at 18 ml/min reduced, but did not abolish, heating of the device (11.8 ± 2.9 deg. C). A crater was observed in all segments exposed to the rotating tip. The following features were most notable: (i) A zone of 'thermal' tissue damage extended radially from the crater reaching adventitia in some sections, especially at high speeds. This zone showed markedly reduced or absent birefringence. (ii) Fluid flushing of the catheter reduced the above changes but increased the incidence and extent of dissections in the media, especially when combined with high atherectomy speeds. (iii) These changes were observed in five of six specimens exposed to RA without flushing, but in only one of six with flushing (p < 0.05). (iv) None of the above changes was seen in control segments. Conclusion: RA is capable of generating significant heat and potential TTD. Fluid flushing reduced heating and TTD. These findings warrant further studies in vivo, and may influence the design of atherectomy devices

  6. Mechanistic simulation of normal-tissue damage in radiotherapy-implications for dose-volume analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowska, Eva; Baker, Colin; Nahum, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A radiobiologically based 3D model of normal tissue has been developed in which complications are generated when 'irradiated'. The aim is to provide insight into the connection between dose-distribution characteristics, different organ architectures and complication rates beyond that obtainable with simple DVH-based analytical NTCP models. In this model the organ consists of a large number of functional subunits (FSUs), populated by stem cells which are killed according to the LQ model. A complication is triggered if the density of FSUs in any 'critical functioning volume' (CFV) falls below some threshold. The (fractional) CFV determines the organ architecture and can be varied continuously from small (series-like behaviour) to large (parallel-like). A key feature of the model is its ability to account for the spatial dependence of dose distributions. Simulations were carried out to investigate correlations between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of 'complications' using different pseudo-clinical dose distributions. Correlations between dose-volume parameters and outcome depended on characteristics of the dose distributions and on organ architecture. As anticipated, the mean dose and V 20 correlated most strongly with outcome for a parallel organ, and the maximum dose for a serial organ. Interestingly better correlation was obtained between the 3D computer model and the LKB model with dose distributions typical for serial organs than with those typical for parallel organs. This work links the results of dose-volume analyses to dataset characteristics typical for serial and parallel organs and it may help investigators interpret the results from clinical studies.

  7. Global Proteomic Analysis of Brain Tissues in Transient Ischemia Brain Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Hwa Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury resulting from arterial occlusion or hypotension in patients leads to tissue hypoxia with glucose deprivation, which causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and neuronal death. A proteomic approach was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the brain of rats following a global ischemic stroke. The mechanisms involved the action in apoptotic and ER stress pathways. Rats were treated with ischemia-reperfusion brain injuries by the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. The cortical neuron proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM and the control rats were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE to purify and identify the protein profiles. Our results demonstrated that the SAM rats experienced brain cell death in the ischemic core. Fifteen proteins were expressed differentially between the SAM rats and control rats, which were assayed and validated in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, the set of differentially expressed, down-regulated proteins included catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT and cathepsin D (CATD, which are implicated in oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis. After an ischemic stroke, one protein spot, namely the calretinin (CALB2 protein, showed increased expression. It mediated the effects of SAM administration on the apoptotic and ER stress pathways. Our results demonstrate that the ischemic injury of neuronal cells increased cell cytoxicity and apoptosis, which were accompanied by sustained activation of the IRE1-alpha/TRAF2, JNK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways. Proteomic analysis suggested that the differential expression of CALB2 during a global ischemic stroke could be involved in the mechanisms of ER stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis, which occurred via IRE1-alpha/TRAF2 complex formation, with activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Based on these results, we also provide the molecular evidence supporting the ischemia

  8. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

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    Akbar Anaeigoudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum, on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1 vehicle, (2 PTZ (90 mg/kg, (3 water fraction (WF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, (4 n-butanol fraction (NBF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg, and (5 ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg. Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p< 0.01. In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p< 0.001. Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (pConclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.

  9. ALKBH7 drives a tissue and sex-specific necrotic cell death response following alkylation-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer J; Chhim, Sophea; Margulies, Carrie M; Allocca, Mariacarmela; Bronson, Roderick T; Klungland, Arne; Samson, Leona D; Fu, Dragony

    2017-01-01

    Regulated necrosis has emerged as a major cell death mechanism in response to different forms of physiological and pharmacological stress. The AlkB homolog 7 (ALKBH7) protein is required for regulated cellular necrosis in response to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents but its role within a whole organism is unknown. Here, we show that ALKBH7 modulates alkylation-induced cellular death through a tissue and sex-specific mechanism. At the whole-animal level, we find that ALKBH7 deficiency confers increased resistance to MMS-induced toxicity in male but not female mice. Moreover, ALKBH7-deficient mice exhibit protection against alkylation-mediated cytotoxicity in retinal photoreceptor and cerebellar granule cells, two cell types that undergo necrotic death through the initiation of the base excision repair pathway and hyperactivation of the PARP1/ARTD1 enzyme. Notably, the protection against alkylation-induced cerebellar degeneration is specific to ALKBH7-deficient male but not female mice. Our results uncover an in vivo role for ALKBH7 in mediating a sexually dimorphic tissue response to alkylation damage that could influence individual responses to chemotherapies based upon alkylating agents. PMID:28726787

  10. Safety and effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol barrier in reducing risks of vascular tissue damage during anterior spinal revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffords, Paul; Li, Jinsheng; Panchal, Deepal; Denoziere, Guilhem; Fetterolf, Donald

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted as a controlled, prospective investigation to show the safety and efficacy of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) device in a sheep model. To evaluate the ability of a permanent PVA hydrogel barrier to reduce the risk of potential vessel damage during anterior vertebral revision surgery, to provide a nonadhesive barrier at the surgical site, and to create a surgical revision plane of dissection. The development of scar tissue and adhesions presents a significant postoperative problem in spine surgery, where adhesion involvement of overlying structures can cause pain, neurovascular complications, and present a difficult surgical environment during revisions. The devices were implanted onto the ventral surface of exposed lumbar intervertebral discs using an anterolateral approach. One disc separated from the study site was also exposed to serve as a control. Three sheep each were then evaluated with an explant procedure at 30 and 90 days. Extensive sampling was undertaken to evaluate gross anatomic, micropathologic, and biochemical environments and properties of the device. The structural properties and appearance of the device remained intact at both 30 and 90 days. The material remained flexible, hydrophilic, and soft, without visible resorption or decomposition. The material was well tolerated by the animal, with minimal histologic signs of inflammation or rejection. Tissue planes were easily able to be localized by the surgeon attempting to locate the prior surgical site at the time of resection. The PVA vessel shield effectively protected the structures overlying the sheep spine during revision, providing a clear dissection plane for resection at repeat surgery. The overlying structures separated from the previous surgical site with no adhesion, and allowed safe separation of adjacent tissues without the use of sharp dissection.

  11. Extent, perception and mitigation of damage due to high groundwater levels in the city of Dresden, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk analysis and management plans mostly neglect groundwater flooding, i.e. high groundwater levels. However, rising groundwater may cause considerable damage to buildings and infrastructure. To improve the knowledge about groundwater flooding and support risk management, a survey was undertaken in the city of Dresden (Saxony, Germany, resulting in 605 completed interviews with private households endangered by high groundwater levels. The reported relatively low flood impact and damage of groundwater floods in comparison with mixed floods was reflected by its scarce perception: Hardly anybody thinks about the risk of groundwater flooding. The interviewees thought that public authorities and not themselves, should be mainly responsible for preparedness and emergency response. Up to now, people do not include groundwater risk in their decision processes on self protection. The implementation of precautionary measures does not differ between households with groundwater or with mixed flood experience. However, less households undertake emergency measures when expecting a groundwater flood only. The state of preparedness should be further improved via an intensified risk communication about groundwater flooding by the authorities. Conditions to reach the endangered population are good, since 70% of the interviewed people are willing to inform themselves about groundwater floods. Recommendations for an improved risk communication are given.

  12. Aldh2 knockout mice were more sensitive to DNA damage in leukocytes due to ethyl tertiary butyl ether exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Suda, Megumi; Ohtani, Katsumi; Mei, Nan; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the genotoxicity of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), a gasoline additive, male and female C57BL/6 mice of Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- genotypes, aged 8 wk, were exposed to 0, 500, 1,750, or 5,000 ppm ETBE for 6 h/day, 5 d per week for 13 wk. DNA damage in leukocytes was measured by the alkaline comet assay and expressed quantitatively as Tail Intensity (TI). For male mice, TI was significantly higher in all three groups exposed to ETBE than in those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice, whereas within Aldh2+/+ mice, TI increased only in those exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with mice without exposure. For female mice, a significant increase in TI values was observed in the group exposed to 5,000 ppm of ETBE as compared with those without exposure within Aldh2-/- mice; TI in Aldh2-/- mice exposed to 1,750 and 5,000 ppm was significantly higher than in Aldh2+/+ mice without exposure. TI did not significantly increase in any of the groups exposed to ETBE within female Aldh2+/+ mice. Based on the results we suggest that Aldh2-/- mice are more sensitive to DNA damage caused by ETBE than Aldh2+/+ mice and that males seem more susceptible to this effect than females.

  13. Potentiality of Melatonin as a Radiation Protector against Hemoglobin Damage in the Experimental Animals Due to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Hassan, R. A.; Mohamed, Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes serious damage in biological system. Some drugs and antioxidants are used to prevent such damage. In the present study two doses of melatonin (10 mg⁄kg and 30 mg⁄kg) were selected to be used for such purpose. The radioprotective effects of melatonin on hemoglobin of red blood cells from female mice was studied through UV absorption spectrum, ESR spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and relative viscosity .The results of Hemoglobin absorption indicate that a pronounced increase in the average value of peak position and width at half maximum W hmax followed by a decrease in the absorbance of sort band, decrease in absorption ratio A 578 / A 540 in addition to disappearance of globin band at 275 nm. The free radicals which are expected to be formed after exposing to γ-irradiation are detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The results indicate that the intensity of ESR signal for hemoglobin extracted from animals exposed to γ- irradiation is greater as compared with normal hemoglobin. Dielectric measurements indicate that there is an increase in dielectric permittivity (ε‵), the dielectric loss (ε‶) and the a.c conductivity (σ ac ) while some decrease is noticed in the viscosity measurements after exposing to irradiation. The data obtained from the whole studied parameters after treating animals with melatonin become closer to those for unirradiated samples.

  14. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  15. Normal tissue damage in radiotherapy development of a clinical audit tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatments are evaluated by two main outcomes, rates of cure or local tumour control and normal tissue complication rates. Many excellent schemes have been devised for recording the late effects of radiotherapy treatments including the RTOG and LENT SOMA Scales. These have proved invaluable in documenting the outcome of clinical trials, but have proved too complex and time consuming for routine daily use in busy departments. A group in Eindhoven led by Professor Lybeert undertook a pilot study of a potential way of auditing late radiation complications. Using a simplified form derived from the LENT SOMA scales, they collected data on grade 3 and 4 complications in a total of 675 patients and were able to correlate a number of particular complications with specific protocols, ICD codes and physician practice. Further review of the case records made it possible to identify specific factors which may have led to toxicity and could be taken into account to modify treatment protocols. From September 1999 clinicians in participating centres undertaking normal follow-up procedures were asked to identify patients who showed evidence of grade 3 or 4 toxicity as defined in the pro-forma. Date of radiotherapy was recorded so that a temporal correlation of complication with treatment could be made, but this study did not attempt to assess the incidence of complications, but to provide a cross-sectional study of prevalence. Centres participating in the study have been Eindhoven, Koeln, Gent, Brussels, Glasgow, Mount Vernon, Madrid, Geneva and Lyon. In Eindhoven 651 reports were collected between January 1995 and December 1999. 89 reports had to be discarded because complications were not validated by the reviewing radiotherapists. Dr Lybeert noticed that individual radiotherapists appeared to have different thresholds for reporting specific complications. 13 patients deaths appeared to be related to radiation problems. An overall level of detection of morbidity was

  16. The role of platelet factor 4 in local and remote tissue damage in a mouse model of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Lapchak

    Full Text Available The robust inflammatory response that occurs during ischemia reperfusion (IR injury recruits factors from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. However the contribution of platelets and their products such as Platelet Factor 4 (PF4; CXCL4, during the pathogenesis of IR injury has not been thoroughly investigated. We show that a deficiency in PF4 protects mice from local and remote tissue damage after 30 minutes of mesenteric ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion in PF4-/- mice compared to control B6 mice. This protection was independent from Ig or complement deposition in the tissues. However, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration were decreased in the lungs of PF4-/- mice compared with B6 control mice. Platelet-depleted B6 mice transfused with platelets from PF4-/- mice displayed reduced tissue damage compared with controls. In contrast, transfusion of B6 platelets into platelet depleted PF4-/- mice reconstituted damage in both intestine and lung tissues. We also show that PF4 may modulate the release of IgA. Interestingly, we show that PF4 expression on intestinal epithelial cells is increased after IR at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that may PF4 represent an important mediator of local and remote tissue damage.

  17. Renal deterioration caused by carcinogens as a consequence of free radical mediated tissue damage: a review of the protective action of melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekin, Fatih; Hicyilmaz, Hicran [Suleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Isparta (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    This brief review summarizes some of the publications that document the preventive role of melatonin in kidney damage caused by carcinogens such as 2-nitropropane, arsenic, carbon tetrachloride, nitrilotriacetic acid and potassium bromate. Numerous chemicals generate excessive free radicals that eventually induce renal worsening. Melatonin partially or totally prevents free radical mediated tissue damages induced by many carcinogens. Protective actions of melatonin against the harmful effects of carcinogens are believed to stem from its direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Dietary or pharmacologically given melatonin may attenuate the oxidative stress, thereby mitigating the subsequent renal damage. (orig.)

  18. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from Cardiac Damage through Modulation of Anti-parasite Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Debora B; Ramos, Isalira P; Mesquita, Fernanda C P; Brasil, Guilherme V; Rocha, Nazareth N; Takiya, Christina M; Lima, Ana Paula C A; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C; Goldenberg, Regina S; Carvalho, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a complex disease endemic in Central and South America. It has been gathering interest due to increases in non-vectorial forms of transmission, especially in developed countries. The objective of this work was to investigate if adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC) can alter the course of the disease and attenuate pathology in a mouse model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. ASC were injected intraperitoneally at 3 days post-infection (dpi). Tracking by bioluminescence showed that cells remained in the abdominal cavity for up to 9 days after injection and most of them migrated to the abdominal or subcutaneous fat, an early parasite reservoir. ASC injection resulted in a significant reduction in blood parasitemia, which was followed by a decrease in cardiac tissue inflammation, parasitism and fibrosis at 30 dpi. At the same time point, analyses of cytokine release in cells isolated from the heart and exposed to T. cruzi antigens indicated an anti-inflammatory response in ASC-treated animals. In parallel, splenocytes exposed to the same antigens produced a pro-inflammatory response, which is important for the control of parasite replication, in placebo and ASC-treated groups. However, splenocytes from the ASC group released higher levels of IL-10. At 60 dpi, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that right ventricular (RV) dilation was prevented in ASC-treated mice. In conclusion, the injection of ASC early after T. cruzi infection prevents RV remodeling through the modulation of immune responses. Lymphoid organ response to the parasite promoted the control of parasite burden, while the heart, a target organ of Chagas disease, was protected from damage due to an improved control of inflammation in ASC-treated mice.

  19. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from Cardiac Damage through Modulation of Anti-parasite Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora B Mello

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is a complex disease endemic in Central and South America. It has been gathering interest due to increases in non-vectorial forms of transmission, especially in developed countries. The objective of this work was to investigate if adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC can alter the course of the disease and attenuate pathology in a mouse model of chagasic cardiomyopathy.ASC were injected intraperitoneally at 3 days post-infection (dpi. Tracking by bioluminescence showed that cells remained in the abdominal cavity for up to 9 days after injection and most of them migrated to the abdominal or subcutaneous fat, an early parasite reservoir. ASC injection resulted in a significant reduction in blood parasitemia, which was followed by a decrease in cardiac tissue inflammation, parasitism and fibrosis at 30 dpi. At the same time point, analyses of cytokine release in cells isolated from the heart and exposed to T. cruzi antigens indicated an anti-inflammatory response in ASC-treated animals. In parallel, splenocytes exposed to the same antigens produced a pro-inflammatory response, which is important for the control of parasite replication, in placebo and ASC-treated groups. However, splenocytes from the ASC group released higher levels of IL-10. At 60 dpi, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that right ventricular (RV dilation was prevented in ASC-treated mice.In conclusion, the injection of ASC early after T. cruzi infection prevents RV remodeling through the modulation of immune responses. Lymphoid organ response to the parasite promoted the control of parasite burden, while the heart, a target organ of Chagas disease, was protected from damage due to an improved control of inflammation in ASC-treated mice.

  20. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel; Guessasma, Sofiane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young's modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  1. New Computational Model Based on Finite Element Method to Quantify Damage Evolution Due to External Sulfate Attack on Self-Compacting Concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Khelifa, Mohammed Rissel

    2012-12-27

    Abstract: This work combines experimental and numerical investigations to study the mechanical degradation of self-compacting concrete under accelerated aging conditions. Four different experimental treatments are tested among them constant immersion and immersion-drying protocols allow an efficient external sulfate attack of the material. Significant damage is observed due to interfacial ettringite. A predictive analysis is then adopted to quantify the relationship between ettringite growth and mechanical damage evolution during aging. Typical 3D microstructures representing the cement paste-aggregate structures are generated using Monte Carlo scheme. These images are converted into a finite element model to predict the mechanical performance under different criteria of damage kinetics. The effect of ettringite is then associated to the development of an interphase of lower mechanical properties. Our results show that the observed time evolution of Young\\'s modulus is best described by a linear increase of the interphase content. Our model results indicate also that the interphase regions grow at maximum stress regions rather than exclusively at interfaces. Finally, constant immersion predicts a rate of damage growth five times lower than that of immersion-drying protocol. © 2012 Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering.

  2. A phenomenological approach to simulating the evolution of radioactive-waste container damage due to pitting corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The damage to high-level radioactive-waste containers by pitting corrosion is an important design and performance assessment consideration. It is desirable to calculate the evolution of the pit depth distribution, not just the time required for initial penetration of the containers, so that the area available for advective of diffusive release of radionuclides through the container can be estimated. A phenomenological approach for computing the time evolution of these distributions is presented which combines elements of the deterministic and stochastic aspects of pit growth. The consistency of this approach with the mechanisms believed to control the evolution of the pit depth distribution is discussed. Qualitative comparisons of preliminary model predictions with a variety of experimental data from the literature are shown to be generally favorable. The sensitivity of the simulated distributions to changes in the input parameters is discussed. Finally, the results of the current model are compared to those of existing approaches based on extreme-value statistics, particularly regarding the extrapolation of laboratory data to large exposed surface areas

  3. Impact of prenatal antimicrobial treatment on fetal brain damage due to autogenous fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neylane Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate brain neuronal density in newborn rats whose mothers were subjected to fecal peritonitis and compare findings between rats born to mothers treated and not treated with antimicrobials. Methods: Peritonitis was induced with a 10% fecal suspension (4mL/kg in 2 pregnant rats. Of these, 1 received antimicrobial treatment 24 hours after peritonitis induction: moxifloxacin and dexamethasone plus 2 mL of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi extract. One pregnant rat underwent no intervention and served as a control. Results: The newborn brains of rats born to mothers with fecal peritonitis were significantly smaller and of less firm consistency. Brain neuronal density was lower in the untreated group than in the control and treated groups (P<0.01. Conclusions: Untreated peritonitis caused brain damage in the offspring, which was averted by effective early antimicrobial treatment. This approach may provide an early avenue for translation of such therapy in humans. Keywords: peritonitis, brain injuries, rats

  4. 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue for fixation of STSG in genitourinary tissue defects due to Fournier gangrene: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrioğlu, Nazan; Irkören, Saime; Ceylan, Ender; Sonel, Ali Murat; Copçu, Eray

    2013-05-01

    In these reported cases, we observed the outcomes of skin take and wound healing using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue, which was used as tissue glue in the reconstruction of complex genital skin loss due to fournier gangrene. Fifteen patients with Fournier's gangrene were treated in this study. After initial surgical debridement, all defects were repaired using STSG. In this method a thin layer of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate was dripped on the recipient site immediately before graft application. All wounds were followed up postoperatively and observed for evidence of graft take, seroma or hematoma formation, drainage, and infection. Patient and physician satisfaction were also determined. Grafts were completely accepted in all fifteen patients. None of the patients had wound infection, seroma, hematoma, or other complications. Use of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate glue (Glueseal) for STSG fixation in complex genital skin defects after Fournier gangrene may be an acceptable alternative to conventional surgical closure with a good cosmetic outcome. Further studies are needed to confirm our initial success with this approach.

  5. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2017-08-01

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m 2 , planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m 2 (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  7. A quantitative and non-contact technique to characterise microstructural variations of skin tissues during photo-damaging process based on Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; Sheng, Wei; Wu, Jian; Ma, Hui

    2017-10-31

    Skin tissue consists of collagen and elastic fibres, which are highly susceptible to damage when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leading to skin aging and cancer. However, a lack of non-invasive detection methods makes determining the degree of UVR damage to skin in real time difficult. As one of the fundamental features of light, polarization can be used to develop imaging techniques capable of providing structural information about tissues. In particular, Mueller matrix polarimetry is suitable for detecting changes in collagen and elastic fibres. Here, we demonstrate a novel, quantitative, non-contact and in situ technique based on Mueller matrix polarimetry for monitoring the microstructural changes of skin tissues during UVR-induced photo-damaging. We measured the Mueller matrices of nude mouse skin samples, then analysed the transformed parameters to characterise microstructural changes during the skin photo-damaging and self-repairing processes. Comparisons between samples with and without the application of a sunscreen showed that the Mueller matrix-derived parameters are potential indicators for fibrous microstructure in skin tissues. Histological examination and Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the relationship between the Mueller matrix parameters and changes to fibrous structures. This technique paves the way for non-contact evaluation of skin structure in cosmetics and dermatological health.

  8. Radioprotective effects of hesperidin on oxidative damages and histopathological changes induced by X-irradiation in rats heart tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasan Rezaeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate radioprotective effects of hesperidin (HES administration before the irradiation on the cardiac oxidative stress and histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. The cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure cause morbidity and mortality in patients who received radiotherapy. HES, an antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits, suggests the protection against the tissue damage. Fifty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS and sham radiation; Group 2, HES and sham radiation; Group 3, PBS and radiation; and Group 4, HES and radiation. The rats were exposed to single dose of 18 Gy of 6 MV X-ray. One hundred milligrams per kilogram doses of HES was administered for 7 days before irradiation. The estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and histopathological analyses was performed at 24 h and 8 weeks after radiation exposure. The irradiation of chest area resulted in an elevated MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Moreover, long-term pathological lesions of radiation were inflammation, fibrosis, the increased number of mast cells and macrophages, and development of plaque, vascular leakage, myocardial degeneration, and myocyte necrosis. Although the administration of HES decreases inflammation, fibrosis, mast cell and macrophage numbers, and myocyte necrosis, it did not result in reduced thrombus, myocardium degeneration, and vascular leakage. In conclusion, these results suggest that HES can perform a radioprotection action. The protective effect of HES may be attributable to its immunomodulatory effects and free radical-scavenging properties.

  9. The effects of vitamin E on brain derived neurotrophic factor, tissues oxidative damage and learning and memory of juvenile hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghcheghi, Yousef; Beheshti, Farimah; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Salmani, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2018-06-01

    The effects of vitamin E (Vit E) on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain tissues oxidative damage as well as on learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats were examined. The rats were grouped as: (1) Control; (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU); (3) PTU-Vit E and (4) Vit E. PTU was added to their drinking water (0.05%) during 6 weeks. Vit E (20 mg/kg) was daily injected (IP). Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) were carried out. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the brain tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU increased the escape latency and traveled path in MWM (P E (P E improved BDNF, thiol, SOD and CAT while diminished MDA. The results of the present study showed that Vit E improved BDNF and prevented from brain tissues oxidative damage as well as learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats.

  10. A Mechanobiological model for damage-induced growth in arterial tissue with application to in-stent restenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidoonnezhad, B.; Naghdabadi, R.; Sohrabpour, S.; Holzapfel, G. A.

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is one of the main drawbacks of stent implementation which limits the long-term success of the procedure. Morphological changes occurring within the arterial wall due to stent-induced mechanical injury are a major cause for activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and the subsequent development of ISR. Considering the theory of volumetric mass growth and adopting a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into an elastic part and a growth part, we present a mechanobiological model for ISR. An evolution equation is developed for mass growth of the neointima, in which the activation of VSMCs due to stent-induced damage (injury) and the proliferation rate of the activated cells are considered. By introducing the mass evolution into the mass balance equation, we obtain the evolution of the growth tensor over time. The model is implemented in a finite element code and the procedure of angioplasty is simulated, whereby the features of the proposed growth model are illustrated.

  11. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  12. DNA damage in the kidney tissue cells of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination with aluminum sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Klingelfus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Even though aluminum is the third most common element present in the earth's crust, information regarding its toxicity remains scarce. It is known that in certain cases, aluminum is neurotoxic, but its effect in other tissues is unknown. The aim of this work was to analyze the genotoxic potential of aluminum sulfate in kidney tissue of the fish Rhamdia quelen after trophic contamination for 60 days. Sixty four fish were subdivided into the following groups: negative control, 5 mg, 50 mg and 500 mg of aluminum sulfate per kg of fish. Samples of the posterior kidney were taken and prepared to obtain mitotic metaphase, as well as the comet assay. The three types of chromosomal abnormalities (CA found were categorized as chromatid breaks, decondensation of telomeric region, and early separation of sister chromatids. The tests for CA showed that the 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg doses of aluminum sulfate had genotoxic potential. Under these treatments, early separation of the sister chromatids was observed more frequently and decondensation of the telomeric region tended to increase in frequency. We suggest that structural changes in the proteins involved in DNA compaction may have led to the decondensation of the telomeric region, making the DNA susceptible to breaks. Moreover, early separation of the sister chromatids may have occurred due to changes in the mobility of chromosomes or proteins that keep the sister chromatids together. The comet assay confirmed the genotoxicity of aluminum sulfate in the kidney tissue of Rhamdia quelen at the three doses of exposure.

  13. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of TSUMURA Saiboku-to as an agent for healing damage in treatment of radiomucositis due to irradiation of the head and neck area and mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yoshihiro (Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Gunma (Japan)); Mitsuhashi, Norio; Takahashi, Iku (and others)

    1992-12-01

    A joint multicenter study was conducted on the utility of TSUMURA Saiboku-to as an agent for healing radiation damage in treatment of radiomucositis due to irradiation of the head and neck area and mediastinum, with the following results. In a comparison of each clinical symptom, efficacy in the TSUMURA Saiboku-to group was not clear, but an overall evaluation of the individual cases showed a significantly increased number of subjects with evaluations of effective or better in the administration group. No serious side effects were observed. (author).

  15. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1 the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2 the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A, liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3 the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis.In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100. EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm were female gender (p = 0.003, age (p = 0.001, BMI (p = 0.01, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009, steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01 and 3 (p = 0.04, fatty liver index (p = 0.001 and statin use (p = 0.03. Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001, hypertension (p = 0.009, diabetes (p = 0.04, smoking habits (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.02, with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001, BMI (p = 0.03, EAT (p = 0.02, and hypertension (p = 0.02, and with E/A age (p = 0.0001, diabetes (p = 0.005, hypertension (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.004. In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04 and diabetes (p = 0.054 while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02, diabetes (p = 0.01 and waist circumference (p = 0.05. No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found.In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage besides with the known metabolic risk factors.

  16. Estimation of core-damage frequency to evolutionary ALWR [advanced light water reactor] due to seismic initiating events: Task 4.3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Harrison, D.G.; Summitt, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presently developing a requirements document for the design of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One of the basic goals of the EPRI ALWR Requirements Document is that the core-damage frequency for an ALWR shall be less than 1.0E-5. To aid in this effort, the Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) initiated a functional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to determine how effectively the evolutionary plant requirements contained in the existing EPRI Requirements Document assure that this safety goal will be met. This report develops an approximation of the core-damage frequency due to seismic events for both evolutionary plant designs (pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor(BWR)) as modeled in the corresponding functional PRAs. Component fragility values were taken directly form information which has been submitted for inclusion in Appendix A to Volume 1 of the EPRI Requirements Document. The results show a seismic core-damage frequency of 5.2E-6 for PWRS and 5.0E-6 for BWRs. Combined with the internal initiators from the functional PRAs, the overall core-damage frequencies are 6.0E-6 for the pwr and BWR, both of which satisfy the 1.0E-5 EPRI goal. In addition, site-specific considerations, such as more rigid components and less conservative fragility data and seismic hazard curves, may further reduce these frequencies. The effect of seismic events on structures are not addressed in this generic evaluation and should be addressed separately on a design-specific basis. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  18. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: analysis of pediatric fat estimate errors due to tissue hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, C G; Gore, R; Rivkin, T; Horlick, M; Arbo, J; Wang, Z; Chiumello, G; Heymsfield, S B

    2000-12-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) percent (%) fat estimates may be inaccurate in young children, who typically have high tissue hydration levels. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive analysis of pediatric tissue hydration effects on DXA %fat estimates. Phase 1 was experimental and included three in vitro studies to establish the physical basis of DXA %fat-estimation models. Phase 2 extended phase 1 models and consisted of theoretical calculations to estimate the %fat errors emanating from previously reported pediatric hydration effects. Phase 1 experiments supported the two-compartment DXA soft tissue model and established that pixel ratio of low to high energy (R values) are a predictable function of tissue elemental content. In phase 2, modeling of reference body composition values from birth to age 120 mo revealed that %fat errors will arise if a "constant" adult lean soft tissue R value is applied to the pediatric population; the maximum %fat error, approximately 0.8%, would be present at birth. High tissue hydration, as observed in infants and young children, leads to errors in DXA %fat estimates. The magnitude of these errors based on theoretical calculations is small and may not be of clinical or research significance.

  19. Extensive tissue damage of bovine ovaries after bipolar ovarian drilling compared to monopolar electrocoagulation or carbon dioxide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.L.; van der Valk, P.; Lambalk, C.B.; Broeckaert, M.A.M.; Homburg, R.R.; Hompes, P.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the size of ovarian damage caused by ovarian drilling in polycystic ovary syndrome, the amount of inflicted damage was assessed for the most frequently used ovarian drilling techniques. Design: Experimental prospective design. Setting: University clinic. Patient(s): Six fresh

  20. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  1. Blood as a surrogate marker for tissue-specific DNA methylation and changes due to folate depletion in post-partum female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jill A; Xie, Long; Harris, Sarah; Wong, Yi K; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C

    2011-07-01

    DNA methylation patterns are tissue specific and may influence tissue-specific gene regulation. Human studies investigating DNA methylation in relation to environmental factors primarily use blood-derived DNA as a surrogate for DNA from target tissues. It is therefore important to know if DNA methylation changes in blood in response to environmental changes reflect those in target tissues. Folate intake can influence DNA methylation, via altered methyl donor supply. Previously, manipulations of maternal folate intake during pregnancy altered the patterns of DNA methylation in offspring but, to our knowledge, the consequences for maternal DNA methylation are unknown. Given the increased requirement for folate during pregnancy, mothers may be susceptible to aberrant DNA methylation due to folate depletion. Female mice were fed folate-adequate (2 mg folic acid/kg diet) or folate-deplete (0.4 mg folic acid/kg diet) diets prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. Following weaning, dams were killed and DNA methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing® in blood, liver, and kidney at the Esr1, Igf2 differentially methylated region (DMR)1, Igf2 DMR2, Slc39a4CGI1, and Slc39a4CGI2 loci. We observed tissue-specific differences in methylation at all loci. Folate depletion reduced Igf2 DMR1 and Slc39a4CGI1 methylation across all tissues and altered Igf2 DMR2 methylation in a tissue-specific manner (pmethylation measurements may not always reflect methylation within other tissues. Further measurements of blood-derived and tissue-specific methylation patterns are warranted to understand the complexity of tissue-specific responses to altered nutritional exposure. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions

  3. Tissue-Specific Reduction in Splicing Efficiency of IKBKAP Due to the Major Mutation Associated with Familial Dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuajungco, Math P.; Leyne, Maire; Mull, James; Gill, Sandra P.; Lu, Weining; Zagzag, David; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Maayan, Channa; Gusella, James F.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    We recently identified a mutation in the I-κB kinase associated protein (IKBKAP) gene as the major cause of familial dysautonomia (FD), a recessive sensory and autonomic neuropathy. This alteration, located at base pair 6 of the intron 20 donor splice site, is present on >99.5% of FD chromosomes and results in tissue-specific skipping of exon 20. A second FD mutation, a missense change in exon 19 (R696P), was seen in only four patients heterozygous for the major mutation. Here, we have further characterized the consequences of the major mutation by examining the ratio of wild-type to mutant (WT:MU) IKBKAP transcript in EBV-transformed lymphoblast lines, primary fibroblasts, freshly collected blood samples, and postmortem tissues from patients with FD. We consistently found that WT IKBKAP transcripts were present, albeit to varying extents, in all cell lines, blood, and postmortem FD tissues. Further, a corresponding decrease in the level of WT protein is seen in FD cell lines and tissues. The WT:MU ratio in cultured lymphoblasts varied with growth phase but not with serum concentration or inclusion of antibiotics. Using both densitometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that relative WT:MU IKBKAP RNA levels were highest in cultured patient lymphoblasts and lowest in postmortem central and peripheral nervous tissues. These observations suggest that the relative inefficiency of WT IKBKAP mRNA production from the mutant alleles in the nervous system underlies the selective degeneration of sensory and autonomic neurons in FD.Therefore, exploration of methods to increase the WT:MU IKBKAP transcript ratio in the nervous system offers a promising approach for developing an effective therapy for patients with FD. PMID:12577200

  4. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages; Role de l'endothelium dans les dommages radio-induits aux tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F

    2007-05-15

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  5. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages; Role de l'endothelium dans les dommages radio-induits aux tissus sains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F

    2007-05-15

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  6. Benfotiamine alleviates diabetes-induced cerebral oxidative damage independent of advanced glycation end-product, tissue factor and TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Ren, Jun

    2006-02-13

    Diabetes mellitus leads to thiamine deficiency and multiple organ damage including diabetic neuropathy. This study was designed to examine the effect of benfotiamine, a lipophilic derivative of thiamine, on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cerebral oxidative stress. Adult male FVB mice were made diabetic with a single injection of STZ (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Fourteen days later, control and diabetic (fasting blood glucose >13.9 mM) mice received benfotiamine (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 14 days. Oxidative stress and protein damage were evaluated by glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) assay and protein carbonyl formation, respectively. Pro-oxidative or pro-inflammatory factors including advanced glycation end-product (AGE), tissue factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Four weeks STZ treatment led to hyperglycemia, enhanced cerebral oxidative stress (reduced GSH/GSSG ratio), elevated TNF-alpha and AGE levels without changes in protein carbonyl or tissue factor. Benfotiamine alleviated diabetes-induced cerebral oxidative stress without affecting levels of AGE, protein carbonyl, tissue factor and TNF-alpha. Collectively, our results indicated benfotiamine may antagonize diabetes-induced cerebral oxidative stress through a mechanism unrelated to AGE, tissue factor and TNF-alpha.

  7. Subepidermal moisture (SEM) and bioimpedance: a literature review of a novel method for early detection of pressure-induced tissue damage (pressure ulcers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zena; Patton, Declan; Rhodes, Shannon L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Current detection of pressure ulcers relies on visual and tactile changes at the skin surface, but physiological changes below the skin precede surface changes and have a significant impact on tissue health. Inflammatory and apoptotic/necrotic changes in the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin, such as changes in interstitial fluid (also known as subepidermal moisture (SEM)), may precede surface changes by 3-10 days. Those same epidermal and subepidermal changes result in changes in the electrical properties (bioimpedance) of the tissue, thereby presenting an objective, non-invasive method for assessing tissue damage. Clinical studies of bioimpedance for the detection of pressure ulcers have demonstrated that changes in bioimpedance correlate with increasing severity of pressure ulcer stages. Studies have also demonstrated that at anatomical locations with pressure ulcers, bioimpedance varies with distance from the centre of the pressure ulcers. The SEM Scanner, a handheld medical device, offers an objective and reliable method for the assessment of local bioimpedance, and therefore, assessment of tissue damage before signs become visible to the unaided eye. This literature review summarises pressure ulcer pathophysiology, principles of bioimpedance and clinical research using bioimpedance technology to assess pressure ulcers. © 2016 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-11-10

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.

  9. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  10. Pathomorphological features of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals in the case of lifetime and postmortem damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forensic medical diagnosis of tissue injury is currently the subject of numerous investigations. Pathomorphological changes of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals, resulting in the case of lifetime and postmortem traumatic injuries, depending on the time and temperature, were revealed by the author. Data obtained by the author is very necessary for improving the forensic medical diagnosis of traumatic soft tissue injuries.

  11. [Soft-tissue infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. What is the price of beauty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olivero, Ismar Alejandra; Guevara, Armando; Escalona, Arnelly; Oliver, Margarita; Pérez-Alfonzo, Ricardo; Piquero, Jaime; Zerpa, Olga; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2006-05-01

    Mesotherapy is widely used In Latin America for cosmetic purposes, particularly in obese individuals. We describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, microbiological diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients from Caracas (Venezuela) with soft tissue infection caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria following mesotherapy. Between March 2002 and December 2003, we evaluated 49 cases of skin and soft tissue infection following mesotherapy. Specimens obtained from the lesions and 15 products used in the mesotherapy procedure were cultured for the presence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the hsp65 gene. Infection by non-tuberculous mycobacteria was confirmed in 81.6% of the 49 cases. Mycobacterium abscessus and M. fortuitum were the most common species, but M. chelonae, M. peregrinum, M. simiae and a new species that was designated "M. cosmeticum" were also isolated. Patients were treated with species-specific antibiotic agents for 3 to 18 months. Investigation into the source of the infection revealed that 21 patients were clustered within 3 different outbreaks and two products were found to be contaminated with M. fortuitum and M. abscessus, respectively. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of infection by non-tuberculous mycobacteria in patients with a history of mesotherapy who develop late-onset skin and soft tissue infection, particularly if they do not respond to conventional antibiotic treatment.

  12. Effect of sucralfate and its components on taurocholate-induced damage to rat gastric mucosal cells in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, M.; Razandi, M.; Ivey, K.J. (Long Beach VA Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sucralfate and its components, sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide, on: (1) damage to rat cultured gastric mucosal cells induced by sodium taurocholate in a neutral environment and in conditions independent of systemic factors, (2) prostaglandin E2 and on 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha release by cultured cells, and (3) sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. Cell damage was quantitated by chromium-51 release assay. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha were measured by radioimmunoassay. Total sulfhydryl content of cultured cells was determined calorimetrically. Microscopically, sucralfate was found to adhere tightly to epithelial cell surfaces despite frequent washings. Sucralfate 2 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml significantly decreased taurocholate-induced damage, reducing taurocholate-induced specific 51Cr release by 11.8 points (equal to 29% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.01) and 22.9 points (equal to 56% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.001), respectively. Sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide did not exert significant protection against damage induced by sodium taurocholate. The protective effect of sucralfate was not prevented by indomethacin, nor was it counteracted by the sulfhydryl blocker, iodoacetamide. Sucralfate, but not its components, significantly and dose-dependently stimulated prostaglandin E2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.05) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (r = 0.89, P less than 0.05) production by cultured cells. Neither sucralfate nor its components affected sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. In conclusion, sucralfate, but not its components, (1) protects rat gastric mucosal cells against taurocholate-induced damage in conditions independent of systemic factors and in a neutral environment and (2) significantly stimulates prostaglandin production by cultured cells.

  13. Effect of sucralfate and its components on taurocholate-induced damage to rat gastric mucosal cells in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, M.; Razandi, M.; Ivey, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of sucralfate and its components, sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide, on: (1) damage to rat cultured gastric mucosal cells induced by sodium taurocholate in a neutral environment and in conditions independent of systemic factors, (2) prostaglandin E2 and on 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha release by cultured cells, and (3) sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. Cell damage was quantitated by chromium-51 release assay. Prostaglandin E2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha were measured by radioimmunoassay. Total sulfhydryl content of cultured cells was determined calorimetrically. Microscopically, sucralfate was found to adhere tightly to epithelial cell surfaces despite frequent washings. Sucralfate 2 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml significantly decreased taurocholate-induced damage, reducing taurocholate-induced specific 51Cr release by 11.8 points (equal to 29% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.01) and 22.9 points (equal to 56% decrease in cell damage, P less than 0.001), respectively. Sucrose octasulfate and aluminum hydroxide did not exert significant protection against damage induced by sodium taurocholate. The protective effect of sucralfate was not prevented by indomethacin, nor was it counteracted by the sulfhydryl blocker, iodoacetamide. Sucralfate, but not its components, significantly and dose-dependently stimulated prostaglandin E2 (r = 0.94, P less than 0.05) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (r = 0.89, P less than 0.05) production by cultured cells. Neither sucralfate nor its components affected sulfhydryl content of cultured cells. In conclusion, sucralfate, but not its components, (1) protects rat gastric mucosal cells against taurocholate-induced damage in conditions independent of systemic factors and in a neutral environment and (2) significantly stimulates prostaglandin production by cultured cells

  14. Gefarnate stimulates mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dota A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atsuyoshi Dota, Yuko Takaoka-Shichijo, Masatsugu NakamuraOphthalmic Research and Development Center, Santen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Ikoma-shi, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models.Methods: Conjunctival tissue isolated from rabbits was treated with gefarnate. Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Gefarnate ointment was topically applied to eyes once daily for 7 days in the rabbit dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal glands, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed, or for 4 weeks in the cat dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane were removed. Corneal epithelial damage was evaluated by measurement of corneal permeability by rose bengal in the rabbit model or by fluorescein staining in the cat model.Results: Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment to the eyes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rose bengal permeability in the cornea, with the effect being significant at concentrations of ≥0.3%. In the cat dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment resulted in a significant decrease in the corneal fluorescein staining score.Conclusion: These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. Gefarnate may therefore be effective for treating dry eye.Keywords: gefarnate, fluorescein staining, rose bengal permeability, rabbit, cat, dry eye

  15. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriou Christos G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyomas of the deep soft tissue are quite uncommon and occur even more rarely in upper extremity. Case presentation A 32-year old manual laborer man presented with a two-year history of numbness, tingling and burning pain in the palmar surface of the left hand and fingers. His medical history was unremarkable and no trauma episode was reported. According to the clinical examination and the result of median nerve conduction study (NCS the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome was established. Operative release of the transverse carpal ligament was subsequently performed but the patient experienced only temporary relief of his symptoms. MRI examination revealed a deep palmary located mass with well-defined margins and ovoid shape. Intraoperatively, the tumor was in continuity with the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of the middle finger causing substantial compression to median nerve. Histopathological findings of the resected mass were consistent with leiomyoma. After two years the patient was pain-free without signs of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Despite the fact that reports on deep soft tissue leiomyoma are exceptional, this tumor had to be considered as differential diagnosis in painful non-traumatic hand syndromes especially in young patients.

  17. Identification of the IGF-1 processing product human Ec/rodent Eb peptide in various tissues: Evidence for its differential regulation after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, George; Philippou, Anastassios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor expressed in various tissues and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 gene gives rise to different precursor polypeptides (isoforms) which could undergo post-translational cleavage, generating the common mature IGF-1 peptide and different carboxyl terminal extension (E-) peptides, with the fate of the latter being, so far, unknown. The objective if this study was to identify the IGF-1Ec forms or processing product(s), other than mature IGF-1, generated in different human and rodent tissues and particularly in human skeletal muscle after exercise-induced damage. Protein lysates from a wide range of human and rodent tissues were immunoblotted with a rabbit anti-human Ec polyclonal antibody raised against the last 24 amino acids of the C-terminal of the Ec peptide. This antibody can recognize the Ec peptide, both as part of IGF-1Ec and alone, and also the corresponding rodent forms, due to the high homology that the human Ec shares with the rodent Eb. We were able to confirm, for the first time, that the human Ec peptide and its rodent homologous Eb peptide are produced simultaneously with their precursor protein (pro-IGF-1Ec/Eb) in vivo, in a wide range of tissues (e.g. muscle, liver, heart). Proprotein convertase furin digestion of human muscle and liver protein lysates confirmed that the higher molecular form, pro-IGF-1Ec, can be cleaved to produce the free Ec peptide. Furthermore, initial evidence is provided that Ec peptide is differentially regulated during the process of muscle regeneration after exercise-induced damage in humans. The findings of this study possibly imply that the post-translational modification of the IGF-1Ec pro-peptide may regulate the bioavailability and activity of the processing product(s). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christopher; Kennon-McGill, Stefanie; Freemyer, Andrea; Shum, Axel; Staecker, Hinrich; Durham, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to intense sound can damage or kill cochlear hair cells (HC). This loss of input typically manifests as noise induced hearing loss, but it can also be involved in the initiation of other auditory disorders such as tinnitus or hyperacusis. In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms. We exposed adult, anesthetized Long-Evans rats to a unilateral 16 kHz pure tone that varied in intensity (114 dB or 118 dB) and duration (1, 2, or 4 h) and sacrificed animals 2-4 weeks later. We compared two different methods of tissue preparation, plastic embedding/sectioning and whole mount dissection, for quantifying hair cell loss as a function of frequency. We found that the two methods of tissue preparation produced largely comparable cochleograms, with whole mount dissections allowing a more rapid evaluation of hair cell number. Both inner and outer hair cell loss was observed throughout the length of the cochlea irrespective of sound damage paradigm. Inner HC loss was either equal to or greater than outer HC loss. Increasing the duration of sound exposures resulted in more severe HC loss, which included all HC lesions observed in an analogous shorter duration exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Probabilistic and possibilistic approach for assessment of radiological risk due to organically bound and tissue free water tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahiya, Sudhir; Hegde, A.G.; Joshi, M.L.; Verma, P.C.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study illustrates use of two approaches namely probabilistic using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and possibilistic using fuzzy α-cut (FAC) to estimate the radiological cancer risk to the population from ingestion of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue free water tritium (TFWT) from fish consumption from the Rana Pratap Sagar Lake (RPSL), Kota. Using FAC technique, radiological cancer risk rate (year -1 ) at A αl.0 level were 1.15E-08 and 1.50E-09 for OBT and TFWT respectively from fish ingestion pathway. The radiological cancer risk rate (year -1 ) using MCS approach at 50th percentile (median) level is 1.14E-08 and 1.49E-09 for OBT and HTO respectively from ingestion of fresh water fish. (author)

  20. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  1. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  2. The involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanisms of damaging cadmium action in bone tissue: A study in a rat model of moderate and relatively high human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, Malgorzata M.; Rogalska, Joanna; Kupraszewicz, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    It was investigated whether cadmium (Cd) may induce oxidative stress in the bone tissue in vivo and in this way contribute to skeleton damage. Total antioxidative status (TAS), antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase), total oxidative status (TOS), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), lipid peroxides (LPO), total thiol groups (TSH) and protein carbonyl groups (PC) as well as Cd in the bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis and femoral diaphysis of the male rats that received drinking water containing 0, 5, or 50 mg Cd/l for 6 months were measured. Cd, depending on the level of exposure and bone location, decreased the bone antioxidative capacity and enhanced its oxidative status resulting in oxidative stress and oxidative protein and/or lipid modification. The treatment with 5 and 50 mg Cd/l decreased TAS and activities of antioxidative enzymes as well as increased TOS and concentrations of H 2 O 2 and PC at the distal femur. Moreover, at the higher exposure, the concentration of LPO increased and that of TSH decreased. The Cd-induced changes in the oxidative/antioxidative balance of the femoral diaphysis, abundant in cortical bone, were less advanced than at the distal femur, where trabecular bone predominates. The results provide evidence that, even moderate, exposure to Cd induces oxidative stress and oxidative modifications in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations noted between the indices of oxidative/antioxidative bone status, and Cd accumulation in the bone tissue as well as indices of bone turnover and bone mineral status, recently reported by us (Toxicology 2007, 237, 89-103) in these rats, allow for the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanisms of damaging Cd action in the skeleton. The paper is the first report from an in vivo study indicating that Cd may affect bone tissue through disorders in its oxidative/antioxidative balance resulting in oxidative stress.

  3. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Talip Sener; Hamit Hakan Alp; Beyzagul Polat; Bunyamin Borekci; Yakup Kumtepe; Nesrin Gursan; Serkan Kumbasar; Suleyman Salman; Halis Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensive drugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine) on oxidant-antioxidant parameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examined histopathologically. Materials and Methods A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: 0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg...

  5. The effect of the Z mutation on the ability of alpha 1-antitrypsin to prevent neutrophil mediated tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Lomas, D A; Carrell, R W; Stockley, R A

    1994-11-29

    Recent studies have shown that alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) from Z antitrypsin deficiency subjects has a slightly lower association rate constant with neutrophil elastase (NE) than alpha 1-AT from normal subjects, although it is unknown whether this is of clinical importance. We have purified alpha 1-AT from a normal (M alpha 1-AT) and from a deficient (Z alpha 1-AT) subject and have confirmed that the association rate constants for NE are different (5.28; S.E. 0.06.10(7) M-1 s-1 and 1.2; S.E. 0.2.10(7) M-1 s-1, respectively). We have assessed the ability of both of these proteins to inhibit neutrophil mediated fibronectin (FN) degradation in vitro. Both proteins inhibited FN degradation in a dose dependant manner although Z alpha 1-AT was less effective than M alpha 1-AT at equivalent concentrations of active inhibitor (P < 0.05). Inhibition by M alpha 1-AT was 28.5% S.E. 3.9 at 0.01 microM; 35.5% S.E. 7.3 at 0.1 microM and 37% S.E. 8.4 at 0.5 microM, whereas inhibition by Z alpha 1-AT was 9.25% S.E. 3.9; 19.25% S.E. 7.7 and 21.2% S.E. 9.7, respectively. When the time course of inhibition of FN degradation was studied the difference (although less at 1.0 microM) became greater over the 3 h period of the assay. These results suggest that Z alpha 1-AT is less able than the M phenotype to inhibit connective tissue degradation by neutrophils at equivalent concentrations. This is probably due to the lower association rate constant although the reduced stability of the Z molecule may play a role. The differences, together with the reduced plasma concentration, may accentuate the susceptibility of deficient subjects to the development of emphysema.

  6. Nuclear medicine in the detection of radiation associated normal tissue damage of kidney, brain and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaomei; Li Dongxue; Pan Liping

    2005-01-01

    The radiation induced damage of kidney, brain and salivary glands is an important complicating disease after limit radiotherapy. The routine technology of nuclear medicine, such as tracing and imaging technique conduce to dose-effect calculations used in the planning of modern radiotherapy to three major organ systems and early detection of irradiation induced organ dysfunctions, as well as increased availability of radiotherapy. (authors)

  7. Estimation of dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiothearpy - A phantom dosimetric study with radiochromic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ashok Kinhikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiotherapy. The influence of titanium-mandibular plate with the screws on radiation dose was tested on four real bones from mandible with the metal and screws fixed. Radiochromic films were used for dosimetry. The bone and metal were inserted through the film at the center symmetrically. This was then placed in a small jig (7 cm × 7 cm × 10 cm to hold the film vertically straight. The polymer granules (tissue-equivalent were placed around the film for homogeneous scatter medium. The film was irradiated with 6 MV X-rays for 200 monitor units in Trilogy linear accelerator for 10 cm × 10 cm field size with source to axis distance of 100 cm at 5 cm. A single film was also irradiated without any bone and metal interface for reference data. The absolute dose and the vertical dose profile were measured from the film. There was 10% dose enhancement due to the backscatter radiation just adjacent to the metal-bone interface for all the materials. The extent of the backscatter effect was up to 4 mm. There is significant higher dose enhancement in the soft tissue/skin due to the backscatter radiation from the metallic components in the treatment region.

  8. In-vivo optical imaging of hsp70 expression to assess collateral tissue damage associated with infrared laser ablation of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Beckham, Joshua T.; Mackanos, Mark A.; Nanney, Lillian B.; Contag, Christopher H.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2013-01-01

    Laser surgical ablation is achieved by selecting laser parameters that remove confined volumes of target tissue and cause minimal collateral damage. Previous studies have measured the effects of wavelength on ablation, but neglected to measure the cellular impact of ablation on cells outside the lethal zone. In this study, we use optical imaging in addition to conventional assessment techniques to evaluate lethal and sublethal collateral damage after ablative surgery with a free-electron laser (FEL). Heat shock protein (HSP) expression is used as a sensitive quantitative marker of sublethal damage in a transgenic mouse strain, with the hsp70 promoter driving luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression (hsp70A1-L2G). To examine the wavelength dependence in the mid-IR, laser surgery is conducted on the hsp70A1-L2G mouse using wavelengths targeting water (OH stretch mode, 2.94 μm), protein (amide-II band, 6.45 μm), and both water and protein (amide-I band, 6.10 μm). For all wavelengths tested, the magnitude of hsp70 expression is dose-dependent and maximal 5 to 12 h after surgery. Tissues treated at 6.45 μm have approximately 4× higher hsp70 expression than 6.10 μm. Histology shows that under comparable fluences, tissue injury at the 2.94-μm wavelength was 2× and 3× deeper than 6.45 and 6.10 μm, respectively. The 6.10-μm wavelength generates the least amount of epidermal hyperplasia. Taken together, this data suggests that the 6.10-μm wavelength is a superior wavelength for laser ablation of skin. PMID:19021444

  9. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rouabhia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen. We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections caused by Candida.

  10. A comparison between the performance degradation of 3T APS due to radiation exposure and the expected internal damage via Monte-Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gi Yoon; Kim, Myung Soo; Lim, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hwan [Luvantix ADM , Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The trend of x-ray image sensor has been evolved from an amorphous silicon sensor to a crystal silicon sensor. A crystal silicon X-ray sensor, meaning a X-ray CIS (CMOS image sensor), is consisted of three transistors (Trs), i.e., a Reset Transistor, a Source Follower and a Select Transistor, and a photodiode. They are highly sensitive to radiation exposure. As the frequency of exposure to radiation increases, the quality of the imaging device dramatically decreases. The most well known effects of a X-ray CIS due to the radiation damage are increments in the reset voltage and dark currents. In this study, a pixel array of a X-ray CIS was made of 20×20 pixels and this pixel array was exposed to a high radiation dose. The radiation source was Co-60 and the total radiation dose was increased from 1 to 9 kGy with a step of 1 kGy. We irradiated the small pixel array to get the increments data of the reset voltage and the dark currents. Also, we simulated the radiation effects of the pixel by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) simulation. From the comparison of actual data and simulation data, the most affected location could be determined and the cause of the increments of the reset voltage and dark current could be found.

  11. A SEASONAL COMPARISON OF THE PHYSICAL DAMAGES ON RESIDUAL TREES AND SEEDLINGS DUE TO LOGGING OPERATION USING URUS MIII FOREST SKYLINE IN ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Habip Eroğlu; Ufuk Özcan Öztürk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the physical damages of logging activities using Urus MIII forest skylines on residual trees and seedlings were evaluated through comparison between harvesting operations took place in winter and summer seasons in Artvin region. In order to achieve our aims, both in winter and summer, 4 representative plots were taken in the harvesting areas using Urus MIII skyline. Physical damages caused by logging to residual trees and seedling were noted. Damage classes for the residual tr...

  12. Aluminium and Gamma Irradiation Induced Oxidative Damage in Brain Tissue of Male Rats - Protective Role of Ferulic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.; Hanafi, N.; Noaman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the potential role of ferulic acid (FA) against Aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ), γ- radiation either alone or combination induced oxidative stress in brain tissue of Wistar rats. The period of the experiment was eight weeks. Animals were administrated by aluminium chloride at a dose of 8.5 mg/kg/day and exposed to a single dose (4 Gy) of γ-radiation. FA was administered orally (50 mg/Kg body weight)/day. Histopathological observations and myeloid protein distribution were recorded in brain tissue. Induction of oxidative stress was recorded after all exposures. Brain tissue of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation treatments either alone or combined revealed many altered changes and myeloid protein distribution. Also a decrease in serotonin concentration was recorded. An increase in Malonaldialdahyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and brain showed a significant decrease. Treatment of AlCl 3 loaded animals by FA showed simple atrophy as shrunken morphology saw in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a decrease in myeloid protein deposition. FA treatment of AlCl 3 loaded or irradiated animals represented a significant increase in serotonin concentration and ameliorated affects on oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase activity and percentage of saturated fatty acids in plasma and brain tissue. In conclusion FA has a role in reducing the oxidative stress of AlCl 3 and γ- irradiation on brain tissue of rats

  13. Accumulation of DNA damage-induced chromatin alterations in tissue-specific stem cells: the driving force of aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available Accumulation of DNA damage leading to stem cell exhaustion has been proposed to be a principal mechanism of aging. Using 53BP1-foci as a marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs in mouse epidermis were analyzed for age-related DNA damage response (DDR. We observed increasing amounts of 53BP1-foci during the natural aging process independent of telomere shortening and after protracted low-dose radiation, suggesting substantial accumulation of DSBs in HFSCs. Electron microscopy combined with immunogold-labeling showed multiple small 53BP1 clusters diffusely distributed throughout the highly compacted heterochromatin of aged HFSCs, but single large 53BP1 clusters in irradiated HFSCs. These remaining 53BP1 clusters did not colocalize with core components of non-homologous end-joining, but with heterochromatic histone modifications. Based on these results we hypothesize that these lesions were not persistently unrepaired DSBs, but may reflect chromatin rearrangements caused by the repair or misrepair of DSBs. Flow cytometry showed increased activation of repair proteins and damage-induced chromatin modifications, triggering apoptosis and cellular senescence in irradiated, but not in aged HFSCs. These results suggest that accumulation of DNA damage-induced chromatin alterations, whose structural dimensions reflect the complexity of the initial genotoxic insult, may lead to different DDR events, ultimately determining the biological outcome of HFSCs. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that aging might be largely the remit of structural changes to chromatin potentially leading to epigenetically induced transcriptional deregulation.

  14. SU-F-BRB-14: Dosimetric Effects at Air- Tissue Boundary Due to Magnetic Field in MR-Guided IMRT/VMAT Delivery for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, P; Chen, X; Schultz, C; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The advent of the MR-Linac enables real-time and high soft tissue contrast image guidance in radiation therapy (RT) delivery. Potential hot-spots at air-tissue interfaces, such as the sphenoid sinus, in RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), could potentially occur due to the electron return effect (ERE). In this study, we investigate the dosimetric effects of ERE on the dose distribution at air-tissues interfaces in HNC IMRT treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were generated based on planning CT’s acquired for HNC cases (nasopharynx, base of skull and paranasal sinus) using a research planning system (Monaco, v5.09.06, Elekta) employing Monte Carlo dose calculations with or without the presence of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The dose in the air cavity was calculated in a 1 & 2 mm thick tissue layer, while the dose to the skin was calculated in a 1, 3 and 5 mm thick tissue layer. The maximum dose received in 1 cc volume, D1cc, were collected at different TMF strengths. Plan qualities generated with or without TMF or with increasing TMF were compared in terms of commonly-used dose-volume parameters (DVPs). Results: Variations in DVPs between plans with and without a TMF present were found to be within 5% of the planning CT. The presence of a TMF results in <5% changes in sinus air tissue interface. The largest skin dose differences with and without TMF were found within 1 mm of the skin surface Conclusion: The presence of a TMF results in practically insignificant changes in HNC IMRT plan quality, except for skin dose. Planning optimization with skin DV constraints could reduce the skin doses. This research was partially supported by Elekta Inc. (Crowley, U.K.)

  15. Application of TMA (Tissue micro-array) in the observation of apoptotic cascade in postradiation damage in avian medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, E.; Skarda, J.; Skardova, I.

    2006-01-01

    The study of apoptotic cascade by the use of relatively new technique in avian medicine: TMA may help in early detection and prevention of acquired immunodeficiency caused by the influence of a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic environmental factors, which may result in severe economical losses in conditions of intensive poultry farming. There has not been any report of applying this method in veterinary medicine. Tissue micro-array (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular targets in thousands of tissue specimens at a time, either at the DNA, RNA or protein level. The technique facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. This technology has a number of advantages compared with conventional techniques: speed and high throughput, standardization and experimental uniformity, ease of use, all histochemical and molecular detection techniques can be used, decreased assay volume, preservation of original block, and conservation of valuable tissue etc. The aim of the present work were the study of immunosuppression and apoptotic cascade and possibilities of application of tissue micro-array in chicken in experimental condition and diagnostics in avian medicine in general. The selection of samples from avian primary immune organs: thymus and Bursa Fabric was done after gamma irradiation and infectious bursal virus infection (IBDV). (authors)

  16. Estimation of the dose to the nursing infant due to direct irradiation from activity present in maternal organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.; Nosske, D.; Dos Santos, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    ) due to the incorporation of 1 Bq of a radionuclide by the mother. This information may be used to provide external dose estimates to the infant in the case of a known or suspected radionuclide incorporation by the mother due to, for example, a nuclear medicine procedure. (authors)

  17. Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE and MS are characterized by significant inflammation, demyelination, neuroglial damage, and cell death. Metallothionein-I and -II (MT-I + II) are antiinflammatory an......)beta, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), NT-4/5, and nerve growth factor (NGF). These beneficial effects of Zn-MT-II treatment could not be attributable to its zinc content per se. The present results support further the use of Zn-MT-II as a safe and successful therapy for multiple sclerosis....

  18. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J; Ruemmler, Robert; Russkamp, Norman F; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Standiford, Theodore J; Ward, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how complement activation promotes tissue injury and organ dysfunction during acute inflammation. Three models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by LPS, IgG immune complexes, or C5a were used in C57BL/6 mice, all models requiring availability of both C5a receptors (C5aR and C5L2) for full development of ALI. Ligation of C5aR and C5L2 with C5a triggered the appearance of histones (H3 and H4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). BALF from humans with ALI contained H4 histone. Histones were absent in control BALF from healthy volunteers. In mice with ALI, in vivo neutralization of H4 with IgG antibody reduced the intensity of ALI. Neutrophil depletion in mice with ALI markedly reduced H4 presence in BALF and was highly protective. The direct lung damaging effects of extracellular histones were demonstrated by airway administration of histones into mice and rats (Sprague-Dawley), which resulted in ALI that was C5a receptor-independent, and associated with intense inflammation, PMN accumulation, damage/destruction of alveolar epithelial cells, together with release into lung of cytokines/chemokines. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lung damage, edema and consolidation in histone-injured lungs. These studies confirm the destructive C5a-dependent effects in lung linked to appearance of extracellular histones.

  19. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  20. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  1. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, Francis A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  2. Decay-Accelerating Factor Mitigates Controlled Hemorrhage-Instigated Intestinal and Lung Tissue Damage and Hyperkalemia in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    glucose , hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and ionized calcium (iCa2+) using i-STAT cartridges ( Abbott Laboratories...animals were observed for 200 minutes. Blood chemistry and physiological parameters were recorded. Tissue samples from lung and small intestine were...seemingly acceptable medical therapy and surgical intervention.4 The first physiologic response to severe blood loss is activation of the neuroendocrine

  3. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess the risk of the mixture of PPCPs that may be present in edible tissue of plants grown under these three amendment practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  5. Nicotine-induced damages in testicular tissue of rats; evidences for bcl-2, p53 and caspase-3 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mosadegh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Present study was performed in order to uncover new aspects for nicotine-induced damages on spermatogenesis cell lineage. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 36 mature male Wistar rats were divided into three groups as; control-sham (0.2 ml, saline normal, IP, low dose (0.2 mg/kg BW-1, IP nicotine-received and high dose (0.4 mg/kg BW-1, IP nicotine-received groups. Following 7 weeks, the expression of bcl-2, p53 and caspase-3 at mRNA and protein levels were investigated by using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC analyses, respectively. Moreover, the serum level of FSH, LH and testosterone were evaluated. Finally, the mRNA damage was analyzed by using special fluorescent staining. Results: Nicotine, at both dose levels, decreased tubular differentiation, spermiogenesis and repopulation indices and enhanced cellular depletion. Animals in nicotine-received groups exhibited a significant (P

  6. Systemic transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the regeneration of irradiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yol Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cell-based therapy has been reported to repair or restore damaged salivary gland (SG tissue after irradiation. This study was aimed at determining whether systemic administration of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs can ameliorate radiation-induced SG damage. METHODS: hAdMSCs (1 × 10(6 were administered through a tail vein of C3H mice immediately after local irradiation, and then this infusion was repeated once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. At 12 weeks after irradiation, functional evaluations were conducted by measuring salivary flow rates (SFRs and salivation lag times, and histopathologic and immunofluorescence histochemistry studies were performed to assay microstructural changes, apoptosis, and proliferation indices. The engraftment and in vivo differentiation of infused hAdMSCs were also investigated, and the transdifferentiation of hAdMSCs into amylase-producing SG epithelial cells (SGCs was observed in vitro using a co-culture system. RESULTS: The systemic administration of hAdMSCs exhibited improved SFRs at 12 weeks after irradiation. hAdMSC-transplanted SGs showed fewer damaged and atrophied acinar cells and higher mucin and amylase production levels than untreated irradiated SGs. Immunofluorescence TUNEL assays revealed fewer apoptotic cells in the hAdMSC group than in the untreated group. Infused hAdMSCs were detected in transplanted SGs at 4 weeks after irradiation and some cells were found to have differentiated into SGCs. In vitro, a low number of co-cultured hAdMSCs (13%-18% were observed to transdifferentiate into SGCs. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that hAdMSCs have the potential to protect against irradiation-induced cell loss and to transdifferentiate into SGCs, and suggest that hAdMSC administration should be viewed as a candidate therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced SG damage.

  7. Projecting the risk of damage to reef-lined coasts due to intensified tropical cyclones and sea level rise in Palau to 2100

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Chuki; Kurihara, Haruko; Golbuu, Yimnang

    2017-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs), sea level rise (SLR), and storm surges cause major problems including beach erosion, saltwater intrusion into groundwater, and damage to infrastructure in coastal areas. The magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase as a consequence of future climate change and local factors. Upward reef growth has attracted attention for its role as a natural breakwater able to reduce the risks of natural disasters to coastal communities. However, projections of change ...

  8. Damage to photosystem II due to heat stress without light-driven electron flow: involvement of enhanced introduction of reducing power into thylakoid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Yoko; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Kimura, Yukihiro; Mizutani, Masaharu; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2012-08-01

    Under a moderately heat-stressed condition, the photosystems of higher plants are damaged in the dark more easily than they are in the presence of light. To obtain a better understanding of this heat-derived damage mechanism that occurs in the dark, we focused on the involvement of the light-independent electron flow that occurs at 40 °C during the damage. In various plant species, the maximal photochemical quantum yield of photosystem (PS) II (Fv/Fm) decreased as a result of heat treatment in the dark. In the case of wheat, the most sensitive plant species tested, both Fv/Fm and oxygen evolution rapidly decreased by heat treatment at 40 °C for 30 min in the dark. In the damage, specific degradation of D1 protein was involved, as shown by immunochemical analysis of major proteins in the photosystem. Because light canceled the damage to PSII, the light-driven electron flow may play a protective role against PSII damage without light. Light-independent incorporation of reducing power from stroma was enhanced at 40 °C but not below 35 °C. Arabidopsis mutants that have a deficit of enzymes which mediate the incorporation of stromal reducing power into thylakoid membranes were tolerant against heat treatment at 40 °C in the dark, suggesting that the reduction of the plastoquinone pool may be involved in the damage. In conclusion, the enhanced introduction of reducing power from stroma into thylakoid membranes that occurs around 40 °C causes over-reduction of plastoquinone, resulting in the damage to D1 protein under heat stress without linear electron flow.

  9. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  10. Increased abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood is associated with tissue damage [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain family have emerged as critical regulators of cell-cell signaling during development and homeostasis. ADAM9 is consistently overexpressed in various human cancers, and has been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the involvement of ADAM9 during immune-mediated processes. Results: Mining of an extensive compendium of transcriptomic datasets identified important gaps in knowledge regarding the possible role of ADAM9 in immunological homeostasis and inflammation: 1 The abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood was increased in patients with acute infection but, 2 changed very little after in vitro exposure to a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. 3 Furthermore it was found to increase significantly in subjects as a result of tissue injury or tissue remodeling, in absence of infectious processes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ADAM9 may constitute a valuable biomarker for the assessment of tissue damage, especially in clinical situations where other inflammatory markers are confounded by infectious processes.

  11. Case report: transpalatal arch resulting in soft tissue damage of the tongue 3 years post-orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Joe; Woods, Eva; Hodgson, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Whilst transient effects of orthodontic appliances on the oral mucosa are well recognized, chronic lesions, persisting post therapy are unusual. We describe a persistent lingual mucosal defect related to a transpalatal arch (TPA) in a healthy 19-year-old female. The asymptomatic lesion is presently being monitored, however, surgical revision in the future may be requested by the patient if the area fails to remodel. Clinical Relevance: Soft tissue trauma to the tongue by anchorage reinforcing appliances may result in long-term effects that could require surgical management.

  12. Calculation of absorbed fractions to human skeletal tissues due to alpha particles using the Monte Carlo and 3-d chord-based transport techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, J.G. [Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Watchman, C.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Bolch, W.E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Absorbed fraction (AF) calculations to the human skeletal tissues due to alpha particles are of interest to the internal dosimetry of occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. The transport of alpha particles through the skeletal tissue is complicated by the detailed and complex microscopic histology of the skeleton. In this study, both Monte Carlo and chord-based techniques were applied to the transport of alpha particles through 3-D micro-CT images of the skeletal microstructure of trabecular spongiosa. The Monte Carlo program used was 'Visual Monte Carlo-VMC'. VMC simulates the emission of the alpha particles and their subsequent energy deposition track. The second method applied to alpha transport is the chord-based technique, which randomly generates chord lengths across bone trabeculae and the marrow cavities via alternate and uniform sampling of their cumulative density functions. This paper compares the AF of energy to two radiosensitive skeletal tissues, active marrow and shallow active marrow, obtained with these two techniques. (authors)

  13. The role of pyrimidine and water as underlying molecular constituents for describing radiation damage in living tissue: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M. C.; Ellis-Gibbings, L. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Limão-Vieira, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); García, G., E-mail: g.garcia@csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-06-07

    Water is often used as the medium for characterizing the effects of radiation on living tissue. However, in this study, charged-particle track simulations are employed to quantify the induced physicochemical and potential biological implications when a primary ionising particle with energy 10 keV strikes a medium made up entirely of water or pyrimidine. Note that pyrimidine was chosen as the DNA/RNA bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil can be considered pyrimidine derivatives. This study aims to assess the influence of the choice of medium on the charged-particle transport, and identify how appropriate it is to use water as the default medium to describe the effects of ionising radiation on living tissue. Based on the respective electron interaction cross sections, we provide a model, which allows the study of radiation effects not only in terms of energy deposition (absorbed dose and stopping power) but also in terms of the number of induced molecular processes. Results of these parameters for water and pyrimidine are presented and compared.

  14. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Talip Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensivedrugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine on oxidant-antioxidantparameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examinedhistopathologically.Materials and Methods: A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups:0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg/kgramipril group; 0.5 mg/kg rilmenidine group; and the healthy group. Rats underwent chronic drugadministration for 30 days and at the end, biochemical and histopathological examinations wereperformed. All data were subjected to one-way ANOVA test.Results: We divided these drugs into the following three groups according to their effects on ratuteri: (I mild negative effects (clonidine, (II moderate negative effects (rilmenidine, methyldopaand (III drugs which had severe negative effects (amlodipine, ramipril.Conclusion: These data may help with selection of antihypertensive drugs, in order to determinewhich drugs have the lowest toxicity in pregnant and non-pregnant (pre-pregnancy women.

  15. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicell-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Viral Infectivity and Oxidative Stress and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex threedimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6].

  16. Accumulation of free oligosaccharides and tissue damage in cytosolic α-mannosidase (Man2c1)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotti, Silvia; Persichetti, Emanuele; Klein, Katharina; Tasegian, Anna; Duvet, Sandrine; Hartmann, Dieter; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Beccari, Tommaso

    2014-04-04

    Free Man(7-9)GlcNAc2 is released during the biosynthesis pathway of N-linked glycans or from misfolded glycoproteins during the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation process and are reduced to Man5GlcNAc in the cytosol. In this form, free oligosaccharides can be transferred into the lysosomes to be degraded completely. α-Mannosidase (MAN2C1) is the enzyme responsible for the partial demannosylation occurring in the cytosol. It has been demonstrated that the inhibition of MAN2C1 expression induces accumulation of Man(8-9)GlcNAc oligosaccharides and apoptosis in vitro. We investigated the consequences caused by the lack of cytosolic α-mannosidase activity in vivo by the generation of Man2c1-deficient mice. Increased amounts of Man(8-9)GlcNAc oligosaccharides were recognized in all analyzed KO tissues. Histological analysis of the CNS revealed neuronal and glial degeneration with formation of multiple vacuoles in deep neocortical layers and major telencephalic white matter tracts. Enterocytes of the small intestine accumulate mannose-containing saccharides and glycogen particles in their apical cytoplasm as well as large clear vacuoles in retronuclear position. Liver tissue is characterized by groups of hepatocytes with increased content of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, some of them undergoing degeneration by hydropic swelling. In addition, lectin screening showed the presence of mannose-containing saccharides in the epithelium of proximal kidney tubules, whereas scattered glomeruli appeared collapsed or featured signs of fibrosis along Bowman's capsule. Except for a moderate enrichment of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, heterozygous mice were normal, arguing against possible toxic effects of truncated Man2c1. These findings confirm the key role played by Man2c1 in the catabolism of free oligosaccharides.

  17. Purified rutin and rutin-rich asparagus attenuates disease severity and tissue damage following dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lu, Jenifer T; Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Wu, Wenqing; Zhang, Claire; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Wood, Geoffrey A; Wolyn, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooked whole asparagus (ASP) versus its equivalent level of purified flavonoid glycoside, rutin (RUT), on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and subsequent colitis recovery in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD), or BD supplemented with 2% cooked ASP or 0.025% RUT for 2 wks prior to and during colitis induction with 2% DSS in water for 7 days, followed by 5 days colitis recovery. In colitic mice, both ASP and RUT upregulated mediators of improved barrier integrity and enhanced mucosal injury repair (e.g. Muc1, IL-22, Rho-A, Rac1, and Reg3γ), increased the proportion of mouse survival, and improved disease activity index. RUT had the greatest effect in attenuating DSS-induced colonic damage indicated by increased crypt and goblet cell restitution, reduced colonic myeloperoxidase, as well as attenuated DSS-induced microbial dysbiosis (reduced Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides, and increased unassigned Clostridales, Oscillospira, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium). These findings demonstrate that dietary cooked ASP and its flavonoid glycoside, RUT, may be useful in attenuating colitis severity by modulating the colonic microenvironment resulting in reduced colonic inflammation, promotion of colonic mucosal injury repair, and attenuation of colitis-associated microbial dysbiosis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Effect of oxidative stress-associated damage to the lung tissue caused by different body mass index in the rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Zhang, X J; Zhao, J H; Xu, J Y

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the influence of different diets on serum protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the activities of Trx and TrxR, and to explore the effect of damage to the lung tissue and the underlying mechanisms of different body mass index caused by different diets in the rat models . Method: Healthy clean male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, emaciation group and fat group, which were raised by different diets for 6 months.Then the rats were sacrificed and the serum and lung tissue were prepared. The levels of 4-HNE, Trx and TrxR in peripheral blood were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of Trx and TrxR were measured by chemical methods. Results: Compared with the normal group, the lung tissue had more apparent emphysema in the emaciation and the fat groups under light microscope, and more inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar septum was observed in the fat group.The levels of 4-HNE in the fat group[(24.7±8.7)mg/L]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(15.4±4.7)mg/L, P 0.05)in the levels of 4-HNE between the emaciation and the normal groups. The levels of TrxR in the emaciation group[(7.7±1.4)μg/ml]was significantly higher than that in the normal and the fat groups[(6.2±1.1), (4.9±1.4)μg/ml, all P 0.05). The activity of Trx in the emaciation group[(32.4±8.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(19.6±3.3)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]and the fat group[(11.3±7.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 , all P 0.05). Conclusion: Both high BMI and low BMI can affect the oxidative stress of the body, resulting in increased oxidants and decreased antioxidants, and can cause damage to the lung tissue in the rat models.

  19. Characteristics of latent damage trails due to high energy 208Pb and 238U ions in CR-39 and muscovite mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chohan, A.S.; Akhtar, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the characteristics of latent damage trails produced by (a) 17.14 MeV/nucleon- 208 Pb ions in mica and CR-39 track detectors and (b) 13.7 MeV/nucleon- 238 U in CR-39 track detectors. The parameters studied include (a) V t , average etching velocity along the track, (b) thermal stability of the latent damage trails, (c) the total etchable ranges, and (d) V g the general etching velocity of CR-39 track detectors previously annealed at different temperatures. It has been observed that the latent damage trails in CR-39 are greatly affected at temperatures around 200 0 C in CR-39 track detectors. The general etching velocity of a CR-39 detector has been found to increase with increasing annealing temperatures. (author)

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  1. Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-06-01

    The diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2007 for the treatment of soft tissue injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions, although it has been available for many years in >40 countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in relieving acute pain caused by soft tissue injuries. The MEDLINE, Derwent Drug File, BIOSIS, and EMBASE databases were searched for literature published between 1984 and October 30, 2009, in any language, using the terms diclofenac epolamine patch, diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine patch, and FLECTOR Patch. Clinical studies of the efficacy and/or tolerability of the DETP in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries or localized periarticular disorders were included. Efficacy studies that enrolled patients with other medical conditions were excluded, except for reports that focused on tolerability, which were included to supplement tolerability data. The bibliographies of included studies were reviewed manually for relevant articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the manufacturer was contacted for additional relevant postmarketing surveillance information and presentations from scientific meetings. The search identified 6 placebo-controlled clinical studies, 1 active-comparator-controlled clinical study, and 1 open-label comparator clinical study of the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in patients with soft tissue injuries. Three studies reported on tolerability. Primary analyses among the 8 studies reported DETP-associated reductions in spontaneous pain from baseline, assessed using a visual analog scale, ranging from 26% to 88% on day 7 and 56% to 61% on day 14. The use of the DETP was associated with significantly greater reductions in pain scores compared with a placebo patch (2 studies) on day 7 (88% vs 74%; P = 0.001) and day 14 (56.5% vs 46.8%; P = 0.001) and compared with

  2. Radiation-induced brain damage in children; Histological analysis of sequential tissue changes in 34 autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Shizuo; Kokunai, Takashi; Ijichi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Satoshi [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Raimondi, A J

    1990-01-01

    The nature and sequence of the radiation-induced changes in the brain were studied postmortem in 34 children with glioma, 22 of whom underwent central nervous system radiation therapy. Twenty received whole-brain or whole-neuroaxis radiation at a total mean dosage of 4063 cGy. Brain tissue alternations were analyzed histologically by means of various staining methods, including immunohistochemical techniques. The histological features of irradiated brains were compared with those of non-irradiated brains. Microscopic findings included demyelination (seven cases), focal necrosis (six cases), cortical atrophy (four cases), endothelial proliferation (four cases), and telangiectatic vascular proliferation with vascular thickening and oozing of a thick fluid (one case). Such findings were rare in non-irradiated patients. Demyelination was observed earliest in a patient who died 5 months after radiation therapy and was more common after 9 months. Focal necrosis was first observed 9 months post-irradiation but was more advanced and extensive after 1 year. Calcified foci were found only after 60 months. Various vascular changes such as vascular thickening and thrombosis suggested ischemic insult to the brain as a late effect of radiation injury. The results of this study suggest that the immature brain may be more sensitive to radiation than is the adult brain, and that the manifestations of radiation-induced injury depend on the time elapsed after irradiation. (author).

  3. Ultrastructural and cellular damage to rat lung with x-rays: a search for target cell in lung tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, I

    1975-03-01

    Radiation effects on the peripheral alveoli of conventional rats were examined by means of electron microscopy. The right hemithorax alone was exposed to various single doses of x rays. The initial cellular lesions selectively involved the cytoplasms of alveolar capillary endothelial (Ed) and type 1 epithelial (Ep 1) cells in a dose-dependent fashion, where the major alterations were multifocal vacuolations and swellings. These lesions became visible as early as 1 hr after 1000 R (the assumed mean lethal dose for Ed cells) and more. However, progenitor Ep 2 cells exhibited no obvious cytoplasmic lesions by the doses below 2000 R, indicating that Ep 2 cells are more resistant to x rays. With time following 1000 R, the capillary Ed blebbing abruptly developed in various forms from the sites presumably other than the Ed junctions. The Ed blebs and interstitial edema progressed until about 2 weeks without recovery, while some signs of cellular recovery were recognized in Ep 1 cells during this period. The observations after a long period of 6 months following 1000 R showed that the typical pulmonary fibrotic changes were initiated in the interstitium perhaps around unrepaired capillaries. Further, inflammatory reaction characterized by massive cellular infiltations was superimposed on developing pulmonary fibrosis. Considering the current knowledge about the cell sensitivity and renewal in stable tissues, the present results imply that capillary Ed cell is the primary target for the radiation lesion leading to the secondary pulmonary alterations.

  4. Spinal cord injury after blunt cervical spine trauma: correlation of soft-tissue damage and extension of lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Cepeda, S; Ramos, A; Castaño-León, A M; García-Fuentes, C; Lobato, R D; Gómez, P A; Lagares, A

    2014-05-01

    In patients with spinal cord injury after blunt trauma, several studies have observed a correlation between neurologic impairment and radiologic findings. Few studies have been performed to correlate spinal cord injury with ligamentous injury. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate whether ligamentous injury or disk disruption after spinal cord injury correlates with lesion length. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients diagnosed with traumatic spinal cord injury after cervical trauma between 1990-2011. Plain films, CT, and MR imaging were performed on patients and then reviewed for this study. MR imaging was performed within 96 hours after cervical trauma for all patients. Data regarding ligamentous injury, disk injury, and the extent of the spinal cord injury were collected from an adequate number of MR images. We evaluated anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and the ligamentum flavum. Length of lesion, disk disruption, and ligamentous injury association, as well as the extent of the spinal cord injury were statistically assessed by means of univariate analysis, with the use of nonparametric tests and multivariate analysis along with linear regression. There were significant differences in lesion length on T2-weighted images for anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum in the univariate analysis; however, when this was adjusted by age, level of injury, sex, and disruption of the soft tissue evaluated (disk, anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments, and ligamentum flavum) in a multivariable analysis, only ligamentum flavum showed a statistically significant association with lesion length. Furthermore, the number of ligaments affected had a positive correlation with the extension of the lesion. In cervical spine trauma, a specific pattern of ligamentous injury correlates with the length of the spinal cord lesion in MR imaging studies

  5. Brain tissue oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for the deleterious effect of a chronic high dose of estradiol on learning and memory in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimeh Khodabandehloo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to antioxidative effects, estrogens also exert pro-oxidative actions. The effect of chronic administration of a high dose of estradiol valerate on Morris water maze tasks and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were treated with estradiol valerate (4 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Escape latency and traveled path in the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups were significantly higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.01 and p≪0.001. In the probe trial, the animals of the Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups spent lower time in Q1 compared to Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. In Sham-Est and OVX-Est groups, the brain tissue total thiol concentration was significantly lower, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were higher than in the Sham and OVX groups (p≪0.05 and p≪0.001. It is concluded that administration of high exogenous levels of estradiol impairs performance and enhances oxidative stress.

  6. Pretreatment with AQP4 and NKCC1 Inhibitors Concurrently Attenuated Spinal Cord Edema and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Wang, Xiji; Li, Wenhao; Chen, Jingyuan; Sun, Honghui

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Spinal cord edema plays critical roles in the pathological progression of SCI. This study aimed to delineate the roles of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na + -K + -Cl - cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in acute phase edema and tissue destruction after SCI and to explore whether inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 could improve SCI-induced spinal edema and damage. Rat SCI model was established by modified Allen's method. Spinal cord water content, cerebrospinal fluid lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, AQP4 and NKCC1 expression, and spinal cord pathology from 30 min to 7 days after SCI were monitored. Additionally, aforementioned parameters in rats treated with AQP4 and/or NKCC1 inhibitors were assessed 2 days after SCI. Spinal cord water content was significantly increased 1 h after SCI while AQP4 and NKCC1 expression and spinal fluid LDH activity elevated 6 h after SCI. Spinal cord edema and spinal cord destruction peaked around 24 h after SCI and maintained at high levels thereafter. Treating rats with AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 and NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide significantly reduced spinal cord edema, tissue destruction, and AQP4 and NKCC1 expression after SCI in an additive manner. These results demonstrated the benefits of simultaneously inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 after SCI.

  7. The metabolism of 32P-CP-PLLA seed implanted in the liver and its damage to the normal liver tissue: a study in the experimental dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhongbao; Liu Lu; Guo Jinhe; Zhu Guangyu; Wang Fuan; Nie Qi; Gao Hailin; Teng Gaojun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intratumoral implantation of 32 P -CP-PLLA seeds on the normal canine liver tissue and to explore the metabolism of 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds implanted in the liver of experimental dogs. Methods: Twelve beagles were enrolled in this study. The dogs were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group A (185 MBq), group B (370 MBq), group C (740 MBq) and group D (0 MBq). By using laparotomy procedure 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds were implanted into dog's liver. CT scan was performed before operation as well as before the dog was sacrificed. All dogs were sacrificed three months after the implantation. Before the procedure and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the procedure the blood tests and serum biochemical tests were conducted. One dog from group B and group C was selected respectively and was fed in a metabolic cage. Within one month after the procedure the cpm in feces and in urine was determined every 24 hours. One dog was picked out from each of the three groups and was punctured to get its liver tissue for pathologic exam each time at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the implantation, and SPECT imaging was also performed at the same time. Pathologic study, both macroscopic and microscopic (including optical and electronic microscopy) was made to observe the liver damage after the dog was sacrificed. The statistical analysis was processed by using SPSS 13.0 software and the measuring data were expressed with mean ± standard deviation (x ± s). Results: Two months after the procedure, serological examination found that the serum alkaline phosphatase (BKP) in both group B and group C was significantly higher than that in other groups, the difference was statistically significant (P 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds was manifested as a spherical lesion which was encysted by a layer of fibrous tissue with an edematous zone peripherally. Conclusion: The implantation of 32 P-CP-PLLA seeds in dog's liver causes only localized hepatic damage with no general

  8. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerath, E. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Zhou, G.D. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Donnelly, K.C. [Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Safe, S.H. [Department of Veterinary Physiology/Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Randerath, K. [Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with {sup 32}P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10{sup 6} DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10{sup 7} or 1.2 x 10{sup 7} DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the {sup 32}P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7{beta}, 8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha}, 10{alpha}-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N{sup 2} of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. DNA damage induced in mouse tissues by organic wood preserving waste extracts as assayed by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, E.; Zhou, G.D.; Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H.; Randerath, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, a mouse bioassay was used in combination with 32 P-postlabeling to determine DNA adduct formation induced by hexane/acetone extracts of two samples from a WPW site. Female ICR mice were treated dermally with extract corresponding to 3 mg residue or vehicle control once per day for 2 days and killed 24 h later. Skin, lung, liver, kidney, and heart DNA preparations were assayed by nuclease P1-enhanced postlabeling. Adduct profiles were tissue-specific and displayed a multitude of non-polar DNA adducts with levels amounting to one adduct in 1.6 x 10 6 DNA nucleotides in skin (both extracts) and one adduct in 3.2 x 10 7 or 1.2 x 10 7 DNA nucleotides in liver (extract 1 or extract 2). Based on their chromatographic properties, these adducts appeared largely derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the extracts. One of the major adducts was identified as the 32 P-labeled derivative of the reaction product of 7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE I) with N 2 of deoxyguanosine. Total non-polar DNA adduct levels were highest in skin and lung, amounting to 17.4 and 24.0% of the skin values for extracts 1 and 2, respectively, in lung while the corresponding levels in liver were 5.0 and 12.6%. These results were in accord with the carcinogenic potencies of PAHs in these organs. Extract 2 induced higher adduct levels in internal organs, although its PAH concentrations were lower than those of extract 1, i.e. lung, liver, kidney, and heart had 1.4, 2.5, 1.9, and 1.7 times higher total adduct levels and 1.6, 3.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times higher benzo[a]pyrene adduct levels. With the exception of total adducts in lung, the differences between the two extracts were all significant, suggestive of compound interactions. (orig.) (orig.). With 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at ...

  11. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during midloop operation due to loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    1995-01-01

    The core damage frequency caused by loss of residual heat removal (RHR) events was assessed during midloop operation of a Westinghouse-designed three-loop pressurized water reactor. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance) and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events were identified and human error probabilities were quantified using the human cognitive reliability (HCR) and the technique for human error rate prediction (THERP) models. The results showed that the core damage frequency caused by loss of RHR events during midloop operation was 3.4 x 10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering midloop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e., decay heat removal through the steam generator secondary side, also plays an important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events during midloop operation

  12. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  13. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  14. Conjunctival Tear Layer Temperature, Evaporation, Hyperosmolarity, Inflammation, Hyperemia, Tissue Damage, and Symptoms: A Review of an Amplifying Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2017-12-01

    This review examines the evidence for and significance of pre-conjunctival tear temperature being higher than central pre-corneal temperature with associated more rapid evaporation of warmer pre-conjunctival tears in normal eyes but especially in hyperemic dry eye disease. PubMed searches using the terms "evaporative dry eye," "conjunctival tear evaporation," "tear evaporation," and "dry eye conjunctival hyperemia" indicated 157, 49, 309, and 96 potentially relevant papers, respectively. Selections from these lists were the basis for examining the significance of the evidence relevant to pre-conjunctival tear layer temperature and evaporation. There is evidence supporting an amplifying inflammatory and para-inflammatory hyperemia dry eye cascade, which increases pre-conjunctival tear temperature and the risk of accelerated pre-conjunctival tear evaporation with exacerbated osmolarity elevation and inflammation. Dry eye cascade amplification is consistent with increases in symptoms and inflammatory as well as para-inflammatory hyperemia toward the end of the waking day. Apart from age-related conjunctivochalasis, dry eye-related conjunctival epithelial cell pathology including reduced goblet cell numbers and associated mucin deficiency, squamous metaplasia, and increased separation of cell layers could help to destabilize tears and facilitate evaporation as part of an amplifying cascade. Greater difficulty in assessing conjunctival tear break up may contribute to an underestimation of a role for faster evaporation of pre-conjunctival tears in dry eye disease and help explain any non-correspondence between symptoms and corneal signs of dry eye disease. Success with anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye disease may be at least partly due to reductions in conjunctival hyperemia and deamplification of evaporative cascades. Conjunctival inflammatory hyperemia in other diseases may contribute to accelerated pre-conjunctival tear evaporation and the risk of tear

  15. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  16. Voxel-by-voxel analysis of ECD-brain SPECT can separate penumbra from irreversibly damaged tissue at the acute phase of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcourt, J.; Migneco, O.; David, O.; Bussiere, F.; Mahagne, M.H.; Dunac, A.; Baron, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim. At the acute phase of ischemic stroke, the target of treatment is still salvageable hypoperfused cerebral tissue; so called penumbra. We tested the possibility of separating on early ECD brain SPECT penumbral voxels (P) from irreversibly damaged damaged tissue (IDT). We used ECD which is not only a perfusion tracer but also a metabolic marker. Materials and methods. We prospectively studied 18 patients who underwent ECD-SPECT within the 12 hours following a first-ever acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Orgogozo's scale at admission and 3 months later in order to calculate and evolution index (IE%) (Martinez-Vila et al.). SPECT data were obtained using a triple head camera equipped with fan beam collimators one hour after injection of 1000 MBq of 99mTc-ECD. On reconstructed images gray matter voxels were automatically segmented. Contralateral healthy hemisphere was used as reference leading to the identification of 3 cortical voxel types: normal (N-SPECT) above 80%; penumbra (P-SPECT) between 80% and 40% and IDT (IDT-SPECT) below 40%. 10 patients also underwent a T2 weighted 3D MRI study at 3 months. Cortical voxels with hypersignal served as reference for IDT (IDT-MRI) the others were considered normal (N-MRI). SPECT and MRI data were co-registered. Therefore each voxel belonged to one of 6 categories (3 SPECT x 2 MRI). Results. (1) The SPECT thresholds were validated on the MRI subgroup. 99% of the N-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI. 84% of IDT-SPECT voxels corresponded to IDT-MRI. 89% of P-SPECT voxels were normal on late MRI and 11% corresponded to IDT on late MRI. Other categories of voxels (N-SPECT IDT-MRI and IDT-SPECT N-MRI) represented less than 5%. (2) Percentages of each voxel SPECT type was correlated with the EI% on the entire population (Spearman test). P-SPECT extent correlated with EI% improvement (p<0.001) and IDT-SPECT with EI% worsening (p<0.001). Conclusion. Analysis of ECD cortical

  17. Ligamentous Injuries and the Risk of Associated Tissue Damage in Acute Ankle Sprains in Athletes: A Cross-sectional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Frank W; Jomaah, Nabil; Niu, Jingbo; Almusa, Emad; Roger, Bernard; D'Hooghe, Pieter; Geertsema, Celeste; Tol, Johannes L; Khan, Karim; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Ankle joint injuries are extremely common sports injuries, with the anterior talofibular ligament involved in the majority of ankle sprains. There have been only a few large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on associated structural injuries after ankle sprains. To describe the injury pattern in athletes who were referred to MRI for the assessment of an acute ankle sprain and to assess the risk of associated traumatic tissue damage including lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 261 ankle MRI scans of athletes with acute ankle sprains were evaluated for: lateral and syndesmotic ligament injury; concomitant injuries to the deltoid and spring ligaments and sinus tarsi; peroneal, flexor, and extensor retinacula and tendons; traumatic and nontraumatic osteochondral and osseous changes; and joint effusion. Patients were on average 22.5 years old, and the average time from injury to MRI was 5.7 days. Six exclusive injury patterns were defined based on lateral and syndesmotic ligament involvement. The risk for associated injuries was assessed by logistic regression using ankles with no or only low-grade lateral ligament injuries and no syndesmotic ligament damage as the reference. With regard to the injury pattern, there were 103 ankles (39.5%) with complete anterior talofibular ligament disruption and no syndesmotic injury, and 53 ankles (20.3%) had a syndesmotic injury with or without lateral ligament damage. Acute osteochondral lesions of the lateral talar dome were seen in 20 ankles (7.7%). The percentage of chronic lateral osteochondral lesions was 1.1%. The risk for talar bone contusions increased more than 3-fold for ankles with complete lateral ligament ruptures (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.43; 95% CI, 1.72-6.85) but not for ankles with syndesmotic involvement. The risk for associated deltoid ligament injuries increased for ankles with complete lateral ligament injuries (aOR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1

  18. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ=9.3-μm CO2 laser: heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    A mechanically scanned CO2 laser operated at high laser pulse repetition rates can be used to rapidly and precisely remove dental decay. This study aims to determine whether these laser systems can safely ablate enamel and dentin without excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. Samples were derived from noncarious extracted molars. Pulpal temperatures were recorded using microthermocouples situated at the pulp chamber roof of samples (n=12), which were occlusally ablated using a rapid-scanning, water-cooled 300 Hz CO2 laser over a two minute time course. The mechanical strength of facially ablated dentin (n=10) was determined via four-point bend test and compared to control samples (n=10) prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Composite-to-enamel bond strength was measured via single-plane shear test for ablated/non-etched (n=10) and ablated/acid-etched (n=8) samples and compared to control samples (n=9) prepared by 320 grit wet sanding. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature at 19.0°C (s.d.=0.9) if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin and enamel, the treated surfaces were uniformly ablated and there were no cracks observable on the laser treated surfaces. Fourpoint bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d.=4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d.=2.7) for control (p>0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths of 31.2 MPa (s.d.=2.5, penamel without excessive heat accumulation and with minimal thermal damage. It is not clear whether the small (16%) but statistically significant reduction in the shear bond strength to enamel is clinically significant since the mean shear bond strength exceeded 30 MPa.

  19. A calculation of the physical parameters responsible for the enhancement of radiation damage due to the incorporation of Br/I atoms into the DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that when analogs of thymidine containing iodine or bromine are incorporated into the DNA of irradiated cells there is a decrease of the D 0 . Three mechanisms for this effect have been discussed: (a) photoactivation of the Br/I atom and the production of Auger electrons, (b) creation of highly reactive uracil radicals by the interaction of hydrated electrons with BrUdR/IUdR, leading to SSB, and (c) interference with repair or the fixation of the damage by the presence of the Br/I atoms. Experiments to investigate photoactivation of the Br/I atoms will include all three, so that knowledge of the relative size of each contribution is useful. The first process is reasonably well understood and here the second process is examined. It is assumed that the incorporated analogs only produce radicals if they are present in a region of DNA containing energy depositions. An SSB produced by this radical can combine with a nearby SSB produced by electron damage to give a DSB, thus increasing the yield of DSB compared to the yield without the analog present. The increased yields at various levels of Br/I incorporation are compared to experiment for different models of radical action

  20. Laser-induced damage of fused silica optics at 355 nm due to backward stimulated Brillouin scattering: experimental and theoretical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaignère, Laurent; Gaudfrin, Kévin; Donval, Thierry; Natoli, Jeanyves; Sajer, Jean-Michel; Penninckx, Denis; Courchinoux, Roger; Diaz, Romain

    2018-04-30

    Forward pump pulses with nanosecond duration are able to generate an acoustic wave via electrostriction through a few centimeters of bulk silica. Part of the incident energy is then scattered back on this sound wave, creating a backward Stokes pulse. This phenomenon known as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) might induce first energy-loss, variable change of the temporal waveform depending on the location in the spatial profile making accurate metrology impossible, and moreover it might also initiate front surface damage making the optics unusable. Experiments performed on thick fused silica optics at 355 nm with single longitudinal mode pulses allowed us to detect, observe and quantify these backward pulses. Experimental results are first compared to theoretical calculations in order to strengthen our confidence in metrology. On this basis a phase-modulator has been implemented on the continuous-wave seeders of the lasers leading to pulses with a wide spectrum that suppress SBS and do not exhibit temporal overshoots that also reduce Kerr effects. The developed set-ups are used to check the reduction of the backward stimulated Brillouin scattering and they allow measuring with accuracy the rear surface damage of thick fused silica optics.

  1. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Catherine R; McNamara, Anne V; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Nelson, David E; White, Mike R; Watson, Alastair J M; Jenkins, John R

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90-topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.

  2. Protective effect of hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, against lethality and hematopoietic tissue damage in γ-radiated Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Elbaghdady, Heba Allah M.; El-Shebly, Abdallah A.; Pan, Deyu; Assanah, Edward; Lawson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Hydroferrate fluid, MRN-100, an iron-based compound derived from bivalent and trivalent ferrates, is a potent antioxidant compound. Therefore, we examined the protective effect of MRN-100 against γ-radiation-induced lethality and damage to hematopoietic tissues in fish. A total of 216 Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as a control that was administered no radiation and no MRN-100 treatment. Group 2 was exposed only to γ-radiation (15 Gy). Groups 3 and 4 were pre-treated with MRN-100 at doses of either 1 ml/l or 3 ml/l in water for 1 week, and subsequently exposed to radiation while continuing to receive MRN-100 for 27 days. The survival rate was measured, and biochemical and histopathological analyses of hematopoietic tissues were performed for the different treatment groups at 1 and 4 weeks post-radiation. Exposure to radiation reduced the survival rate to 27.7%, while treatment with MRN-100 maintained the survival rate at 87.2%. In addition, fish exposed to γ-radiation for 1 week showed a significant decrease in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) series. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the total WBC count and the RBCs series when compared with irradiated fish. Furthermore, significant histological lesions were observed in the hepatopancreas, spleen and gills of irradiated fish. However, treatment with MRN-100 protected the histopathology of various organs. We conclude that MRN-100 is a radioprotective agent in fish and may be useful as an adjuvant treatment to counteract the adverse side effects associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  3. The use of near infrared transmittance kernel sorting technology to salvage high quality grain from grain downgraded due to Fusarium damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kautzman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxins associated with specific Fusarium fungal infections of grains are a threat to global food and feed security. These fungal infestations are referred to as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB and lead to Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDK. Incidence of FDK >0.25% will lower the grade, with a tolerance of 5% FDK for export feed grain. During infestation, the fungi can produce a variety of mycotoxins, the most common being deoxynivalenol (DON. Fusarium Damaged Kernels have been associated with reduced crude protein (CP, lowering nutritional, functional and grade value. New technology has been developed using Near Infrared Transmittance (NIT spectra that estimate CP of individual kernels of wheat, barley and durum. Our objective is to evaluate the technology's capability to reduce FDK and DON of downgraded wheat and ability to salvage high quality safe kernels. In five FDK downgraded sources of wheat, the lowest 20% CP kernels had significantly increased FDK and DON with the high CP fractions having decreased FDK and DON, thousand kernel weights (TKW and bushel weight (Bu. Strong positive correlations were observed between FDK and DON (r = 0.90; FDK and grade (r = 0.62 and DON and grade (r = 0.62. Negative correlations were observed between FDK and DON with CP (r = −0.27 and −0.32; TKW (r = −0.45 and −0.54 and Bu (r = −0.79 and −0.74. Results show improved quality and value of Fusarium downgraded grain using this technology.

  4. Effect of time intervals between irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents on the normal tissue damage. Comparison between in vivo and in vitro experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hisao; Nakayama, Toshitake; Hashimoto, Shozo (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect on the cell survivals at different time intervals between irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents (BLM, cisDDP, ADM and ACNU) in either the in vivo or the in vitro system. The intestinal epithelial assay was applied on the in vivo system. The clonogenic cell survivals of V/sub 79/ cells, both in the proliferative and the plateau phases, were determined in the in vitro system. The V/sub 79/ cells in the plateau phase were more sensitive to BLM, cisDDP and ACNU than those in the proliferative phase, however, the result was reverse with ADM. When BLM, cisDDP or ACNU was combined with irradiation at different time intervals, the response of the plateau phase V/sub 79/ cells to combination therapies were very similar to those of the intestinal epithelial cells. On the other hand, V/sub 79/ cells in the proliferative phase, which were treated with ADM and irradiation, showed the similar response as the intestinal cells. These results suggest that studies of chemo-radiotherapy with cultured cells which are sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents might be suitable to expect the in vivo damage of the normal tissue. (author).

  5. Increments in cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle after injection of tissue-damaging toxins from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rucavado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis, blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been hypothesized that inflammatory mediators may contribute to the local pathological alterations described. This study evaluated the local production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs as a consequence of intramuscular injections of an Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipase A2 (myotoxin III (MT-III and a P-I type hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BaP1 isolated from B. asper venom. Both enzymes induced prominent tissue alterations and conspicuous increments in interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and a number of MMPs, especially gelatinase MMP-9, rapidly after injection. In contrast, no increments in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ were detected. In agreement, MT-III and BaP1 did not induce the synthesis of TNF-α by resident peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Despite the conspicuous expression of latent forms of MMPs in muscle, evidenced by zymography, there were no increments in activated MMP-2 and only a small increase in activated MMP-9, as detected by a functional enzymatic assay. This suggests that MMP activity was regulated by a highly controlled activation of latent forms and, probably, by a concomitant synthesis of MMP inhibitors. Since no hemorrhage nor dermonecrosis were observed after injection of MT-III, despite a prominent increase in MMP expression, and since inflammatory exudate did not enhance hemorrhage induced by BaP1, it is suggested that endogenous MMPs released in the tissue are not responsible for the dermonecrosis and hemorrhage characteristic of B. asper envenomation. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with the peptidomimetic MMP inhibitor batimastat did not reduce myotoxic nor

  6. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neutral Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Oxidate Stress and Damage in Multiple Hit Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpes virus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex three-dimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6]. By combining the RFs of microgravity, radiation, and viral infection we will demonstrate that living in the space environment leads to significant physiological consequences for the peripheral and subsequently the central nervous system (PNS, CNS) associated with OSaD generation and consequentially endangers long-duration and exploration-class missions.

  7. Assessment of Brain Damage and Plasticity in the Visual System Due to Early Occipital Lesion: Comparison of FDG-PET with Diffusion MRI Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-won; Tiwari, Vijay N.; Shin, Joseph; Chugani, Harry T.; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the relation between glucose metabolic changes of the primary visual cortex, structural abnormalities of the corresponding visual tracts, and visual symptoms in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Materials and Methods In 10 children with unilateral SWS (ages 1.5–5.5 years), a region-of-interest analysis was applied in the bilateral medial occipital cortex on positron emission tomography (PET) and used to track diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) streamlines corresponding to the central visual pathway. Normalized streamline volumes of individual SWS patients were compared with values from age-matched control groups as well as correlated with normalized glucose uptakes and visual field deficit. Results Lower glucose uptake and lower corresponding streamline volumes were detected in the affected occipital lobe in 9/10 patients, as compared to the contralateral side. Seven of these 9 patients had visual field deficit and normal or decreased streamline volumes on the unaffected side. The two other children had no visual symptoms and showed high contralateral visual streamline volumes. There was a positive correlation between the normalized ratios on DWI and PET, indicating that lower glucose metabolism was associated with lower streamline volume in the affected hemisphere (R = 0.70, P = 0.024). Conclusion We demonstrated that 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET combined with DWI tractography can detect both brain damage on the side of the lesion and contralateral plasticity in children with early occipital lesions. PMID:24391057

  8. PERTANGGUNGJAWABAN NEGARA TERHADAP KERUGIAN DAN KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT KEGIATAN EKSPOR IMPOR LIMBAH 83 (The State Responsibilities toward Environmental Damages due to Hazardous Wastes Export-Import Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Bilo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi dan menganalisis fenomena legal dan praktek hukum yang mengatur pergerakan lintas batas B3 dan limbah 83. Penelitian ini mengkombinasikan pendekatan legal dan normatif. Informasi diinterpretasi dengan menggunakan metode Juridical-analytical dan evaluative-explanatory. Penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa fihak-fihak yang terlibat dalam pengeluaran limbah B3 adalah bertanggung jawab baik secara individual maupun kolektif untuk memberikan kompensasi kerusakan lingkungan yang diderita oleh fihak ketiga. Prinsip ini didasarkan pada hukum publik internasional yang menyatakan bahwa setiap tindakan pelanggaran hukum oleh suatu negara adalah menyangkut pertanggung jawaban international dari negara tersebut.    ABSTRACT This research aims to investigate and analyze legal phenomena and the practices of law that regulate transboundry movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The research combines the normative and empirical legal approach. Information is interpreted by using juridical analytical and evaluative explanatory method. The research concludes that the parties involved in the transmission of hazardous wastes are either individually or collectively responsible for compensating detriments and environmental damaged sufferes by the third parties. This principle is based on the public international law, which insists that every internationally wrongful act of a State entails the international responsibility of that State.

  9. Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Abou Zaid, N.M.; Ahmed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

  10. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  11. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)

    2015-07-15

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  12. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Warburton, Elisabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  13. ICG-assisted blood vessel detection during stereotactic neurosurgery: simulation study on excitation power limitations due to thermal effects in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, Adrian; Göbel, Werner; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative blood vessel detection based on intraluminal indocyanin-green (ICG) would allow to minimize the risk of blood vessel perforation during stereotactic brain tumor biopsy. For a fiber-based approach compatible with clinical conditions, the maximum tolerable excitation light power was derived from simulations of the thermal heat load on the tissue. Using the simulation software LITCIT, the temperature distribution in human brain tissue was calculated as a function of time for realistic single-fiber probes (0.72mm active diameter, numerical aperture 0.35, optional focusing to 0.29mm diameter) and for the optimum ICG excitation wavelength of 785nm. The asymptotic maximum temperature in the simulated tissue region was derived for different radiant fluxes at the distal fiber end. Worst case values were assumed for all other parameters. In addition to homogeneous (normal and tumor) brain tissue with homogeneous blood perfusion, models with localized extra blood vessels incorporated ahead of the distal fiber end were investigated. If one demands that destruction of normal brain tissue must be excluded by limiting the tissue heating to 42°C, then the radiant flux at the distal fiber end must be limited to 33mW with and 43mW without focusing. When considering extra blood vessels of 0.1mm diameter incorporated into homogeneously perfused brain tissue, the tolerable radiant flux is reduced to 22mW with and 32mW without focusing. The threshold value according to legal laser safety regulations for human skin tissue is 28.5mW. For the envisaged modality of blood vessel detection, light power limits for an application-relevant fiber configuration were determined and found to be roughly consistent with present legal regulations for skin tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microstructural changes due to laser peening in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to creep damage at 823K and 923K in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Kizuki, Yuta; Suzuki, Hayao; Minowa, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The present study has investigated microstructural changes due to laser peening in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel subjected to creep. The EBSD or Electron Backscatter Diffraction studies have been made on round-bar type specimens creeping at applied stresses of 230 and 240 MPa at 823 K and 105 MPa at 923K in air. Prior to the creep tests, laser peening was applied to specimens at laser power of 8.4-22GW/cm 2 per pulse in water. Microstructural change in each specimen after its creep test was investigated by EBSD/SEM. The EBSD/SEM analyses revealed that the laser peening treatment makes creep rupture time longer and it reveals local misorientation value for rupture. (author)

  15. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Chan; Zhou, Ronghua; Qiu, Yanhua; Luo, Ming; Tan, Zhaoxia; Li, Shen; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Wentao; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin; Liu, Jin; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb), a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v) provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v) did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA) formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(P)H oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(P)H oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  16. High-Dose Polymerized Hemoglobin Fails to Alleviate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury due to Induction of Oxidative Damage in Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is an unavoidable event for patients in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. This study was designed to investigate whether glutaraldehyde-polymerized human placenta hemoglobin (PolyPHb, a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC, can protect heart against CPB-induced I/R injury or not and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods and Results. A standard dog CPB model with 2-hour cardiac arrest and 2-hour reperfusion was established. The results demonstrated that a low-dose PolyPHb (0.1%, w/v provided a significant protection on the I/R heart, whereas the high-dose PolyPHb (3%, w/v did not exhibit cardioprotective effect, as evidenced by the impaired cardiac function, decreased myocardial oxygen utilization, and elevated enzymes release and pathological changes. Further study indicated that exposure of isolated coronary arteries or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to a high-dose PolyPHb caused impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was companied with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and elevated malonaldehyde (MDA formation. Consistent with the increased oxidative stress, the NAD(PH oxidase activity and subunits expression, including gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, and Nox1, were greatly upregulated. Conclusion. The high-dose PolyPHb fails to protect heart from CPB-induced I/R injury, which was due to overproduction of NAD(PH oxidase-induced ROS and resultant endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Early intervention with human albumin to reduce the tissue plasminogen activator-mediated blood-brain barrier permeability damaged by delayed reperfusion: an experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haitao; Zhao Jungong; Li Minghua; Li Yongdong; Zhang Peilei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To clarify whether early use of high-dose human albumin can reduce the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damaged by delayed thrombolysis or not, and, in tun, reduce the vasogenic brain edema. Methods: A total of 138 male SD rats weighing 320-380 grams were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operation group (n=3), control group (n=45), albumin group (n=45) and albumin+rt-PA group (n=45). According to the reperfusion time after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), each group, except sham operation group, was divided into three subgroups of 2 h, 3 h and 4 h with 15 rats in each subgroup. Rats in albumin group and albumin+rt-PA group received an intravenous infusion of 20% human albumin (2.5 g/kg) 2 hours after the onset of MCAO, and rats in albumin+rt-PA group received an intravenous infusion of rt-PA (10 mg/kg) at all points of reperfusion time via the rat's femoral vein immediately after the reperfusion. All rats were sacrificed 24 hours after MCAO, the infarct volume of the brain was determined with TTC dye method, the leakage extent of BBB was quantitatively estimated by using Evans blue method, and the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry technique. Results: Early intervention with the use of high-dose human albumin could significantly improve the neurological score at 24 h. In MCAO 3 h albumin group, MCAO 4 h albumin group and MCAO 3 h albumin+rt-PA group, neurological score was significantly better than that in the control group (P 0.05). The volume of the infarct tissue was also significantly smaller in all the treated groups with high-dose human albumin groups (P<0.05) when compared with the control group. The infarct volume of the MCAO 4 h in albumin group and albumin+rt-PA group was reduced by 23% and by 17.3%, respectively. Cerebral hemorrhage transformation occurred in two rats of MCAO 4 h control group, in one rat of MCAO 4 h albumin group and in one rat of MCAO 4 h

  18. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high LET radiations or photons: Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Low dose rates per fraction were used in some neutron experiments. Split-dose lethality studies (LD 50/30) with fission neutrons indicated greater accumulation of injury during a 9 fraction course (over 17 days) than was the case for γ-radiation. When total doses of 96 or 247 cGy of neutrons or γ rays were given as a single dose or in 9 fractions, a significant sparing effect on femur CFU-S depression was observed for both radiation qualities during the first 11 days, but there was not an earlier return to normal with dose fractionation. During the 9 fraction sequence, a significant sparing effect of low dose rate on CFU-S depression was observed in both neutron and γ-irradiated mice. CFU-S content at the end of the fractionation sequence did not correlate with measured LD 50/30. Sustained depression of femur and spleen CFU-S and a significant thrombocytopenia were observed when a total neutron dose of 240 cGy was given in 72 fractions over 24 weeks at low dose rates. The temporal aspects of CFU-S repopulation were different after a single versus fractionated neutron doses. The sustained reduction in the size of the CFU-S population was accompanied by an increase in the fraction in DNA synthesis. The proliferation characteristics and effects of age were different for radial CFU-S population closely associated with bone, compared with the axial population that can be readily aspirated from the femur. In aged irradiated animals, the CFU-S proliferation/redistribution response to typhoid vaccine showed both an age and radiation effect. After high single doses of neutrons or γ rays, a significant age- and radiation-related deficiency

  19. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons: Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Crouse, D.A.; Hanson, W.R.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Low dose rates per fraction were used in some neutron experiments. Split-dose lethality studies (LD 50/30) with fission neutrons indicated greater accumulation of injury during a 9 fraction course (over 17 days) than was the case for γ-radiation. When total doses of 96 or 247 cGy of neutrons or γ rays were given as a single dose or in 9 fractions, a significant sparing effect on femur CFU-S depression was observed for both radiation qualities during the first 11 days, but there was not an earlier return to normal with dose fractionation. During the 9 fraction sequence, a significant sparing effect of low dose rate on CFU-S depression was observed in both neutron and γ-irradiated mice. CFU-S content at the end of the fractionation sequence did not correlate with measured LD 50/30. Sustained depression of femur and spleen CFU-S and a significant thrombocytopenia were observed when a total neutron dose of 240 cGy was given in 72 fractions over 24 weeks at low dose rates. The temporal aspects of CFU-S repopulation were different after a single versus fractionated neutron doses. The sustained reduction in the size of the CFU-S population was accompanied by an increase in the fraction in DNA synthesis. The proliferation characteristics and effects of age were different for radial CFU-S population closely associated with bone, compared with the axial population that can be readily aspirated from the femur. In aged irradiated animals, the CFU-S proliferation/redistribution response to typhoid vaccine showed both an age and radiation effect. 63 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  20. A quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss due to crop raiding by Asian Elephant Elephas maximus (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae: a case study of Manas National Park, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba K. Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between 2007 and 2009 to understand the magnitude of human-elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants: winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Paddy was the principle crop central to the farmers’ subsistence. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated. The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human-elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human-elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone. The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human-elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent.

  1. Lung Damage due to Chemotherapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kalemci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug-induced pulmonary toxicity not only emerges in cumulative doses, but also can be observed even at low dosages. Combined administration of many drugs, concurrent radiotherapy applications, opportunistic infections, lymphangitic tumor extension and pleural metastases complicate the disease diagnosis.

  2. Damage caused due to foundry smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1891-01-01

    A detailed analysis of an air pollution event which occurred in 1891 in the vicinity of a superphosphate plant is given. The logic and tests used to implicate HF as the causative agent of environmental stress are detailed thoroughly.

  3. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  4. Clinical light damage to the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains four sections: The Nature of Light and of Light Damage to Biological Tissues; Light Damage to the Eye; Protecting the Eye from Light Damage; and Overview of Light Damage to the Eye. Some of the paper titles are: Ultraviolet-Absorbing Intraocular Lens Implants; Phototoxic Changes in the Retina; Light Damage to the Lens; and Radiation, Light, and Sight

  5. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Odette, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  6. Raman spectral markers of collagen denaturation and hydration in human cortical bone tissue are affected by radiation sterilization and high cycle fatigue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Christopher D; Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan; Rimnac, Clare M

    2017-11-01

    Thermal denaturation and monotonic mechanical damage alter the organic and water-related compartments of cortical bone. These changes can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. However, less is known regarding Raman sensitivity to detect the effects of cyclic fatigue damage and allograft sterilization doses of gamma radiation. To determine if Raman spectroscopic biomarkers of collagen denaturation and hydration are sensitive to the effects of (a) high cycle fatigue damage and (b) 25kGy irradiation. Unirradiated and gamma-radiation sterilized human cortical bone specimens previously tested in vitro under high-cycle (> 100,000 cycles) fatigue conditions at 15MPa, 25MPa, 35MPa, 45MPa, and 55MPa cyclic stress levels were studied. Cortical bone Raman spectral profiles from wavenumber ranges of 800-1750cm -1 and 2700-3800cm -1 were obtained and compared from: a) non-fatigue vs fatigue fracture sites and b) radiated vs. unirradiated states. Raman biomarker ratios 1670/1640 and 3220/2949, which reflect collagen denaturation and organic matrix (mainly collagen)-bound water, respectively, were assessed. One- and two-way ANOVA analyses were utilized to identify differences between groups along with interaction effects between cyclic fatigue and radiation-induced damage. Cyclic fatigue damage resulted in increases in collagen denaturation (1670/1640: 1.517 ± 0.043 vs 1.579 ± 0.021, p Raman spectroscopy can detect the effects of cyclic fatigue damage and 25kGy irradiation via increases in organic matrix (mainly collagen)-bound water. A Raman measure of collagen denaturation was sensitive to cyclic fatigue damage but not 25kGy irradiation. Collagen denaturation was correlated with organic matrix-bound water, suggesting that denaturation of collagen to gelatinous form may expose more binding sites to water by unwinding the triple alpha chains. This research may eventually be useful to help identify allograft quality and more appropriately match donors to recipients. Copyright

  7. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cyt...... and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models....

  8. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.

  9. Staining Against Phospho-H2AX (gamma-H2AX) as a Marker for DNA Damage and Genomic Instability in Cancer Tissues and Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, A.P.; Span, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Phospho-H2AX or gamma-H2AX- is a marker of DNA double-stranded breaks and can therefore be used to monitor DNA repair after, for example, irradiation. In addition, positive staining for phospho-H2AX may indicate genomic instability and telomere dysfunction in tumour cells and tissues. Here, we

  10. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard; Samaras, Theodoros; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mazal, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 μW, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  11. Large enhancement of functional activity of active site-inhibited factor VIIa due to protein dimerization: insights into mechanism of assembly/disassembly from tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew D; Harvey, Stephen B; Martinez, Michael B; Bach, Ronald R; Nelsestuen, Gary L

    2005-04-26

    Active site-inhibited blood clotting factor VIIa (fVIIai) binds to tissue factor (TF), a cell surface receptor that is exposed upon injury and initiates the blood clotting cascade. FVIIai blocks binding of the corresponding enzyme (fVIIa) or zymogen (fVII) forms of factor VII and inhibits coagulation. Although several studies have suggested that fVIIai may have superior anticoagulation effects in vivo, a challenge for use of fVIIai is cost of production. This study reports the properties of dimeric forms of fVIIai that are cross-linked through their active sites. Dimeric wild-type fVIIai was at least 75-fold more effective than monomeric fVIIai in blocking fVIIa association with TF. The dimer of a mutant fVIIai with higher membrane affinity was 1600-fold more effective. Anticoagulation by any form of fVIIai differed substantially from agents such as heparin and showed a delayed mode of action. Coagulation proceeded normally for the first minutes, and inhibition increased as equilibrium binding was established. It is suggested that association of fVIIa(i) with TF in a collision-dependent reaction gives equal access of inhibitor and enzyme to TF. Assembly was not influenced by the higher affinity and slower dissociation of the dimer. As a result, anticoagulation was delayed until the reaction reached equilibrium. Properties of different dissociation experiments suggested that dissociation of fVIIai from TF occurred by a two-step mechanism. The first step was separation of TF-fVIIa(i) while both proteins remained bound to the membrane, and the second step was dissociation of the fVIIa(i) from the membrane. These results suggest novel actions of fVIIai that distinguish it from most of the anticoagulants that block later steps of the coagulation cascade.

  12. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Carey, Alison J; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Tan, Chee K; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection.

  13. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat; Tejido residual postesplenectomia detectado por centellografia esplenica con eritrocitos danados por calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera B, B; Garcia C, E S; Garcia O, J R [Centro Medico ABC, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  14. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  15. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  16. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  17. Putative photoacoustic damage in skin induced by pulsed ArF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Flotte, T.J.; McAuliffe, D.J.; Jacques, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of guinea pig stratum corneum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting that photoacoustic waves have a role in tissue damage. Laser irradiation (193 nm, 14-ns pulse) at two different radiant exposures, 62 and 156 mJ/cm2 per pulse, was used to ablate the 15-microns-thick stratum corneum of the skin. Light and electron microscopy of immediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 microns, respectively, below the ablation site. These depths are far in excess of the optical penetration depth of 193-nm light (1/e depth = 1.5 micron). The damage is unlikely to be due to a photochemical mechanism because (a) the photons will not penetrate to these depths, (b) it is a long distance for toxic photoproducts to diffuse, and (c) damage is proportional to laser pulse intensity and not the total dose that accumulates in the residual tissue; therefore, reciprocity does not hold. Damage due to a thermal mechanism is not expected because there is not sufficient energy deposited in the tissue to cause significant heating at such depths. The damage is most likely due to a photoacoustic mechanism because (a) photoacoustic waves can propagate deep into tissue, (b) the depth of damage increases with increasing laser pulse intensity rather than with increasing total residual energy, and (c) the effects are immediate. These effects should be considered in the evaluation of short pulse, high peak power laser-tissue interactions.

  18. Relationship between in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the expression of normal tissue damage following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.B.P.; Burrill, W.; Spreadborough, A.R.; Levine, E.; Warren, C.; Scott, D.; Kiltie, A.E.; Roberts, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable tests for the prediction of normal tissue responses to radiotherapy, as this could lead to individualization of patient radiotherapy schedules and thus improvements in the therapeutic ratio. Because the use of cultured fibroblasts is too slow to be practicable in a clinical setting, we evaluated the predictive role of assays of lymphocyte chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients having radiotherapy for breast cancer. Radiosensitivity was assessed using a macronucleus (MN) assay at high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) on lymphocytes irradiated in the G 0 phase of the cell cycle (Scott D, Barber JB, Levine EL, Burril W, Roberts SA. Radiation-induced micronucleus induction in lymphocytes identifies a frequency of radiosensitive cases among breast cancer patients: a test for predisposition? Br. J. Cancer 1998;77;614-620) and an assay of G 2 phase chromatid radiosensitivity ('G 2 assay') (Scott D, Spreadborough A, Levine E, Roberts SA. Genetic predisposition in breast cancer. Lancet 1994; 344: 1444). In a study of acute reactions, blood samples were taken from breast cancer patients before the start of radiotherapy, and the skin reaction documented. 116 patients were tested with the HDR MN assay, 73 with the LDR MN assay and 123 with the G 2 assay. In a study of late reactions, samples were taken from a series of breast cancer patients 8-14 years after radiotherapy and the patients assessed for the severity of late effects according to the 'LENT SOMA' scales. 47 were tested with the HDR assay, 26 with the LDR assay and 19 with the G 2 assay. For each clinical endpoint, patients were classified as being normal reactors or 'highly radiosensitive patients' (HR patients (Burnet NG. Johansen J, Turesson I, Nyman J. Describing patients' normal tissue reactions: Concerning the possibility of individualising radiotherapy dose prescriptions based on potential predictive assays of normal tissue radiosensitivity. Int. J. Cancer 1998

  19. Selenium nanoparticles prevents lead acetate-induced hypothyroidism and oxidative damage of thyroid tissues in male rats through modulation of selenoenzymes and suppression of miR-224.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Arafa, Manar Hamed; Prabahar, Kousalya

    2018-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) are customizable drug delivery vehicles that show good bioavailability, higher efficacy and lower toxicity than ordinary Se. Pre-treatment of male rats with these NPs has been recently shown to exert a protective effect against chromium-induced thyroid dysfunction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate and characterize the potential protective mechanism of Se-NPs against lead (Pb) acetate-induced thyrotoxicity. We found that prophylactic and concurrent treatment of Pb acetate-exposed rats with Nano-Se (0.5 mg/kg, i.p) for 15 wk significantly alleviated the decrease in free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels as well as fT3/fT4 ratio% and the increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to approach control values. This was accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of Pb in serum and thyroid tissues as well as maintenance of thyroidal pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (ID1), an essential enzyme for metabolizing of T4 into active T3, gene expression. Surprisingly, miR-224, a direct complementary target of ID1 mRNA, expression in the thyroid tissues was significantly down-regulated in Nano-Se-pre- and co-treated Pb acetate intoxicated animals. Such changes in miR-224 expression were negatively correlated with the changes in ID1 gene expression and serum fT3 level. These results suggest that Se-NPs can rescue from Pb-induced impairment of thyroid function through the maintenance of selenoproteins and down-regulation of miR-224. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear survivin and its relationship to DNA damage repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer investigated using tissue array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songliu Hu

    Full Text Available To investigate the predictive role and association of nuclear survivin and the DNA double-strand breaks repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, Ku heterodimeric regulatory complex 70-KD subunit (Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM.The protein expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 256 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors that inuenced the overall survival and disease-free survival of NSCLC.The expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. By dichotomizing the specimens as expressing low or high levels of nuclear survivin, nuclear survivin correlated significantly with the pathologic stage (P = 0.009 and lymph node status (P = 0.004. The nuclear survivin levels were an independent prognostic factor for both the overall survival and the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with low Ku70 and DNA-PKcs expression had a greater benefit from radiotherapy than patients with high expression of Ku70 (P = 0.012 and DNA-PKcs (P = 0.02. Nuclear survivin expression positively correlated with DNA-PKcs (P<0.001 and Ku70 expression (P<0.001.Nuclear survivin may be a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with resected stage I-IIIA NSCLC. DNA-PKcs and Ku70 could predict the effect of radiotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Nuclear survivin may also stimulates DNA double-strand breaks repair by its interaction with DNA-PKcs and Ku70.

  1. Towards a "free radical theory of graying": melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arck, Petra Clara; Overall, Rupert; Spatz, Katharina; Liezman, Christiane; Handjiski, Bori; Klapp, Burghard F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Peters, Eva Milena Johanne

    2006-07-01

    Oxidative stress is generated by a multitude of environmental and endogenous challenges such as radiation, inflammation, or psychoemotional stress. It also speeds the aging process. Graying is a prominent but little understood feature of aging. Intriguingly, the continuous melanin synthesis in the growing (anagen) hair follicle generates high oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesize that hair bulb melanocytes are especially susceptible to free radical-induced aging. To test this hypothesis, we subjected human scalp skin anagen hair follicles from graying individuals to macroscopic and immunohistomorphometric analysis and organ culture. We found evidence of melanocyte apoptosis and increased oxidative stress in the pigmentary unit of graying hair follicles. The "common" deletion, a marker mitochondrial DNA-deletion for accumulating oxidative stress damage, occurred most prominently in graying hair follicles. Cultured unpigmented hair follicles grew better than pigmented follicles of the same donors. Finally, cultured pigmented hair follicles exposed to exogenous oxidative stress (hydroquinone) showed increased melanocyte apoptosis in the hair bulb. We conclude that oxidative stress is high in hair follicle melanocytes and leads to their selective premature aging and apoptosis. The graying hair follicle, therefore, offers a unique model system to study oxidative stress and aging and to test antiaging therapeutics in their ability to slow down or even stop this process.

  2. Comparative study of radiosensitivity of normal and regenerating tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhvalova, H.S.; Popova, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of radiosensitivity of cells of normal and regenerating tissues of bone marrow and spleen has demonstrated that single exposure to X-rays produces a lesser damaging effect on regenerating tissues than on normal ones. The data obtained indicate that the increase in radioresistance of the organism during active regeneration of the haemopoietic organs is due not merely to the increase in the dividing cell pool of these organs but also to qualitative changes in their functional state