WorldWideScience

Sample records for tissue conversely inhibiting

  1. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  3. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva.

  4. Gingival tissue-produced inhibition of platelet aggregation and the loss of inhibition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keiichiroh; Tamai, Kazuharu; Shirakawa, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Dohi, Toshihiro; Tsujimoto, Akira

    1988-01-01

    Addition of medium incubated with normal rat gingival tissue to platelet-rich plasma inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The ability of rat gingiva to produce activity inhibiting platelet aggregation was enhanced by the addition of arachidonic acid. Diabetic rat gingiva failed to inhibit platelet aggregation but did produce the anti-platelet aggregating activity in the presence of arachidonic acid. Indomethacin blocked the production of anti-platelet aggregating activity. There was no difference in conversion of [1- 14 C]arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by normal and diabetic rat gingiva. These results suggest that an arachidonic acid metabolite released from gingiva during incubation inhibits platelet aggregation, and the synthesis of the metabolite is impaired in diabetic rat gingiva. A decrease in availability of arachidonic acid may be a causal factor of the defect in diabetic rat gingiva. (author)

  5. Methionine metabolism in apple tissue: implications of S-adenosylmethionine as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.O.; Yang, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    If S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is the direct precursor of ethylene as previously proposed, it is expected that 5'-S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) would be the fragment nucleoside. When [Me- 14 C] or ( 35 S)methionine was fed to climacteric apple (Malus sylvestris Mill) tissue, radioactive 5-S-methyl-5-thioribose (MTR) was identified as the predominant product and MTA as a minor one. When the conversion of methionine into ethylene was inhibited by L-2-amino-4-(2'-amino-ethoxy)-trans-3-butenoic acid, the conversion of ( 35 S) or (Me- 14 C)methionine into MTR was similarly inhibited. Furthermore, the formation of MTA and MTR from ( 35 S)methionine was observed only in climacteric tissue which produced ethylene and actively converted methionine to ethylene but not in preclimacteric tissue which did not produce ethylene or convert methionine to ethylene. These observations suggest that the conversion of methionine into MTA and MTR is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis and provide indirect evidence that SAM may be an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. When ( 35 S)MTA was fed to climacteric or preclimacteric apple tissue, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into MTR and methionine. However, when ( 35 S)MTR was administered, radioactivity was efficiently incorporated into methionine but not MTA. A scheme is presented for the production of ethylene from methionine

  6. Stuttering Inhibition via Altered Auditory Feedback during Scripted Telephone Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…

  7. Inhibition of tissue angiotensin converting enzyme. Quantitation by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Chai, S.Y.; Jackson, B.; Johnston, C.I.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in serum and tissues of rats was studied after administration of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Tissue ACE was assessed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography using the ACE inhibitor [ 125 I]351A, as a ligand, and serum ACE was measured by a fluorimetric method. Following oral administration of lisinopril (10 mg/kg), serum ACE activity was acutely reduced but recovered gradually over 24 hours. Four hours after lisinopril administration, ACE activity was markedly inhibited in kidney (11% of control level), adrenal (8%), duodenum (8%), and lung (33%; p less than 0.05). In contrast, ACE in testis was little altered by lisinopril (96%). In brain, ACE activity was markedly reduced 4 hours after lisinopril administration in the circumventricular organs, including the subfornical organ (16-22%) and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (7%; p less than 0.05). In other areas of the brain, including the choroid plexus and caudate putamen, ACE activity was unchanged. Twenty-four hours after administration, ACE activity in peripheral tissues and the circumventricular organs of the brain had only partially recovered toward control levels, as it was still below 50% of control activity levels. These results establish that lisinopril has differential effects on inhibiting ACE in different tissues and suggest that the prolonged tissue ACE inhibition after a single oral dose of lisinopril may reflect targets involved in the hypotensive action of ACE inhibitors

  8. Strong cellulase inhibition by Mannan polysaccharides in cellulose conversion to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still lower at low enzyme doses than desired commercially. We recently reported that hemicellulose xylan and its oligomers strongly inhibit cellulase and that supplementation of cellulase with xylanase and β-xylosidase would significantly reduce such inhibition. In this study, mannan polysaccharides and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose conversion (>50% drop in % relative conversion), even at a small concentration of 0.1 g/L, and inhibition was much greater than experienced by other known inhibitors such as cellobiose, xylooligomers, and furfural. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitution with galactose side units. In general, enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were less inhibitory than their respective mannan polysaccharides except highly substituted ones. Supplementation of cellulase with commercial accessory enzymes such as xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase was effective in greatly relieving inhibition but only for less substituted heteromannans. However, cellulase supplementation with purified heteromannan specific enzymes relieved inhibition by these more substituted heteromannans as well, suggesting that commercial preparations need to have higher amounts of such activities to realize high sugar yields at the low enzyme protein loadings needed for low cost fuels production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Conversion of 3H-testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in human hypertrophic prostatic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska, B.; Zgliczynski

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple method for the determination of the conversion of testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) after incubation of human hypertrophic prostatic tissue with 3 H-testosterone. The mean conversion rate of 3 H-testosterone to 5α-DHT in hypertrophic prostatic tissue was found to be higher than in normal and carcinomatous tissue. The results indicate that androgen metabolism in the hypertrophic prostatic gland is enhanced. (orig.) [de

  10. Conversion of /sup 3/H-testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in human hypertrophic prostatic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowska, B; Zgliczynski, [Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw (Poland). Clinic of Endocrinology

    1979-12-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a simple method for the determination of the conversion of testosterone to 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone (5..cap alpha..-DHT) after incubation of human hypertrophic prostatic tissue with /sup 3/H-testosterone. The mean conversion rate of /sup 3/H-testosterone to 5..cap alpha..-DHT in hypertrophic prostatic tissue was found to be higher than in normal and carcinomatous tissue. The results indicate that androgen metabolism in the hypertrophic prostatic gland is enhanced.

  11. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG, with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  12. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; de Jel, Esther; Tuescher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects.

  13. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenstein, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.breitenstein@usz.ch [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland); Akhmedov, Alexander; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Tanner, Felix C. [Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiovascular Research, Physiology Institute, University of Zurich (Switzerland); Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZHIP), University of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells was achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  14. Direct conversion of injury-site myeloid cells to fibroblast-like cells of granulation tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mithun; Sen, Chandan K; Singh, Kanhaiya; Das, Amitava; Ghatak, Subhadip; Rhea, Brian; Blackstone, Britani; Powell, Heather M; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati

    2018-03-05

    Inflammation, following injury, induces cellular plasticity as an inherent component of physiological tissue repair. The dominant fate of wound macrophages is unclear and debated. Here we show that two-thirds of all granulation tissue fibroblasts, otherwise known to be of mesenchymal origin, are derived from myeloid cells which are likely to be wound macrophages. Conversion of myeloid to fibroblast-like cells is impaired in diabetic wounds. In cross-talk between keratinocytes and myeloid cells, miR-21 packaged in extracellular vesicles (EV) is required for cell conversion. EV from wound fluid of healing chronic wound patients is rich in miR-21 and causes cell conversion more effectively compared to that by fluid from non-healing patients. Impaired conversion in diabetic wound tissue is rescued by targeted nanoparticle-based delivery of miR-21 to macrophages. This work introduces a paradigm wherein myeloid cells are recognized as a major source of fibroblast-like cells in the granulation tissue.

  15. Caffeine inhibits gene conversion by displacing Rad51 from ssDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabar, Michael; Mason, Jennifer M.; Chan, Yuen-Ling; Bishop, Douglas K.; Haber, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination relies on the formation of a Rad51 recombinase filament that forms on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) created at DSB ends. This filament facilitates the search for a homologous donor sequence and promotes strand invasion. Recently caffeine treatment has been shown to prevent gene targeting in mammalian cells by increasing non-productive Rad51 interactions between the DSB and random regions of the genome. Here we show that caffeine treatment prevents gene conversion in yeast, independently of its inhibition of the Mec1ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent DNA damage response or caffeine's inhibition of 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends. Caffeine treatment results in a dosage-dependent eviction of Rad51 from ssDNA. Gene conversion is impaired even at low concentrations of caffeine, where there is no discernible dismantling of the Rad51 filament. Loss of the Rad51 filament integrity is independent of Srs2's Rad51 filament dismantling activity or Rad51's ATPase activity and does not depend on non-specific Rad51 binding to undamaged double-stranded DNA. Caffeine treatment had similar effects on irradiated HeLa cells, promoting loss of previously assembled Rad51 foci. We conclude that caffeine treatment can disrupt gene conversion by disrupting Rad51 filaments. PMID:26019181

  16. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  17. The inhibition of prions through blocking prion conversion by permanently charged branched polyamines of low cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong-beom; Mays, Charles E; Kim, Younghwan; Titlow, William B; Ryou, Chongsuk

    2010-03-01

    Branched polyamines are effective in inhibiting prions in a cationic surface charge density dependent manner. However, toxicity associated with branched polyamines, in general, often hampers the successful application of the compounds to treat prion diseases. Here, we report that constitutively maintained cationic properties in branched polyamines reduced the intrinsic toxicity of the compounds while retaining the anti-prion activities. In prion-infected neuroblastoma cells, quaternization of amines in polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers markedly increased the nontoxic concentration ranges of the compounds and still supported, albeit reduced, an appreciable level of anti-prion activity in clearing prions from the infected cells. Furthermore, quaternized PEI was able to degrade prions at acidic pH conditions and inhibit the in vitro prion propagation facilitated by conversion of the normal prion protein isoform to its misfolded counterpart, although such activities were decreased by quaternization. Quaternized PAMAM was least effective in degrading prions but efficiently inhibited prion conversion with the same efficacy as unmodified PAMAM. Our results suggest that quaternization represents an effective strategy for developing nontoxic branched polyamines with potent anti-prion activity. This study highlights the importance of polyamine structural control for developing polyamine-based anti-prion agents and understanding of an action mechanism of quaternized branched polyamines. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coeliac disease autoantibodies mediate significant inhibition of tissue transglutaminase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Greg

    2012-02-01

    The detection of antibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in serum is a sensitive and specific test for suspected coeliac disease. tTG is a ubiquitous, multifunctional enzyme that has been implicated in many important physiological processes as well as the site-specific deamidation of glutamine residues in gluten-derived peptides. This modification of gluten peptides facilitates their binding to HLA-DQ2, which results in amplification of the T-cell response to gluten. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that patient IgA autoantibodies directed against tTG interfere with the crosslinking activity of the enzyme. IgA autoantibodies against tTG were isolated\\/depleted from patient serum and tested for their capacity to interfere with tTG activity in vitro using a sensitive fluorescence-based activity assay. We have demonstrated that autoantibodies cause significant inhibition of tTG-mediated crosslinking at equimolar and 2:1 ratios of antibody to enzyme.

  19. 4 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0409 TITLE: 4 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-04094 Birds 1 Stone to Inhibit 5androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol Conversion to DHT 5c...testicular androgens, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone ( DHT ). Men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer or failure potentially curative therapy are

  20. Altered tissue mineralization, increased hepatic lipid and inhibited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral homeostasis is often disrupted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) infants. Most studies focus on calcium or phosphorus metabolism of IUGR infants via determining serum mineral concentrations instead of tissues. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of IUGR on the mineralization and ...

  1. EGCG Inhibited Lipofuscin Formation Based on Intercepting Amyloidogenic β-Sheet-Rich Structure Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin (LF is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks.Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments.

  2. Serum protein inhibition of thyrotropin binding to human thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.N.; Chopra, I.J.; Solomon, D.H.; Kruger, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    We used a modificaton of the TSH radioreceptor assay to detect TSH-binding inhibition (TBI) activity in serum and serum fractions from normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease. TBI activity is present in normal IgG prepared by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and in normal globulins prepared by precipitation at 1.6 M ammonium sulfate. Other normal serum proteins also had TBI activity when large concentrations were tested. Gel filtration chromatography and powder block electrophoresis were used to prepare fractions of normal and Graves' disease sera. In these fractions from normal serum, TBI activity was found in both γ-globulin and α-globulin-albumin fractions electrophoretically and in both 7S and 4S peaks from gel filtration. TBI activity from Graves' disease patients' sera was similarly distributed, but relatively more TBI accompanied the electrophoretic γ-globulins. Sepharose Protein-A and anti-IgG were used as immunoabsorbents to isolate and purify IgG from normal and Graves' disease sera. TBI activity in IgG was proportional to the IgG concentration, indicating that the TBI which migrates as a γ-globulin electrophoretically is an IgG and thus may possibly be an antibody. Inhibitory activity found in normal serum globulins and in the non-IgG fractions of both normal and abnormal sera seriously interferes with attempts to use the TSH radioreceptor assay to study the hypothesized anti-TSH receptor antibody in the serum of patients with Graves' disease

  3. Oxidative stress accumulates in adipose tissue during aging and inhibits adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Pearson, Kevin J; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; de Cabo, Rafael; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-14

    Aging constitutes a major independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and is accompanied by insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction. One of the most important factors implicitly linked to aging and age-related chronic diseases is the accumulation of oxidative stress. However, the effect of increased oxidative stress on adipose tissue biology remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that aging in mice results in a loss of fat mass and the accumulation of oxidative stress in adipose tissue. In vitro, increased oxidative stress through glutathione depletion inhibits preadipocyte differentiation. This inhibition of adipogenesis is at least in part the result of reduced cell proliferation and an inhibition of G(1)→S-phase transition during the initial mitotic clonal expansion of the adipocyte differentiation process. While phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) by cyclin/cdk complexes remains unaffected, oxidative stress decreases the expression of S-phase genes downstream of Rb. This silencing of S phase gene expression by increased oxidative stress is mediated through a transcriptional mechanism involving the inhibition of E2F recruitment and transactivation of its target promoters. Collectively, these data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of oxidative stress in the regulation of adipogenesis which may contribute to age-associated adipose tissue dysfunction.

  4. Inhibition of myostatin in mice improves insulin sensitivity via irisin-mediated cross talk between muscle and adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangling; Dong, Yanjun; Dong, Yanlan; Chen, Fang; Mitch, William E; Zhang, Liping

    2016-03-01

    In mice, a high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity, insulin resistance and myostatin production. We tested whether inhibition of myostatin in mice can reverse these HFD-induced abnormalities. C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks including the final 4 weeks some mice were treated with an anti-myostatin peptibody. Body composition, the respiratory exchange ratio plus glucose and insulin tolerance tests were examined. Myostatin knock down in C2C12 cells was performed using small hairpin RNA lentivirus. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells were cultured to measure their responses to conditioned media from C2C12 cells lacking myostatin, or to recombinant myostatin or irisin. Isolated peritoneal macrophages were treated with myostatin or irisin to determine whether myostatin or irisin induce inflammatory mechanisms. In HFD-fed mice, peptibody treatment stimulated muscle growth and improved insulin resistance. The improved glucose and insulin tolerances were confirmed when we found increased muscle expression of p-Akt and the glucose transporter, Glut4. In HFD-fed mice, the peptibody suppressed macrophage infiltration and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in both the muscle and adipocytes. Inhibition of myostatin caused the conversion of white (WAT) to brown adipose tissue, whereas stimulating fatty acid oxidation and increasing energy expenditure. The related mechanism is a muscle-to-fat cross talk mediated by irisin. Myostatin inhibition increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α expression and irisin production in the muscle. Irisin then stimulated WAT browning. Irisin also suppresses inflammation and stimulates macrophage polarization from M1 to M2 types. These results uncover a metabolic pathway from an increase in myostatin that suppresses irisin leading to the activation of inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance. Thus, myostatin is a potential therapeutic target to treat insulin resistance of type II diabetes as well

  5. Inhibition of Notch signaling by Dll4-Fc promotes reperfusion of acutely ischemic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ren [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Trindade, Alexandre [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Sun, Zhanfeng [Department of Vascular Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China); Kumar, Ram; Weaver, Fred A. [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States); Krasnoperov, Valery; Naga, Kranthi [Vasgene Therapeutics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Duarte, Antonio [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao em Sanidade Animal (CIISA), Lisbon Technical University, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras (Portugal); Gill, Parkash S., E-mail: parkashg@usc.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc increases vascular proliferation and overall perfusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in hindlimb ischemia model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low dose Dll4-Fc helps vascular injury recovery in skin flap model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 heterozygous deletion promotes vascular injury recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dll4 overexpression delays vascular injury recovery. -- Abstract: Notch pathway regulates vessel development and maturation. Dll4, a high-affinity ligand for Notch, is expressed predominantly in the arterial endothelium and is induced by hypoxia among other factors. Inhibition of Dll4 has paradoxical effects of reducing the maturation and perfusion in newly forming vessels while increasing the density of vessels. We hypothesized that partial and/or intermittent inhibition of Dll4 may lead to increased vascular response and still allow vascular maturation to occur. Thus tissue perfusion can be restored rapidly, allowing quicker recovery from ischemia or tissue injury. Our studies in two different models (hindlimb ischemia and skin flap) show that inhibition of Dll4 at low dose allows faster recovery from vascular and tissue injury. This opens a new possibility for Dll4 blockade's therapeutic application in promoting recovery from vascular injury and restoring blood supply to ischemic tissues.

  6. Tissue transglutaminase inhibits the TRPV5-dependent calcium transport in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Sandor; Xi, Qi; Dimke, Henrik Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme, catalyzing protein crosslinking. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family of cation channels was recently shown to contribute to the regulation of TG activities in keratinocytes and hence skin barrier form......, these observations imply that tTG is a novel extracellular enzyme inhibiting the activity of TRPV5. The inhibition of TRPV5 occurs in an N-glycosylation-dependent manner, signifying a common final pathway by which distinct extracellular factors regulate channel activity....

  7. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6-{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  8. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6- 3 H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  9. Propranolol inhibits the in vitro conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the in vitro study of the conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine using isolated rat liver parenchymal cells is described. Isolated liver cells (mean protein content 18 mg/ml) convert approximately 0.8% of 1.3 microM exogenously added T4 into T3 during thirty minutes incubation.

  10. Vaginal Lactobacillus Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Tissues Ex Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers A. Ñahui Palomino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species, which dominate vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women, lower the risks of sexually transmitted infections, including the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be understood. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in the context of human cervico-vaginal and lymphoid tissues ex vivo. We found that all six Lactobacillus strains tested in these systems significantly suppressed HIV type-1 (HIV-1 infection. We identified at least three factors that mediated this suppression: (i Acidification of the medium. The pH of the undiluted medium conditioned by lactobacilli was between 3.8 and 4.6. Acidification of the culture medium with hydrochloric acid (HCl to this pH in control experiments was sufficient to abrogate HIV-1 replication. However, the pH of the Lactobacillus-conditioned medium (CM diluted fivefold, which reached ∼6.9, was also suppressive for HIV-1 infection, while in control experiments HIV-1 infection was not abrogated when the pH of the medium was brought to 6.9 through the use of HCl. This suggested the existence of other factors responsible for HIV-1 inhibition by lactobacilli. (ii Lactic acid. There was a correlation between the concentration of lactic acid in the Lactobacillus-CM and its ability to suppress HIV-1 infection in human tissues ex vivo. Addition of lactic acid isomers D and L to tissue culture medium at the concentration that corresponded to their amount released by lactobacilli resulted in HIV-1 inhibition. Isomer L was produced in higher quantities than isomer D and was mostly responsible for HIV-1 inhibition. These results indicate that lactic acid, in particular its L-isomer, inhibits HIV-1 independently of lowering of the pH. (iii Virucidal effect. Incubation of HIV-1 in Lactobacillus-CM significantly suppressed viral infectivity for human tissues ex vivo. Finally, lactobacilli adsorb HIV-1, serving as a sink

  11. Monte Carlo Method in the calculate of conversion coefficients for dose in children's organs and tissues subjected to dentistric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Khoury, H.; Lima, F.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, specially in youngsters and children, prompts the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, Monte Carlo code was adopted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM,FOR developed by GSF Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO,PAS). Good agreement between results obtained by both programs was observed. Applications to incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone marrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the langer the field area, the higher the doses in assessed organs and tissues

  12. DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits AID-induced antibody gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J L Cook

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-dependent hypermutation of Ig V(DJ rearrangements and Ig S regions, respectively, in activated B cells. AID deaminates deoxycytidine bases in Ig genes, converting them into deoxyuridines. In V(DJ regions, subsequent excision of the deaminated bases by uracil-DNA glycosylase, or by mismatch repair, leads to further point mutation or gene conversion, depending on the species. In Ig S regions, nicking at the abasic sites produced by AID and uracil-DNA glycosylases results in staggered double-strand breaks, whose repair by nonhomologous end joining mediates Ig class switching. We have tested whether nonhomologous end joining also plays a role in V(DJ hypermutation using chicken DT40 cells deficient for Ku70 or the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs. Inactivation of the Ku70 or DNA-PKcs genes in DT40 cells elevated the rate of AID-induced gene conversion as much as 5-fold. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs-deficiency appeared to reduce point mutation. The data provide strong evidence that double-strand DNA ends capable of recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex are important intermediates in Ig V gene conversion.

  13. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  14. Gradual conversion of cellular stress patterns into pre-stressed matrix architecture during in vitro tissue growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidan, Cécile M; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Gering, Vanessa; Ehrig, Sebastian; Joly, Pascal; Petersen, Ansgar; Vogel, Viola; Fratzl, Peter; Dunlop, John W C

    2016-05-01

    The complex arrangement of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cells during tissue growth, healing and remodelling is fundamental to tissue function. In connective tissues, it is still unclear how both cells and the ECM become and remain organized over length scales much larger than the distance between neighbouring cells. While cytoskeletal forces are essential for assembly and organization of the early ECM, how these processes lead to a highly organized ECM in tissues such as osteoid is not clear. To clarify the role of cellular tension for the development of these ordered fibril architectures, we used an in vitro model system, where pre-osteoblastic cells produced ECM-rich tissue inside channels with millimetre-sized triangular cross sections in ceramic scaffolds. Our results suggest a mechanical handshake between actively contracting cells and ECM fibrils: the build-up of a long-range organization of cells and the ECM enables a gradual conversion of cell-generated tension to pre-straining the ECM fibrils, which reduces the work cells have to generate to keep mature tissue under tension. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Radiosensitization In Vivo by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with No Increase in Early Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Blaz; Ruan, Jia-Ling; Scott, Helen; Gorrill, Jessica; Nicholson, Judith; Kelly, Jacqueline; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Thompson, James; Stratford, Michael R L; Jevons, Sarah J; Hammond, Ester M; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Kerr, Martin; Kiltie, Anne E

    2018-02-01

    As the population ages, more elderly patients require radiotherapy-based treatment for their pelvic malignancies, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as they are unfit for major surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find radiosensitizing agents minimally toxic to normal tissues, including bowel and bladder, for such patients. We developed methods to determine normal tissue toxicity severity in intestine and bladder in vivo , using novel radiotherapy techniques on a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). The effects of panobinostat on in vivo tumor growth delay were evaluated using subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice. Panobinostat concentration levels in xenografts, plasma, and normal tissues were measured in CD1-nude mice. CD1-nude mice were treated with drug/irradiation combinations to assess acute normal tissue effects in small intestine using the intestinal crypt assay, and later effects in small and large intestine at 11 weeks by stool assessment and at 12 weeks by histologic examination. In vitro effects of panobinostat were assessed by qPCR and of panobinostat, TMP195, and mocetinostat by clonogenic assay, and Western blot analysis. Panobinostat resulted in growth delay in RT112 bladder cancer xenografts but did not significantly increase acute (3.75 days) or 12 weeks' normal tissue radiation toxicity. Radiosensitization by panobinostat was effective in hypoxic bladder cancer cells and associated with class I HDAC inhibition, and protein downregulation of HDAC2 and MRE11. Pan-HDAC inhibition is a promising strategy for radiosensitization, but more selective agents may be more useful radiosensitizers clinically, resulting in fewer systemic side effects. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 381-92. ©2017 AACR See all articles in this MCT Focus section, "Developmental Therapeutics in Radiation Oncology." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Reduction of regurgitation in aortic insufficiency by inhibition of the renin/angiotensin conversion enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Heck, I.; Mattern, H.

    1984-10-01

    The effect of captopril-mediated afterload reduction on regurgitation was investigated in 10 patients with aortic insufficiency. Regurgitation was quantitated by the regurgitation fraction and the relation of regurgitant volume to end-diastolic volume, which were derived from gated radionuclide ventriculography. 19 patients with coronary artery disease and no evidence of valvular heart disease served as controls. In patients with coronary artery disease no significant reguration was found. In patients with aortic regurgitation the blood concentration of angiotensin I increased whereas that of angiotensin II decreased significantly after captopril-medication; thus, the conversion of angiotensin I to II was reduced to about 50% of the control value. Whereas blood pressure and heart rate did not change significantly, the regurgitation fraction and the normalized regurgitant volume were significantly reduced. The ejection fraction remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest a favorable influence of captopril-induced afterload reduction on hemodynamics in aortic regurgitation.

  17. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  18. Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in chicken thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-lei; Wang, Cong-wu; Tan, Si-ran; Liang, Yang; Yao, Hai-dong; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.

  19. An assay for secologanin in plant tissues based on enzymatic conversion into strictosidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallard, Didier; van der Heijden, Robert; Contin, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    strictosidine, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme strictosidine synthase (STR; E.C. 4.3.3.2). Subsequently, the formation of strictosidine is quantified by HPLC. STR was isolated from transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cells expressing a cDNA-derived gene coding for STR from Catharanthus roseus. The high specificity......The secoiridoid glucoside secologanin is the terpenoid building block in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids. A method for its determination in plant tissues and cell suspension cultures has been developed. This assay is based on the condensation of secologanin with tryptamine, yielding...... of STR for secologanin, in combination with a sensitive and selective HPLC system, allows a simple extraction of secologanin from plant tissue. The detection limit of this methos is 15 ng secologanin. Using this assay, secologanin contents were determined in tissues of various plant species; Lonicera...

  20. Interleukin-6 inhibits apoptosis of exocrine gland tissues under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Jin, Jun-O; Patel, Ekta S; Yu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a multi-functional cytokine that can either promote or suppress tissue inflammation depending on the specific disease context. IL-6 is elevated in the exocrine glands and serum of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), but the specific role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of this disease has not been defined. In this study, we showed that IL-6 expression levels were increased with age in C56BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice, a primary SS model, and higher than the control C57BL/6 mice. To assess the role of IL-6 during the immunological phase of SS development, a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody was administered into 16 week-old female C56BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice, 3 times weekly for a consecutive 8 weeks. Neutralization of endogenous IL-6 throughout the immunological phase of SS development led to increased apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, leukocytic infiltration, and IFN-γ- and TNF-α production in the salivary gland. To further determine the effect of IL-6 on the apoptosis of exocrine gland cells, recombinant human IL-6 or the neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody was injected into female C57BL/6 mice that received concurrent injection of anti-CD3 antibody to induce the apoptosis of exocrine gland tissues. Neutralization of IL-6 enhanced, whereas administration of IL-6 inhibited apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in salivary and lacrimal glands in this model. The apoptosis-suppressing effect of IL-6 was associated with up-regulation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 in both glands. Moreover, IL-6 treatment induced activation of STAT3 and up-regulated Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 gene expression in a human salivary gland epithelial cell line. In conclusion, IL-6 inhibits the apoptosis of exocrine gland tissues and exerts a tissue-protective effect under inflammatory conditions including SS. These findings suggest the possibility of using this property of IL-6 to preserve exocrine gland tissue integrity and function under autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. Visualizing metabolite distribution and enzymatic conversion in plant tissues by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Hansen, Natascha Kristine Krahl

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to the technology platforms developed to localize transcripts and proteins, imaging tools for visualization of metabolite distributions in plant tissues are less well developed and lack versatility. This hampers our understanding of plant metabolism and dynamics. In this study we...... demonstrate that Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI) of tissue imprints on porous Teflon can be used to accurately image the distribution of even labile plant metabolites such as hydroxynitrile glucosides, which normally undergo enzymatic hydrolysis by specific ß......-glucosidases upon cell disruption. This fast and simple sample preparation resulted in no substantial differences in the distribution and ratios of all hydroxynitrile glucosides between leaves from wildtype Lotus japonicus and a ß-glucosidase mutant plant lacking the ability to hydrolyze certain hydroxynitrile...

  2. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ([22Na]) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with [22Na] and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of [22Na], which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts

  3. Tumour tissue microenvironment can inhibit dendritic cell maturation in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Michielsen, Adriana J

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment promote tumour growth, vascular development and enable evasion of anti-tumour immune responses, by disabling infiltrating dendritic cells. However, the constituents of the tumour microenvironment that directly influence dendritic cell maturation and function are not well characterised. Our aim was to identify tumour-associated inflammatory mediators which influence the function of dendritic cells. Tumour conditioned media obtained from cultured colorectal tumour explant tissue contained high levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 in addition to VEGF. Pre-treatment of monocyte derived dendritic cells with this tumour conditioned media inhibited the up-regulation of CD86, CD83, CD54 and HLA-DR in response to LPS, enhancing IL-10 while reducing IL-12p70 secretion. We examined if specific individual components of the tumour conditioned media (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5) could modulate dendritic cell maturation or cytokine secretion in response to LPS. VEGF was also assessed as it has a suppressive effect on dendritic cell maturation. Pre-treatment of immature dendritic cells with VEGF inhibited LPS induced upregulation of CD80 and CD54, while CXCL1 inhibited HLA-DR. Interestingly, treatment of dendritic cells with CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL5 or VEGF significantly suppressed their ability to secrete IL-12p70 in response to LPS. In addition, dendritic cells treated with a combination of CXCL1 and VEGF secreted less IL-12p70 in response to LPS compared to pre-treatment with either cytokine alone. In conclusion, tumour conditioned media strongly influences dendritic cell maturation and function.

  4. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Inflammatory Reaction in Lung Tissues of Septic Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Wu

    2013-01-01

    and 20 μg/kg significantly decreased mortality and pulmonary inflammation of septic rats, as well as suppressed CLP-induced elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 and inhibited TLR4/MyD88 expression and NF-κB activation. These results suggest that dexmedetomidine may decrease mortality and inhibit inflammatory reaction in lung tissues of septic rats by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.

  5. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  6. Post-exercise abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in fasting subjects is inhibited by infusion of the somatostatin analogue octreotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Polak, Jan; Simonsen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    .c., abdominal adipose tissue metabolism, before, during and after exercise in healthy, fasting, young male subjects. The adipose tissue net releases of fatty acids and glycerol were measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe....... The results show that octreotide infusion during rest increased lipolysis and fatty acid release from the abdominal, s.c. adipose tissue. The exercise-induced increase in lipolysis and fatty acid release does not seem to be affected by octreotide when compared with the control study without octreotide...... infusion while the post-exercise increase in lipolysis is inhibited by octreotide, suggesting that the exercise-induced increase in GH secretion plays a role for the post-exercise lipolysis in s.c., abdominal adipose tissue....

  7. Inhibition of proliferative activity in tissue culture in vivo of esophagus and stomach tumour cells under preoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinchenko, V.A.; Okulov, L.V.; Gol'dshmid, B.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of proliferative activity of tumor cells as a result of radiation effect. Tumor tissue taken from patiets with preoperative tumor irradiation by 30 Gy cumulative dose (5 Gy per a session) and from patients whose tumors were not subjected to irradiation (control) was used. The tumor tissue was cultivated in the diffusion chamber and then implanted to the abdominal cavity of the non-inbred male rats. On preparations in the growth area pathomorphological changes were evaluated, the share of mitotically dividing and DNA-synthesizing cells was determined. The absence of growth area around the explant, obvious reduction of mitotic activity and DNA-synthesizing function of cells in preparations of irradiated tumors in 88 % of cases testify to the inhibition of the stomach cardial section and esophagus tumor tissue repopulation after radiation effect. The investigation results confirm the advisability of preoperative irradiation of patients with tumors of the given localization

  8. Transient inhibition of connective tissue infiltration and collagen deposition into porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ryan J; Jones, Kim S

    2013-12-01

    Connective tissue rapidly proliferates on and around biomaterials implanted in vivo, which impairs the function of the engineered tissues, biosensors, and devices. Glucocorticoids can be utilized to suppress tissue ingrowth, but can only be used for a limited time because they nonselectively arrest cell proliferation in the local environment. The present study examined use of a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor, 1,4-dihydrophenonthrolin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid (1,4-DPCA), to suppress connective tissue ingrowth in porous PLGA discs implanted in the peritoneal cavity for 28 days. The prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor was found to be effective at inhibiting collagen deposition within and on the outer surface of the disc, and also limited connective tissue ingrowth, but not to the extent of glucocorticoid inhibition. Finally, it was discovered that 1,4-DPCA suppressed Scavenger Receptor A expression on a macrophage-like cell culture, which may account for the drug's ability to limit connective tissue ingrowth in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  9. Contrasting effects of exercise and NOS inhibition on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Bracy, Deanna; Malabanan, Carlo; Yue, Zou; Clanton, Jeff; Wasserman, David H

    2002-07-01

    Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

  10. Initial implementation of the conversion from the energy-subtracted CT number to electron density in tissue inhomogeneity corrections: An anthropomorphic phantom study of radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Noto, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata 951-8520 (Japan); Sasamoto, Ryuta; Hayakawa, Takahide; Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To achieve accurate tissue inhomogeneity corrections in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide range of ρ{sub e}. The purpose of this study is to present an initial implementation of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method for a treatment planning system (TPS). In this paper, two example radiotherapy plans are used to evaluate the reliability of dose calculations in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method. Methods: CT images were acquired using a clinical dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner operated in the dual-energy mode with two tube potential pairs and an additional tin (Sn) filter for the high-kV tube (80–140 kV/Sn and 100–140 kV/Sn). Single-energy CT using the same DSCT scanner was also performed at 120 kV to compare the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion method with a conventional conversion from a CT number to ρ{sub e} (Hounsfield units, HU–ρ{sub e} conversion). Lookup tables for ρ{sub e} calibration were obtained from the CT image acquisitions for tissue substitutes in an electron density phantom (EDP). To investigate the beam-hardening effect on dosimetric uncertainties, two EDPs with different sizes (a body EDP and a head EDP) were used for the ρ{sub e} calibration. Each acquired lookup table was applied to two radiotherapy plans designed using the XiO TPS with the superposition algorithm for an anthropomorphic phantom. The first radiotherapy plan was for an oral cavity tumor and the second was for a lung tumor. Results: In both treatment plans, the performance of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion was superior to that of the conventional HU–ρ{sub e} conversion in terms of the reliability of dose calculations. Especially, for the oral tumor plan, which dealt with dentition and bony structures, treatment

  11. The role of zinc supplementation in the inhibition of tissue damage caused by exposure to electromagnetic field in rat lung and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Salbacak, A; Celik, I; Sivrikaya, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of zinc supplementation on the oxidant damage in lung and liver tissues in rats exposed to a 50-Hz frequency magnetic field for 5 minutes every other day over a period of 6 months. The study included 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the three groups in equal numbers: Group 1, the control group (G1); Group 2, the group exposed to an electromagnetic field (G2); and Group 3, the group, which was exposed to an EMF and supplemented with zinc (G3). At the end of the 6-month procedures, the animals were decapitated to collect lung and liver tissue samples, in which MDA was analyzed using the "TBARS method (nmol/g/protein)", GSH by the "biuret method (mg/g/protein)" and zinc levels by atomic emission (µg/dl). MDA levels in lung and liver tissues in G2 were higher than those in G1 and G3, and the levels in G3 were higher than those in G1 (pelectromagnetic field caused cellular damage in lung and liver tissues and zinc supplementation inhibited the inflicted cellular damage. Another important result of this study that needs emphasis was that exposure to an electromagnetic field led to a significant decrease in zinc levels in lung and liver tissues (Tab. 3, Ref. 23).

  12. Inhibition of collagen production in scleroderma fibroblast cultures by a connective tissue glycoprotein extracted from normal dermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquart, F.X.; Bellon, G.; Cornillet-Stoupy, J.; Randoux, A.; Triller, R.; Kalis, B.; Borel, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown in a previous paper that a connective tissue glycoprotein (CTGP) extracted from normal rabbit dermis was able to inhibit total protein and collagen syntheses by normal dermis fibroblast cultures. In the present study, the effects of CTGP on scleroderma fibroblasts were investigated. [ 14 C]Proline incorporation into total proteins of the supernatant was not significantly different from that found in controls. By contrast, the amount of collagen, expressed as percentage of total secreted protein, was far higher in scleroderma cultures than in normal ones (14.4% +/- 6.0% vs 4.6% +/- 0.9%). Addition of CTGP to the medium induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of [ 14 C]proline incorporation into proteins from both control and scleroderma cells. In control cultures, no significant decrease of the percentage of collagen was observed, but over 60 micrograms/ml, both cytotoxic effects and inhibition of protein synthesis occurred. In scleroderma cultures, the inhibition was twice as effective on collagen as on noncollagen protein synthesis. The inhibition of collagen secretion was not related either to changes in collagen hydroxylation or to the intracellular catabolism of newly synthesized procollagen

  13. Treatment of near-skull brain tissue with a focused device using shear-mode conversion: a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2007-01-01

    Shear mode transmission through the skull has been previously proposed as a new trans-skull propagation technique for noninvasive therapeutic ultrasound (Clement 2004 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115 1356-64). The main advantage of choosing shear over longitudinal mode resides on the fact that there is less wavefront distortion with the former. In the present study, the regions of the brain suitable for shear-mode transmission were established for a simple focused ultrasound device. The device consists of a spherically curved transducer that has a focal length of 10 cm, an aperture between 30 0 and 60 0 and operates at 0.74 MHz. The regions suitable for shear-mode transmission were determined by the shear wave acoustic windows that matched the shape of the device acoustic field. The acoustic windows were calculated using segmentation and triangulation of outer and inner faces of skull from 3D-MRI head datasets. Nine heads of healthy adults were analyzed. The surface considered for the calculations was the head region found above the supra-orbital margin. For every inspected point in the brain volume, the axis of the device was determined by the vector between this inspection point and a point located in the center of the brain. Numerical predictions of the acoustic field, where shear-mode conversion through the skull was considered, were obtained and compared to the case of water-only conditions. The brain tissue that is close to the skull showed suitable acoustic windows for shear waves. The central region of the brain seems to be unreachable using shear-mode. Analysis of the acoustic fields showed a proportional relation between the acoustic window for shear mode and the effective degree of focusing. However, this relation showed significant differences among specimens. In general, highly focused fields were obtained when the acoustic window for shear waves (A SW ) intersected more than 67% of the entering acoustic window (A TX ) of the device. The average depth from the

  14. Melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis through inhibiting NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Gan, Lu; Xu, Yatao; Luo, Dan; Ren, Qian; Wu, Song; Sun, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of cell death that is associated with pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Melatonin is substantially reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammasome activation. However, the effects of melatonin on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that melatonin alleviated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome formation in mice adipose tissue. The NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis was also inhibited by melatonin in adipocytes. Further analysis revealed that gasdermin D (GSDMD), the key executioner of pyroptosis, was the target for melatonin inhibition of adipocyte pyroptosis. Importantly, we determined that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal was required for the GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in adipocytes. We also confirmed that melatonin alleviated adipocyte pyroptosis by transcriptional suppression of GSDMD. Moreover, GSDMD physically interacted with interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and subsequently formed a complex to promote adipocyte pyroptosis. Melatonin also attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis, which was induced by LPS or obesity. In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis by blocking NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue. Our data reveal a novel function of melatonin on adipocyte pyroptosis, suggesting a new potential therapy for melatonin to prevent and treat obesity caused systemic inflammatory response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  16. The Addition of Manganese Porphyrins during Radiation Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth and Simultaneously Protects Normal Prostate Tissue from Radiation Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Chatterjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is commonly used for prostate cancer treatment; however, normal tissues can be damaged from the reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by radiation. In separate reports, we and others have shown that manganese porphyrins (MnPs, ROS scavengers, protect normal cells from radiation-induced damage but inhibit prostate cancer cell growth. However, there have been no studies demonstrating that MnPs protect normal tissues, while inhibiting tumor growth in the same model. LNCaP or PC3 cells were orthotopically implanted into athymic mice and treated with radiation (2 Gy, for 5 consecutive days in the presence or absence of MnPs. With radiation, MnPs enhanced overall life expectancy and significantly decreased the average tumor volume, as compared to the radiated alone group. MnPs enhanced lipid oxidation in tumor cells but reduced oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in combination with radiation. Mechanistically, MnPs behave as pro-oxidants or antioxidants depending on the level of oxidative stress inside the treated cell. We found that MnPs act as pro-oxidants in prostate cancer cells, while in normal cells and tissues the MnPs act as antioxidants. For the first time, in the same in vivo model, this study reveals that MnPs enhance the tumoricidal effect of radiation and reduce oxidative damage to normal prostate tissue adjacent to the prostate tumor in the presence of radiation. This study suggests that MnPs are effective radio-protectors for radiation-mediated prostate cancer treatment.

  17. Quantitation of two endogenous lactose-inhibitable lectins in embryonic and adult chicken tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, E.C.; Barondes, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two lactose-binding lectins from chicken tissues, chicken-lactose-lectin-I (CLL-I) and chicken-lactose-lectin-II (CLL-II) were quantified with a radioimmunoassay in extracts of a number of developing and adult chicken tissues. Both lectins could be measured in the same extract without separation, because they showed no significant immunological cross- reactivity. Many embryonic and adult tissues, including brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, pancreas, and spleen, contained one or both lectins, although their concentrations differed markedly. For example, embryonic muscle, the richest source of CLL-I contained only traces of CLL-II whereas embryonic kidney, a very rich source of CLL-II contained substantial CLL-I. In both muscle and kidney, lectin levels in adulthood were much lower than in the embryonic state. In contrast, CLL-I in liver and CLL-II in intestine were 10-fold to 30-fold more concentrated in the adult than in the 15-d embryo. CLL-I and CLL-II from several tissues were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity in the various tissues was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and peptide mapping. The results suggest that these lectins might have different functions in the many developing and adult tissues in which they are found

  18. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W; Emami, K; Wu, H

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  19. Bioprinting cell-laden matrigel for radioprotection study of liver by pro-drug conversion in a dual-tissue microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, J E; Hamid, Q; Wang, C; Chang, R; Sun, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Emami, K; Wu, H, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: weisun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Radiation Biophysics Lab, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77586 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a novel cell printing and microfluidic system to serve as a portable ground model for the study of drug conversion and radiation protection of living liver tissue analogs. The system is applied to study behavior in ground models of space stress, particularly radiation. A microfluidic environment is engineered by two cell types to prepare an improved higher fidelity in vitro micro-liver tissue analog. Cell-laden Matrigel printing and microfluidic chips were used to test radiation shielding to liver cells by the pro-drug amifostine. In this work, the sealed microfluidic chip regulates three variables of interest: radiation exposure, anti-radiation drug treatment and single- or dual-tissue culture environments. This application is intended to obtain a scientific understanding of the response of the multi-cellular biological system for long-term manned space exploration, disease models and biosensors.

  20. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  1. Cocaine inhibits extraneuronal O-methylation of exogenous norepinephrine in nasal and oral tissues of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Lande, I.S.; Parker, D.A.S.; Proctor, C.H.; Marino, V.; Mackay-Sim, A.

    1987-01-01

    Nasal mucosa (respirator and olfactory) and lingual gingiva of the rabbit were depleted of their sympathetic nerves by superior cervical ganglionectomy. In the innervated nasal mucosa, exogenous tritiated norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) was metabolized mainly to tritiated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol ( 3 HDOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid ( 3 HDOMA), whereas after denervation it was metabolized mainly to tritiated normetanephrine ( 3 HNMN). In the denervated mucosa, cocaine(30umol/l) inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 50-60%. Cocaine also inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 60% in the denervated lingual gingiva. It is concluded that the tissues metabolize 3 H-NE via a cocaine-sensitive extraneuronal uptake and O-methylating system similar to that which has been shown to be present in dental pulp. 17 references, 1 table

  2. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases: lessons from the study of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbrock, Frances; Thomas, Daniel A; Amour, Augustin

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a group of highly potent inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and disintegrin metalloproteinases (ADAMs). The high affinity and "tight-binding" nature of the inhibition of MMPs or ADAMs by TIMPs presents challenges for the determination of both equilibrium and dissociation rate constants of these inhibitory events. Methodologies that enable some of these challenges to be overcome are described in this chapter and represent valuable lessons for the in vitro assessment of MMP or ADAM inhibitors within a drug discovery context.

  3. PEDF expression is inhibited by insulin treatment in adipose tissue via suppressing 11β-HSD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Zhou

    Full Text Available Early intensive insulin therapy improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients; while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, an anti-angiogenic factor, is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Here, we hypothesize that PEDF might be down regulated by insulin and then lead to the improved insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients during insulin therapy. We addressed this issue by investigating insulin regulation of PEDF expression in diabetic conditions. The results showed that serum PEDF was reduced by 15% in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients after insulin therapy. In adipose tissue of diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats, PEDF expression was associated with TNF-α elevation and it could be decreased both in serum and in adipose tissue by insulin treatment. In adipocytes, PEDF was induced by TNF-α through activation of NF-κB. The response was inhibited by knockdown and enhanced by over expression of NF-κB p65. However, PEDF expression was indirectly, not directly, induced by NF-κB which promoted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 expression in adipocytes. 11β-HSD1 is likely to stimulate PEDF expression through production of active form of glucocorticoids as dexamethasone induced PEDF expression in adipose tissue. Insulin inhibited PEDF by down-regulating 11β-HSD1 expression. The results suggest that PEDF activity is induced by inflammation and decreased by insulin through targeting 11β-HSD1/glucocorticoid pathway in adipose tissue of diabetic patients.

  4. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation.

  5. Inhibition of histone acetylation as a tool in bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan; Licht, R.; Bongers, Marloes; van der Klundert, Tessa; Arends, Roel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    Our approach to bone tissue engineering is the in vitro expansion and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow–derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their subsequent implantation on porous ceramic materials. Current osteogenic differentiation protocols use dexamethasone to initiate the

  6. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid inhibits the secretion of interleukin-6 from white adipose tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogston, N. C.; Karastergiou, K.; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M. J.; Bhome, R.; Madani, R.; Stables, M.; Gilroy, D.; Flachs, Pavel; Hensler, Michal; Kopecký, Jan; Mohamed-Ali, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2008), s. 1807-1815 ISSN 0307-0565 Grant - others:Wellcome trust(XE) 070821/Z/03/Z; EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interleukin-6 * adipose tissue * aspirin Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2008

  7. Inhibition of NET Release Fails to Reduce Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braster, Quinte; Silvestre Roig, Carlos; Hartwig, Helene; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; Döring, Yvonne; Daemen, Mat J.; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cardiovascular diseases are profoundly mediated by low-grade chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue. Recently, the importance of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase on the induction of

  8. Inhibition of the tissue reaction to a biodegradable biomaterial by monoclonal antibodies to IFN-gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khouw, IMSL; van Wachem, PB; de Leij, LFMH; van Luyn, MJA

    Biomaterials are increasingly used for clinical applications. However, loss of function may occur owing to tissue reactions, which are mainly caused by a variety of inflammatory reactions. Recently, we demonstrated that macrophages (MO) and T cells play key roles in these reactions. Since

  9. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  10. SU-F-J-193: Efficient Dose Extinction Method for Water Equivalent Path Length (WEPL) of Real Tissue Samples for Validation of CT HU to Stopping Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Baer, E; Jee, K; Sharp, G; Flanz, J; Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For proton therapy, an accurate model of CT HU to relative stopping power (RSP) conversion is essential. In current practice, validation of these models relies solely on measurements of tissue substitutes with standard compositions. Validation based on real tissue samples would be much more direct and can address variations between patients. This study intends to develop an efficient and accurate system based on the concept of dose extinction to measure WEPL and retrieve RSP in biological tissue in large number of types. Methods: A broad AP proton beam delivering a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is used to irradiate the samples with a Matrixx detector positioned immediately below. A water tank was placed on top of the samples, with the water level controllable in sub-millimeter by a remotely controlled dosing pump. While gradually lowering the water level with beam on, the transmission dose was recorded at 1 frame/sec. The WEPL were determined as the difference between the known beam range of the delivered SOBP (80%) and the water level corresponding to 80% of measured dose profiles in time. A Gammex 467 phantom was used to test the system and various types of biological tissue was measured. Results: RSP for all Gammex inserts, expect the one made with lung-450 material (<2% error), were determined within ±0.5% error. Depends on the WEPL of investigated phantom, a measurement takes around 10 min, which can be accelerated by a faster pump. Conclusion: Based on the concept of dose extinction, a system was explored to measure WEPL efficiently and accurately for a large number of samples. This allows the validation of CT HU to stopping power conversions based on large number of samples and real tissues. It also allows the assessment of beam uncertainties due to variations over patients, which issue has never been sufficiently studied before.

  11. Inhibition of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling promotes mesenchymal stem cell-driven tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mikaël M; Maruyama, Kenta; Kuhn, Gisela A; Satoh, Takashi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Müller, Ralph; Akira, Shizuo

    2016-03-22

    Tissue injury and the healing response lead to the release of endogenous danger signals including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor, type 1 (IL-1R1) ligands, which modulate the immune microenvironment. Because TLRs and IL-1R1 have been shown to influence the repair process of various tissues, we explored their role during bone regeneration, seeking to design regenerative strategies integrating a control of their signalling. Here we show that IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling negatively regulates bone regeneration, in the mouse. Furthermore, IL-1β which is released at the bone injury site, inhibits the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mechanistically, IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling impairs MSC proliferation, migration and differentiation by inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Lastly, as a proof of concept, we engineer a MSC delivery system integrating inhibitors of IL-1R1/MyD88 signalling. Using this strategy, we considerably improve MSC-based bone regeneration in the mouse, demonstrating that this approach may be useful in regenerative medicine applications.

  12. Critical significance of the region between Helix 1 and 2 for efficient dominant-negative inhibition by conversion-incompetent prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Taguchi

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders in man and animals associated with the accumulation of the pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(c. A profound conformational change of PrP(c underlies formation of PrP(Sc and prion propagation involves conversion of PrP(c substrate by direct interaction with PrP(Sc template. Identifying the interfaces and modalities of inter-molecular interactions of PrPs will highly advance our understanding of prion propagation in particular and of prion-like mechanisms in general. To identify the region critical for inter-molecular interactions of PrP, we exploited here dominant-negative inhibition (DNI effects of conversion-incompetent, internally-deleted PrP (ΔPrP on co-expressed conversion-competent PrP. We created a series of ΔPrPs with different lengths of deletions in the region between first and second α-helix (H1∼H2 which was recently postulated to be of importance in prion species barrier and PrP fibril formation. As previously reported, ΔPrPs uniformly exhibited aberrant properties including detergent insolubility, limited protease digestion resistance, high-mannose type N-linked glycans, and intracellular localization. Although formerly controversial, we demonstrate here that ΔPrPs have a GPI anchor attached. Surprisingly, despite very similar biochemical and cell-biological properties, DNI efficiencies of ΔPrPs varied significantly, dependant on location and inversely correlated with the size of deletion. This data demonstrates that H1∼H2 and the region C-terminal to it are critically important for efficient DNI. It also suggests that this region is involved in PrP-PrP interaction and conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc. To reconcile the paradox of how an intracellular PrP can exert DNI, we demonstrate that ΔPrPs are subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal/autophagic degradation pathways. Using autophagy pathways ΔPrPs obtain access to the locale

  13. Glyceroneogenesis is inhibited through HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammation in human subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroyer, Stéphanie; Vatier, Camille; Kadiri, Sarah; Quette, Joëlle; Chapron, Charles; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Glyceroneogenesis, a metabolic pathway that participates during lipolysis in the recycling of free fatty acids to triglycerides into adipocytes, contributes to the lipid-buffering function of adipose tissue. We investigated whether glyceroneogenesis could be affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) responsible or not for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. We treated explants obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) depots from lean individuals. We observed that the dyslipidemic PIs nelfinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir, but not the lipid-neutral PI atazanavir, increased lipolysis and decreased glyceroneogenesis, leading to an increased release of fatty acids from SAT but not from VAT. At the same time, dyslipidemic PIs decreased the amount of perilipin and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in SAT but not in VAT. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway, counteracted PI-induced increased inflammation and decreased glyceroneogenesis. IL-6 (100 ng) inhibited the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, in SAT but not in VAT. Our data show that dyslipidemic but not lipid-neutral PIs decreased glyceroneogenesis as a consequence of PI-induced increased inflammation in SAT that could have an affect on adipocytes and/or macrophages. These results add a new link between fat inflammation and increased fatty acids release and suggest a greater sensitivity of SAT than VAT to PI-induced inflammation. PMID:21068005

  14. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  15. Maternal celiac disease autoantibodies bind directly to syncytiotrophoblast and inhibit placental tissue transglutaminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Nicola J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD occurs in as many as 1 in 80 pregnant women and is associated with poor pregnancy outcome, but it is not known if this is an effect on maternal nutrient absorption or, alternatively, if the placenta is an autoimmune target. The major autoantigen, tissue transglutaminase (tTG, has previously been shown to be present in the maternal-facing syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane of the placenta. Methods ELISA was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase in a panel of CD sera. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the binding of IgA autoantibodies from CD serum to term placenta. In addition, novel direct binding and activity assays were developed to mimic the in vivo exposure of the villous placenta to maternal autoantibody. Results and Discussion CD IgA autoantibodies located to the syncytial surface of the placenta significantly more than IgA antibodies in control sera (P Conclusion These data indicate that direct immune effects in untreated CD women may compromise placental function.

  16. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor overexpression decreases growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Qin; Cheng, Hai-Qing; Li, Hong; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yu-Hua; Feng, Zhen-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-01

    We have previously found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in a rat model of liver cancer. Here, we examined expression of CTGF in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its effect on cell growth. Real-time PCR was used to observe expression of CTGF in human HCC cell lines HepG2, SMMC-7721, MHCC-97H and LO2. siRNA for the CTGF gene was designed, synthesized and cloned into a Plk0.1-GFP-SP6 vector to construct a lentivirus-mediated shRNA/CTGF. CTGF mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells treated by CTGF-specific shRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to evaluate the growth effect, and a colony formation assay was used for observing clonogenic growth. In vivo, tumor cell proliferation was evaluated in a nude mouse model of xenotransplantation. Statistical significance was determined by t test for comparison between two groups, or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple groups. Immunohistochemical staining of CTGF was seen in 35 of 40 HCC samples (87.5%). CTGF was overexpressed 5-fold in 20 HCC tissues, compared with surrounding non-tumor liver tissue. CTGF mRNA level was 5 - 8-fold higher in HepG2, SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H than in LO2 cells. This indicated that the inhibition rate of cell growth was 43% after knockdown of CTGF expression (P < 0.05). Soft agar colony formation assay showed that siRNA mediated knockdown of CTGF inhibited colony formation in soft agar of HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). The volume of tumors from CTGF-shRNA-expressing cells only accounted for 35% of the tumors from the scrambled control-infected HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). CTGF was overexpressed in human HCC cells and downregulation of CTGF inhibited HCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of CTGF may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of HCC.

  17. Softenin, a novel protein that softens the connective tissue of sea cucumbers through inhibiting interaction between collagen fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takehana

    Full Text Available The dermis in the holothurian body wall is a typical catch connective tissue or mutable collagenous tissue that shows rapid changes in stiffness. Some chemical factors that change the stiffness of the tissue were found in previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms of the changes are not yet fully understood. Detection of factors that change the stiffness by working directly on the extracellular matrix was vital to clarify the mechanisms of the change. We isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus a novel protein, softenin, that softened the body-wall dermis. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The N-terminal sequence of 17 amino acids had low homology to that of known proteins. We performed sequential chemical and physical dissections of the dermis and tested the effects of softenin on each dissection stage by dynamic mechanical tests. Softenin softened Triton-treated dermis whose cells had been disrupted by detergent. The Triton-treated dermis was subjected to repetitive freeze-and-thawing to make Triton-Freeze-Thaw (TFT dermis that was softer than the Triton-treated dermis, implying that some force-bearing structure had been disrupted by this treatment. TFT dermis was stiffened by tensilin, a stiffening protein of sea cucumbers. Softenin softened the tensilin-stiffened TFT dermis while it had no effect on the TFT dermis without tensilin treatment. We isolated collagen from the dermis. When tensilin was applied to the suspending solution of collagen fibrils, they made a large compact aggregate that was dissolved by the application of softenin or by repetitive freeze-and-thawing. These results strongly suggested that softenin decreased dermal stiffness through inhibiting cross-bridge formation between collagen fibrils; the formation was augmented by tensilin and the bridges were broken by the freeze-thaw treatment. Softenin is thus the first softener of catch connective tissue shown to work on the cross

  18. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-labled Active Site Inhibited Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is up regulated in many solid tumors and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and prognosis. A non-invasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII (FVII) is the natural ligand to TF. Here we...... report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of FVII. METHODS: Active site inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4......-[(18)F]-fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) and purified. The corresponding product, [(18)F]FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2 and 4 hours after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed...

  19. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  20. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit T-cell lymphoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin-Ok; Chae, Ji-Sang; Coh, Ye-Rin; Jung, Woo-Sung; Lee, Hee-Woo; Shin, Il-Seob; Kang, Sung-Keun; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-09-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are thought to be one of the most reliable stem cell sources for a variety of cell therapies. This study investigated the anti-tumor effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) on EL4 murine T-cell lymphoma in vitro and in vivo. The growth-inhibitory effect of hAT-MSCs on EL4 tumor cells was evaluated using a WST-1 cell proliferation assay. Cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry and western blot. To evaluate an anti-tumor effect of hAT-MSCs on T-cell lymphoma in vivo, CM-DiI-labeled hAT-MSCs were circumtumorally injected in tumor-bearing nude mice, and tumor size was measured. hAT-MSCs inhibited T-cell lymphoma growth by altering cell-cycle progression and inducing apoptosis in vitro. hAT-MSCs inhibited tumor growth in tumor-bearing nude mice and prolonged survival time. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that hAT-MSCs migrated to tumor sites. hAT-MSCs suppress the growth of T-cell lymphoma, suggesting a therapeutic option for T-cell lymphoma. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Pan-FGFR inhibition leads to blockade of FGF23 signaling, soft tissue mineralization, and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanochko, Gina M; Vitsky, Allison; Heyen, Jonathan R; Hirakawa, Brad; Lam, Justine L; May, Jeff; Nichols, Tim; Sace, Frederick; Trajkovic, Dusko; Blasi, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) play a major role in angiogenesis and are desirable targets for the development of therapeutics. Groups of Wistar Han rats were dosed orally once daily for 4 days with a small molecule pan-FGFR inhibitor (5mg/kg) or once daily for 6 days with a small molecule MEK inhibitor (3mg/kg). Serum phosphorous and FGF23 levels increased in all rats during the course of the study. Histologically, rats dosed with either drug exhibited multifocal, multiorgan soft tissue mineralization. Expression levels of the sodium phosphate transporter Npt2a and the vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes Cyp24a1 and Cyp27b1 were modulated in kidneys of animals dosed with the pan-FGFR inhibitor. Both inhibitors decreased ERK phosphorylation in the kidneys and inhibited FGF23-induced ERK phosphorylation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. A separate cardiovascular outcome study was performed to monitor hemodynamics and cardiac structure and function of telemetered rats dosed with either the pan-FGFR inhibitor or MEK inhibitor for 3 days. Both compounds increased blood pressure (~+ 17 mmHg), decreased heart rate (~-75 bpm), and modulated echocardiography parameters. Our data suggest that inhibition of FGFR signaling following administration of either pan-FGFR inhibitor or MEK inhibitor interferes with the FGF23 pathway, predisposing animals to hyperphosphatemia and a tumoral calcinosis-like syndrome in rodents.

  2. Doxycycline inhibits experimental cerebral malaria by reducing inflammatory immune reactions and tissue-degrading mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Schmidt

    Full Text Available Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX prevented experimental CM (ECM in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB and attenuated brain inflammation. Importantly, if WT mice were infected with a 20-fold increased parasite load, they could be still protected from ECM if they received DOX from day 4-6 post infection, despite similar parasitemia compared to control-infected mice that did not receive DOX and developed ECM. Infiltration of T cells and cytotoxic responses were reduced in brains of DOX-treated mice. Analysis of brain tissue by RNA-array revealed reduced expression of chemokines and tumour necrosis factor (TNF in brains of DOX-treated mice. Furthermore, DOX-administration resulted in brains of the mice in reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 and granzyme B, which are both factors associated with ECM pathology. Systemic interferon gamma production was reduced and activated peripheral T cells accumulated in the spleen in DOX-treated mice. Our results suggest that DOX targeted inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS and prevented ECM by impaired brain access of effector T cells in addition to its anti-parasitic effect, thereby expanding the understanding of molecular events that underlie DOX-mediated therapeutic interventions.

  3. Doxycycline inhibits experimental cerebral malaria by reducing inflammatory immune reactions and tissue-degrading mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim E; Kuepper, Janina M; Schumak, Beatrix; Alferink, Judith; Hofmann, Andrea; Howland, Shanshan W; Rénia, Laurent; Limmer, Andreas; Specht, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Malaria ranks among the most important infectious diseases worldwide and affects mostly people living in tropical countries. Mechanisms involved in disease progression are still not fully understood and specific treatments that might interfere with cerebral malaria (CM) are limited. Here we show that administration of doxycycline (DOX) prevented experimental CM (ECM) in Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) mice in an IL-10-independent manner. DOX-treated mice showed an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and attenuated brain inflammation. Importantly, if WT mice were infected with a 20-fold increased parasite load, they could be still protected from ECM if they received DOX from day 4-6 post infection, despite similar parasitemia compared to control-infected mice that did not receive DOX and developed ECM. Infiltration of T cells and cytotoxic responses were reduced in brains of DOX-treated mice. Analysis of brain tissue by RNA-array revealed reduced expression of chemokines and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in brains of DOX-treated mice. Furthermore, DOX-administration resulted in brains of the mice in reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and granzyme B, which are both factors associated with ECM pathology. Systemic interferon gamma production was reduced and activated peripheral T cells accumulated in the spleen in DOX-treated mice. Our results suggest that DOX targeted inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS) and prevented ECM by impaired brain access of effector T cells in addition to its anti-parasitic effect, thereby expanding the understanding of molecular events that underlie DOX-mediated therapeutic interventions.

  4. Systemic insulin sensitivity is regulated by GPS2 inhibition of AKT ubiquitination and activation in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederquist, Carly T; Lentucci, Claudia; Martinez-Calejman, Camila; Hayashi, Vanessa; Orofino, Joseph; Guertin, David; Fried, Susan K; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Insulin signaling plays a unique role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and the impairment of insulin action is associated with altered lipid metabolism, obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes. The main aim of this study was to provide further insight into the regulatory mechanisms governing the insulin signaling pathway by investigating the role of non-proteolytic ubiquitination in insulin-mediated activation of AKT. The molecular mechanism of AKT regulation through ubiquitination is first dissected in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and then validated in vivo using mice with adipo-specific deletion of GPS2, an endogenous inhibitor of Ubc13 activity (GPS2-AKO mice). Our results indicate that K63 ubiquitination is a critical component of AKT activation in the insulin signaling pathway and that counter-regulation of this step is provided by GPS2 preventing AKT ubiquitination through inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Removal of this negative checkpoint, through GPS2 downregulation or genetic deletion, results in sustained activation of insulin signaling both in vitro and in vivo . As a result, the balance between lipid accumulation and utilization is shifted toward storage in the adipose tissue and GPS2-AKO mice become obese under normal laboratory chow diet. However, the adipose tissue of GPS2-AKO mice is not inflamed, the levels of circulating adiponectin are elevated, and systemic insulin sensitivity is overall improved. Our findings characterize a novel layer of regulation of the insulin signaling pathway based on non-proteolytic ubiquitination of AKT and define GPS2 as a previously unrecognized component of the insulin signaling cascade. In accordance with this role, we have shown that GPS2 presence in adipocytes modulates systemic metabolism by restricting the activation of insulin signaling during the fasted state, whereas in absence of GPS2, the adipose tissue is more efficient at lipid storage, and obesity becomes uncoupled from inflammation and insulin

  5. Simulation-Based Communication Skills Training for Experienced Clinicians to Improve Family Conversations About Organ and Tissue Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julie Elizabeth; Gatward, Jonathan J; Kelly, Michelle A; McKay, Leigh; McCann, Ellie; Elliott, Rosalind M; Perry, Lin

    2017-12-01

    The approach, communication skills, and confidence of clinicians responsible for raising deceased organ donation may influence families' donation decisions. The aim of this study was to increase the preparedness and confidence of intensive care clinicians allocated to work in a "designated requester" role. We conducted a posttest evaluation of an innovative simulation-based training program. Simulation-based training enabled clinicians to rehearse the "balanced approach" to family donation conversations (FDCs) in the designated requester role. Professional actors played family members in simulated clinical settings using authentic scenarios, with video-assisted reflective debriefing. Participants completed an evaluation after the workshop. Simple descriptive statistical analysis and content analysis were performed. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 25 workshops were undertaken with 86 participants; 82 (95.3%) returned evaluations. Respondents were registered practicing clinicians; over half (44/82; 53.7%) were intensivists. Most attended a single workshop. Evaluations were overwhelmingly positive with the majority rating workshops as outstanding (64/80; 80%). Scenario fidelity, competence of the actors, opportunity to practice and receive feedback on performance, and feedback from actors, both in and out of character, were particularly valued. Most (76/78; 97.4%) reported feeling more confident about their designated requester role. Simulation-based communication training for the designated requester role in FDCs increased the knowledge and confidence of clinicians to raise the topic of donation.

  6. Plasminogen-induced aggregation of PANC-1 cells requires conversion to plasmin and is inhibited by endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshet, Naamit; Lupu-Meiri, Monica; Espinoza, Ingrid; Fili, Oded; Shapira, Yuval; Lupu, Ruth; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2008-09-01

    PANC-1 cells express proteinase-activated receptors (PARs)-1, -2, and respond to their activation by transient elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] and accelerated aggregation (Wei et al., 2006, J Cell Physiol 206:322-328). We studied the effect of plasminogen (PGN), an inactive precursor of the PAR-1-activating protease, plasmin (PN) on aggregation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. A single dose of PGN time- and dose-dependently promoted PANC-1 cells aggregation in serum-free medium, while PN did not. PANC-1 cells express urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which continuously converted PGN to PN. This activity and PGN-induced aggregation were inhibited by the uPA inhibitor amiloride. PGN-induced aggregation was also inhibited by alpha-antiplasmin and by the PN inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Direct assay of uPA activity revealed very low rate, markedly enhanced in the presence of PGN. Moreover, in PGN activator inhibitor 1-deficient PANC-1 cells, uPA activity and PGN-induced aggregation were markedly potentiated. Two additional human PDAC cell lines, MiaPaCa and Colo347, were assayed for PGN-induced aggregation. Both cell lines responded by aggregation and exhibited PGN-enhanced uPA activity. We hypothesized that the continuous conversion of PGN to PN by endogenous uPA is limited by PN's degradation and negatively controlled by endogenously produced PAI-1. Indeed, we found that PANC-1 cells inactivate PN with t1/2 of approximately 7 h, while the continuous addition of PN promoted aggregation. Our data suggest that PANC-1 cells possess intrinsic, PAI-1-sensitive mechanism for promotion of aggregation and differentiation by prolonged exposure to PGN and, possibly, additional precursors of PARs agonists.

  7. Chikusetsu saponin IVa ameliorates high fat diet-induced inflammation in adipose tissue of mice through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengfu; Liu, Chaoqi; Wang, Ting; He, Yumin; Zhou, Zhiyong; Dun, Yaoyan; Zhao, Haixia; Ren, Dongming; Wang, Junjie; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2017-05-09

    Chronic metabolic inflammation in adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of obesity-associated diseases. Our previous study indicated that total saponins of Panax japonicus (SPJ) rhizoma and Chikusetsu saponin V, one main component of SPJ, could exert the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo and Ex vivo anti-inflammatory activities of another main component of SPJ, namely Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CS). CS could significantly inhibited HFD-induced lipid homeostasis, and inhibited inflammation in adipose tissue, as reflected by the decreased mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes and secretion of the chemokines/cytokines, inhibited the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and shifted their polarization from M1 to M2, suppressed HFD-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome component genes and decreased IL-1β and Caspase-1 production in mice. Moreover, CS treatment also inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Meanwhile, CS treatment inhibited an NLRP3-induced ASC pyroptosome formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pyroptosis. Furthermore, CS treatment suppressed HFD-induced NF-κB signaling in vivo and LPS-induced NF-κB activation as reflected by the fact that their phosphorylated forms and the ratios of pNF-κB/NF-κB, pIKK/IKK, and pIκB/IκB were all decreased in EAT from HFD-fed mice treated with CS as compared with those of HFD mice. Taking together, this study has revealed that CS effectively inhibits HFD-induced inflammation in adipose tissue of mice through inhibiting both NLRP3 inflammasome activation and NF-κB signaling. Thus, CS can serve as a potential therapeutic drug in the prevention and treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal gingival tissue inhibit the proliferation of oral cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Ying; Song, Jiangyuan; Xu, Xiangliang; Jin, Jianqiu; Su, Sha; Mu, Dongdong; Liu, Xiaodan; Xu, Si; Cui, Hongwei; Zhao, Zhongfang; Wang, Yixiang; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-11-01

    The interplay between tumor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in tumor development, and thus might be exploited for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we isolated MSCs from normal gingival tissue (GMSCs), and detected the effect of GMSCs on oral cancer cells via direct co-culture and indirect co-culture systems. The cell proliferation assay of direct co-culture showed that GMSCs could inhibit the growth of oral cancer cells. Conditioned medium derived from GMSCs (GMSCs-CM) also exerted an anticancer effect, which indicates that soluble factors in GMSCs-CM played a dominant role in GMSCs-induced cancer cell growth inhibition. To investigate the mechanism, we performed apoptosis assay by flow cytometry, and confirmed that cancer cell apoptosis induced by GMSCs could be a reason for the effect of GMSCs on the growth of oral cancer cells. Western blotting also confirmed that GMSCs could upregulate expression of pro-apoptotic genes including p-JNK, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, Bax expression and downregulate proliferation- and anti-apoptosis-related gene expression such as p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2, CDK4, cyclin D1, PCNA and survivin. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of GMSCs on cancer cells can partially be restored by blockade of JNK pathway. Moreover, animal studies showed that GMSCs exerted an anticancer effect after oral cancer cells and GMSCs were co-injected with oral cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that GMSCs can suppress oral cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via altering the surrounding microenvironment of oral cancer cells, which indicates that GMSCs have a potential use in the management of oral dysplasia and oral cancer in future.

  9. Cannabinoids inhibit angiogenic capacities of endothelial cells via release of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 from lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Fischer, Sascha; Haustein, Maria; Manda, Katrin; Hinz, Burkhard

    2014-09-15

    Cannabinoids inhibit tumor neovascularization as part of their tumorregressive action. However, the underlying mechanism is still under debate. In the present study the impact of cannabinoids on potential tumor-to-endothelial cell communication conferring anti-angiogenesis was studied. Cellular behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) associated with angiogenesis was evaluated by Boyden chamber, two-dimensional tube formation and fibrin bead assay, with the latter assessing three-dimensional sprout formation. Viability was quantified by the WST-1 test. Conditioned media (CM) from A549 lung cancer cells treated with cannabidiol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, R(+)-methanandamide or the CB2 agonist JWH-133 elicited decreased migration as well as tube and sprout formation of HUVEC as compared to CM of vehicle-treated cancer cells. Inhibition of sprout formation was further confirmed for cannabinoid-treated A549 cells co-cultured with HUVEC. Using antagonists to cannabinoid-activated receptors the antimigratory action was shown to be mediated via cannabinoid receptors or transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. SiRNA approaches revealed a cannabinoid-induced expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) as well as its upstream trigger, the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, to be causally linked to the observed decrease of HUVEC migration. Comparable anti-angiogenic effects were not detected following direct exposure of HUVEC to cannabinoids, but occurred after addition of recombinant TIMP-1 to HUVEC. Finally, antimigratory effects were confirmed for CM of two other cannabinoid-treated lung cancer cell lines (H460 and H358). Collectively, our data suggest a pivotal role of the anti-angiogenic factor TIMP-1 in intercellular tumor-endothelial cell communication resulting in anti-angiogenic features of endothelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Connective tissue growth factor inhibits gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis by blocking integrin α3β1-dependent adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung-Nien; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, King-Jeng; Lee, Po-Huang; Lee, Hsinyu

    2015-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays important roles in normal and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CTGF in peritoneal metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism in gastric cancer progression. CTGF expression levels for wild-type and stable overexpression clones were determined by Western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Univariate and multivariate analyses, immunohistochemistry, and survival probability analyses were performed on gastric cancer patients. The extracellular matrix components involved in CTGF-regulated adhesion were determined. Recombinant CTGF was added to cells or coinoculated with gastric cancer cells into mice to evaluate its therapeutic potential. CTGF overexpression and treatment with the recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell adhesion. In vivo peritoneal metastasis demonstrated that CTGF-stable transfectants markedly decreased the number and size of tumor nodules in the mesentery. Statistical analysis of gastric cancer patient data showed that patients expressing higher CTGF levels had earlier TNM staging and a higher survival probability after the surgery. Integrin α3β1 was the cell adhesion molecule mediating gastric cancer cell adhesion to laminin, and blocking of integrin α3β1 prevented gastric cancer cell adhesion to recombinant CTGF. Coimmunoprecipitation results indicated that CTGF binds to integrin α3. Coinoculation of recombinant CTGF and gastric cancer cell lines in mice showed effective inhibition of peritoneal dissemination. Our results suggested that gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis is mediated through integrin α3β1 binding to laminin, and CTGF effectively blocks the interaction by binding to integrin α3β1, thus demonstrating the therapeutic potential of recombinant CTGF in gastric cancer patients.

  11. PET Imaging of Tissue Factor in Pancreatic Cancer Using 64Cu-Labeled Active Site-Inhibited Factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Jeppesen, Troels E; Kristensen, Lotte K; Jensen, Mette M; El Ali, Henrik H; Madsen, Jacob; Wiinberg, Bo; Petersen, Lars C; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. However, TF also plays an important role in cancer. TF expression has been reported in 53%-89% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and the expression level of TF has in clinical studies correlated with advanced stage, increased microvessel density, metastasis, and poor overall survival. Imaging of TF expression is of clinical relevance as a prognostic biomarker and as a companion diagnostic for TF-directed therapies currently under clinical development. Factor VII (FVII) is the natural ligand to TF. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using active site-inhibited FVII (FVIIai) labeled with (64)Cu for PET imaging of TF expression. FVIIai was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with (64)Cu ((64)Cu-NOTA-FVIIai). Longitudinal in vivo PET imaging was performed at 1, 4, 15, and 36 h after injection of (64)Cu-NOTA-FVIIai in mice with pancreatic adenocarcinomas (BxPC-3). The specificity of TF imaging with (64)Cu-NOTA-FVIIai was investigated in subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models with different levels of TF expression and in a competition experiment. In addition, imaging of orthotopic pancreatic tumors was performed using (64)Cu-NOTA-FVIIai and PET/MRI. In vivo imaging data were supported by ex vivo biodistribution, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. Longitudinal PET imaging with (64)Cu-NOTA-FVIIai showed a tumor uptake of 2.3 ± 0.2, 3.7 ± 0.3, 3.4 ± 0.3, and 2.4 ± 0.3 percentage injected dose per gram at 1, 4, 15, and 36 h after injection, respectively. An increase in tumor-to-normal-tissue contrast was observed over the imaging time course. Competition with unlabeled FVIIai significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the tumor uptake. The tumor uptake observed in models with different TF expression levels was significantly different from each other (P < 0.001) and was in agreement with

  12. Inhibition of ethylene production by cobaltous ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, O.L; Yang, S.F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Co 2+ on ethylene production by mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) and by apple tissues was studied. Co 2+ , depending on concentrations applied, effectively inhibited ethylene production by both tissues. It also strongly inhibited the ethylene production induced by IAA, kinetin, IAA plus kinetin, Ca 2+ , kinetin plus Ca 2+ , or Cu 2+ treatments in mung bean hypocotyl segments. While Co 2+ greatly inhibited ethylene production, it had little effect on the respiration of apple tissue, indicating that Co 2+ does not exert its inhibitory effect as a general metabolic inhibitor. Ni 2+ , which belongs to the same group as Co 2+ in the periodic table, also markedly curtailed both the basal and the induced ethylene production by apple and mung bean hypocotyl tissues. In a system in which kinetin and Ca 2+ were applied together, kinetin greatly enhanced Ca 2+ uptake, thus enhancing ethylene production. Co 2+ , however, slightly inhibited the uptake of Ca 2+ but appreciably inhibited ethylene production, either in the presence or in the absence of kinetin. Tracer experiments using apple tissue indicated that Co 2+ strongly inhibited the in vivo conversion of L-[U-- 14 C]methionine to 14 C-ethylene. These data suggested that Co 2+ inhibited ethylene production by inhibiting the conversion of methionine to ethylene, a common step which is required for ethylene formation by higher plants. Co 2+ is known to promote elongation, leaf expansion, and hook opening in excised plant parts in response to applied auxins or cytokinins.Since ethylene is known to inhibit those growth phenomena, it is suggested that Co 2+ exerts its promotive effect, at least in part, by inhibiting ethylene formation

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M.; Pozzi, E.; Nigg, D.W.; Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J.; Nievas, S.I.; Aromando, R.F.; Itoiz, M.E.; Trivillin, V.A.; Schwint, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na 2 10 B 10 H 10 ) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in ex vivo cervical tissue model of human vagina by palmitic acid; implications for a microbicide development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of all new HIV-1 infections are acquired through sexual contact. Currently, there is no clinically approved microbicide, indicating a clear and urgent therapeutic need. We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and entry. Mechanistically, PA inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor and blocks efficient gp120-to-CD4 attachment. Here, we wanted to assess the ability of PA to inhibit HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue ex vivo model of human vagina, and determine its effect on Lactobacillus (L species of probiotic vaginal flora. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that treatment with 100-200 µM PA inhibited HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue by up to 50%, and this treatment was not toxic to the tissue or to L. crispatus and jensenii species of vaginal flora. In vitro, in a cell free system that is independent of in vivo cell associated CD4 receptor; we determined inhibition constant (Ki to be ∼2.53 µM. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate utility of PA as a model molecule for further preclinical development of a safe and potent HIV-1 entry microbicide inhibitor.

  15. Quantitative PET Imaging of Tissue Factor Expression Using 18F-Labeled Active Site-Inhibited Factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Erlandsson, Maria; Jeppesen, Troels E; Jensen, Mette M; Kristensen, Lotte K; Madsen, Jacob; Petersen, Lars C; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is upregulated in many solid tumors, and its expression is linked to tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis. A noninvasive assessment of tumor TF expression status is therefore of obvious clinical relevance. Factor VII is the natural ligand to TF. Here we report the development of a new PET tracer for specific imaging of TF using an (18)F-labeled derivative of factor VII. Active site-inhibited factor VIIa (FVIIai) was obtained by inactivation with phenylalanine-phenylalanine-arginine-chloromethyl ketone. FVIIai was radiolabeled with N-succinimidyl 4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate and purified. The corresponding product, (18)F-FVIIai, was injected into nude mice with subcutaneous human pancreatic xenograft tumors (BxPC-3) and investigated using small-animal PET/CT imaging 1, 2, and 4 h after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed after the last imaging session, and tumor tissue was preserved for molecular analysis. A blocking experiment was performed in a second set of mice. The expression pattern of TF in the tumors was visualized by immunohistochemistry and the amount of TF in tumor homogenates was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and correlated with the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumors measured in vivo by PET imaging. The PET images showed high uptake of (18)F-FVIIai in the tumor regions, with a mean uptake of 2.5 ± 0.3 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) (mean ± SEM) 4 h after injection of 7.3-9.3 MBq of (18)F-FVIIai and with an average maximum uptake in the tumors of 7.1 ± 0.7 %ID/g at 4 h. In comparison, the muscle uptake was 0.2 ± 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h. At 4 h, the tumors had the highest uptake of any organ. Blocking with FVIIai significantly reduced the uptake of (18)F-FVIIai from 2.9 ± 0.1 to 1.4 ± 0.1 %ID/g (P < 0.001). The uptake of (18)F-FVIIai measured in vivo by PET imaging correlated (r = 0.72, P < 0.02) with TF protein level measured ex vivo. (18)F-FVIIai is a promising PET tracer for

  16. MicroRNA-143-3p inhibits hyperplastic scar formation by targeting connective tissue growth factor CTGF/CCN2 via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shengzhi; Kang, Bei; Zeng, Weihui; Sun, Yaowen; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibrotic disease with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, which is a response to tissue injury by fibroblasts. Although emerging evidence has indicated that miRNA contributes to hypertrophic scarring, the role of miRNA in HS formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-143-3p was markedly downregulated in HS tissues and fibroblasts (HSFs) using qRT-PCR. The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was upregulated both in HS tissues and HSFs, which is proposed to play a key role in ECM deposition in HS. The protein expression of collagen I (Col I), collagen III (Col III), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was obviously inhibited after treatment with miR-143-3p in HSFs. The CCK-8 assay showed that miR-143-3p transfection reduced the proliferation ability of HSFs, and flow cytometry showed that either early or late apoptosis of HSFs was upregulated by miR-143-3p. In addition, the activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9 was increased after miR-143-3p transfection. On the contrary, the miR-143-3p inhibitor was demonstrated to increase cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HSFs. Moreover, miR-143-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of CTGF and caused a significant decrease of CTGF. Western blot demonstrated that Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and the expression of CTGF, Col I, Col III, and α-SMA were inhibited by miR-143-3p, but increased by CTGF overexpression. In conclusion, we found that miR-143-3p inhibits hypertrophic scarring by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of human HSFs, inhibiting ECM production-associated protein expression by targeting CTGF, and restraining the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  17. Seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosal associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks , Laura L.; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W. David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J.; Powers, Jenny G.; Wild, Margaret A.; Hoover, Edward A.; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen a.; Fenwick, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni; n = 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n = 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both the PRNP genotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD.

  18. SA-4-1BBL costimulation inhibits conversion of conventional CD4+ T cells into CD4+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells by production of IFN-γ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan Madireddi

    Full Text Available Tumors convert conventional CD4(+ T cells into induced CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ T regulatory (iTreg cells that serve as an effective means of immune evasion. Therefore, the blockade of conventional CD4(+ T cell conversion into iTreg cells represents an attractive target for improving the efficacy of various immunotherapeutic approaches. Using a novel form of 4-1BBL molecule, SA-4-1BBL, we previously demonstrated that costimulation via 4-1BB receptor renders both CD4(+and CD8(+ T effector (Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells and increased intratumoral Teff/Treg cell ratio that correlated with therapeutic efficacy in various preclinical tumor models. Building on these studies, we herein show for the first time, to our knowledge, that signaling through 4-1BB inhibits antigen- and TGF-β-driven conversion of naïve CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells via stimulation of IFN-γ production by CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells. Importantly, treatment with SA-4-1BBL blocked the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into Treg cells by EG.7 tumors. Taken together with our previous studies, these results show that 4-1BB signaling negatively modulate Treg cells by two distinct mechanisms: i inhibiting the conversion of CD4(+FoxP3(- T cells into iTreg cells and ii endowing Teff cells refractory to inhibition by Treg cells. Given the dominant role of Treg cells in tumor immune evasion mechanisms, 4-1BB signaling represents an attractive target for favorably tipping the Teff:Treg balance toward Teff cells with important implications for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Tumor development in field-cancerized tissue is inhibited by a double application of Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without exceeding radio-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Molinari, Ana J.; Garabalino, Marcela A.; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Aromando, Romina F.

    2009-01-01

    - 10+BPA)-BNCT and 3) beam-only, 6 weeks apart, at RA-3, in the hamster cheek pouch pre cancer model. We followed the animals for 8 months after first irradiation (T0). Results: BPA-BNCT, (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue that persisted until 8, 3 and 2 months post-first application respectively, reaching a maximum inhibition of 100% for all 3 protocols at the earlier times post-treatment. Similarly to the single application of these BNCT protocols evaluated in the previous study, no normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed and precancerous tissue exhibited moderate but reversible mucositis. Conclusions: A double application of the BNCT protocols BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT did not cause radiotoxicity in normal pouch tissue, did not exceed the radio- tolerance of precancerous tissue (the dose-limiting tissue) and is therapeutically useful in terms of inhibiting tumor development from precancerous tissue. Within this context, a double application of BNCT could be used to improve tumor control at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues. (author)

  20. MicroRNA-145 Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion and Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) by Targeting Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-Yong; Zhong, Bei-Long; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Hua

    2016-10-23

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the mechanism of miR-145 in targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which affects the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ESCC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 50 ESCC tissues and their corresponding normal adjacent esophageal tissue samples were collected. Then, miR-145 expression in both ESCC clinical specimens and cell lines was detected using quantitative real-time PCR. CTGF protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was employed to assess the effect of miR-145 on the 3'UTR luciferase activity of CTGF. Eca109 cells were transfected with miR-145 mimics and CTGF siRNA, respectively, and changes in cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected via MTT assay, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting assay was used to detect the expression of marker genes related to EMT. RESULTS MiR-145 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and cell lines (Ptissues was than in normal adjacent esophageal tissues (Ptissues and cell lines, while the protein expression of CTGF exhibited the opposite trend. MiR-145 inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and the EMT process of ESCC cells through targeted regulation of CTGF expression.

  1. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) inhibits tumor development from precancerous tissue: An experimental study that supports a potential new application of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Heber, E.M. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Research and Production Reactors, Ezeiza Atomic Center, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigg, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Calzetta, O.; Blaumann, H.; Longhino, J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Bariloche Atomic Center, CNEA, Rio Negro (Argentina); Nievas, S.I. [Department of Chemistry, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aromando, R.F. [Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Itoiz, M.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Trivillin, V.A. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schwint, A.E. [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2009-07-15

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA), GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and (GB-10+BPA) to control tumors, with no normal tissue radiotoxicity, in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Herein we developed a novel experimental model of field-cancerization and precancerous lesions (globally termed herein precancerous tissue) in the hamster cheek pouch to explore the long-term potential inhibitory effect of the same BNCT protocols on the development of second primary tumors from precancerous tissue. Clinically, second primary tumor recurrences occur in field-cancerized tissue, causing therapeutic failure. We performed boron biodistribution studies followed by in vivo BNCT studies, with 8 months follow-up. All 3 BNCT protocols induced a statistically significant reduction in tumor development from precancerous tissue, reaching a maximum inhibition of 77-100%. The inhibitory effect of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT persisted at 51% at the end of follow-up (8 months), whereas for GB-10-BNCT it faded after 2 months. Likewise, beam-only elicited a significant but transient reduction in tumor development. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed. At 8 months post-treatment with BPA-BNCT or (GB-10+BPA)-BNCT, the precancerous pouches that did not develop tumors had regained the macroscopic and histological appearance of normal (non-cancerized) pouches. A potential new clinical application of BNCT would lie in its capacity to inhibit local regional recurrences.

  2. Exogenous Bradykinin Inhibits Tissue Factor Induction and Deep Vein Thrombosis via Activating the eNOS/Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolan Dong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bradykinin has been shown to exert a variety of protective effects against vascular injury, and to reduce the levels of several factors involved in the coagulation cascade. A key determinant of thrombin generation is tissue factor (TF. However, whether bradykinin can regulate TF expression remains to be investigated. Methods: To study the effect of bradykinin on TF expression, we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce TF expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes. Transcript levels were determined by RT-PCR, protein abundance by Western blotting. In the in vivo study, bradykinin and equal saline were intraperitoneally injected into mice for three days ahead of inferior cava vein ligation that we took to induce thrombus formation, after which bradykinin and saline were injected for another two days. Eventually, the mice were sacrificed and tissues were harvested for tests. Results: Exogenous bradykinin markedly inhibited TF expression in mRNA and protein level induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the NO synthase antagonist L-NAME and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 dramatically abolished the inhibitory effects of bradykinin on tissue factor expression. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activation induced by bradykinin administration reduced the activity of GSK-3ß and MAPK, and reduced NF-κB level in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting TF expression. Consistent with this, intraperitoneal injection of C57/BL6 mice with bradykinin also inhibited the thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava. Conclusion: Bradykinin suppressed TF protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocytes in vitro; in line with this, it inhibits thrombus formation induced by ligation of inferior vena cava in vivo.

  3. Oral Administration of Semicarbazide Limits Weight Gain together with Inhibition of Fat Deposition and of Primary Amine Oxidase Activity in Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Mercader

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme hitherto named semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO, involved in the oxidation of primary amines, is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Although SSAO physiological functions remain unclear, several molecules inhibiting its activity have been described to limit fat accumulation in preadipocyte cultures or to reduce body weight gain in obese rodents. Here, we studied whether oral administration of semicarbazide, a prototypical SSAO inhibitor, limits fat deposition in mice. Prolonged treatment with semicarbazide at 0.125% in drinking water limited food and water consumption, hampered weight gain, and deeply impaired fat deposition. The adiposomatic index was reduced by 31%, while body mass was reduced by 15%. Such treatment completely inhibited SSAO, but did not alter MAO activity in white adipose tissue. Consequently, the insulin-like action of the SSAO substrate benzylamine on glucose transport was abolished in adipocytes from semicarbazide-drinking mice, while their insulin sensitivity was not altered. Although semicarbazide is currently considered as a food contaminant with deleterious effects, the SSAO inhibition it induces appears as a novel concept to modulate adipose tissue development, which is promising for antiobesity drug discovery.

  4. Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil (AEO is becoming increasingly popular in skincare, although its biological activity in human skin cells has not been investigated. Therefore, we sought to study AEO's effect on 17 important protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling by using a pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast culture model. AEO significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC, monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. It also showed significant antiproliferative activity and robustly inhibited collagen-I, collagen-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. The inhibitory effect of AEO on increased production of these protein biomarkers suggests it has anti-inflammatory property. We then studied the effect of AEO on the genome-wide expression of 21,224 genes in the same cell culture. AEO significantly and diversely modulated global gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA showed that AEO robustly affected numerous critical genes and signaling pathways closely involved in inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of the biological activity and beneficial action of AEO in human skin cells.

  5. Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor inhibits the growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells and attenuates peritoneal dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Lv, Ling; Liu, Fu-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Liu, Fu-Nan; Li, Yan-Shu; Wang, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Sun, Zhe; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2011-09-28

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been shown to be implicated in tumor development and progression. However, the role of CTGF in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that CTGF was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with matched normal gastric tissues. The CTGF expression in tumor tissue was associated with histologic grade, lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination (P cancer cells and decreased cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, knockdown of CTGF expression also markedly reduced the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Animal studies revealed that nude mice injected with the CTGF knockdown stable cell lines featured a smaller number of peritoneal seeding nodules than the control cell lines. These data suggest that CTGF plays an important role in cell growth and invasion in human gastric cancer and it appears to be a potential prognostic marker for patients with gastric cancer.

  6. Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor inhibits the growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells and attenuates peritoneal dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong-Yan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF has been shown to be implicated in tumor development and progression. However, the role of CTGF in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we showed that CTGF was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with matched normal gastric tissues. The CTGF expression in tumor tissue was associated with histologic grade, lymph node metastasis and peritoneal dissemination (P 1 expression. Moreover, knockdown of CTGF expression also markedly reduced the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9. Animal studies revealed that nude mice injected with the CTGF knockdown stable cell lines featured a smaller number of peritoneal seeding nodules than the control cell lines. Conclusions These data suggest that CTGF plays an important role in cell growth and invasion in human gastric cancer and it appears to be a potential prognostic marker for patients with gastric cancer.

  7. Dietary Phenolic Compounds Interfere with the Fate of Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Adipose Tissue but Do Not Directly Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carpéné

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAO. Many substrates or inhibitors of neuronal MAO interact also with other amine oxidases (AO in peripheral organs, such as semicarbazide-sensitive AO (SSAO, known as primary amine oxidase, absent in neurones, but abundant in adipocytes. We asked whether phenolic compounds (resveratrol, pterostilbene, quercetin, and caffeic acid behave as MAO and SSAO inhibitors. AO activity was determined in human adipose tissue. Computational docking and glucose uptake assays were performed in 3D models of human AO proteins and in adipocytes, respectively. Phenolic compounds fully inhibited the fluorescent detection of H2O2 generated during MAO and SSAO activation by tyramine and benzylamine. They also quenched H2O2-induced fluorescence in absence of biological material and were unable to abolish the oxidation of radiolabelled tyramine and benzylamine. Thus, phenolic compounds hampered H2O2 detection but did not block AO activity. Only resveratrol and quercetin partially impaired MAO-dependent [14C]-tyramine oxidation and behaved as MAO inhibitors. Phenolic compounds counteracted the H2O2-dependent benzylamine-stimulated glucose transport. This indicates that various phenolic compounds block downstream effects of H2O2 produced by biogenic or exogenous amine oxidation without directly inhibiting AO. Phenolic compounds remain of interest regarding their capacity to limit oxidative stress rather than inhibiting AO.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  9. Diet-induced changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in man: effect of beta-adrenoceptor inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Astrup, A

    1990-01-01

    : the forearm, the thigh and the abdomen. The subjects were given a meal consisting of white bread, jam, honey and apple juice (about 2300 kJ). The meal induced a twofold increase in blood flow in the examined tissues. Propranolol abolished the flow increase in the thigh and the abdomen and reduced...

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, 2, and 3 can inhibit epithelial tissue outgrowth on smooth and microgrooved substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walboomers, X.F.; Dalton, B.A.; Evans, M.D.; Steele, J.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe the influence of parallel surface microgrooves, and of TGF-beta, on the outgrowth of corneal epithelial tissue. Microgrooves (depth 1 microm, width 1-10 microm) were made in polystyrene culturing surfaces. These surfaces were left untreated, or loaded with TGF-beta 1, 2,

  11. The inhibition of tissue respiration and alcoholic fermentation at different catabolic levels by ethyl carbamate (urethan) and arsenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, E.; Gruber, M.; Leijnse, B.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1950-01-01

    1. A hypothesis is given concerning the action of urethan and arsenite on malignant growth. Two assumptionsares made:- (a) the enzyme system responsible for energy production in malignant tumours is working at maximal rate, contrary to the corresponding enzyme system in normal tissues. (b) a

  12. Microbial community shifts and biogas conversion computation during steady, inhibited and recovered stages of thermophilic methane fermentation on chicken manure with a wide variation of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qigui; Qiao, Wei; Qiang, Hong; Li, Yu-You

    2013-10-01

    The thermophilic methane fermentation of chicken manure (10% TS) was investigated within a wide range of ammonia. Microbiological analysis showed significant shifts in Archaeal and Bacterial proportions with VFA accmulation and CH4 formation before and after inhibition. VFA accumulated sharply with lower methane production, 0.29 L/g VS, than during the steady stage, 0.32 L/g VS. Biogas production almost ceased with the synergy inhibition of TAN (8000 mg/L) and VFA (25,000 mg/L). Hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus str. was the dominate archaea with 95% in the inhibition stage and 100% after 40 days recovery compared to 9.3% in the steady stage. Aceticlastic Methanosarcina was not encountered with coincided phenomenal of high VFA in the inhibition stage as well as recovery stage. Evaluation of the microbial diversity and functional bacteria indicated the dominate phylum of Firmicutes were 94.74% and 84.4% with and without inhibition. The microbial community shifted significantly with elevated ammonia concentration affecting the performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Behrens, Claus F

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise conversion of CT number to density and proper differentiation between air and lung. Existing tools do not address this issue specifically. Moreover, their density conversion may depend on the number of media used. Differentiation between air and lung is an important task in MC treatment planning and misassignment may lead to local dose errors on the order of 10%. A novel algorithm, CTC-ask, is presented in this study. It enables locally confined constraints for the media assignment and is independent of the number of media used for the conversion of CT number to density. MC compatible phantoms were generated for two clinical cases using a CT-conversion scheme implemented in both CTC-ask and the DICOM-RT toolbox. Full MC dose calculation was subsequently conducted and the resulting dose distributions were compared. The DICOM-RT toolbox inaccurately assigned lung in 9.9% and 12.2% of the voxels located outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors. (note)

  14. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression decreases the survival and myogenic differentiation of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Stefania; Landuzzi, Lorena; Astolfi, Annalisa; Nicoletti, Giordano; Rosolen, Angelo; Sartori, Francesca; Follo, Matilde Y; Oliver, Noelynn; De Giovanni, Carla; Nanni, Patrizia; Lollini, Pier-Luigi

    2004-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a cysteine-rich protein of the CCN (Cyr61, CTGF, Nov) family of genes, emerged from a microarray screen of genes expressed by human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma of childhood deriving from skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CTGF in rhabdomyosarcoma. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells of the embryonal (RD/12, RD/18, CCA) and the alveolar histotype (RMZ-RC2, SJ-RH4, SJ-RH30), rhabdomyosarcoma tumor specimens, and normal skeletal muscle cells expressed CTGF. To determine the function of CTGF, we treated rhabdomyosarcoma cells with a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide or with a CTGF small interfering RNA (siRNA). Both treatments inhibited rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth, suggesting the existence of a new autocrine loop based on CTGF. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide-mediated growth inhibition was specifically due to a significant increase in apoptosis, whereas cell proliferation was unchanged. CTGF antisense oligonucleotide induced a strong decrease in the level of myogenic differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, whereas the addition of recombinant CTGF significantly increased the proportion of myosin-positive cells. CTGF emerges as a survival and differentiation factor and could be a new therapeutic target in human rhabdomyosarcoma.

  15. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiello, Maria R.; Rotunno, Crescenzia; Coluccia, Addolorata; Carratu, Maria R.; Di Santo, Angelomaria; Evangelista, Virgilio; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 μg/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 μg/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1β (83%) or TNF-α (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

  16. Membrane-Tethered Delta-Like 1 Homolog (DLK1) Restricts Adipose Tissue Size By Inhibiting Preadipocyte Proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sussi B; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schneider, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Adipocyte renewal from preadipocytes has been shown to occur throughout life and to contribute to obesity, yet very little is known about the molecular circuits that control preadipocyte expansion. The soluble form of the preadipocyte factor (also known as pref-1) delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1(S...... in vivo. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that only membrane-bound DLK1 (DLK1(M)) exhibits a substantial repression effect on preadipocyte proliferation. Thus, by independently manipulating DLK1 isoform levels, we established that DLK1(M) inhibits G1-to-S-phase cell cycle progression and thereby...

  17. Inhibition of COX1/2 alters the host response and reduces ECM scaffold mediated constructive tissue remodeling in a rodent model of skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth, Christopher L; Slivka, Peter F; Stewart, Scott A; Keane, Timothy J; Tay, Justin K; Londono, Ricardo; Goh, Qingnian; Pizza, Francis X; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been used as a biologic scaffold material to both reinforce the surgical repair of soft tissue and serve as an inductive template to promote a constructive tissue remodeling response. Success of such an approach is dependent on macrophage-mediated degradation and remodeling of the biologic scaffold. Macrophage phenotype during these processes is a predictive factor of the eventual remodeling outcome. ECM scaffolds have been shown to promote an anti-inflammatory or M2-like macrophage phenotype in vitro that includes secretion of downstream products of cycolooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX1/2). The present study investigated the effect of a common COX1/2 inhibitor (Aspirin) on macrophage phenotype and tissue remodeling in a rodent model of ECM scaffold treated skeletal muscle injury. Inhibition of COX1/2 reduced the constructive remodeling response by hindering myogenesis and collagen deposition in the defect area. The inhibited response was correlated with a reduction in M2-like macrophages in the defect area. The effects of Aspirin on macrophage phenotype were corroborated using an established in vitro macrophage model which showed a reduction in both ECM induced prostaglandin secretion and expression of a marker of M2-like macrophages (CD206). These results raise questions regarding the common peri-surgical administration of COX1/2 inhibitors when biologic scaffold materials are used to facilitate muscle repair/regeneration. COX1/2 inhibitors such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are routinely administered post-surgically for analgesic purposes. While COX1/2 inhibitors are important in pain management, they have also been shown to delay or diminish the healing process, which calls to question their clinical use for treating musculotendinous injuries. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of a common NSAID, Aspirin, on the constructive remodeling response mediated by an ECM scaffold (UBM) in a rat skeletal

  18. Bevacizumab Inhibits Breast Cancer-Induced Osteolysis, Surrounding Soft Tissue Metastasis, and Angiogenesis in Rats as Visualized by VCT and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bäuerle

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an antiangiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis and to monitor osteolysis, soft tissue tumor, and angiogenesis in bone metastasis noninvasively by volumetric computed tomography (VCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. After inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into nude rats, bone metastasis was monitored with contrast-enhanced VCT and MRI from day 30 to day 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively. Thereby, animals of the treatment group (10 mg/kg bevacizumab IV weekly, n = 15 were compared with sham-treated animals (n = 17. Treatment with bevacizumab resulted in a significant difference versus control in osteolytic as well as soft tissue lesion sizes (days 50 to 70 and 40 to 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively; P < .05. This observation was paralleled with significantly reduced vascularization in the treatment group as shown by reduced increase in relative signal intensity in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from days 40 to 70 (P < .05. Contrast-enhanced VCT and histology confirmed decreased angiogenesis as well as new bone formation after application of bevacizumab. In conclusion, bevacizumab significantly inhibited osteolysis, surrounding soft tissue tumor growth, and angiogenesis in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis as visualized by VCT and MRI.

  19. PET Imaging of Tissue Factor in Pancreatic Cancer Using 64Cu-Labeled Active Site-Inhibited Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Jeppesen, Troels E; Kristensen, Lotte K

    2016-01-01

    with advanced stage, increased microvessel density, metastasis, and poor overall survival. Imaging of TF expression is of clinical relevance as a prognostic biomarker and as a companion diagnostic for TF-directed therapies currently under clinical development. Factor VII (FVII) is the natural ligand to TF......UNLABELLED: Tissue factor (TF) is the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade. However, TF also plays an important role in cancer. TF expression has been reported in 53%-89% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and the expression level of TF has in clinical studies correlated...

  20. Systemic insulin sensitivity is regulated by GPS2 inhibition of AKT ubiquitination and activation in adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly T. Cederquist

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings characterize a novel layer of regulation of the insulin signaling pathway based on non-proteolytic ubiquitination of AKT and define GPS2 as a previously unrecognized component of the insulin signaling cascade. In accordance with this role, we have shown that GPS2 presence in adipocytes modulates systemic metabolism by restricting the activation of insulin signaling during the fasted state, whereas in absence of GPS2, the adipose tissue is more efficient at lipid storage, and obesity becomes uncoupled from inflammation and insulin resistance.

  1. Selective inhibition of ADAM12 catalytic activity through engineering of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Jacobsen, Jonas; Lee, Meng-Huee

    2010-01-01

    activity may be of great value therapeutically and as an investigative tool to elucidate its mechanisms of action. We have previously reported the inhibitory profile of TIMPs (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) against ADAM12, demonstrating in addition to TIMP-3, a unique ADAM-inhibitory activity...... activity of TIMPs against the transmembrane ADAM12-L (full-length ADAM12), verifying the distinctive inhibitory abilities of N-TIMP-2 and engineered N-TIMP-2 mutants in a cellular environment. Taken together, our findings support the idea that a distinctive ADAM12 inhibitor with future therapeutic...

  2. Comparison of prostate gene expression and tissue weight changes as monitors of antiandrogen activity in GNRH-inhibited rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Lefevre, P. A.; Ashby, J.

    2003-01-01

    and Pharmacology 34:188-203, 2001], and concomitantly described changes in expression of the androgen-dependent prostatic genes PBP C3, TRPM-2, and ODC as a possible complement to gravimetric analysis of the sex accessory tissues (SAT) [Nellemann C, Vinggaard AM, Dalgaard M, Hossaini A, Larsen J-J. Toxicology 163......:29-38, 2001]. METHODS: The present study describes the results of combining these two modifications into a single assay. During the course of these experiments it was shown that SD rats gave similar results to AP rats and that the higher stimulatory dose of testosterone propionate (TP) used in our experiments...

  3. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joshua C., E-mail: joshchang@ucla.edu [Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA and Mathematical Biosciences Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Miura, Robert M., E-mail: miura@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  4. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  5. The lectin-like protein 1 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 mediates tissue-specific adherence to vaginal epithelium and inhibits urogenital pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Macklaim, Jean M.; Gloor, Gregory; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Reid, Gregor; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been documented to survive implantation onto the vaginal epithelium and interfere with urogenital pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we report for the first time the construction of dedicated knock-out mutants in L. rhamnosus GR-1 to enable the study of gene functions. In a search for genes responsible for the adherence capacity of L. rhamnosus GR-1, a genomic region encoding a protein with homology to lectin-like proteins was identified. Phenotypic analyses of the knock-out mutant of L. rhamnosus GR-1 revealed a two-fold decreased adhesion to the vaginal and ectocervical epithelial cell lines compared to wild-type. In contrast, the adhesion to gastro-intestinal epithelial (Caco2) and endocervical cell lines (Hela and End1/E6E7) was not drastically affected by the mutation, suggesting that the LGR-1_Llp1 lectins mediates tissue tropism. The purified LGR-1_Llp1 protein also inhibited biofilm formation and adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. For the first time, an important role for a novel lectin-like protein in the adhesion capacity and host cell-specific interaction of a vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus strain has been discovered, with an additional role in pathogen inhibition. PMID:27869151

  6. Oleanolic and maslinic acid sensitize soft tissue sarcoma cells to doxorubicin by inhibiting the multidrug resistance protein MRP-1, but not P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Barceló, Francisca; Gómez-Florit, Manuel; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Obrador-Hevia, Antònia; Martín-Broto, Javier; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Alemany, Regina

    2014-04-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid (OLA) and maslinic acid (MLA) are natural compounds present in many plants and dietary products consumed in the Mediterranean diet (e.g., pomace and virgin olive oils). Several nutraceutical activities have been attributed to OLA and MLA, whose antitumoral effects have been extensively evaluated in human adenocarcinomas, but little is known regarding their effectiveness in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We assessed efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of OLA and MLA as single agents or in combination with doxorubicin (DXR) in human synovial sarcoma SW982 and leiomyosarcoma SK-UT-1 cells. As single compound, MLA (10-100 μM) was more potent than OLA, inhibiting the growth of SW982 and SK-UT-1 cells by 70.3 ± 1.11% and 68.8 ± 1.52% at 80 μM, respectively. Importantly, OLA (80 μM) or MLA (30 μM) enhanced the antitumoral effect of DXR (0.5-10 μM) by up to 2.3-fold. On the molecular level, efflux activity of the multidrug resistance protein MRP-1, but not of the P-glycoprotein, was inhibited. Most probably as a consequence, DXR accumulated in these cells. Kinetic studies showed that OLA behaved as a competitive inhibitor of substrate-mediated MRP-1 transport, whereas MLA acted as a non-competitive one. Moreover, none of both triterpenes induced a compensatory increase in MRP-1 expression. In summary, OLA or MLA sensitized cellular models of STS to DXR and selectively inhibited MRP-1 activity, but not its expression, leading to a higher antitumoral effect possibly relevant for clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large enhancement of functional activity of active site-inhibited factor VIIa due to protein dimerization: insights into mechanism of assembly/disassembly from tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew D; Harvey, Stephen B; Martinez, Michael B; Bach, Ronald R; Nelsestuen, Gary L

    2005-04-26

    Active site-inhibited blood clotting factor VIIa (fVIIai) binds to tissue factor (TF), a cell surface receptor that is exposed upon injury and initiates the blood clotting cascade. FVIIai blocks binding of the corresponding enzyme (fVIIa) or zymogen (fVII) forms of factor VII and inhibits coagulation. Although several studies have suggested that fVIIai may have superior anticoagulation effects in vivo, a challenge for use of fVIIai is cost of production. This study reports the properties of dimeric forms of fVIIai that are cross-linked through their active sites. Dimeric wild-type fVIIai was at least 75-fold more effective than monomeric fVIIai in blocking fVIIa association with TF. The dimer of a mutant fVIIai with higher membrane affinity was 1600-fold more effective. Anticoagulation by any form of fVIIai differed substantially from agents such as heparin and showed a delayed mode of action. Coagulation proceeded normally for the first minutes, and inhibition increased as equilibrium binding was established. It is suggested that association of fVIIa(i) with TF in a collision-dependent reaction gives equal access of inhibitor and enzyme to TF. Assembly was not influenced by the higher affinity and slower dissociation of the dimer. As a result, anticoagulation was delayed until the reaction reached equilibrium. Properties of different dissociation experiments suggested that dissociation of fVIIai from TF occurred by a two-step mechanism. The first step was separation of TF-fVIIa(i) while both proteins remained bound to the membrane, and the second step was dissociation of the fVIIa(i) from the membrane. These results suggest novel actions of fVIIai that distinguish it from most of the anticoagulants that block later steps of the coagulation cascade.

  8. Inhibition of Release of Vasoactive and Inflammatory Mediators in Airway and Vascular Tissues and Macrophages by a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula for Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Binh Lenon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal therapies are being used increasingly for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible pharmacological actions and cellular targets of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-101, which was previously shown to be effective in reducing seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rat and guinea pig isolated tissues (trachea and aorta were used to study the effects of RCM-101 on responses to various mediators. Production of leukotriene B4 in porcine neutrophils and of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO in Raw 264.7 cells were also measured. In rat and guinea pig tracheal preparations, RCM-101 inhibited contractile responses to compound 48/80 but not those to histamine (guinea pig preparations or serotonin (rat preparations. Contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal preparations to carbachol and leukotriene C4, and relaxant responses to substance P and prostaglandin E2 were not affected by RCM-101. In rat aortic preparations, precontracted with phenylephrine, endothelium-dependent relaxant responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were not affected by RCM-101. However, RCM-101 inhibited relaxations to l-arginine in endothelium-denuded rat aortic preparations, which had been pre-incubated with lipopolysaccharide. RCM-101 did not affect leukotriene B4 formation in isolated porcine neutrophils, induced by the calcium ionophore A23187; however, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages (Raw 264.7 cells.The findings indicate that RCM-101 may have multiple inhibitory actions on the release and/or synthesis of inflammatory mediators involved in allergic rhinitis.

  9. Roquin Suppresses the PI3K-mTOR Signaling Pathway to Inhibit T Helper Cell Differentiation and Conversion of Treg to Tfr Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Katharina; Hu, Desheng; Guimaraes, Joao C; Alterauge, Dominik; Edelmann, Stephanie; Raj, Timsse; Kranich, Jan; Behrens, Gesine; Heiseke, Alexander; Floess, Stefan; Klein, Juliane; Maiser, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabĕ de Angelis, Martin; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Calkhoven, Cornelis F; Noessner, Elfriede; Brocker, Thomas; Huehn, Jochen; Krug, Anne B; Zavolan, Mihaela; Baumjohann, Dirk; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2017-12-19

    Roquin proteins preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant differentiation of T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Here we showed that deletion of Roquin-encoding alleles specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells also caused the activation of conventional T cells. Roquin-deficient Treg cells downregulated CD25, acquired a follicular Treg (Tfr) cell phenotype, and suppressed germinal center reactions but could not protect from colitis. Roquin inhibited the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway by upregulation of Pten through interfering with miR-17∼92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR, and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced Akt-mTOR signaling and protein synthesis, whereas inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient T cells corrected enhanced Tfh and Th17 or reduced iTreg cell differentiation. Thereby, Roquin-mediated control of PI3K-mTOR signaling prevents autoimmunity by restraining activation and differentiation of conventional T cells and specialization of Treg cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in gallbladder cancer cells leads to decreased growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Ili, Carmen; Brebi, Priscilla; Alvarez, Hector; Roa, Juan C

    2013-06-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment and poor prognosis. Previous work showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is increased in this malignancy. This matricellular protein plays an important role in various cellular processes and its involvement in the tumorigenesis of several human cancers has been demonstrated. However, the precise function of CTGF expression in cancer cells is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CTGF expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and its effect on cell viability, colony formation and in vitro cell migration. CTGF expression was evaluated in seven GBC cell lines by Western blot assay. Endogenous CTGF expression was downregulated by lentiviral shRNA directed against CTGF mRNA in G-415 cells, and the effects on cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration was assessed by comparing them to scrambled vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of CTGF resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth (P cancer may confer a growth advantage for neoplastic cells. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  11. Inhibition of Intracellular Triglyceride Lipolysis Suppresses Cold-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Increases Shivering in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Denis P; Frisch, Frédérique; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Haman, François; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-07

    Indirect evidence from human studies suggests that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is fueled predominantly by fatty acids hydrolyzed from intracellular triglycerides (TGs). However, no direct experimental evidence to support this assumption currently exists in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the role of intracellular TG in BAT thermogenesis, in cold-exposed men. Using positron emission tomography with 11 C-acetate and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we showed that oral nicotinic acid (NiAc) administration, an inhibitor of intracellular TG lipolysis, suppressed the cold-induced increase in BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose uptake, despite no difference in BAT blood flow. There was a commensurate increase in shivering intensity and shift toward a greater reliance on glycolytic muscle fibers without modifying total heat production. Together, these findings show that intracellular TG lipolysis is critical for BAT thermogenesis and provides experimental evidence for a reciprocal role of BAT thermogenesis and shivering in cold-induced thermogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ruscogenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice: involvement of tissue factor, inducible NO synthase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Chen, Ling; Gao, Mengyu; Jiang, Wenwen; Shao, Fangxian; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury is still a significant clinical problem with a high mortality rate and there are few effective therapies in clinic. Here, we studied the inhibitory effect of ruscogenin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic natural product, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice basing on our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of ruscogenin significantly decreased lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg 1 h prior to LPS challenge (30 mg/kg, intravenous injection). Histopathological changes such as pulmonary edema, coagulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also attenuated by ruscogenin. In addition, ruscogenin markedly decreased LPS-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitrate/nitrite content, and also downregulated expression of tissue factor (TF), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p-p65 (Ser 536) in the lung tissue at three doses. Furthermore, ruscogenin reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity and nitrate/nitrite content in LPS-induced ALI mice. These findings confirmed that ruscogenin significantly attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, indicating it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of cDNA encoding molt-inhibiting hormone of the crab, Cancer pagurus; expression of MIH in non-X-organ tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Wainwright, G; Olohan, L A; Webster, S G; Rees, H H; Turner, P C

    2001-10-31

    Synthesis of ecdysteroids (molting hormones) by crustacean Y-organs is regulated by a neuropeptide, molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), produced in eyestalk neural ganglia. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding MIH of the edible crab, Cancer pagurus. Full-length MIH cDNA was obtained by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate oligonucleotides based upon the amino acid sequence of MIH, in conjunction with 5'- and 3'-RACE. Full-length clones of MIH cDNA were obtained that encoded a 35 amino acid putative signal peptide and the mature 78 amino acid peptide. Of various tissues examined by Northern blot analysis, the X-organ was the sole major site of expression of the MIH gene. However, a nested-PCR approach using non-degenerate MIH-specific primers indicated the presence of MIH transcripts in other tissues. Southern blot analysis indicated a simple gene arrangement with at least two copies of the MIH gene in the genome of C. pagurus. Additional Southern blotting experiments detected MIH-hybridizing bands in another Cancer species, Cancer antennarius and another crab species, Carcinus maenas.

  14. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  15. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Rickard; Behrens, Claus F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise c...... outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors....

  16. Increased MiR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Minhua; Chen, Gang; Dang, Yiwu

    2013-01-01

    MiR-221 is over-expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical significance and function in HCC remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between miR-221 overexpression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and the effect of miR-221 inhibitor and mimic on different HCC cell lines in vitro. MiR-221 expression was detected using real time RT-qPCR in FFPE HCC and the adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. The relationship between miR-221 level and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Furthermore, miR-221 inhibitor and mimic were transfected into HCC cell lines HepB3, HepG2 and SNU449. The effects of miR-221 on cell growth, cell cycle, caspase activity and apoptosis were also investigated by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative expression of miR-221 in clinical TNM stages III and IV was significantly higher than that in the stages I and II. The miR-221 level was also upregulated in the metastatic group compared to the nonmetastatic group. Furthermore, miR-221 over-expression was related to the status of tumor capsular infiltration in HCC clinical samples. Functionally, cell growth was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and apoptosis was increased by miR-221 inhibitor in vitro. Likewise, miR-221 mimic accelerated the cell growth. Expression of miR-221 in FFPE tissues could provide predictive significance for prognosis of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC

  17. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  18. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  19. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  20. Valsartan independent of AT1 receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and-4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and-4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and-4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2,-4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. PMID:25109475

  1. Valsartan independent of AT₁ receptor inhibits tissue factor, TLR-2 and -4 expression by regulation of Egr-1 through activation of AMPK in diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Kang, Young Jin; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a severe risk of atherothrombosis. Early growth response (Egr)-1 is well characterized as a central mediator in vascular pathophysiology. We tested whether valsartan independent of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can reduce tissue factor (TF) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 by regulating Egr-1 in THP-1 cells and aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. High glucose (HG, 15 mM) increased expressions of Egr-1, TF, TLR-2 and -4 which were significantly reduced by valsartan. HG increased Egr-1 expression by activation of PKC and ERK1/2 in THP-1 cells. Valsartan increased AMPK phosphorylation in a concentration and time-dependent manner via activation of LKB1. Valsartan inhibited Egr-1 without activation of PKC or ERK1/2. The reduced expression of Egr-1 by valsartan was reversed by either silencing Egr-1, or compound C, or DN-AMPK-transfected cells. Valsartan inhibited binding of NF-κB and Egr-1 to TF promoter in HG condition. Furthermore, valsartan reduced inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activity in HG-activated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, these effects of valsartan were not affected by either silencing AT1R in THP-1 cells or CHO cells, which were devoid of AT1R. Importantly, administration of valsartan (20 mg/kg, i.p) for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma TF activity, expression of Egr-1, TLR-2, -4 and TF in thoracic aorta and improved glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Taken together, we concluded that valsartan may reduce atherothrombosis in diabetic conditions through AMPK/Egr-1 regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Optimal Zn-Modified Ca–Si-Based Ceramic Nanocoating with Zn Ion Release for Osteoblast Promotion and Osteoclast Inhibition in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangming Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the slow release of Zn ion (Zn2+ from nanocoatings and compared the in vitro response of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 and proosteoclasts (RAW 264.7 cultured on Ca2ZnSi2O7 nanocoated with different Zn/Ca molar ratios on a Ti-6Al-4V (i.e., Ti substrate to optimize cell behaviors and molecule levels. Significant morphology differences were observed among samples. By comparing with pure Ti and CaSiO3 nanocoating, the morphology of Ca2ZnSi2O7 ceramic nanocoatings was rough and contained small nanoparticles or aggregations. Slow Zn2+ release from nanocoatings was observed and Zn2+ concentration was regulated by varying the Zn/Ca ratios. The cell-response results showed Ca2ZnSi2O7 nanocoating at different Zn/Ca molar ratios for osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Compared to other nanocoatings and Ti, sample Zn/Ca (0.3 showed the highest cell viability and upregulated expression of the osteogenic differentiation genes ALP, COL-1, and OCN. Additionally, sample Zn/Ca (0.3 showed the greatest inhibition of RAW 264.7 cell growth and decreased the mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes OAR, TRAP, and HYA1. Therefore, the optimal Zn-Ca ratio of 0.3 in Ca2ZnSi2O7 ceramic nanocoating on Ti had a dual osteoblast-promoting and osteoclast-inhibiting effect to dynamically balance osteoblasts/osteoclasts. These optimal Zn-Ca ratios are valuable for Ca2ZnSi2O7 ceramic nanocoating on Ti-coated implants for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Inhibition of lipolysis in the novel transgenic quail model overexpressing G0/G1 switch gene 2 in the adipose tissue during feed restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsu Shin

    Full Text Available In addition to the issue of obesity in humans, the production of low-fat meat from domestic animals is important in the agricultural industry to satisfy consumer demand. Understanding the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue could advance our knowledge to potentially solve both issues. Although the G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2 was recently identified as an inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL in vitro, its role in vivo has not been fully clarified. This study was conducted to investigate the role of G0S2 gene in vivo by using two independent transgenic quail lines during different energy conditions. Unexpectedly, G0S2 overexpression had a negligible effect on plasma NEFA concentration, fat cell size and fat pad weight under ad libitum feeding condition when adipose lipolytic activity is minimal. A two-week feed restriction in non-transgenic quail expectedly caused increased plasma NEFA concentration and dramatically reduced fat cell size and fat pad weight. Contrary, G0S2 overexpression under a feed restriction resulted in a significantly less elevation of plasma NEFA concentration and smaller reductions in fat pad weights and fat cell size compared to non-transgenic quail, demonstrating inhibition of lipolysis and resistance to loss of fat by G0S2. Excessive G0S2 inhibits lipolysis in vivo during active lipolytic conditions, such as food restriction and fasting, suggesting G0S2 as a potential target for treatment of obesity. In addition, transgenic quail are novel models for studying lipid metabolism and mechanisms of obesity.

  4. Low intensity 635 nm diode laser irradiation inhibits fibroblast-myofibroblast transition reducing TRPC1 channel expression/activity: New perspectives for tissue fibrosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Chellini, Flaminia; Squecco, Roberta; Tani, Alessia; Idrizaj, Eglantina; Nosi, Daniele; Giannelli, Marco; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation therapy is emerging as a promising new therapeutic option for fibrosis in different damaged and/or diseased organs. However, the anti-fibrotic potential of this treatment needs to be elucidated and the cellular and molecular targets of the laser clarified. Here, we investigated the effects of a low intensity 635 ± 5 nm diode laser irradiation on fibroblast-myofibroblast transition, a key event in the onset of fibrosis, and elucidated some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts were cultured in a low serum medium in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and irradiated with a 635 ± 5 nm diode laser (continuous wave, 89 mW, 0.3 J/cm(2) ). Fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation was assayed by morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological approaches. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and of Tissue inhibitor of MMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, after laser exposure was also evaluated by confocal immunofluorescence analyses. Moreover, the effect of the diode laser on transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) 1/stretch-activated channel (SAC) expression and activity and on TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling was investigated. Diode laser treatment inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as judged by reduction of stress fibers formation, α-smooth muscle actin (sma) and type-1 collagen expression and by changes in electrophysiological properties such as resting membrane potential, cell capacitance and inwardly rectifying K(+) currents. In addition, the irradiation up-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and downregulated that of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in TGF-β1-treated cells. This laser effect was shown to involve TRPC1/SAC channel functionality. Finally, diode laser stimulation and TRPC1 functionality negatively affected fibroblast-myofibroblast transition by interfering with TGF-β1 signaling, namely reducing the

  5. Next generation bone tissue engineering: non-viral miR-133a inhibition using collagen-nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds rapidly enhances osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencía Castaño, Irene; Curtin, Caroline M.; Duffy, Garry P.; O'Brien, Fergal J.

    2016-06-01

    Bone grafts are the second most transplanted materials worldwide at a global cost to healthcare systems valued over $30 billion every year. The influence of microRNAs in the regenerative capacity of stem cells offers vast therapeutic potential towards bone grafting; however their efficient delivery to the target site remains a major challenge. This study describes how the functionalisation of porous collagen-nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) scaffolds with miR-133a inhibiting complexes, delivered using non-viral nHA particles, enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell-mediated osteogenesis through the novel focus on a key activator of osteogenesis, Runx2. This study showed enhanced Runx2 and osteocalcin expression, as well as increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition, thus demonstrating a further enhanced therapeutic potential of a biomaterial previously optimised for bone repair applications. The promising features of this platform offer potential for a myriad of applications beyond bone repair and tissue engineering, thus presenting a new paradigm for microRNA-based therapeutics.

  6. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) remodels the extracellular matrix through enhancing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inhibiting tissue inhibitors of MMPs expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q; Cao, X; Pan, J; Ye, Y; Xie, Y; Ohara, N; Ji, H

    2015-01-01

    PUPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To study the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) in uterine cervical cancer cell lines in vitro. EMMPRIN, MMPs, and TIMPs expression were assessed by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR from cervical carcinoma SiHa, HeLa, and C33-A cells. EMMPRIN recombinant significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression in SiHa and Hela cells, but not in C33-A cells by Western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. EMMPRIN recombinant significantly inhibited TIMP-1 protein and mRNA levels in SiHa and Hela cells, but not in C33-A cells. There was no difference on the TIMP-2 expression in those cells with the treatment of EMMPRIN recombinant. EMMPRIN RNAi decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased TIMP-1 expression in SiHa and HeLa cells, but not in C33-A cells. There was no change on the expression of TIMP-2 mRNA levels in SiHa, HeLa and C33-A cells transfected with siEMMPRIN. EMMPRIN may induce MMP-2 and MMP-9, and downregulate TIMP-1 in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells in vitro.

  7. Brown Adipose Tissue Can Be Activated or Inhibited within an Hour before 18F-FDG Injection: A Preliminary Study with MicroPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is emerging as a potential target for treating human obesity. It has been indicated that BAT is rich in innervations of sympathetic nerve control. Using 18F-FDG microPET imaging, this study aims at evaluating how factors related to sympathetic activation/inhibition changed BAT metabolism of mice. BAT 18F-FDG uptake were semiquantitatively evaluated in different groups of mice under temperature (cold or warm stimulus or pharmacological interventions (norepinephrine, epinephrine, isoprenaline, or propranolol and were compared with the corresponding controls. It was found that BAT activation can be stimulated by cold exposure (P=1.96×10−4, norepinephrine (P=.002, or both (P=2.19×10−6 within an hour before 18F-FDG injection and can also be alleviated by warming up (P=.001 or propranolol lavage (P=.027. This preliminary study indicated that BAT function could be evaluated by 18F-FDG PET imaging through short-term interventions, which paved the way for further investigation of the relationship between human obesity and BAT dysfunction.

  8. H+-ATPase activity from storage tissue of Beta vulgaris. IV. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding and inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleski, N.A.; Bennett, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase from red beet storage tissue were determined using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a H + -ATPase antibody. When plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with 20 micromolar [ 14 C]-DCCD at 0 0 C, a single 97,000 dalton protein was visualized on a fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel. A close correlation between [ 14 C]DCCD labeling of the 97,000 dalton protein and the extent of ATPase inhibition over a range of DCCD concentration suggests that this 97,000 dalton protein is a component of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase. An antibody raised against the plasma membrane H + -ATPase of Neurospora crassa cross-reacted with the 97,000 dalton DCCD-binding protein, further supporting the identity of this protein. Immunoblots of two-dimensional gels of red beet plasma membrane vesicles indicated the isoelectric point of the H + -ATPase to be 6.5

  9. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  10. Dopamine D2-like receptors (DRD2 and DRD4) in chickens: Tissue distribution, functional analysis, and their involvement in dopamine inhibition of pituitary prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Can; Mo, Chunheng; Liu, Haikun; Wu, Chao; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-04-20

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a.a.) and cDRD2S (short isoform, 408 a.a.), which differ in their third intracellular loop, were identified in chickens. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we demonstrated that cDRD4, cDRD2L and cDRD2S could be activated by dopamine and quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) dose-dependently, and their activation inhibits cAMP signaling pathway and stimulates MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that they are functional receptors capable of mediating dopamine actions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cDRD2 and cDRD4 are widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in anterior pituitary, and their expressions are likely controlled by their promoters near exon 1, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase reporter assays in DF-1 cells. In accordance with cDRD2/cDRD4 expression in the pituitary, DA or quinpirole could partially inhibit vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced prolactin expression in cultured chick pituitary cells. Together, our data proves the functionality of DRD2 and DRD4 in birds and aids to uncover the conserved roles of DA/D2-like receptor system in vertebrates, such as its action on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  12. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  13. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  14. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  15. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease in recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay: A blinded collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sireesha; Kondru, Naveen; Nichols, Tracy; Lehmkuhl, Aaron; Thomsen, Bruce; Main, Rodger; Halbur, Patrick; Dutta, Somak; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-11-02

    Prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) characterized by fatal, progressive neurologic diseases with prolonged incubation periods and an accumulation of infectious misfolded prion proteins. Antemortem diagnosis is often difficult due to a long asymptomatic incubation period, differences in the pathogenesis of different prions, and the presence of very low levels of infectious prion in easily accessible samples. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a TSE affecting both wild and captive populations of cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, moose, muntjac, and most recently, wild reindeer. This study represents a well-controlled evaluation of a newly developed real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay as a potential CWD diagnostic screening test using rectal biopsy sections from a depopulated elk herd. We evaluated 69 blinded samples of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) obtained from USDA Veterinary Services. The results were later un-blinded and statistically compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) results from the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) for RAMALT, obex, and medial retropharyngeal lymph node (MRPLN). Comparison of RAMALT RT-QuIC assay results with the IHC results of RAMALT revealed 92% relative sensitivity (95% confidence limits: 61.52-99.8%) and 95% relative specificity (95% confidence limits: 85.13-99%). Collectively, our results show a potential utility of the RT-QuIC assay to advance the development of a rapid, sensitive, and specific prion diagnostic assay for CWD prions.

  17. The relaxing effect of perivascular tissue on porcine retinal arterioles in vitro is mimicked by N-methyl-D-aspartate and is blocked by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Holmgaard; Aalkjær, Christian; Lambert, John D. C.

    2008-01-01

    . However, previous in vitro studies of the influence of perivascular retinal tissue on retinal tone regulation have been hampered by the release of an endogenous relaxing factor that renders the arteriole insensitive to vasoconstrictors. The purpose of the present study was to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate...... (NMDA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, and a cyclooxygenase (COX) product influence this effect of perivascular retinal tissue in vitro. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles were mounted in a wire myograph for isometric force measurements. The contractile effect of the prostaglandin...... analogue U46619 was studied on vessels with preserved perivascular retinal tissue and after this tissue had been removed. The influence of the perivascular tissue was studied after addition of NMDA (a specific agonist for a subtype of the glutamate receptor), DL-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (DL...

  18. Curcumin inhibits TGF-β1-induced connective tissue growth factor expression through the interruption of Smad2 signaling in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Tsu; Wang, Chen-Ying; Chen, Min-Huey

    2018-01-13

    Many fibrotic processes are associated with an increased level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 can increase synthesis of matrix proteins and enhance secretion of protease inhibitors, resulting in matrix accumulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream profibrotic effector of TGF-β1 and is associated with the fibrosis in several human organs. Curcumin has been applied to reduce matrix accumulation in fibrotic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether curcumin could suppress TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression and its related signaling pathway involving in this inhibitory action in primary human gingival fibroblasts. The differences in CTGF expression among three types of gingival overgrowth and normal gingival tissues were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Gingival fibroblast viability in cultured media with different concentrations of curcumin was studied by MTT assay. The effect of curcumin on TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression in primary human gingival fibroblasts was examined by immunoblotting. Moreover, the proteins involved in TGF-β1 signaling pathways including TGF-β1 receptors and Smad2 were also analyzed by immunoblotting. CTGF was highly expressed in fibroblasts, epithelial cells and some of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and inflammatory cells in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth tissues rather than in those of hereditary and inflammatory gingival overgrowth tissues. Moreover, CTGF expression in the epithelial and connective tissue layers was higher in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth tissues than in normal gingival tissues. Curcumin was nontoxic and could reduce TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression by attenuating the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2. Curcumin can suppress TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression through the interruption of Smad2 signaling. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Budesonide Inhibits Intracellular Infection with Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Despite Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Respiratory Cells and Human Lung Tissue: A Role for p38 MAP Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christopher; Goldmann, Torsten; Rohmann, Kristina; Rupp, Jan; Marwitz, Sebastian; Rotta Detto Loria, Johannes; Limmer, Stefan; Zabel, Peter; Dalhoff, Klaus; Drömann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely used in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. Recent data suggest a higher pneumonia risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with ICS. Since non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common pathogen associated with acute exacerbations of COPD, we investigated the effects of budesonide (BUD) on NTHi-induced inflammation and invasive infection. The alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and specimens of human lung tissue (HLT) were used in our experiments. Intracellular infection was determined by a lysis/culture assay of infected cells. Activated p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was determined by PCR, and CXCL-8 levels were measured using ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of CXCL-8, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) and NTHi. BUD significantly reduced CXCL-8 secretion in A549 cells and lung tissue infected with NTHi. Furthermore, BUD decreased the expression of PAF-R in HLT and A549 cells. In A549 cells and HLT, BUD inhibited intracellular infection and - synergistically with NTHi - increased the expression of TLR2 (in A549 cells). TLR2 stimulation did not influence the intracellular infection of A549 cells, but p38 MAPK inhibition resulted in a significant reduction of infection. The present study adds new insights into the effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary host defence after NTHi infection. Although the inflammatory response to infection is suppressed by BUD, interestingly, the intracellular infection is also inhibited. This effect seems to depend on the inhibition of p38 MAPK - a key enzyme in many pro-inflammatory pathways - as well as of PAF-R expression. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  1. Nanoparticles containing siRNA to silence CD4 and CCR5 reduce expression of these receptors and inhibit HIV-1 infection in human female reproductive tract tissue explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Eszterhas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1 binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could protect mucosal tissue explants from HIV- 1 infection. Explants prepared from the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of hysterectomy tissues from HIV-1 sero-negative women were exposed to nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA sequences. Explants were then exposed two days later to HIV-1, and HIV-1 reverse transcripts were measured five days post-infection. Explants treated with nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific siRNA showed reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts, and significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcripts compared to those treated with an irrelevant siRNA. In female reproductive tract explants and in peripheral blood cell cultures, siRNA transfection induced the secretion of IFN-alpha (IFN-α, a potent antiviral cytokine. In female mice, murine-specific Cd4-siRNA nanoparticles instilled within the uterus significantly reduced murine Cd4 transcripts by day 3. Our findings demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles reduce expression of HIV-1 infectivity receptors in human female reproductive tract tissues and also inhibit HIV-1 infection. Murine studies demonstrate that nanoparticles can penetrate the reproductive tract tissues in vivo and silence gene expression. The induction of IFN-α after siRNA transfection can potentially contribute to the antiviral effect. These findings support the therapeutic development of nanoparticles to deliver siRNA molecules to silence host cell receptors in the female reproductive tract as a novel microbicide to inhibit mucosal HIV-1 transmission.

  2. Down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor by inhibition of transforming growth factor beta blocks the tumor-stroma cross-talk and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Fransvea, Emilia; Dituri, Francesco; Lupo, Luigi; Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Tumor-stroma interactions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of key importance to tumor progression. In this study, we show that HCC invasive cells produce high levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and generate tumors with a high stromal component in a xenograft model. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor inhibitor, LY2109761, inhibited the synthesis and release of CTGF, as well as reducing the stromal component of the tumors. In addition, the TGF-beta-dependent down-regulation of CTGF diminished tumor growth, intravasation, and metastatic dissemination of HCC cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast proliferation. By contrast, noninvasive HCC cells were found to produce low levels of CTGF. Upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, noninvasive HCC cells form tumors with a high stromal content and CTGF expression, which is inhibited by treatment with LY2109761. In addition, the acquired intravasation and metastatic spread of noninvasive HCC cells after TGF-beta1 stimulation was blocked by LY2109761. LY2109761 interrupts the cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, leading to a significant reduction of HCC growth and dissemination. Interestingly, patients with high CTGF expression had poor prognosis, suggesting that treatment aimed at reducing TGF-beta-dependent CTGF expression may offer clinical benefits. Taken together, our preclinical results indicate that LY2109761 targets the cross-talk between HCC and the stroma and provide a rationale for future clinical trials.

  3. Dentoalveolar growth inhibition induced by bone denudation on palates: a study of two isolated cleft palates with asymmetric scar tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Iwasaki, H; Tsukada, H; Chu, S; Nakamura, S; Yamamoto, K

    1999-09-01

    This report presents two cases of isolated cleft palate with asymmetric distribution of postsurgical scar tissue determined by laser Doppler flowmetry. To determine the effect of mucoperiosteal denudation of the bone on maxillary alveolar growth, the analysis of dentoalveolar structures compared the affected side to the unaffected side of each case. Two Japanese girls with isolated cleft palates were examined. Both subjects had undergone pushback operations (a modified version of the procedure of Wardill) for palatal repair at 18 months of age. Palatal blood flow was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry when the girls were 12 years old to determine the extent of postsurgical scar tissue over the denuded bone. To analyze the maxillary dentoalveolar structures three dimensionally, the whole surface of the upper dental cast was measured and recorded by an optical measuring device when the girls were 7 years old. Analysis via flowmetry showed that the palatal scar tissue area was limited to the anterior tooth region on the right (unaffected) side but extended posteriorly to the premolar region on the left (affected) side in both subjects. The two girls had similar dentoalveolar structures, with the dental and alveolar arches deflected lingually at the deciduous molar area on the affected side. There were no differences in the buccolingual inclination of deciduous molars or in the vertical growth of the alveolar processes between the affected and unaffected sides. In both girls, bone denudation in the premolar region appeared to result in less than 3 mm of displacement of the teeth palatally, with no change in lingual inclination. Any effects of scar tissue on the vertical development of the alveolus were not substantiated.

  4. In Vivo Reactivation by Oximes of Inhibited Blood, Brain and Peripheral Tissue Cholinesterase Activity Following Exposure to Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nerve agent intoxication ( salivation , rhinorrhea, tremors,muscle asciculations, convulsions) at 60min following the 1.0× LD50 dose f GB, GF, VR or VX...reactivation of GF-, soman-, or VR-inhibited enzyme byHI-6 andHLö7. However, these in vitro experiments [24,25] were conducted with a pH of 8.0 at 25 ◦C...data. Even the study of Worek et al. [23] that was performed at a pH of 7.4 at 37 ◦C, whose in vitro kinetic data obtained from guinea pig RBC ghosts

  5. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  6. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  7. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  8. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  9. MicroRNA‑133b inhibits connective tissue growth factor in colorectal cancer and correlates with the clinical stage of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yihang; Li, Xiaorong; Lin, Changwei; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Gui; Zhou, Jianyu; Du, Juan; Gao, Kai; Gan, Yi; Deng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNA‑133b (miR‑133b) is an important step in the development of certain types of human cancer and contributes to tumorigenesis. Altered expression of miR‑133b has been reported in colon carcinoma, but its association with clinical stage in colorectal cancer (CRC) has remained elusive. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a potentially promising candidate gene for interaction with miR‑133b, was screened using microarray analysis. The expression of miR‑133b and CTGF was evaluated using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The regulatory effects of miR‑133b on CTGF were evaluated using a dual‑luciferase reporter assay. CTGF was identified as a functional target of miR‑133b. The results demonstrated low expression of miR‑133b in CRC specimens with poor cell differentiation (P=0.011), lymph node metastasis (P=0.037) and advanced clinical stages (stage III or IV vs. I or II; P=0.036). Furthermore, there was a significant association between a high level of expression of CTGF mRNA and an advanced clinical stage (stage III or IV vs. I or II; P=0.015) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034). CTGF expression was negatively regulated by miR‑133b in the human colorectum, suggesting that miR‑133b and CTGF may be candidate therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.

  10. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  11. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  12. CpG in Combination with an Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Suppresses Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Enhanced Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Inhibiting Th17 Memory Responses and Promoting Tissue-Resident Memory Cells in Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Hongyong; Hai, Yan; Yin, Wei; Li, Wenjian; Zheng, Boyang; Du, Xiaomin; Li, Na; Zhang, Zhengzheng; Deng, Yuqing; Zeng, Ruihong; Wei, Lin

    2017-05-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalizations. The formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) has been an obstacle to the development of a safe and effective killed RSV vaccine. Agonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been shown to regulate immune responses induced by FI-RSV. Notch signaling plays critical roles during the differentiation and effector function phases of innate and adaptive immune responses. Cross talk between TLR and Notch signaling pathways results in fine-tuning of TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses. We evaluated the impact of TLR and Notch signaling on ERD in a murine model by administering CpG, an agonist of TLR9, in combination with L685,458, an inhibitor of Notch signaling during FI-RSV immunization. Activation with CpG or deficiency of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling did not alleviate airway inflammation in FI-RSV-immunized mice. Activation or inhibition of Notch signaling with Dll4, one of the Notch ligands, or L685,458 did not suppress FI-RSV-enhanced airway inflammation either. However, the CpG together with L685,458 markedly inhibited FI-RSV-enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness, weight loss, and lung inflammation. Interestingly, CpG plus L685,458 completely inhibited FI-RSV-associated Th17 and Th17-associated proinflammatory chemokine responses in lungs following RSV challenge but not Th1 or Th2, memory responses. In addition, FI-RSV plus CpG plus L685,458 promoted protective CD8 + lung tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells. These results indicate that activation of TLR signaling combined with inhibition of Notch signaling prevent FI-RSV ERD, and the mechanism appears to involve suppressing proinflammatory Th17 memory responses and promoting protective TRM in lungs. IMPORTANCE RSV is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants. The FI-RSV-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) is a major impediment to the development of a safe and

  13. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  14. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  15. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers.

  16. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  17. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn leaves extract inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulation connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediated PI3K/AKT/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hua; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Huang, Chi-Chou; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-07-21

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has been recognized as a medicinal plant, which was distributed throughout the Asia. The aqueous extract of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract (NLE) has various biologically active components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, oligomeric procyanidines. However, the role of NLE in breast cancer therapy is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the hypothesis that NLE can suppress tumor angiogenesis and metastasis through CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), which has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and progression in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. We examined the effects of NLE on angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. The data showed that NLE could reduce the chorionic plexus at day 17 in CAM and the duration of this inhibition was dose-dependent. In Xenograft model, NLE treatment significantly reduced tumor weight and CD31 (capillary density) over control, respectively. We examined the role of angiogenesis involved restructuring of endothelium using human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in Matrigel angiogenesis model. The results indicated that vascular-like structure formation was further blocked by NLE treatment. Moreover, knockdown of CTGF expression markedly reduced the expression of MMP2 as well as VEGF, and attenuated PI3K-AKT-ERK activation, indication that these signaling pathways are crucial in mediating CTGF function. The present results suggest that NLE might be useful for treatment in therapy-resistance triple negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  19. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  20. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  1. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  3. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  4. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  7. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  9. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  10. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  11. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  12. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  13. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  14. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  15. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  1. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  2. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  3. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  6. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  7. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  8. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  9. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  10. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  11. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  13. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  14. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  15. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  16. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  17. Corrosion inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, A O

    1965-12-29

    An acid corrosion-inhibiting composition consists essentially of a sugar, and an alkali metal salt selected from the group consisting of iodides and bromides. The weight ratio of the sugar to the alkali metal salt is between 2:1 and about 20,000:1. Also, a corrosion- inhibited phosphoric acid composition comprising at least about 20 wt% of phosphoric acid and between about 0.1 wt% and about 10 wt% of molasses, and between about 0.0005 wt% and about 1 wt% of potassium iodide. The weight ratio of molasses to iodide is greater than about 2:1. (11 claims)

  18. Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.; Murthy, M.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous and radiation induced gene conversion to arginine independence was studied in a heteroallelic diploid strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BZ 34. When stationary phase cells were incubated in phosphate buffer (pH 7 ) at 30 0 C under aerated condition for 48 hours, the conversion frequency increased by a factor of about 1000 times the background. This was found to be so even when the cells were incubated in saline (0.85%) or distilled water. Various conditions influencing this enhancement have been investigated. Conversion frequency enhancement was not significant under anoxic conditions and was absent at low temperatures and in log phase cells. Caffeine could inhibit this enhancement when present in the suspension medium. These results can be explained on the basis of the induction of meiosis in cells held in buffer. Microscopic examination confirmed this view. Under conditions not favourable for the onset of meiosis there is no significant enhancement in conversion frequency. In stationary phase cells exposed to series of gamma doses, the conversion frequency increases with dose. Post irradiation incubation in buffer further increases the conversion frequency. However, the increase expressed as the ratio of the conversion frequency on buffer holding to that on immediate plating decreased with increasing dose. This decrease in enhancement with increasing dose may be due to the dose dependent inhibition of meiosis. (author)

  19. Inhibition of the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins interferes with adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupille, Olivier [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); Penglong, Tipparat [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); Thalassemia Research Center, Mahidol University (Thailand); Kadri, Zahra; Granger-Locatelli, Marine [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); Fucharoen, Suthat [Thalassemia Research Center, Mahidol University (Thailand); Maouche-Chrétien, Leila [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); INSERM, Paris (France); Prost, Stéphane [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); Leboulch, Philippe [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); Thalassemia Research Center, Mahidol University (Thailand); Chrétien, Stany, E-mail: stany.chretien@cea.fr [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies (IMETI), Fontenay-aux-Roses and Université Paris-Saclay, UMR-E 007 (France); INSERM, Paris (France)

    2016-04-15

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family proteins are epigenetic modulators involved in the reading of acetylated lysine residues. The first BET protein inhibitor to be identified, (+)-JQ1, a thienotriazolo-1, 4-diazapine, binds selectively to the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of BET proteins. We evaluated the impact on adipogenesis of this druggable targeting of chromatin epigenetic readers, by investigating the physiological consequences of epigenetic modifications through targeting proteins binding to chromatin. JQ1 significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into white and brown adipocytes by down-regulating the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, particularly those encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ), the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and, STAT5A and B. The expression of a constitutively activated STAT5B mutant did not prevent inhibition by JQ1. Thus, the association of BET/STAT5 is required for adipogenesis but STAT5 transcription activity is not the only target of JQ1. Treatment with JQ1 did not lead to the conversion of white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue (BAT). BET protein inhibition thus interferes with generation of adipose tissue from progenitors, confirming the importance of the connections between epigenetic mechanisms and specific adipogenic transcription factors. - Highlights: • JQ1 prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into white adipocytes. • JQ1 affected clonal cell expansion and abolished lipid accumulation. • JQ1 prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into brown adipocytes. • JQ1 treatment did not lead to the conversion of white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue. • JQ1 decreased STAT5 expression, but STAT5B{sup ca} expression did not restore adipogenesis.

  20. Inhibition of the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of bromodomain and extraterminal domain proteins interferes with adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Kadri, Zahra; Granger-Locatelli, Marine; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Prost, Stéphane; Leboulch, Philippe; Chrétien, Stany

    2016-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family proteins are epigenetic modulators involved in the reading of acetylated lysine residues. The first BET protein inhibitor to be identified, (+)-JQ1, a thienotriazolo-1, 4-diazapine, binds selectively to the acetyl lysine-binding pocket of BET proteins. We evaluated the impact on adipogenesis of this druggable targeting of chromatin epigenetic readers, by investigating the physiological consequences of epigenetic modifications through targeting proteins binding to chromatin. JQ1 significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into white and brown adipocytes by down-regulating the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, particularly those encoding the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ), the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and, STAT5A and B. The expression of a constitutively activated STAT5B mutant did not prevent inhibition by JQ1. Thus, the association of BET/STAT5 is required for adipogenesis but STAT5 transcription activity is not the only target of JQ1. Treatment with JQ1 did not lead to the conversion of white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue (BAT). BET protein inhibition thus interferes with generation of adipose tissue from progenitors, confirming the importance of the connections between epigenetic mechanisms and specific adipogenic transcription factors. - Highlights: • JQ1 prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into white adipocytes. • JQ1 affected clonal cell expansion and abolished lipid accumulation. • JQ1 prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into brown adipocytes. • JQ1 treatment did not lead to the conversion of white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue. • JQ1 decreased STAT5 expression, but STAT5B"c"a expression did not restore adipogenesis.

  1. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of myeloperoxidase by anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, A J; Winterbourn, C C

    1991-05-15

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the most powerful oxidant produced by human neutrophils, and should therefore be expected to contribute to the damage caused by these inflammatory cells. It is produced from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). We used a H2O2-electrode to assess the ability of a variety of anti-inflammatory drugs to inhibit conversion of H2O2 to HOCl. Dapsone, mefenamic acid, sulfapyridine, quinacrine, primaquine and aminopyrine were potent inhibitors, giving 50% inhibition of the initial rate of H2O2 loss at concentrations of about 1 microM or less. Phenylbutazone, piroxicam, salicylate, olsalazine and sulfasalazine were also effective inhibitors. Spectral investigations showed that the inhibitors acted by promoting the formation of compound II, which is an inactive redox intermediate of MPO. Ascorbate reversed inhibition by reducing compound II back to the active enzyme. The characteristic properties that allowed the drugs to inhibit MPO reversibly were ascertained by determining the inhibitory capacity of related phenols and anilines. Inhibition increased as substituents on the aromatic ring became more electron withdrawing, until an optimum reduction potential was reached. Beyond this optimum, their inhibitory capacity declined. The best inhibitor was 4-bromoaniline which had an I50 of 45 nM. An optimum reduction potential enables inhibitors to reduce MPO to compound II, but prevents them from reducing compound II back to the active enzyme. Exploitation of this optimum reduction potential will help in targeting drugs against HOCl-dependent tissue damage.

  3. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  4. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  5. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  6. Perilipin 1 Mediates Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis and Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Bovine Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows with ketosis displayed lipid metabolic disorder and high inflammatory levels. Adipose tissue is an active lipid metabolism and endocrine tissue and is closely related to lipid metabolism homeostasis and inflammation. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1, an adipocyte-specific lipid-coated protein, may be involved in the above physiological function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PLIN1 in lipid metabolism regulation and inflammatory factor synthesis in cow adipocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 overexpression upregulated the expression of fatty acid and triglyceride (TAG synthesis molecule sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c and its target genes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT 1, and DGAT2, but inhibited the expression of lipolysis enzymes hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and CGI-58 for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, thus augmenting the fatty acids and TAG synthesis and inhibiting lipolysis. Importantly, PLIN1 overexpression inhibited the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and decreased the expression and content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, PLIN1 silencing inhibited TAG synthesis, promoted lipolysis, and overinduced the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cow adipocytes. In ketotic cows, the expression of PLIN1 was markedly decreased, whereas lipid mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and downstream inflammatory cytokines were overinduced in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that PLIN1 can maintain lipid metabolism homeostasis and inhibit the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. However, low levels of PLIN1 reduced the inhibitory effect on fat mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and inflammatory cytokine synthesis in ketotic cows.

  7. Perilipin 1 Mediates Lipid Metabolism Homeostasis and Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokine Synthesis in Bovine Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Liu, Guowen; Xu, Chuang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Qiushi; Jia, Hongdou; Li, Xiaobing; Li, Xinwei

    2018-01-01

    Dairy cows with ketosis displayed lipid metabolic disorder and high inflammatory levels. Adipose tissue is an active lipid metabolism and endocrine tissue and is closely related to lipid metabolism homeostasis and inflammation. Perilipin 1 (PLIN1), an adipocyte-specific lipid-coated protein, may be involved in the above physiological function. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PLIN1 in lipid metabolism regulation and inflammatory factor synthesis in cow adipocytes. The results showed that PLIN1 overexpression upregulated the expression of fatty acid and triglyceride (TAG) synthesis molecule sterol regulator element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and its target genes, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1, and DGAT2, but inhibited the expression of lipolysis enzymes hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and CGI-58 for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), thus augmenting the fatty acids and TAG synthesis and inhibiting lipolysis. Importantly, PLIN1 overexpression inhibited the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and decreased the expression and content of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, PLIN1 silencing inhibited TAG synthesis, promoted lipolysis, and overinduced the activation of the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in cow adipocytes. In ketotic cows, the expression of PLIN1 was markedly decreased, whereas lipid mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and downstream inflammatory cytokines were overinduced in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that PLIN1 can maintain lipid metabolism homeostasis and inhibit the NF-κB inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. However, low levels of PLIN1 reduced the inhibitory effect on fat mobilization, NF-κB pathway, and inflammatory cytokine synthesis in ketotic cows.

  8. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  9. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed

  10. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  11. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  12. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Culture Conversion with Bedaquiline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diacon, Andreas H.; Pym, Alexander; Grobusch, Martin P.; de Los Rios, Jorge M.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vasilyeva, Irina; Leimane, Vaira; Andries, Koen; Bakare, Nyasha; de Marez, Tine; Haxaire-Theeuwes, Myriam; Lounis, Nacer; Meyvisch, Paul; de Paepe, Els; van Heeswijk, Rolf P. G.; Dannemann, Brian; Rolla, Valeria; Dalcomo, Margreth; Gripp, Karla; Escada, Rodrigo; Tavares, Isabel; Borga, Liamar; Thomas, Aleyamma; Rekha, Banu; Nair, Dina; Chandrasekar, Chockalingam; Parthasarathy, Ramavaran Thiruvengadaraj; Sekhar, Gomathi; Ganesh, Krishnamoorthy; Rajagopalan, Krishnakumar; Rajapandian, Gangadevi; Dorairajalu, Rajendran; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Banavaliker, Jayant; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Gulati, Vinay; Mahmud, Hanif; Gupta, Arvind; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Jain, Vipin; Hari, Smriti; Gupta, Yogesh Kumar; Vaid, Ashok; Cirule, Andra; Dravniece, Gunta; Skripconoka, Vija; Kuksa, Liga; Kreigere, Edite; Ramos, Carlos Rafael Seas; Amat y Leon, Ivan Arapovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bedaquiline (Sirturo, TMC207), a diarylquinoline that inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase, has been associated with accelerated sputum-culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, when added to a preferred background regimen for 8 weeks. METHODS In this phase 2b

  13. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  14. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  15. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  16. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  17. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  19. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  20. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  1. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  2. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  3. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  4. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  5. Effect of Water on Ethanol Conversion over ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Muhammad Mahfuzur; Davidson, Stephen D.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of water on ethanol conversion over zinc oxide (ZnO). It was found that a competitive adsorption between ethanol and water occurs on ZnO, which leads to the blockage of the strong Lewis acid site by water on ZnO. As a result, both dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions are inhibited. However, the extent of inhibition for dehydration is orders of magnitude higher than that for dehydrogenation, leading to the shift of reaction pathway from ethanol dehydration to dehydrogenation. In the secondary reactions for acetaldehyde conversion, water inhibits the acetaldehyde aldol-condensation to crotonaldehyde, favoring the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid, and then to acetone via ketonization at high temperature (i.e., 400 °C).

  6. Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    conversion are required for alleviation of glucose product inhibition. Supported by numerous calculations this review assesses the quantitative aspects of glucose product inhibition on enzyme-catalyzed cellulose degradation rates. The significance of glucose product inhibition on dimensioning of different......Product inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes affects the efficiency of the biocatalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other valuable products. New strategies that focus on reactor designs encompassing product removal, notably glucose removal, during enzymatic cellulose...... reactor features, including system set-up, dilution rate, glucose output profile, and the problem of cellobiose are examined to illustrate the quantitative significance of the glucose product inhibition and the total glucose concentration on the cellulolytic conversion rate. Comprehensive overviews...

  7. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  8. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  10. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  11. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  12. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  13. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  14. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  15. The Suppression of Adjuvant-induced Inflammation and the Inhibition of the Serum and Tissue IL-17, TNF-α and IL-1β levels by Thymol and Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Gholijani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Thymol and carvacrol are two important components of thyme that have multiple medicinal uses. This study investigates the in vivo effects of these natural products on adjuvant-induced inflammation and secretion of interleukin (IL-17 and key inflammatory cytokines in rats. Materials and Methods: We injected complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA into the hind paws of rats in order to induce inflammation. Each of the CFA-treated rat groups received gavages of thymol, carvacrol, or vehicle (CFA-only group. Rats’ paws and ankle edema were measured and then we were able to determine an inflammatory score based on the results. After 72 h of inflammation induction, sera were collected and subsequently inflamed tissue extracts were prepared for cytokine assay by ELISA. Results: Both components significantly decreased paw edema in rats (p<0.01. Thymol decreased ankle edema to 61.6% of edema in CFA-only rats (p<0.001. We observed a decreased inflammatory score in the thymol and carvacrol-treated rats. The evaluation of the tissue and serum inflammatory cytokine levels showed that both components decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels (p<0.05. Thymol and carvacrol reduced interleukin (IL-1β serum and tissue levels, respectively. These components reduced tissue levels of IL-17 from 148.4±13.4pg/ml in CFA-only rats to 90.1±18.9pg/ml (thymol and 82.3±9.2pg/ml (carvacrol. Both components decreased serum IL-17 levels in rats (p<0.05. In comparison, the anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, reduced the inflammatory score and decreased tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels but did not affect IL-17 production. Conclusion: Carvacrol and thymol could relieve inflammation symptoms possibly by downregulating serum and tissue IL-17 expression in addition to key pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β.

  16. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  17. Connective tissue activation. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.J.; Donakowski, C.; Anderson, B.; Meyers, S.; Castor, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The platelet-derived connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating the metabolism and proliferation of human connective tissue cell strains, including synovial tissue cells. The quantities of CTAP-III affecting the cellular changes and the amounts in various biologic fluids and tissues are small. The objectives of this study were to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CTAP-III and to ascertain the specificities of the anti-CTAP-III sera reagents. The antisera were shown not to cross-react with a number of polypeptide hormones. However, two other platelet proteins β-thromboglobulin and low affinity platelet factor-4, competed equally as well as CTAP-III for anti-CTAP-III antibodies in the RIA system. Thus, the three platelet proteins are similar or identical with respect to those portions of the molecules constituting the reactive antigenic determinants. The levels of material in normal human platelet-free plasma that inhibited anti-CTAP-III- 125 I-CTAP-III complex formation were determined to be 34+-13 (S.D.) ng/ml. (Auth.)

  18. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  19. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  20. Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection With a Recombinant Inhibitor of Factor Vlla/Tissue Factor: A Study in Rhesus Monkeys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Larsen, Tom; Geisbert, Joan B

    2003-01-01

    Infection with the Ebola virus induces overexpression of the procoagulant tissue factor in primate monocytes and macrophages, suggesting that inhibition of the tissue-factor pathway could ameliorate...

  1. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  2. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  3. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  4. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  5. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  6. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  7. Development of LC/MS/MS, high-throughput enzymatic and cellular assays for the characterization of compounds that inhibit kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Dirk; Beconi, Maria; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia M; Prime, Michael; Ebneth, Andreas; Dominguez, Celia; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Modulation of KMO activity has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease. Our goal is to develop potent and selective small-molecule KMO inhibitors with suitable pharmacokinetic characteristics for in vivo proof-of-concept studies and subsequent clinical development. We developed a comprehensive panel of biochemical and cell-based assays that use liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to quantify unlabeled kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine. We describe assays to measure KMO inhibition in cell and tissue extracts, as well as cellular assays including heterologous cell lines and primary rat microglia and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  8. Inhibition of lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds are universal in the hydrolysate of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The phenolics reduce the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the cost of ethanol production. We investigated inhibition of phenolics on cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis using vanillin as one of the typical lignin-derived phenolics and Avicel as cellulose substrate. As vanillin concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg/mL, cellulose conversion after 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis decreased from 53 to 26 %. Enzyme deactivation and precipitation were detected with the vanillin addition. The enzyme concentration and activity consecutively decreased during hydrolysis, but the inhibition degree, expressed as the ratio of the cellulose conversion without vanillin to the conversion with vanillin (A 0 /A), was almost independent on hydrolysis time. Inhibition can be mitigated by increasing cellulose loading or cellulase concentration. The inhibition degree showed linear relationship with the vanillin concentration and exponential relationship with the cellulose loading and the cellulase concentration. The addition of calcium chloride, BSA, and Tween 80 did not release the inhibition of vanillin significantly. pH and temperature for hydrolysis also showed no significant impact on inhibition degree. The presence of hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group in phenolics affected the inhibition degree. Besides phenolics concentration, other factors such as cellulose loading, enzyme concentration, and phenolic structure also affect the inhibition of cellulose conversion. Lignin-blocking agents have little effect on the inhibition effect of soluble phenolics, indicating that the inhibition mechanism of phenolics to enzyme is likely different from insoluble lignin. The inhibition of soluble phenolics can hardly be entirely removed by increasing enzyme concentration or adding blocking proteins due to the dispersity and multiple binding sites of phenolics

  9. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  10. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  12. Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debadatta, Mohapatra; Mishra, Ajay K

    2013-07-01

    Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not clearly determined. A 35-year-old female presented to psychiatric department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (Conversion Disorder). After thorough physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no formal medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. Consequently with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the department of Neurology and the diagnosis was confirmed. Hence, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent.

  13. Effect of CO on NO and N2O conversions in nonthermal argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guibing; Argyle, Morris D.; Radosz, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    200-600 ppm of CO inhibit NO conversion in nonthermal Ar plasma, but do not produce N 2 O. However, 1.01% of CO has no effect on NO conversion, but produces N 2 O. In general, N 2 O conversion in Ar plasma decreases with increasing CO concentration. These experimental results cannot be explained by charge transfer reactions of Ar + . Selectivity analysis of all excited states of Ar possibly contributing to NO x conversion without and with CO suggests that only Ar( 3 P 2 ) contributes to NO x conversion and CO dissociation. A kinetic model of 43 reactions is required to model NO conversion or N 2 O conversion in Ar without CO, whereas 81 reactions are required to model NO conversion and N 2 O conversion in Ar with CO. At constant gas pressure, a single set of model parameters can predict NO conversion or N 2 O conversion without and with CO. All experimental results can be explained using a reaction mechanism in which excited neutral states of Ar are the only active species, which supports the conclusion that cations have a negligible impact on these nonthermal plasma reactions

  14. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  15. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  16. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  17. Conversion electrons in the SDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region (η less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of ''isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered ''nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from π 0 ,η production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons

  18. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  19. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  20. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  1. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  2. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  3. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  4. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  5. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  6. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  7. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  8. Diversification of the Primary Antibody Repertoire by AID-Mediated Gene Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Dennis K; Knight, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Gene conversion, mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), has been found to contribute to generation of the primary antibody repertoire in several vertebrate species. Generation of the primary antibody repertoire by gene conversion of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occurs primarily in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and is best described in chicken and rabbit. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanism of gene conversion as well as the contribution of the microbiota in promoting gene conversion of Ig genes. Finally, we propose that the antibody diversification strategy used in GALT species, such as chicken and rabbit, is conserved in a subset of human and mouse B cells.

  9. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, oligomycin and theophylline on in vitro glycerol metabolism in rat adipose tissue: response to insulin and epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M C; Herrera, E [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Catedra de Fisiologia General

    1976-01-01

    The effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), oligomycin and theophylline on the in vitro production and metabolism of glycerol and its response to insulin and epinephrine were studied in epididymal fat pads from fed rats. 2-DG failed to affect basic or epinephrine-stimulated glycerol production but decreased the uptake of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol by the tissue and its conversion to glyceride-glycerol. Oligomycin also failed to affect the basic production of glycerol, but it inhibited the affect of epinephrine on this parameter as well as the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol. Theophylline enhanced the production of glycerol by the tissue, and this effect was not further augmented by epinephrine. Theophylline also inhibited the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol; the most pronounced effect of theophylline was observed in the formation of /sup 14/C-fatty acids from 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol in the presence of glucose. Insulin, but not epinephrine, decreased the inhibitory effect of theophylline on glycerol utilization. It is concluded that these compounds affect the ability of adipose tissue to metabolize glycerol more intensely than the ability to release it through lipolysis. The pathway for glycerol utilization in adipose tissue appears to be more sensitive to changes in the availability of ATP than the mechanisms for the release of glycerol from the tissue.

  10. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  11. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  12. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  13. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  14. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  15. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michelle E; Lanham, Holly J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2009-03-13

    Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of intervention efforts. We suggest that intervention facilitators

  16. The role of conversation in health care interventions: enabling sensemaking and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stange Kurt C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Those attempting to implement changes in health care settings often find that intervention efforts do not progress as expected. Unexpected outcomes are often attributed to variation and/or error in implementation processes. We argue that some unanticipated variation in intervention outcomes arises because unexpected conversations emerge during intervention attempts. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of conversation in shaping interventions and to explain why conversation is important in intervention efforts in health care organizations. We draw on literature from sociolinguistics and complex adaptive systems theory to create an interpretive framework and develop our theory. We use insights from a fourteen-year program of research, including both descriptive and intervention studies undertaken to understand and assist primary care practices in making sustainable changes. We enfold these literatures and these insights to articulate a common failure of overlooking the role of conversation in intervention success, and to develop a theoretical argument for the importance of paying attention to the role of conversation in health care interventions. Discussion Conversation between organizational members plays an important role in the success of interventions aimed at improving health care delivery. Conversation can facilitate intervention success because interventions often rely on new sensemaking and learning, and these are accomplished through conversation. Conversely, conversation can block the success of an intervention by inhibiting sensemaking and learning. Furthermore, the existing relationship contexts of an organization can influence these conversational possibilities. We argue that the likelihood of intervention success will increase if the role of conversation is considered in the intervention process. Summary The generation of productive conversation should be considered as one of the foundations of

  17. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  18. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  19. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  20. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  1. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  2. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  3. A perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W. B.

    1963-10-15

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  4. A perspective on direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1963-10-01

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  5. Determination of glutamate dehydrogenase activity and its kinetics in mouse tissues using metabolic mapping (quantitative enzyme histochemistry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botman, Dennis; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2014-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible conversion of glutamate into α-ketoglutarate with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H or vice versa. GDH activity is subject to complex allosteric regulation including substrate inhibition. To determine GDH kinetics in situ, we assessed the effects of various glutamate concentrations in combination with either the coenzyme NAD(+) or NADP(+) on GDH activity in mouse liver cryostat sections using metabolic mapping. NAD(+)-dependent GDH V(max) was 2.5-fold higher than NADP(+)-dependent V(max), whereas the K(m) was similar, 1.92 mM versus 1.66 mM, when NAD(+) or NADP(+) was used, respectively. With either coenzyme, V(max) was determined at 10 mM glutamate and substrate inhibition was observed at higher glutamate concentrations with a K(i) of 12.2 and 3.95 for NAD(+) and NADP(+) used as coenzyme, respectively. NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent GDH activities were examined in various mouse tissues. GDH activity was highest in liver and much lower in other tissues. In all tissues, the highest activity was found when NAD(+) was used as a coenzyme. In conclusion, GDH activity in mice is highest in the liver with NAD(+) as a coenzyme and highest GDH activity was determined at a glutamate concentration of 10 mM. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  7. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  8. Central and peripheral mechanisms of the NPY system in the regulation of bone and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Chuan; Baldock, Paul A

    2012-02-01

    Skeletal research is currently undergoing a period of marked expansion. The boundaries of "bone" research are being re-evaluated and with this, a growing recognition of a more complex and interconnected biology than previously considered. One aspect that has become the focus of particular attention is the relationship between bone and fat homeostasis. Evidence from a number of avenues indicates that bone and adipose regulation are both related and interdependent. This review examines the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system, known to exert powerful control over both bone and fat tissue. The actions of this system are characterized by signaling both within specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and also the target tissues, mediated predominantly through two G-protein coupled receptors (Y1 and Y2). In bone tissue, elevated NPY levels act consistently to repress osteoblast activity. Moreover, both central Y2 receptor and osteoblastic Y1 receptor signaling act similarly to repress bone formation. Conversely, loss of NPY expression or receptor signaling induces increased osteoblast activity and bone mass in both cortical and cancellous envelopes. In fat tissue, NPY action is more complex. Energy homeostasis is powerfully altered by elevations in hypothalamic NPY, resulting in increases in fat accretion and body-wide energy conservation, through the action of locally expressed Y1 receptors, while local Y2 receptors act to inhibit NPY-ergic tone. Loss of central NPY expression has a markedly reduced effect, consistent with a physiological drive to promote fat accretion. In fat tissue, NPY and Y1 receptors act to promote lipogenesis, consistent with their roles in the brain. Y2 receptors expressed in adipocytes also act in this manner, showing an opposing action to their role in the hypothalamus. While direct investigation of these processes has yet to be completed, these responses appear to be interrelated to some degree. The starvation-based signal of elevated central NPY inducing

  9. Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R

    2016-12-20

    Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.

  10. Evolution of energy conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osnaghi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution and the future development of energy conversion plants and puts into evidence the great importance of the scientific and technological improvement in machines design, in order to optimize the use of energy resources and to improve ambient compatibility [it

  11. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  12. Restarts in Conversation and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Raymond F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes restarts, a common feature of conversation, in literary discourse. The term "restart" refers to the repetition of a word or words within an utterance by the same speaker. Restarts in literary discourse are of two types: (1) those produced by the characters in their "real" narrative world and (2) those produced by the narrators themselves.…

  13. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    TMMOELECTRIC 6 CONVERSION SYSTEMS. compiled by Edda 7p.. Aug.1960. (Spec. Bibl. 430) Barber. 48p., Mar. 1962. (Lit. Search 392) (Contract NAS 7-100) Covers...2865 BaranskiiP.I ............... 2905, 2945 Brogan, T.R. .............. 3322 Barber, Edda ................. . 2866 Brooklyn Polytechnic

  14. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  15. Conversations to Transform Geometry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles; Parrott, Amy; Belnap, Jason Knight

    2016-01-01

    Classroom culture is negotiated and established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally, teachers and researchers have focused primarily on the individual and social construction of mathematical content--that is, students' conceptual understanding and procedural skills--through mathematical actions and practices. This article…

  16. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  17. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  18. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  20. Knockdown of MAGEA6 Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling to Inhibit Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xueting; Xie, Jing; Huang, Hang; Deng, Zhexian

    2018-01-01

    Melanoma antigen A6 (MAGEA6) is a cancer-specific ubiquitin ligase of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The current study tested MAGEA6 expression and potential function in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MAGEA6 and AMPK expression in human RCC tissues and RCC cells were tested by Western blotting assay and qRT-PCR assay. shRNA method was applied to knockdown MAGEA6 in human RCC cells. Cell survival and proliferation were tested by MTT assay and BrdU ELISA assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was tested by the TUNEL assay and single strand DNA ELISA assay. The 786-O xenograft in nude mouse model was established to test RCC cell growth in vivo. MAGEA6 is specifically expressed in RCC tissues as well as in the established (786-O and A498) and primary human RCC cells. MAGEA6 expression is correlated with AMPKα1 downregulation in RCC tissues and cells. It is not detected in normal renal tissues nor in the HK-2 renal epithelial cells. MAGEA6 knockdown by targeted-shRNA induced AMPK stabilization and activation, which led to mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in-activation and RCC cell death/apoptosis. AMPK inhibition, by AMPKα1 shRNA or the dominant negative AMPKα1 (T172A), almost reversed MAGEA6 knockdown-induced RCC cell apoptosis. Conversely, expression of the constitutive-active AMPKα1 (T172D) mimicked the actions by MAGEA6 shRNA. In vivo, MAGEA6 shRNA-bearing 786-O tumors grew significantly slower in nude mice than the control tumors. AMPKα1 stabilization and activation as well as mTORC1 in-activation were detected in MAGEA6 shRNA tumor tissues. MAGEA6 knockdown inhibits human RCC cells via activating AMPK signaling. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inhibition of Estrogen-induced Growth of Breast Cancer by Targeting Mitochondrial Oxidants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Deodutta; Felty, Quentin; Kunkle, Brian

    2008-01-01

    ...) Anchorage-independent cell growth, and (c) tumor spheroid formation using new 3D HuBiogel bioassay whether estrogen induced conversion of normal cells to transformed cells is inhibited by treatment with antioxidants, over expression of MnSOD...

  2. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  3. The national conversion pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Puy, M.; Francis, G.; Konczal, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy is now faced with the prospect of terminating traditional defense production missions at several Department of Energy sites. Because of this, there is a critical need to develop a DOE process to convert former defense production facilities to private use so that underutilized workers and facilities may be used to minimize the impact on the United States economy. The purpose of the National Conversation Pilot Project (NCPP) at Rocky Flats near Denver, Colorado is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of economic conversion of DOE facilities, in a manner consistent with ongoing site waste management and cleanup activities, and non-prejudicial to future land use planning decisions. The NCPP is divided into three stages: The first stage, now under way, is one of detailed planning for cleanup and building maintenance activities. The second stage involves building cleanup necessary to support the proposed industrial activities, maintenance of equipment and building infrastructure necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment, declassification work, and some small scale research and development activities. Stage III would involve DOE metals recycling. Specific approval from the DOE is required prior to each project stage. To ensure stakeholder involvement, a steering committee will advise the DOE on the desirability to proceed with the project from stage to stage. A key question in the conversion process is whether a competitive economic and regulatory environment can be created on a DOE facility, allowing an onsite conversion business to effectively compete with offsite businesses. If successful, the Rocky Flats project could become the model for economic conversion at other DOE facilities

  4. INHIBITION IN SPEAKING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Humaera, Isna

    2015-01-01

    The most common problem encountered by the learner in the languageacquisition process is learner inhibition. Inhibition refers to a temperamentaltendency to display wariness, fearfulness, or restrain in response tounfamiliar people, objects, and situations. There are some factors that causeinhibition, such as lack of motivation, shyness, self-confidence, self-esteem,and language ego. There are also levels of inhibition, it refers to kinds ofinhibition and caused of inhibition itself. Teacher ...

  5. gamma-Glutamyl amino acids. Transport and conversion to 5-oxoproline in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, R.J.; Meister, A.

    1985-01-01

    Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids, a step in the proposed glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated amino acid transport pathway, was examined in mouse kidney. The transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids was demonstrated in vitro in studies on kidney slices. Transport was followed by measuring uptake of 35 S after incubation of the slices in media containing gamma-glutamyl methionine [ 35 S]sulfone. The experimental complication associated with extracellular conversion of the gamma-glutamyl amino acid to amino acid and uptake of the latter by slices was overcome by using 5-oxoproline formation (catalyzed by intracellular gamma-glutamyl-cyclotransferase) as an indicator of gamma-glutamyl amino acid transport. This method was also successfully applied to studies on transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vivo. Transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids in vitro and in vivo is inhibited by several inhibitors of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and also by high extracellular levels of glutathione. This seems to explain urinary excretion of gamma-glutamylcystine by humans with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency and by mice treated with inhibitors of this enzyme. Mice depleted of glutathione by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (which inhibits glutathione synthesis) or by treatment with 2,6-dimethyl-2,5-heptadiene-4-one (which effectively interacts with tissue glutathione) exhibited significantly less transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids than did untreated controls. The findings suggest that intracellular glutathione functions in transport of gamma-glutamyl amino acids. Evidence was also obtained for transport of gamma-glutamyl gamma-glutamylphenylalanine into kidney slices

  6. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  7. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  8. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  9. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  10. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  11. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  12. FRM-II conversion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.; Liebert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities for a conversion of the currently constructed research reactor FRM-II has been extensively discussed at various RERTR meetings over the past years. In order to support the ongoing decision-making process in Germany, we prepared computer simulations providing extra information on the scientific usability of the converted reactor based on designs proposed by ANL and TUM. The most important results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Special attention is thereby given to the specific German context. (author)

  13. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING A-ning; LI Fan; CUI Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conversation Analysis shows the evidence of the social nature of people’s action including talk-in-interaction from a micro-level perspective. The method for basing its analysis on the authentic data rather than the retrospective interviews for gain⁃ing the participants’perception makes it unique in discovering the emic perspective of the social interaction. CA, often called as a“micro”methodology, provides theoretical insights and useful analytical tool for exploring the interaction in classrooms.

  14. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr....

  15. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process

  16. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCOFIELD C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4= were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and faujasite.

  17. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    OpenAIRE

    SCOFIELD, C.F.; BENAZZI, E.; CAUFFRIEZ, H.; MARCILLY, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4=) were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and fa...

  18. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  20. Dissecting engineered cell types and enhancing cell fate conversion via CellNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Samantha A.; Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Zhao, Anna M.; San Roman, Adrianna K.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Collins, James J.; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Engineering clinically relevant cells in vitro holds promise for regenerative medicine, but most protocols fail to faithfully recapitulate target cell properties. To address this, we developed CellNet, a network biology platform that determines whether engineered cells are equivalent to their target tissues, diagnoses aberrant gene regulatory networks, and prioritizes candidate transcriptional regulators to enhance engineered conversions. Using CellNet, we improved B cell to macrophage conversion, transcriptionally and functionally, by knocking down predicted B cell regulators. Analyzing conversion of fibroblasts to induced hepatocytes (iHeps), CellNet revealed an unexpected intestinal program regulated by the master regulator Cdx2. We observed long-term functional engraftment of mouse colon by iHeps, thereby establishing their broader potential as endoderm progenitors and demonstrating direct conversion of fibroblasts into intestinal epithelium. Our studies illustrate how CellNet can be employed to improve direct conversion and to uncover unappreciated properties of engineered cells. PMID:25126792

  1. Inhibition of PKCδ reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without blocking chemotherapeutic efficacy in mouse models of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, Navjotsingh; Dong, Guie; Jiang, Man; Huang, Shuang; Kumar, M. Vijay; Messing, Robert O.; Dong, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used cancer therapy drug that unfortunately has major side effects in normal tissues, notably nephrotoxicity in kidneys. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear, and renoprotective approaches during cisplatin-based chemotherapy are lacking. Here we have identified PKCδ as a critical regulator of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, which can be effectively targeted for renoprotection during chemotherapy. We showed that early during cisplatin nephrotoxicity, Src interacted with, phosphorylated, and activated PKCδ in mouse kidney lysates. After activation, PKCδ regulated MAPKs, but not p53, to induce renal cell apoptosis. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ pharmacologically or genetically attenuated kidney cell apoptosis and tissue damage, preserving renal function during cisplatin treatment. Conversely, inhibition of PKCδ enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death in multiple cancer cell lines and, remarkably, enhanced the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in several xenograft and syngeneic mouse tumor models while protecting kidneys from nephrotoxicity. Together these results demonstrate a role of PKCδ in cisplatin nephrotoxicity and support targeting PKCδ as an effective strategy for renoprotection during cisplatin-based cancer therapy. PMID:21633170

  2. Conversion coefficients for determining organ doses in paediatric spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, Michael; Schneider, Karl [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology - Paediatric Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Knowledge of organ and effective doses achieved during paediatric x-ray examinations is an important prerequisite for assessment of radiation burden to the patient. Conversion coefficients for reconstruction of organ and effective doses from entrance doses for segmental spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients are provided regarding the Guidelines of Good Radiographic Technique of the European Commission. Using the personal computer program PCXMC developed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Saeteilyturvakeskus STUK), conversion coefficients for conventional segmental spine radiographs were calculated performing Monte Carlo simulations in mathematical hermaphrodite phantom models describing patients of different ages. The clinical variation of beam collimation was taken into consideration by defining optimal and suboptimal radiation field settings. Conversion coefficients for the reconstruction of organ doses in about 40 organs and tissues from measured entrance doses during cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs of 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 30-year-old patients were calculated for the standard sagittal and lateral beam projections and the standard focus detector distance of 115 cm. The conversion coefficients presented may be used for organ dose assessments from entrance doses measured during spine radiographs of patients of all age groups and all field settings within the optimal and suboptimal standard field settings. (orig.)

  3. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  4. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  5. Simvastatin inhibits Candida albicans biofilm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey; Vellucci, Vincent F; Kyc, Stephanie; Hostetter, Margaret K

    2009-12-01

    By inhibiting the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, statins impair cholesterol metabolism in humans. We reasoned that statins might similarly interfere with the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the major sterol of the yeast cell membrane. As assessed by spectrophotometric and microscopic analysis, significant inhibition of biofilm production was noted after 16-h incubation with 1, 2.5, and 5 muM simvastatin, concentrations that did not affect growth, adhesion, or hyphal formation by C. albicans in vitro. Higher concentrations (10, 20, and 25 muM simvastatin) inhibited biofilm by >90% but also impaired growth. Addition of exogenous ergosterol (90 muM) overcame the effects of 1 and 2.5 muM simvastatin, suggesting that at least one mechanism of inhibition is interference with ergosterol biosynthesis. Clinical isolates from blood, skin, and mucosal surfaces produced biofilms; biofilms from bloodstream isolates were similarly inhibited by simvastatin. In the absence of fungicidal activity, simvastatin's interruption of a critical step in an essential metabolic pathway, highly conserved from yeast to man, has unexpected effects on biofilm production by a eukaryotic pathogen.

  6. Skin-Resident T Cells Drive Dermal Dendritic Cell Migration in Response to Tissue Self-Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Truong, Hong-An; Maurano, Megan M; Gratz, Iris K; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Migratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets deliver tissue Ags to draining lymph nodes (DLNs) to either initiate or inhibit T cell-mediated immune responses. The signals mediating DC migration in response to tissue self-antigen are largely unknown. Using a mouse model of inducible skin-specific self-antigen expression, we demonstrate that CD103 + dermal DCs (DDCs) rapidly migrate from skin to skin DLN (SDLNs) within the first 48 h after Ag expression. This window of time was characterized by the preferential activation of tissue-resident Ag-specific effector T cells (Teffs), with no concurrent activation of Ag-specific Teffs in SDLNs. Using genetic deletion and adoptive transfer approaches, we show that activation of skin-resident Teffs is required to drive CD103 + DDC migration in response to tissue self-antigen and this Batf3-dependent DC population is necessary to mount a fulminant autoimmune response in skin. Conversely, activation of Ag-specific Teffs in SDLNs played no role in DDC migration. Our studies reveal a crucial role for skin-resident T cell-derived signals, originating at the site of self-antigen expression, to drive DDC migration during the elicitation phase of an autoimmune response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Vogelaar, J.; Ittersum, van A.; Hordijk, K.; Roelofsen, W.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and

  8. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  9. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  10. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  11. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  12. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  13. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  14. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...

  15. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  16. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  17. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...

  18. Interleukin-4 but not interleukin-10 inhibits the production of leukemia inhibitory factor by rheumatoid synovium and synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechanet, J; Taupin, J L; Chomarat, P; Rissoan, M C; Moreau, J F; Banchereau, J; Miossec, P

    1994-12-01

    The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been reported in the cartilage and synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we show that high levels of LIF were constitutively produced by cultures of synovium pieces. Low levels of LIF were produced spontaneously by isolated synoviocytes, but interleukin (IL)-1 beta caused a fourfold enhancement of this secretion. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 reduced the production of LIF by synovium pieces by 75%, as observed earlier with IL-6, IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. IL-4 had a direct effect since it inhibited LIF production by unstimulated and IL-1 beta- or TNF-alpha-stimulated synoviocytes. Conversely, IL-4 enhanced the production of IL-6, which shares with LIF biological activities and receptor components. The inhibitory effect of IL-4 was dose dependent and was reversed using a blocking anti-IL-4 receptor antibody. Similar inhibitory action of IL-4 on LIF production was observed on synovium pieces from patients with osteoarthritis and on normal synoviocytes. IL-10, another anti-inflammatory cytokine acting on monocytes, had no effect on LIF production by either synovium pieces or isolated synoviocytes. Thus, the production of LIF by synovium tissue was inhibited by IL-4 through both a direct effect on synoviocytes and an indirect effect by inhibition of the production of LIF-inducing cytokines.

  19. Formation of a cerium conversion coating on magnesium alloy using ascorbic acid as additive. Characterisation and anticorrosive properties of the formed films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Loperena

    2016-12-01

    The presence of HAsc in the conversion solution causes changes in the morphology, adherence and anticorrosive performance of the films. The improvement in the corrosion resistance is closely associated with the corrosion inhibition properties of HAsc.

  20. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  1. Conversion of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the former defense enterprises of STS (Semipalatinsk Test Sate) started under very difficult conditions, when not only research and production activity, but all social life of Kurchatov city were conversed which was caused by a fast curtailment and restationing of Russian military units from the test site. A real risk of a complete destruction of the whole research and production structure of the city existed. From this point of view, the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan Government to create the National Nuclear Center on the base of the test site research enterprises was actual and timely. During 1993, three research institutes of NNC RK - Institute of Atomic Energy, Institute of Geophysics Research and Institute of Radiation Safety and Environment were established. This decision, under conditions of the Ussr disintegration and liquidation of the test site military divisions, allowed to preserve the qualified personnel, to provide and follow-up the operation of nuclear dangerous facilities, to develop and start the realization of the full scale conversion program.At present time, directions and structure of basic research work in NNC RK are as follows: - liquidation of nuclear explosions consequences; - liquidation of technological infrastructure used for preparation and conduction of nuclear weapon testing; - creation of technology, equipment and places for acceptance and storage of radioactive wastes; - working out of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan; - study of reactor core melt behavior under severe accidents in NPP; - development of methods and means of nuclear testing detection, continuous monitoring of nuclear explosions; - experimental work on a study of structure materials behavior of ITER thermonuclear reactor; - creation of industries requiring a lage implementation of science

  2. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  3. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  4. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. ► Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ► VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  5. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  6. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  7. Responsive turns in Indonesian informal conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. van Naerssen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People have all sorts of expectations about how interlocutors will and should behave linguistically when engaged in a conversation. These conversational norms are usually implicit and are sometimes difficult to master in a language that is new to you. This paper presents a model of different types of responses in informal conversation, illustrated with Indonesian examples. It builds upon the conversation analytic notion of preference; distinguishing preferred – or constructive – responses and dispreferred – or competitive – responses. The model is meant as a tool to cross-linguistically compare response behaviour to gain insight in language specific expectations about interaction in informal conversation.

  8. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  9. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Inhibition of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase (H-PGDS) by an alkaloid extract from Combretum molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Rejoice; Chimponda, Theresa; Mukanganyama, Stanley

    2014-07-05

    Hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase (H-PGDS, GST Sigma) is a member of the glutathione S-transferase super family of enzymes that catalyses the conjugation of electrophilic substances with reduced glutathione. The enzyme catalyses the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2 which mediates inflammatory responses. The inhibition of H-PGDS is of importance in alleviating damage to tissues due to unwarranted synthesis of PGD2. Combretum molle has been used in African ethno medicinal practices and has been shown to reduce fever and pain. The effect of C. molle alkaloid extract on H-PGDS was thus, investigated. H-PGDS was expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue cells and purified using nickel immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The effect of C. molle alkaloid extract on H-PGDS activity was determined with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate. The effect of C. molle alkaloid extract with time on H-PGDS was determined. The mechanism of inhibition was then investigated using CDNB and glutathione (GSH) as substrates. A specific activity of 24 μmol/mg/min was obtained after H-PGDS had been purified. The alkaloid extract exhibited a 70% inhibition on H-PGDS with an IC50 of 13.7 μg/ml. C. molle alkaloid extract showed an uncompetitive inhibition of H-PGDS with Ki = 41 μg/ml towards GSH, and non-competitive inhibition towards CDNB with Ki = 7.7 μg/ml and Ki' = 9.2 μg/ml. The data shows that C. molle alkaloid extract is a potent inhibitor of H-PGDS. This study thus supports the traditional use of the plant for inflammation.

  11. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  12. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  13. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  14. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  15. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  16. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  17. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  18. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  19. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Estradiol inhibits hepatic stellate cell area and collagen synthesis in the chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shotaro; Teshima, Akifumi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver. The HSC area and amount of collagen fibers are different between male and female chickens. This study was performed to confirm the effect of estradiol on collagen synthesis in the growing chicken liver. Blood estradiol levels in chicks were compared at 4 and 8 weeks of age, and the collagen fibril network in liver tissue was observed at 8 weeks by scanning electron microscopy. Intraperitoneal administrations of estradiol and tamoxifen to male and female chicks, respectively, were performed daily from 5 to 8 weeks of age. The areas of HSCs and collagen contents were measured in the liver tissue. The blood estradiol level was higher in females than in males, and the collagen fibril network was denser in males than in females at 8 weeks of age. Estradiol administration in males induced decreases in the HSC area and collagen content of the liver. Conversely, tamoxifen administration in females induced an increase in the HSC area but did not facilitate collagen synthesis. Based on these results, estradiol inhibits the area and collagen synthesis of HSCs in the growing chicken liver under normal physiological conditions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Cell Cycle Inhibition To Treat Sleeping Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad L. Epting

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomiasis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. During infection, this pathogen divides rapidly to high density in the bloodstream of its mammalian host in a manner similar to that of leukemia. Like all eukaryotes, T. brucei has a cell cycle involving the de novo synthesis of DNA regulated by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR, which catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides into their deoxy form. As an essential enzyme for the cell cycle, RNR is a common target for cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that inhibition of RNR by genetic or pharmacological means would impair parasite growth in vitro and prolong the survival of infected animals. Our results demonstrate that RNR inhibition is highly effective in suppressing parasite growth both in vitro and in vivo. These results support drug discovery efforts targeting the cell cycle, not only for African trypanosomiasis but possibly also for other infections by eukaryotic pathogens.

  2. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  3. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  4. Requirements' Role in Mobilizing and Enabling Design Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Mark

    Requirements play a critical role in a design conversation of systems and products. Product and system design exists at the crossroads of problems, solutions and requirements. Requirements contextualize problems and solutions, pointing the way to feasible outcomes. These are captured with models and detailed specifications. Still, stakeholders need to be able to understand one-another using shared design representations in order to mobilize bias and transform knowledge towards legitimized, desired results. Many modern modeling languages, including UML, as well as detailed, logic-based specifications are beyond the comprehension of key stakeholders. Hence, they inhibit, rather than promote design conversation. Improved design boundary objects (DBO), especially design requirements boundary objects (DRBO), need to be created and refined to improve the communications between principals. Four key features of design boundary objects that improve and promote design conversation are discussed in detail. A systems analysis and design case study is presented which demonstrates these features in action. It describes how a small team of analysts worked with key stakeholders to mobilize and guide a complex system design discussion towards an unexpected, yet desired outcome within a short time frame.

  5. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  6. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  7. Melatonin inhibits endothelin-1 and induces endothelial nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, I/R augmented the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression and the level of big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) in liver tissue, melatonin attenuated these increases. Conversely, non-significant decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA expression in I/R group was significantly elevated by melatonin in ...

  8. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  9. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  10. Supported Conversation for hospital staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Hysse B; Løvholt, Annelise P.; Mathiesen, Lone Lundbak

    in communication and interaction, Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia (SCA) was adapted and implemented in a large neurological department at Rigshospitalet-Glostrup in Copenhagen. Method 152 staff members representing different health professionals were assigned to one of eleven courses during a six...... month period. Each course had 10-12 participants and lasted 6 hours, including instruction in the SCA principles, video analysis, interdisciplinary group work, and practice sessions with PWAs. Self-assessed learning outcomes were evaluated with a brief questionnaire filled out by staff members...... in communication, also showed significant improvements across all staff groups. After the course, more time to spend with patients was perceived as the most important factor to further increase communication success with PWA. Conclusion The results show that interdisciplinary SCA-courses successfully increase...

  11. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  12. Tacit to explicit knowledge conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó Battistutti, Osvaldo; Bork, Dominik

    2017-11-01

    The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation. This implies the possibility of understanding concepts and ideas, visualized through conceptual models, without using linguistic or algebraic means. The proposed methodology is conducted in a metamodel-based tool environment whose aim is efficient application and ease of use.

  13. Conversion of Ulba Metallurgy Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoprienko, O.

    1996-01-01

    General Information 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' Joint Stock Company successfully operates for more than 46 years. The plant was established by MINSREDMASH, USSR and at the present moment has finished complexes for production of nuclear fuel for atomic power stations, tantalum and superconducting materials production, beryllium, hydrofluoric acid manufacture and engineering production. Problem Essence In spite of the monopoly possession of tantalum manufacture, beryllium and uranium fuel, superconducting materials in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, company has serious financial problems due to the critical situation in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, production ties collapse and fast market demand decrease for the Ulba Metallurgical Plant Joint Stock Company products. The alternative decision is to create substitute productions, conversion integrating and introducing new products to the world market

  14. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  15. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, Sharada; Gao, Liying; Gonnering, Marni; Helferich, William; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Equol exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Equol exposure increases follicle atresia. • Equol exposure inhibits sex steroid hormone levels. • Equol exposure inhibits mRNA levels of certain steroidogenic enzymes.

  16. Equol inhibits growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, Sharada, E-mail: mahalin2@illinois.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gao, Liying, E-mail: lgao@uiuc.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gonnering, Marni, E-mail: mgonne2@illinois.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Helferich, William, E-mail: helferic@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 905 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Ave, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Equol is a non-steroidal estrogen metabolite produced by microbial conversion of daidzein, a major soy isoflavone, in the gut of some humans and many animal species. Isoflavones and their metabolites can affect endogenous estradiol production, action, and metabolism, potentially influencing ovarian follicle function. However, no studies have examined the effects of equol on intact ovarian antral follicles, which are responsible for sex steroid synthesis and further development into ovulatory follicles. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that equol inhibits antral follicle growth, increases follicle atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis in the adult mouse ovary. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or equol (600 nM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48 and 96 h. Every 24 h, follicle diameters were measured to monitor growth. At 48 and 96 h, the culture medium was subjected to measurement of hormone levels, and the cultured follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis. Additionally, follicles were histologically evaluated for signs of atresia after 96 h of culture. The results indicate that equol (100 μM) inhibited follicle growth, altered the mRNA levels of bcl2-associated X protein and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and induced follicle atresia. Further, equol decreased the levels of estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone, and it decreased mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage, steroid 17-α-hydroxalase, and aromatase. Collectively, these data indicate that equol inhibits growth, increases atresia, and inhibits steroidogenesis of cultured mouse antral follicles. - Highlights: • Equol exposure inhibits antral follicle growth. • Equol exposure increases follicle atresia. • Equol exposure inhibits sex steroid hormone levels. • Equol exposure inhibits mRNA levels of certain steroidogenic enzymes.

  17. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Sato, O; Tanaka, S I; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    2003-01-01

    In the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations, radiation weighting factors were introduced in the place of quality factors, the tissue weighting factors were revised, and effective doses and equivalent doses of each tissues and organs were defined as the protection quantities. Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of theses data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality fact...

  18. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  19. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian female...

  20. Requirements for mammalian carboxylesterase inhibition by substituted ethane-1,2-diones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Elizabeth I; Jason Hatfield, M; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Hyatt, Janice L; Edwards, Carol C; Hicks, Latorya D; Yan, Bing; Potter, Philip M

    2011-08-01

    Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes found in both human and animal tissues and are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics. This includes numerous natural products, as well as a many clinically used drugs. Hence, the activity of these agents is likely dependent upon the levels and location of CE expression. We have recently identified benzil is a potent inhibitor of mammalian CEs, and in this study, we have assessed the ability of analogues of this compound to inhibit these enzymes. Three different classes of molecules were assayed: one containing different atoms vicinal to the carbonyl carbon atom and the benzene ring [PhXC(O)C(O)XPh, where X=CH₂, CHBr, N, S, or O]; a second containing a panel of alkyl 1,2-diones demonstrating increasing alkyl chain length; and a third consisting of a series of 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-1,2-diones. In general, with the former series of molecules, heteroatoms resulted in either loss of inhibitory potency (when X=N), or conversion of the compounds into substrates for the enzymes (when X=S or O). However, the inclusion of a brominated methylene atom resulted in potent CE inhibition. Subsequent analysis with the alkyl diones [RC(O)C(O)R, where R ranged from CH₃ to C₈H₁₇] and 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-1,2-diones [PhC(O)C(O)R where R ranged from CH₃ to C₆H₁₃], demonstrated that the potency of enzyme inhibition directly correlated with the hydrophobicity (clogP) of the molecules. We conclude from these studies that that the inhibitory power of these 1,2-dione derivatives depends primarily upon the hydrophobicity of the R group, but also on the electrophilicity of the carbonyl group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. U.S. Domestic Reactor Conversion Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Conversion Projects Include: the revision of the facilities safety basis documents and supporting analysis, the fabrication of new LEU fuel, the change-out of the reactor core, and the removal of the used HEU fuel (by INL University Fuels Program or DOE-NE). The major entities involved are: the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the University reactor department, the fuel and hardware fabricators, the Spent fuel receipt facilities, the Spent fuel shipping services, and the U.S. Department of Energy and their subcontractors. Three major Reactor Conversion Program milestones have been accomplished since 2006: the conversion of the TRIGA reactor at Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, the conversion of the University of Florida Training Reactor, and the conversion of the Purdue University Reactor. Four Reactor Conversion Program milestones yet to be accomplished in 2008 and 2009: the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center reactor, the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor, the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor, and the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility. NNSA is committed to doing things cheaper, better, smarter, safer through a 'Lessons Learned' process. The conversion team assessed each major activity grouping: Project Initiation, Conversion Proposal Development, Fuel Fabrication and Hardware, Core Conversion, and Spent Nuclear Fuel Removal. Issues were identified and recommendations were given

  2. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  3. Conversational Agents in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Alice; Ellis, Richard; Bull, Susan

    This paper discusses the use of natural language or 'conversational' agents in e-learning environments. We describe and contrast the various applications of conversational agent technology represented in the e-learning literature, including tutors, learning companions, language practice and systems to encourage reflection. We offer two more detailed examples of conversational agents, one which provides learning support, and the other support for self-assessment. Issues and challenges for developers of conversational agent systems for e-learning are identified and discussed.

  4. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus suppresses renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissue cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Alia; Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Saraswathiamma, Dhanya; Abdul-Kader, Hidaya Mohammed; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alfazari, Ali S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to develop a useful biomarker (e.g., cellular respiration, or mitochondrial O2 consumption) for measuring activities of mTOR inhibitors. It measured the effects of commonly used immunosuppressants (sirolimus-rapamycin, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine) on cellular respiration in target tissues (kidney, liver, and heart) from C57BL/6 mice. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase that supports nutrient-dependent cell growth and survival, is known to control energy conversion processes within the mitochondria. Consistently, inhibitors of mTOR (e.g., rapamycin, also known as sirolimus or Rapamune®) have been shown to impair mitochondrial function. Inhibitors of the calcium-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine), on the other hand, strictly prevent lymphokine production leading to a reduced T-cell function. Sirolimus (10 μM) inhibited renal (22%, P=0.002), hepatic (39%, Prespiration. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine had no or minimum effects on cellular respiration in these tissues. Thus, these results clearly demonstrate that impaired cellular respiration (bioenergetics) is a sensitive biomarker of the immunosuppressants that target mTOR.

  5. Conversion coefficients for individual monitoring calculated with integrated tiger series, ITS3, Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua

    1994-01-01

    The current basis for conversion coefficients for calibrating individual photon dosimeters in terms of dose equivalents is found in the series of papers by Grosswent. In his calculation the collision kerma inside the phantom is determined by calculation of the energy fluence at the point of interest and the use of the mass energy absorption coefficient. This approximates the local absorbed dose. Other Monte Carlo methods can be sued to provide calculations of the conversion coefficients. Rogers has calculated fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors with the Electron-Gamma Shower Version 3, EGS3, Monte Carlo program and produced results similar to Grosswent's calculations. This paper will report on calculations using the Integrated TIGER Series Version 3, ITS3, code to calculate the conversion coefficients in ICRU Tissue and in PMMA. A complete description of the input parameters to the program is given and comparison to previous results is included

  6. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  7. Inhibition of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism and hormonal regulation of lactation is explained and illustrated with a schematic representation. Circulating estrogen above a critical amount seems to be the inhibitory factor controlling lactation during pregnancy. Once delivery occurs, the level of estrogen falls, that of prolactin rises, and lactation begins. Nonsuckling can be used to inhibit lactation. Estrogens can also be used to inhibit lactation more quickly and with less pain. The reported association between estrogens and puerperal thromboembolism cannot be considered conclusive due to defects in the reporting studies. There is no reason not to use estrogens in lactation inhibition except for women over 35 who experienced a surgical delivery. Alternative therapy is available for these women. The recently-developed drug, brom-ergocryptine, may replace other methods of lactation inhibition.

  8. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  10. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  11. Traction force microscopy of engineered cardiac tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Agarwal, Ashutosh; O'Connor, Blakely Bussie; Liu, Qihan; Sheehy, Sean P; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac tissue development and pathology have been shown to depend sensitively on microenvironmental mechanical factors, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, in both in vivo and in vitro systems. We present a novel quantitative approach to assess cardiac structure and function by extending the classical traction force microscopy technique to tissue-level preparations. Using this system, we investigated the relationship between contractile proficiency and metabolism in neonate rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) cultured on gels with stiffness mimicking soft immature (1 kPa), normal healthy (13 kPa), and stiff diseased (90 kPa) cardiac microenvironments. We found that tissues engineered on the softest gels generated the least amount of stress and had the smallest work output. Conversely, cardiomyocytes in tissues engineered on healthy- and disease-mimicking gels generated significantly higher stresses, with the maximal contractile work measured in NRVM engineered on gels of normal stiffness. Interestingly, although tissues on soft gels exhibited poor stress generation and work production, their basal metabolic respiration rate was significantly more elevated than in other groups, suggesting a highly ineffective coupling between energy production and contractile work output. Our novel platform can thus be utilized to quantitatively assess the mechanotransduction pathways that initiate tissue-level structural and functional remodeling in response to substrate stiffness.

  12. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  13. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's program for applied research and technology (ART) in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) has made worthwhile contributions in a relatively short time: Many of these accomplishments are incremental, yet important. And their integration has yielded gains in performance as well as in the knowledge necessary to point productive directions for future work. Both promise and problems derive from the degrees of freedom allowed by the current programmatic emphasis on out-of-core thermionics. Materials and designs previously prohibited by in-core nucleonics and geometries now offer new potentialities. But as a result a major TEC-ART responsibility is the efficient reduction of the glitter of diverse possibilities to the hard glint of reality. As always high-temperature material effects are crucial to the level and duration of TEC performance: New electrodes must increase and maintain power output regardless of emitter-vapor deposition on collectors. They must also serve compatibly with hot-shell alloys. And while space TEC must face high-temperature vaporization problems externally as well as internally, terrestrial TEC must tolerate hot corrosive atmospheres outside and near-vacuum inside. Furthermore, some modes for decreasing interelectrode losses appear to require rather demanding converter geometries to produce practical power densities. In these areas and others significant progress is being made in the NASA TEC-ART Program

  14. Phase conversion for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.; Castle, W.; Sampat, N.; Skupsky, S.; Smith, D.; Swales, S.

    1988-01-01

    An essential requirement for direct drive laser fusion is the uniform irradiation of spherical targets that are located in the quasi-far field of a laser system. A major impediment to irradiation uniformity with high-power solid-state laser systems is the presence of a hot-spot structure at the target plane. The hot-spot intensity nonuniformities are caused by spatial variations in the near-field phase front of each laser beam. Although for many tabletop applications diffraction-limited laser performance can be obtained through static phase correction, adaptive optics, or phase conjugation, such approaches are either excessively expensive, difficult to implement, or not yet available for large-aperture, high-peak-power laser beams. An alternative to phase correcting a wavefront involves modifying the laser beam's coherence properties thereby changing its focusing characteristics. The method of induced spatial incoherence (ISI) involves a reduction in both spatial and temporal coherence. Other methods are based on modifications of only the spatial coherence of a laser beam. A phase conversion technology which incorporates a distribution of near-field phases to either perform static phase correction or induce spatial incoherence offers a route toward increasingly higher levels of irradiation uniformity

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  16. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  17. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  18. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G; Niblett, C; Walker, L

    1983-03-01

    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel 'alternative' energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in Federal funding provides a timely opportunity to assess progress. This paper offers a survey of the prevailing position there; outlining the outstanding technical and associated problems, and likely future developments. Non-USA programmes are only mentioned to contrast them with the American position. At present, it does not appear that OTEC plants will be commercially viable on a widespread basis even in the tropics. This is particularly true of the larger plants (400 MWe, MWe = megawatts of electrical energy, the final output of a power station) towards which the American programme is ultimately geared. There does seem to be a strong possibility that small OTEC plants, around 40 MWe or less, can be commercial in certain circumstances. This would be possible when one or, preferably, more of the following conditions are met: (i) where a land-based rather than 'at sea' plant is possible, (ii) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium, i.e. islands or regions without indigenous energy supplies, and (iii) where conditions are such that an OTEC plant could operate in conjunction with either or both an aquaculture or desalination plant.

  19. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  20. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  1. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  2. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  3. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  4. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  5. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  6. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  7. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  8. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  9. Discourse analysis: Conversational analysis of the internal conversation in Oracle Corporation Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Marwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the internal conversation which takes place in Oracle CorporationMalaysia. Through the study, it will be shown how conversational analysis is used toanalyze the transcription of a telephone conversation between Oracle staffs. The analysisof the transcriptions will apply a few basic concepts of conversational analysis; turntakingorganization, and the adjacency pair. The objective of the study is to find out howthe internal conversations takes place by focusing on the conversation itself, that is, theconversational structures spontaneously produced by people during talk ranging fromturn-taking strategies, how topics are introduced, conversation closings and so on. Bylooking in detail at such talk, we can gain a detailed understanding of how the staffs seethemselves in relation to the company that influence their daily lives.Keywords: conversational analysis, turn-taking, adjacency pairs

  10. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  11. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  12. Stochastic cellular automata model of neurosphere growth: Roles of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Rifat; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2018-05-14

    Neural stem and progenitor cells isolated from the central nervous system form, under specific culture conditions, clonal cell clusters known as neurospheres. The neurosphere assay has proven to be a powerful in vitro system to study the behavior of such cells and the development of their progeny. However, the theory of neurosphere growth has remained poorly understood. To overcome this limitation, we have, in the present paper, developed a cellular automata model, with which we examined the effects of proliferative potential, contact inhibition, cell death, and clearance of dead cells on growth rate, final size, and composition of neurospheres. Simulations based on this model indicated that the proliferative potential of the founder cell and its progenitors has a major influence on neurosphere size. On the other hand, contact inhibition of proliferation limits the final size, and reduces the growth rate, of neurospheres. The effect of this inhibition is particularly dramatic when a stem cell becomes encapsulated by differentiated or other non-proliferating cells, thereby suppressing any further mitotic division - despite the existing proliferative potential of the stem cell. Conversely, clearance of dead cells through phagocytosis is predicted to accelerate growth by reducing contact inhibition. A surprising prediction derived from our model is that cell death, while resulting in a decrease in growth rate and final size of neurospheres, increases the degree of differentiation of neurosphere cells. It is likely that the cellular automata model developed as part of the present investigation is applicable to the study of tissue growth in a wide range of systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  14. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  15. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  16. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  17. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  18. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  19. Conversion Disorder in Stroke: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Chou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is caused by previous severe stress, emotional conflict, or an associated psychiatric disorder, and usually presents with one or more neurologic symptoms. Clinically, it is challenging to diagnose diseases such as transient ischemia attack, stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord injury, and neuropathy. In this case report, we present a male stroke patient who had a typical conversion disorder.

  20. Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Sandijck, P.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion disorder has been associated with hypnotic susceptibility for over a century and is currently still believed to be a form of autohypnosis. There is, however. little empirical evidence for the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and conversion symptoms. The authors compared 50

  1. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  2. Exergy conversion in the Japanese society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Japanese society are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy are described in some detail

  3. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  4. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  5. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  6. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  7. Large-video-display-format conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.

    2000-01-01

    High-quality video-format converters apply motion estimation and motion compensation to prevent jitter resulting from picture-rate conversion, and aliasing due to de-interlacing, in sequences with motion. Although initially considered as too expensive, high-quality conversion is now economically

  8. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses...

  9. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  10. A possible connective tissue primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC)

    OpenAIRE

    Aurilio, G; Ricci, V; De Vita, F; Fasano, M; Fazio, N; Orditura, M; Funicelli, L; De Luca, G; Iasevoli, D; Iovino, F; Ciardiello, F; Conzo, G; Nol?, F; Lamendola, MG

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial carcinoma is an undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma with lymphoid stroma and non-keratinizing squamous cells with distinctive clinical, epidemiological and etiological features. Conversely, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELCs) are carcinomas that arise outside the nasopharynx but resemble a lymphoepithelioma histologically. In this case study, LELC presentation in connective tissue (left sternocleidomastoid muscle) is peculiar and unusual, but its diagnosis is supp...

  11. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  12. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...

  13. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  14. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  15. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  16. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  17. Rapid analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics in bovine tissues using disposable pipette extraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R; Nuñez, Alberto; Dutko, Terry; Ng, Chilton; Bluhm, Louis

    2013-10-25

    A high-throughput qualitative screening and identification method for 9 aminoglycosides of regulatory interest has been developed, validated, and implemented for bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues. The method involves extraction at previously validated conditions, cleanup using disposable pipette extraction, and analysis by a 3 min ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The drug analytes include neomycin, streptomycin, dihydrosptreptomycin, and spectinomycin, which have residue tolerances in bovine in the US, and kanamicin, gentamicin, apramycin, amikacin, and hygromycin, which do not have US tolerances established in bovine tissues. Tobramycin was used as an internal standard. An additional drug, paromomycin also was validated in the method, but it was dropped during implementation due to conversion of neomycin into paromomycin. Proposed fragmentation patterns for the monitored ions of each analyte were elucidated with the aid of high resolution MS using a quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument. Recoveries from spiking experiments at regulatory levels of concern showed that all analytes averaged 70-120% recoveries in all tissues, except hygromycin averaged 61% recovery. Lowest calibrated levels were as low as 0.005 μg/g in matrix extracts, which approximately corresponded to the limit of detection for screening purposes. Drug identifications at levels advantages compared to the previous microbial inhibition screening assay, especially for distinguishing individual drugs from a mixture and improving identification of gentamicin in tissue samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Kininase enzymes of cat eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.W.; Anderson, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Eye tissues contain kininase activities, including an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-like activity. The authors have begun further to characterize the ACE-like activity and to examine for another reputed kininase, carboxypeptidase N (CPN). Homogenates of tissues of 6 cat eyes and paired plasmas were assayed for ACE using 3 acyl-tripeptide substrates, 3 H-benzoylated F-A-P, F-G-P and A-G-P (respectively, BFAP, BFGP and BAGP). CPN was assayed using 3 H-benzoyl-A-R. All eye tissues and fluids contained ACE- and CPN-like activities. The ACE activity was clearly owing to ACE: relative values of Kc/Km for BFAP, BFGP and BAGP were those for pure ACE (2.213, 1.751 and 1.0); reactivities with inhibitors were as expected (Ki for captopril, MK 422 and RAC-X-65: 2.7, 0.62 and 0.31 nM). EDTA inhibited both ACE and CPN (I 50 's: 43 and 47 μM). CPN activity was inhibited by 2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropionate (Ki 2.4 nM). However, distributions of the two enzymes differed markedly. Virtually all tissues contained ACE at specific activities higher than that of plasma. Specific activities appeared to be a function of tissue vascularity (for choroid, ciliary body, iris, retina and plasma: 7.31, 2.57, 1.98, 1.53 and 0.21 pmol/mg protein). Only iris contained more CPN that did plasma (23.0 v. 7.21 pmol/mg protein). The tissue distribution of ACE is that expected for an endothelial-associated enzyme. Plasma may be the major source of CPN in eye tissues other than iris

  19. DIDS prevents ischemic membrane degradation in cultured hippocampal neurons by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Pamenter

    Full Text Available During stroke, cells in the infarct core exhibit rapid failure of their permeability barriers, which releases ions and inflammatory molecules that are deleterious to nearby tissue (the penumbra. Plasma membrane degradation is key to penumbral spread and is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, which are released via vesicular exocytosis into the extracellular fluid in response to stress. DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid preserves membrane integrity in neurons challenged with an in vitro ischemic penumbral mimic (ischemic solution: IS and we asked whether this action was mediated via inhibition of MMP activity. In cultured murine hippocampal neurons challenged with IS, intracellular proMMP-2 and -9 expression increased 4-10 fold and extracellular latent and active MMP isoform expression increased 2-22 fold. MMP-mediated extracellular gelatinolytic activity increased ∼20-50 fold, causing detachment of 32.1±4.5% of cells from the matrix and extensive plasma membrane degradation (>60% of cells took up vital dyes and >60% of plasma membranes were fragmented or blebbed. DIDS abolished cellular detachment and membrane degradation in neurons and the pathology-induced extracellular expression of latent and active MMPs. DIDS similarly inhibited extracellular MMP expression and cellular detachment induced by the pro-apoptotic agent staurosporine or the general proteinase agonist 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA. Conversely, DIDS-treatment did not impair stress-induced intracellular proMMP production, nor the intracellular cleavage of proMMP-2 to the active form, suggesting DIDS interferes with the vesicular extrusion of MMPs rather than directly inhibiting proteinase expression or activation. In support of this hypothesis, an antagonist of the V-type vesicular ATPase also inhibited extracellular MMP expression to a similar degree as DIDS. In addition, in a proteinase-independent model of vesicular exocytosis, DIDS

  20. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  1. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  2. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  3. The DHEA-sulfate depot following P450c17 inhibition supports the case for AKR1C3 inhibition in high risk localized and advanced castration resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamae, Daniel; Mostaghel, Elahe; Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Balk, Steven P; Kantoff, Philip W; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Penning, Trevor M

    2015-06-05

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treatment of localized high-risk disease and de novo metastatic disease frequently leads to relapse. These metastatic castration resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) claim a high mortality rate, despite the extended survival afforded by the growing armamentarium of androgen deprivation, radiation and immunotherapies. Here, we review two studies of neoadjuvant treatment of high-risk localized prostate cancer prior to prostatectomy, the total androgen pathway suppression (TAPS) trial and the neoadjuvant abiraterone acetate (AA) trial. These two trials assessed the efficacy of the non-specific P450c17 inhibitor, ketoconazole and the specific P450c17 inhibitor, AA, to inhibit tissue and serum androgen levels. Furthermore, a novel and validated stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay was used to accurately quantify adrenal and gonadal androgens in circulation during the course of these trials. The adrenal androgens, Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were significantly reduced in the patients receiving ketoconazole or AA compared to those who did not. However, in both trials, a significant amount of DHEA-S (∼20 μg/dL) persists and thus may serve as a depot for intratumoral conversion to the potent androgen receptor ligands, testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The final step in conversion of Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione and 5α-androstanedione to T and DHT, respectively, is catalyzed by AKR1C3. We therefore present the case that in the context of the DHEA-S depot, P450c17 and AKR1C3 inhibition may be an effective combinatorial treatment strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is associated with recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung-Ah; Lee, Bo Bin; Kim, Yujin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Han, Joungho; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Chae-Yeong; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the clinicopathological significance of HOXA9 hypermethylation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). HOXA9 hypermethylation was characterized in six lung cancer cell lines, and its clinicopathological significance was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR in 271 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 27 fresh-frozen tumor and matched normal tissues from 298 NSCLC patients, and Ki-67 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The promoter region of HOXA9 was highly methylated in six lung cancer cell lines, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of the cells with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC). Transient transfection of HOXA9 into H23 lung cancer cells resulted in the inhibition of cell migration but not proliferation. Conversely, sequence-specific siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOXA9 enhanced cell migration. The mRNA levels of HOXA9 in 27 fresh-frozen tumor tissues were significantly lower than in matched normal tissues (Precurrence-free survival (hazard ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-17.09, P=0.01) in never-smokers, after adjusting for age, sex, tumor size, adjuvant therapy, pathologic stage, and histology. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HOXA9 inhibits migration of lung cancer cells and its hypermethylation is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free survival in never-smokers with NSCLC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Corder, R E; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1987-09-01

    High temperatures and pressures are required, and therefore, high costs incurred during catalytic upgrading of coal synthesis gas to methane. Thus, the feasibility of biological reactions in converting synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in mixed and pure cultures. Complete conversion has been achieved in 2 hours with a mixed culture, and 45 minutes to 1.5 hours in pure cultures of P. productus and Methanothrix sp.. Typical sulfur levels involved during the process are found not to inhibit the bacteria and so sulfur does not have to be removed prior to biomethanation. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that coal gas may be biologically methanated for 50-60 cents/million Btu. Further studies with pure culture bacteria and increased pressure are expected to enhance biomethanation economics.

  6. Ownership conversions and nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.

  7. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2008-02-01

    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  8. Overview of the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external idealised exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Zankl, M; Bolch, W E; Eckerman, K F; Hertel, N E; Hunt, J G; Pelliccioni, M; Schlattl, H; Menzel, H-G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors.

  9. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  10. CRPS: A contingent hypothesis with prostaglandins as crucial conversion factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Phe

    2015-11-01

    CRPS is an acute pain disease expressed as chronic pain with a severe loss of tissue and function. CRPS usually occurs after minor injuries and then progresses in a way that is scarcely controllable, or completely uncontrollable. This article addresses the functional control mechanism of a biological organism, a comparison of techniques, and the way the negative feedback mechanisms fail in regulated feedback systems. The measurement and regulation system is controlled at the local, regional, and central levels in a biological system. Locally generated substances such as prostaglandins and hormones, as well as the central nervous system, play important roles in this process. Prostaglandins fulfil many conversion functions and are involved in vasoactive processes, pain, and inflammation. They play an intermediating role between the activity of the autonomic nervous system and local occurrences. The insufficiently explored conversion function of prostaglandins as a ubiquitously present cofactor may be related to the development of CRPS at sites which have had minor injuries in the past. Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a moderately prevalent disease, which occurs more frequently with age. Even though there are diseases known to have a precipitating effect on the aetiology of CRPS, for example Carpal tunnel syndrome, the mechanism of onset is unknown. The disease falls under the category of chronic pain, and seldom has an effective treatment based on scientific research. The economic and psychosocial aspects of the disease are substantial. CRPS is the final position of a positive feedback measurement and control system. Homoeostasis is directed by measurement and control processes. In electronics, a rapid conversion system, which quickly adapts to changing circumstances, superimposed with a delayed conversion system, which ensures a stable basis of homoeostasis. Measured changes are compensatorily controlled. An analogy is expected for a Complex Adaptive System

  11. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  12. Entropy fluxes, endoreversibility, and solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Landsberg, P. T.; Baruch, P.; Parrott, J. E.

    1993-09-01

    A formalism illustrating the conversion of radiation energy into work can be obtained in terms of energy and entropy fluxes. Whereas the Landsberg equality was derived for photothermal conversion with zero bandgap, a generalized inequality for photothermal/photovoltaic conversion with a single, but arbitrary, bandgap was deduced. This result was derived for a direct energy and entropy balance. The formalism of endoreversible dynamics was adopted in order to show the correlation with the latter approach. It was a surprising fact that the generalized Landsberg inequality was derived by optimizing some quantity W(sup *), which obtains it maximum value under short-circuit condition.

  13. Conversion electron spectroscopy in transfermium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy is an essential tool for the spectroscopy of heavy deformed nuclei. The conversion electron spectrometer SACRED has been used in conjunction with the gas-filled recoil separator RITU to study conversion electron cascades in 254 No. The spectra reveal the ground state rotational bands down to low spin. A detailed analysis of the background seen for 254 No shows that approximately 40% of the decay path goes via excited high K bands which may be built on an isomer. (orig.)

  14. The conversion factor of α radiation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin; Xia Junding

    1997-01-01

    It is important in fine-grain TL dating that the full α dose must be converted into the equivalent β dose. Although the conversion coefficient K for internal radiation efficiency can not be measured directly for each sample, it is possible to measure the external radiation efficiency K 3.7 . For this purpose a special study for the conversion factor of K to K 3.7 has been made using ultrathin TLD. The results show that the conversion factor of the TLD for archaeological samples is 0.847, which is in agreement with the calculated value 0.85

  15. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  16. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  17. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  18. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A.; Yap, Sook Fan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Chin, Khew-Voon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. ► Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. ► Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  19. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophoric antibiotic, inhibits adipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkudlarek-Mikho, Maria; Saunders, Rudel A. [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Yap, Sook Fan [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Pre-Clinical Sciences, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Ngeow, Yun Fong [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chin, Khew-Voon, E-mail: khew-voon.chin@utoledo.edu [Department of Medicine, Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Center for Diabetes and Endocrine Research, College of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salinomycin inhibits transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pharmacological effects of salinomycin suggest toxicity in cancer therapy. -- Abstract: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.

  20. Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Raphael; Karrasch, Charles C; Poulos, Michael G; Kunar, Balvir; Redmond, David; Duran, Jose G Barcia; Badwe, Chaitanya R; Schachterle, William; Ginsberg, Michael; Xiang, Jenny; Tabrizi, Arash Rafii; Shido, Koji; Rosenwaks, Zev; Elemento, Olivier; Speck, Nancy A; Butler, Jason M; Scandura, Joseph M; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-05-25

    Developmental pathways that orchestrate the fleeting transition of endothelial cells into haematopoietic stem cells remain undefined. Here we demonstrate a tractable approach for fully reprogramming adult mouse endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells (rEC-HSCs) through transient expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes Fosb, Gfi1, Runx1, and Spi1 (collectively denoted hereafter as FGRS) and vascular-niche-derived angiocrine factors. The induction phase (days 0-8) of conversion is initiated by expression of FGRS in mature endothelial cells, which results in endogenous Runx1 expression. During the specification phase (days 8-20), RUNX1 + FGRS-transduced endothelial cells commit to a haematopoietic fate, yielding rEC-HSCs that no longer require FGRS expression. The vascular niche drives a robust self-renewal and expansion phase of rEC-HSCs (days 20-28). rEC-HSCs have a transcriptome and long-term self-renewal capacity similar to those of adult haematopoietic stem cells, and can be used for clonal engraftment and serial primary and secondary multi-lineage reconstitution, including antigen-dependent adaptive immune function. Inhibition of TGFβ and CXCR7 or activation of BMP and CXCR4 signalling enhanced generation of rEC-HSCs. Pluripotency-independent conversion of endothelial cells into autologous authentic engraftable haematopoietic stem cells could aid treatment of haematological disorders.

  1. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohki, Makiko; Ohki, Yuichi; Ishihara, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    tissue regeneration is not well understood. Bone marrow (BM)-derived myeloid cells facilitate angiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Here, we report that a serpin-resistant form of tPA by activating the extracellular proteases matrix metalloproteinase-9 and plasmin expands the myeloid cell pool......-A. Remarkably, transplantation of BM-derived tPA-mobilized CD11b(+) cells and VEGFR-1(+) cells, but not carrier-mobilized cells or CD11b(-) cells, accelerates neovascularization and ischemic tissue regeneration. Inhibition of VEGF signaling suppresses tPA-induced neovascularization in a model of hind limb...... and mobilizes CD45(+)CD11b(+) proangiogenic, myeloid cells, a process dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and Kit ligand signaling. tPA improves the incorporation of CD11b(+) cells into ischemic tissues and increases expression of neoangiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF...

  2. Enzyme inhibition by iminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Óscar; Qing, Feng-Ling; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Imino- and azasugar glycosidase inhibitors display pH dependant inhibition reflecting that both the inhibitor and the enzyme active site have groups that change protonation state with pH. With the enzyme having two acidic groups and the inhibitor one basic group, enzyme-inhibitor complexes...

  3. Quorum sensing inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, T.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    /receptor transcriptional regulator in some clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. The present review contains all reported compound types that are currently known to inhibit the QS transcriptional regulator in Gram-negative bacteria. These compounds are sub-divided into two main groups, one comprising structural...

  4. Cooperation for Better Inhibiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Eva Maria; Ribas de Pouplana, Lluís

    2015-06-18

    Cladosporin is an antimalarial drug that acts as an ATP-mimetic to selectively inhibit Plasmodium lysyl-tRNA synthetase. Using multiple crystal structures, Fang et al. (2015) reveal in this issue of Chemistry & Biology the fascinating mechanism responsible for cladosporin selectivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  6. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  7. Calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are presented for the calculation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radioactive decay. A dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the dose-equivalent rate per unit radionuclide concentration. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each radiation type and exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors are derived for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. In addition, photon dose-rate conversion factors are estimated for 22 body organs. The calculations are based on the assumption that the exposure medium is infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration is uniform. The dose-rate conversion factors for immersion in contaminated air and water then follow from the requirement that all of the energy emitted in the radioactive decay is absorbed in the infinite medium. Dose-rate conversion factors for ground-surface exposure are calculated at a reference location above a smooth, infinite plane using the point-kernel integration method and known specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons in air

  8. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 x 10 -8 to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for 252 Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms

  9. Tissue engineering in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the

  10. Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768

  11. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  12. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  13. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  14. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Conversion systems must meet the same emissions standards that gasoline or diesel products do. Refer to EPA's manufacturer that holds the relevant emissions-related certifications and tampering exemptions. New and

  16. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  17. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  18. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  19. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  20. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.