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Sample records for tissue aib uptake

  1. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) as an in vivo tracer of amino acid uptake in differing metabolic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Starnes, H.F.; Brennan, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    AIB has been used as a model amino acid for the evaluation of alanine-preferring amino acid transport. Hormonal factors and starvation alter the tissue distribution of amino acids, particularly in liver and muscle. With positron emission tomography and labeling of biochemical tracers with C-11, (t1/2=20.4 min), it is now possible to study amino acid kinetics in vivo using external imaging. In order to investigate the utility of C-11 AIB as an in vivo tracer of altered tissue metabolism, C-14 AIB was studied in groups of rats with either streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin-induced hypoglycemia or starvation. The data suggest an increased amino acid uptake in liver in starvation, an increased uptake in muscle in response to insulin and associated hypoglycemia and decreased transport in muscle in starvation, as seen by other investigators. These results suggest that C-11 AIB may be useful as an in vivo monitor of metabolic changes in body tissues

  2. Effects of aminoisobutyric acid on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid uptake, ethylene production and content of ACC in water-stressed tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantari, Kh.M.; Bolourani, P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of water stress on the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis has not yet clearly been established. Both the formation and utilization of aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC, are considered to be major regulatory points in ethylene biosynthesis. There is evidence that ACC synthase is the key control enzyme in response to various stimuli associated with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. It has been reported that aminoisobutyric acid, AIB, inhibits ethylene production in some plants and AIB may inhibit the conversion of ACC to ethylene. For this reason, the possibility of inhibition of ACC uptake in the presence of AIB was examined. It was observed that the rate of 14 C-ACC uptake decreased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. Calculating the percentage of ACC converted to ethylene on the basis of uptake shows that AIB inhibits the conversion of 14 C-ACC to ethylene and that this inhibition is increased with an increase in the concentration of AIB in the solution. This suggests that a portion of the inhibition of the conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of AIB is partly due to the competition for absorption. However, the ability of AIB to inhibit ethylene production in leaf tissue without an exogenous supply of ACC clearly indicates that AIB inhibits ethylene production. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in water-stressed plants and the results are discussed

  3. Uptake of [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{alpha}-methylaminoisobutyric acid in untreated head and neck cancer studied by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutinen, Eija; Jyrkkioe, Sirkku; Minn, Heikki [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Turku University Central Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521 Turku (Finland); Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Alanen, Kalle [Department of Pathology, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Naagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2003-01-01

    Amino acid transport system A is expressed strongly in neoplastic cells. [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]{alpha}-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ({sup 11}C-MeAIB) is a recently developed tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport. {sup 11}C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue which is transported from plasma into the tissue by system A. This study evaluated the kinetics of {sup 11}C-MeAIB uptake from plasma into tumour tissue and normal tissues in 13 patients with untreated head and neck cancer. {sup 11}C-MeAIB uptake in tumour was compared with histological grade and proliferative activity. Tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the standardised uptake values (SUVs) and the kinetic influx constants (K{sub i}) using graphical analysis. All tumours accumulated {sup 11}C-MeAIB and were visualised clearly. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were achieved; the mean K{sub i} value of tumour was 0.056{+-}0.026 min{sup -1}, and the mean SUV was 6.1{+-}2.7. A close correlation between graphically obtained K{sub i} and semi-quantitative SUV in tumours was found (r=0.887, P=0.00005). We could not demonstrate a correlation between the uptake of {sup 11}C-MeAIB and the grade of malignancy or the proliferative index, as assessed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical assay. Head and neck cancer can be effectively imaged with {sup 11}C-MeAIB PET. {sup 11}C-MeAIB showed active and rapid transport into tumour tissue and salivary glands. Further studies on the applicability of {sup 11}C-MeAIB PET for radiation treatment planning in the head and neck region and the regulation of system A amino acid transport under different metabolic states are warranted. (orig.)

  4. Overexpression of AIB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinomas correlates closely with advanced tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Zhong; Xie, Dan; Mai, Shi-Juan; Tong, Zhu-Ting; Shao, Jian-Yong; Fu, Yong-Shui; Xia, Wen-Jie; Kung, Hsian-Fu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2008-05-01

    AIB1, a candidate oncogene in breast cancer, is commonly amplified and overexpressed in several types of human cancers. In this study, expression and amplification of AIB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays, including 80 specimens of NPC and 20 specimens of nonneoplastic nasopharyngeal mucosa. In this NPC cohort, overexpression and amplification of AIB1 was detected in 36 (51%) of 71 and 3 (7%) of 46 NPCs, respectively. Overexpression of AIB1 was observed more frequently in NPCs in late T stages (T3/T4, 24/35 [69%]) than in earlier stages (T1/T2, 12/36 [33%]; P < .05). In addition, 18 (72%) of 25 NPCs with lymph node metastasis (N1-3) showed overexpression of AIB1; the frequency was significantly higher than that in NPCs without node metastasis (N0, 18/49 [39%]; P < .05). These findings suggest that overexpression of AIB1 in NPCs may be important in the acquisition of an invasive and/or metastatic phenotype.

  5. Prognostic and predictive importance of the estrogen receptor coactivator AIB1 in a randomized trial comparing adjuvant letrozole and tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkner, S; Jensen, Maj-Britt Raaby; Rasmussen, B B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the estrogen receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) as a prognostic marker, as well as a predictive marker for response to adjuvant tamoxifen and/or aromatase inhibitors, in early estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. METHOD: AIB1 was analyzed...... with immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays of the Danish subcohort (N = 1396) of the International Breast Cancer Study Group's trial BIG 1-98 (randomization between adjuvant tamoxifen versus letrozole versus the sequence of the two drugs). RESULTS: Forty-six percent of the tumors had a high AIB1 expression. In line...... with previous studies, AIB1 correlated to a more aggressive tumor-phenotype (HER2 amplification and a high malignancy grade). High AIB1 also correlated to higher estrogen receptor expression (80-100 vs. 1-79%), and ductal histological type. High AIB1 expression was associated with a poor disease-free survival...

  6. The first N-terminal unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide: H-Gly-Aib-Gly-Aib-OtBu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Renate; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2015-12-01

    Glycine (Gly) is incorporated in roughly half of all known peptaibiotic (nonribosomally biosynthesized antibiotic peptides of fungal origin) sequences and is the residue with the greatest conformational flexibility. The conformational space of Aib (α-aminoisobutyric acid) is severely restricted by the second methyl group attached to the Cα atom. Most of the crystal structures containing Aib are N-terminal protected. Deprotection of the N- or C-terminus of peptides may alter the hydrogen-bonding scheme and/or the structure and may facilitate crystallization. The structure reported here for glycyl-α-aminoisobutyrylglycyl-α-aminoisobutyric acid tert-butyl ester, C16H30N4O5, describes the first N-terminal-unprotected (Gly-Aib)n peptide. The achiral peptide could form an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the C=O group of Gly1 and the N-H group of Aib4. This hydrogen bond is found in all tetrapeptides and N-terminal-protected tripeptides containing Aib, apart from one exception. In the present work, this hydrogen bond is not observed (N...O = 5.88 Å). Instead, every molecule is hydrogen bonded to six other symmetry-related molecules with a total of eight hydrogen bonds per molecule. The backbone conformation starts in the right-handed helical region (and the left-handed helical region for the inverted molecule) and reverses the screw sense in the last two residues.

  7. Altered AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 Expression Impacts ERα Effects on Mammary Gland Stromal and Epithelial Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakles, Rebecca E.; Shiffert, Maddalena Tilli; Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Cabrera, M. Carla; Alotaiby, Maram; Miermont, Anne M.; Riegel, Anna T.

    2011-01-01

    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) (also known as steroid receptor coactivator-3) is a nuclear receptor coactivator enhancing estrogen receptor (ER)α and progesterone receptor (PR)-dependent transcription in breast cancer. The splice variant AIB1Δ3 demonstrates increased ability to promote ERα and PR-dependent transcription. Both are implicated in breast cancer risk and antihormone resistance. Conditional transgenic mice tested the in vivo impact of AIB1Δ3 overexpression compared with AIB1 on histological features of increased breast cancer risk and growth response to estrogen and progesterone in the mammary gland. Combining expression of either AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 with ERα overexpression, we investigated in vivo cooperativity. AIB1 and AIB1Δ3 overexpression equivalently increased the prevalence of hyperplastic alveolar nodules but not ductal hyperplasia or collagen content. When AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 overexpression was combined with ERα, both stromal collagen content and ductal hyperplasia prevalence were significantly increased and adenocarcinomas appeared. Overexpression of AIB1Δ3, especially combined with overexpressed ERα, led to an abnormal response to estrogen and progesterone with significant increases in stromal collagen content and development of a multilayered mammary epithelium. AIB1Δ3 overexpression was associated with a significant increase in PR expression and PR downstream signaling genes. AIB1 overexpression produced less marked growth abnormalities and no significant change in PR expression. In summary, AIB1Δ3 overexpression was more potent than AIB1 overexpression in increasing stromal collagen content, inducing abnormal mammary epithelial growth, altering PR expression levels, and mediating the response to estrogen and progesterone. Combining ERα overexpression with either AIB1 or AIB1Δ3 overexpression augmented abnormal growth responses in both epithelial and stromal compartments. PMID:21292825

  8. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ion-dependent breakdown and trans-nitrosation reactions are ... [McGrowder D, Ragoobirsingh D and Brown P 2006 Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide-generating ... Briefly, nicotinamide (Sigma Chemical Co.,.

  9. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  10. Clinical significance of abnormal nonosseous soft tissue uptake of bone tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Shang Yukun; Li Jiannan; Bai Jing; Cai Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical significance of abnormal soft tissue uptake of bone tracer. Methods: Thirty patients with abnormal soft tissue uptake of bone tracer on 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) skeletal imaging were analyzed. Radioactivity of soft tissue accumulated equal to or greater than the ribs were considered as abnormal. The result was compared with pathology, MRI, CT, X-ray, ultrasound, findings for evaluating its clinical significance. Results: In 7 patients with diffuse liver uptake of 99 Tc m -MDP, 6 were massive and 1 nodular liver cancer. In 2 patients with local liver uptake, one was metastatic and the other primary liver cancer. In 5 local lung uptake cases 4 were primary lung cancer and one metastatic. In 5 cases with colonic uptake 1 was schistosomiasis while the other 4 unexplainable. Subcutaneous tissue uptake was observed in 4 patients, symmetrical uptake in 2 patients with metastatic calcification microfoci in multiple myeloma, unsymmetrical uptake in 2 patients with hemangioma and abscess. Pleural uptake in 3 patients all was metastatic cancer. Abdominal uptake in 3 patients was omentum, paravertebral soft tissue metastasis and unknown cause. Breast uptake in one patient was due to breast cancer. Conclusions: There are many causes resulting in abnormal nonosseous soft tissue uptake of 99 Tc m -MDP. The final diagnosis should correlate with clinical data and other examinations. (authors)

  11. The AIBS In Yugoslavia: Programs in Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mary-Frances

    1978-01-01

    Programs in biomedical engineering have been developing worldwide since World War II. This article describes a multidisciplinary program which operates in Yugoslavia through a cooperative effort between that county and the AIBS. A major problem has been the slowness with which hospitals accept the concept of biomedical engineering. (MA)

  12. TUSC5 regulates insulin-mediated adipose tissue glucose uptake by modulation of GLUT4 recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Beaton

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, these findings establish TUSC5 as an adipose tissue-specific protein that enables proper protein recycling, linking the ubiquitous vesicle traffic machinery with tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake into adipose tissue and the maintenance of a healthy metabolic phenotype in mice and humans.

  13. Phosphorylation of AIB1 at Mitosis Is Regulated by CDK1/CYCLIN B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Macarena; Ferragud, Juan; Orlando, Leonardo; Valero, Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel; Farràs, Rosa; Font de Mora, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the AIB1 oncogene has an important role during the early phase of the cell cycle as a coactivator of E2F1, little is known about its function during mitosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitotic cells isolated by nocodazole treatment as well as by shake-off revealed a post-translational modification occurring in AIB1 specifically during mitosis. This modification was sensitive to the treatment with phosphatase, suggesting its modification by phosphorylation. Using specific inhibitors and in vitro kinase assays we demonstrate that AIB1 is phosphorylated on Ser728 and Ser867 by Cdk1/cyclin B at the onset of mitosis and remains phosphorylated until exit from M phase. Differences in the sensitivity to phosphatase inhibitors suggest that PP1 mediates dephosphorylation of AIB1 at the end of mitosis. The phosphorylation of AIB1 during mitosis was not associated with ubiquitylation or degradation, as confirmed by western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays showed that this phosphorylation did not alter the transcriptional properties of AIB1. Importantly, fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation showed that AIB1 phosphorylation correlated with the exclusion from the condensed chromatin, thus preventing access to the promoters of AIB1-dependent genes. Phospho-specific antibodies developed against Ser728 further demonstrated the presence of phosphorylated AIB1 only in mitotic cells where it was localized preferentially in the periphery of the cell. Conclusions Collectively, our results describe a new mechanism for the regulation of AIB1 during mitosis, whereby phosphorylation of AIB1 by Cdk1 correlates with the subcellular redistribution of AIB1 from a chromatin-associated state in interphase to a more peripheral localization during mitosis. At the exit of mitosis, AIB1 is dephosphorylated, presumably by PP1. This exclusion from chromatin during mitosis may represent a mechanism for governing the

  14. The autoradiographic uptake and turnover of [1-3H] -galactose in mouse periodontal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonna, E.A.; Wysor, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    In 5-week-old Brookhaven National Laboratory short-lived mice, [ 3 H]-galactose was utilized in all the oral tissues studied. Uptake and turnover of the tracer assessed by autoradiography revealed three uptake peaks. Synchronous fluctuation of total grain counts was repeatedly observed in different periodontal tissues. Acid glycosaminoglycans were strongly labelled and the neutral glycosaminoglycan fraction of the tissues was labelled to a lesser degree. The radiotracer became incorporated during their symthesis. The complex plots derived may represent several metabolic events occurring simultaneously. The uptake of radiotracer in fibrogenic, osteogenic and cementogenic cells was low. Accumulation of matrical output, however, was significant. The matrical output of the cementogenic cells and the osteogenic layer mesial to the alveolar bone was the highest of all the oral tissues studied throughout the 30-day period. (author)

  15. FDG uptake in the fatty tissues of supraclavicular and the vascular structure of the lung hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Supraclavicular region (SR) and lung hilum (LH) are common sites for lymph node metastases. A commonly reported site of non-malignant FDG uptake on PET imaging in the SR is muscular uptake. PET/CT offers a unique technique to correlate PET findings with CT anatomy in the SR and LH. We carried out this study to investigate FDG uptake in SR and LH to find out the exact tissues of FDG uptake. From September 2002 to March 2003, 147 consecutive patients imaged by FDG PET/CT whole-body scan (GE Discovery LS, CT attenuation correction, OSEM reconstruction) were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of abnormal FDG uptake on PET images in SR and LH regions was evaluated and the corresponding CT findings on the same regions were also assessed. Of the 147 patients, 8 cases (2M, 6F and mean age 44 years) were found with increased symmetrical FDG uptake in the regions of the lower neck and shoulder as well as costo-vertebral articulations. The positive rates were 2.1% and 11.3% for men and women respectively, and the average rate was 5.4%. However, no FDG uptake was seen in the greater muscular structures of the cervical or thoracic spine. FDG uptake was seen in the fatty tissue between the shoulder muscle and the dorsal thoracic wall, but not within the muscles itself. Five patients (3M, 2F, age 56-74 years, 3.4%) showed abnormal FDG uptake in LH, which were definitely localized in the vascular structure of the lung hilum by CT. Co-registered PET/CT imaging shows that the FDG uptake, though well known in the SR and LH regions, is not fully located in greater muscular structures and lymph nodes, but in the costo-vertebral articulation complex of the thoracic spine and fatty tissue of the shoulders as well as in the vascular structure of both lung hilum. The FDG uptake in the fatty tissue of the shoulders was mostly seen in women, while the uptake in vascular structure of the lung hilum were found in aged people. (author)

  16. FDG uptake in the fatty tissues of supraclavicular and the vascular structure of the lung hilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate FDG uptake on the sites of supraclavicular region (SR) and the lung hilum (LH) and find out the exact tissues of the uptake. Methods: Supraclavicular region (SR) and lung hilum (LH) are common sites for lymph node metastases. A commonly reported site of non-malignant FDG uptake on PET imaging in the SR is muscular uptake. PET/CT offers a unique technique to correlate PET findings with CT anatomy in the SR and EH. From September 2002 to March 2003, 147 consecutive clinical patients imaged by FDG PET/CT whole-body scan (GE Discovery LS, CT attenuation correction, OSEM reconstruction) were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of abnormal FDG uptake on PET images in the sites of SR and LH regions was evaluated and the corresponding CT findings on the same regions were also assessed. Results: Of 147 patients, 8 cases (2M, 6F and mean age 44 years) were found with increased symmetrical FDG uptake in the regions of the lower neck and shoulder as well as costo-vertebral articulations, the positive rates were 2.1% and 11.3 % for men and women respectively, and the average rate was 5.4%. However, no FDG uptake was seen in the greater muscular structures of the cervical or thoracic spine. FDG uptake was seen in the fatty tissue between the shoulder muscle and the dorsal thoracic wall, but not within the muscles itself. Five patients (3M, 2F, age 56-74 years,3.4%) showed abnormal LH FDG uptake, which were definitely localized in the vascular structure of the lung hilum by CT Conclusion: Co-registered PET/CT imaging shows that the FDG uptake been well known in the SR and LH regions are not fully located in greater muscular structures and lymph nodes, but in the costo-vertebral articulation complex of the thoracic spine and fatty tissue of the shoulders as well as in the vascular structure of both lung hilum. The FDG uptake in the fatty tissue of the shoulders was mostly seen in women, while the uptake in vascular structure of the lung hilum were

  17. In vitro effects of toxaphene on mitochondrial calcium ATPase and calcium uptake in selected rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottman, C.H.; Rao, K.S.P.; Morrow, W.; Uzodinma, J.E.; Desaiah, D.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro effects of toxaphene on Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and 45 Ca 2+ -uptake were studied in mitochondrial fractions of heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared by the conventional centrifugation method. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity was determined by measuring the inorganic phosphate liberated during ATP hydrolysis. Toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase in a concentration dependent manner in all the three tissues. Substrate activation kinetics, with heart, kidney and liver tissue fractions, revealed that toxaphene inhibited Ca 2+ -ATPase activity non-competetively by decreasing the maximum velocity of the enzyme without affecting the enzyme-substrate affinity. Toxaphene also inhibited mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ -uptake in the three selected tissues in a concentration dependent manner. These results indicate that toxaphene is an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca 2+ -ATPase and calcium transport in heart, kidney and liver tissues of rat. 19 references, 5 figures

  18. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xinhua; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology – specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition – water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. -- Highlights: •There is no correlation between phenanthrene uptake and total root length, and water. •Specific surface area and lipid are the most crucial factors for phenanthrene uptake. •The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid. -- The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid in the two most important root morphological and compositional factors affecting phenanthrene uptake

  19. High affinity, ligand specific uptake of complexed copper-67 by brain tissue incubated in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, A.; Hartter, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Copper is an essential metal that is highly concentrated in the brain. The blood, the sole source of tissue Cu, contains 16-20 μM Cu, of which >95% is complexed to proteins and 2 was 10 times greater than that of CuAlbumin or Cu(II). Within the range of 0.2-150μM Cu, multiple uptake sites for CuHis were apparent. Increasing the molar ratio of His:Cu had a differential effect on Cu uptake: enhancing uptake at [Cu] 1 μM. Thus, using a His:Cu ratio of 1000, they observed a high affinity process exhibiting saturating and half saturating values of 5 μM and 1.5 μM Cu, respectively; using a His:Cu ratio of 2, they observed a low affinity process exhibiting saturating and half-saturating values of 100 μM and 40 μM Cu, respectively. Both processes required thermic but not metabolic energy, suggestive of facilitated diffusion. Considering the blood brain barrier for proteins, CuHis appears to be the major substrate for Cu uptake by neuronal tissue. They demonstrate the existence of a ligand specific, high affinity (apparent Km about 1.5 μM Cu) uptake process for CuHis in the brain, operative at the physiological concentration range of CuHis and histidine

  20. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, A.D.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Edelman, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo glucose uptake can occur via two mechanisms, namely, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU). Although the principal tissue sites for IMGU are skeletal muscle, the tissue sites for NIMGU at a given serum glucose concentration are not known. To examine this issue, rates of whole body glucose uptake (Rd) were measured at basal and during glucose clamp studies performed at euglycemia (approximately 90 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (approximately 220 mg/dl) in six lean healthy men. Studies were performed during hyperinsulinemia (approximately 70 microU/ml) and during somatostatin-induced insulinopenia to measure IMGU and NIMGU, respectively. During each study, leg glucose balance (arteriovenous catheter technique) was also measured. With this approach, rates of whole body skeletal muscle IMGU and NIMGU can be estimated, and the difference between overall Rd and skeletal muscle glucose uptake represents non-skeletal muscle Rd. The results indicate that approximately 20% of basal Rd is into skeletal muscle. During insulinopenia approximately 86% of body NIMGU occurs in non-skeletal muscle tissues at euglycemia. When hyperglycemia was created, whole body NIMGU increased from 128 +/- 6 to 213 +/- 18 mg/min (P less than 0.01); NIMGU into non-skeletal muscle tissues was 134 +/- 11 and 111 +/- 6 mg/min at hyperglycemia and euglycemia, respectively, P = NS. Therefore, virtually all the hyperglycemia induced increment in NIMGU occurred in skeletal muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, IMGU in skeletal muscle represented 75 and 95% of body Rd, at euglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively

  1. Reduction of FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in clinical patients by a single dose of propranolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, Veli [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Uptake in brown adipose tissue (hibernating fat) is sometimes seen at FDG-PET examinations. Despite a characteristic appearance, this may hide clinically relevant uptake. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases glucose uptake of brown fat. We now re-examine patients with brown fat activity that could disguise tumour uptake after pre-treatment with propranolol (a non-selective {beta}-blocker) in order to reduce the uptake. Our first examinations of this kind are reported. Eleven patients with strong brown fat uptake were studied. There was a mean of 5 days (range 2-8) between the examinations. At the second examination, 80 mg of propranolol was given orally 2 h before FDG administration. In addition to visual evaluation of the brown fat uptake, SUV assessments of the uptake in brown fat, lung, heart, liver, spleen and bone marrow were made. All patients showed complete or almost complete disappearance of the brown fat activity at the second examination (p < 0.001) both upon visual evaluation and when comparing SUVs. In seven patients there was also uptake in a known or strongly suspected malignancy, which remained unchanged between the examinations. Beyond an insignificant decrease in the myocardial uptake, there was no redistribution to the various examined organs at the second examination. Pre-treatment with a single dose of propranolol blocks the FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing the specificity of the examination. The tumour uptake seems not to be impaired. (orig.)

  2. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration......-time: T, 44 +/- 9 min (n = 7); S, 102 +/- 23 min (n = 5); P training enhances insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in subcutaneous adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, interstitial glycerol data suggest that training also increases insulin sensitivity of lipolysis...

  3. Fluoride Alteration of [3H]Glucose Uptake in Wistar Rat Brain and Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Anna; Kuter, Katarzyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Głogowska-Gruszka, Anna; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of postnatal fluoride intake on [3H]glucose uptake and transport in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Sodium fluoride (NaF) in a concentration of 10 or 50 ppm was added to the drinking water of adult Wistar rats. The control group received distilled water. After 4 weeks, respective plasma fluoride levels were 0.0541 ± 0.0135 μg/ml (control), 0.0596 ± 0.0202 μg/ml (10 ppm), and 0.0823 ± 0.0199 μg/ml (50 ppm). Although plasma glucose levels were not altered in any group, the plasma insulin level in the fluoride (50 ppm) group was elevated (0.72 ± 0.13 μg/ml) versus the control group (0.48 ± 0.24 μg/ml) and fluoride (10 ppm) group. In rats receiving fluoride for 4 weeks at 10 ppm in drinking water, [3H]glucose uptake was unaltered in all tested parts of the brain. However, in rats receiving fluoride at 50 ppm, [3H]glucose uptake in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus with hypothalamus was elevated, versus the saline group. Fluoride intake had a negligible effect on [3H]glucose uptake by peripheral tissues (liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, atrium, aorta, kidney, visceral tissue, lung, skin, oral mucosa, tongue, salivary gland, incisor, molars, and jawbone). In neither fluoride group was glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT 1) or 3 (GLUT 3) altered in frontal cortex and striatum versus control. On the assumption that increased glucose uptake (by neural tissue) reasonably reflects neuronal activity, it appears that fluoride damage to the brain results in a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and utilization without changes in GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 expression.

  4. Facilitated monocyte-macrophage uptake and tissue distribution of superparmagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Beduneau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We posit that the same mononuclear phagocytes (MP that serve as target cells and vehicles for a host of microbial infections can be used to improve diagnostics and drug delivery. We also theorize that physical and biological processes such as particle shape, size, coating and opsonization that affect MP clearance of debris and microbes can be harnessed to facilitate uptake of nanoparticles (NP and tissue delivery. METHODS: Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were used as vehicles of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO NP and immunoglobulin (IgG or albumin coated SPIO for studies of uptake and distribution. IgG coated SPIO was synthesized by covalent linkage and uptake into monocytes and MDM investigated related to size, time, temperature, concentration, and coatings. SPIO and IgG SPIO were infused intravenously into naïve mice. T(2 measures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to monitor tissue distribution in animals. RESULTS: Oxidation of dextran on the SPIO surface generated reactive aldehyde groups and permitted covalent linkage to amino groups of murine and human IgG and F(ab'(2 fragments and for Alexa Fluor(R 488 hydroxylamine to form a Schiff base. This labile intermediate was immediately reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in order to stabilize the NP conjugate. Optical density measurements of the oxidized IgG, F(ab'(2, and/or Alexa Fluor(R 488 SPIO demonstrated approximately 50% coupling yield. IgG-SPIO was found stable at 4 degrees C for a period of 1 month during which size and polydispersity index varied little from 175 nm and 200 nm, respectively. In vitro, NP accumulated readily within monocyte and MDM cytoplasm after IgG-SPIO exposure; whereas, the uptake of native SPIO in monocytes and MDM was 10-fold less. No changes in cell viability were noted for the SPIO-containing monocytes and MDM. Cell morphology was not changed as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared to unconjugated

  5. Dependence of Brown Adipose Tissue Function on CD36-Mediated Coenzyme Q Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M. Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT possesses the inherent ability to dissipate metabolic energy as heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. An essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is coenzyme Q (CoQ. While cells synthesize CoQ mostly endogenously, exogenous supplementation with CoQ has been successful as a therapy for patients with CoQ deficiency. However, which tissues depend on exogenous CoQ uptake as well as the mechanism by which CoQ is taken up by cells and the role of this process in BAT function are not well understood. Here, we report that the scavenger receptor CD36 drives the uptake of CoQ by BAT and is required for normal BAT function. BAT from mice lacking CD36 displays CoQ deficiency, impaired CoQ uptake, hypertrophy, altered lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and defective nonshivering thermogenesis. Together, these data reveal an important new role for the systemic transport of CoQ to BAT and its function in thermogenesis.

  6. Characterization of positron emission tomography hypoxia tracer uptake and tissue oxygenation via electrochemical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Stephen R., E-mail: srbowen@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [University Medical Centre St. Radboud, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nordsmark, Marianne [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus (Denmark); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Clinical Sciences Center, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Jeraj, Robert [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Clinical Sciences Center, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Unique uptake and retention mechanisms of positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia tracers make in vivo comparison between them challenging. Differences in imaged uptake of two common hypoxia radiotracers, [{sup 61}Cu]Cu-ATSM and [{sup 18}F]FMISO, were characterized via computational modeling to address these challenges. Materials and Methods: An electrochemical formalism describing bioreductive retention mechanisms of these tracers under steady-state conditions was adopted to relate time-averaged activity concentration to tissue partial oxygen tension (PO{sub 2}), a common metric of hypoxia. Chemical equilibrium constants of product concentration to reactant concentration ratios were determined from free energy changes and reduction potentials of pertinent reactions reported in the literature. Resulting transformation functions between tracer uptake and PO{sub 2} were compared against measured values in preclinical models. Additionally, calculated PO{sub 2} distributions from imaged Cu-ATSM tracer activity concentrations of 12 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients were validated against microelectrode PO{sub 2} measurements in 69 HNSCC patients. Results: Both Cu-ASTM- and FMISO-modeled PO{sub 2} transformation functions were in agreement with preclinical measured values within single-deviation confidence intervals. High correlation (r{sup 2}=0.94, P<.05) was achieved between modeled PO{sub 2} distributions and measured distributions in the patient populations. On average, microelectrode hypoxia thresholds (2.5 and 5.0 mmHg) corresponded to higher Cu-ATSM uptake [2.5 and 2.0 standardized uptake value (SUV)] and lower FMISO uptake (2.0 and 1.4 SUV). Uncertainties in the models were dominated by variations in the estimated specific activity and intracellular acidity. Conclusions: Results indicated that the high dynamic range of Cu-ATSM uptake was representative of a narrow range of low oxygen tension whose values were dependent on

  7. Temporal relation between temperature change and FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, SunHee; Krynyckyi, Borys R.; Machac, Josef; Kim, Chun K.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that the prevalence of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is related to outdoor temperature, i.e., more frequent during the colder periods of the year. The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal relationship between BAT FDG uptake and temperature. We correlated the prevalence of BAT with average temperatures (divided into five temperature ranges) of seven different durations. One thousand four hundred ninety-five consecutive FDG Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in 1,159 patients (566 male and 593 female, mean age = 60.4 years) were retrospectively reviewed. FDG uptake with distinct patterns compatible with BAT was identified by a consensus of two readers. The local daily average temperature from January 2000 to November 2003 (beginning 60 days before the date of first PET scan) were obtained, and 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 30-, and 60-day average temperatures before the date of a PET study were calculated. The prevalence of BAT FDG uptake was correlated with these various average temperatures. The daily, 2-day, 3-day, and 7-day average temperature had an inverse relation with the prevalence of BAT, i.e., the lower the temperature, the higher prevalence of BAT. When the temperature was averaged over 14 days or longer, this inverse relationship between the temperature and the prevalence of BAT was no longer preserved. Our data suggest that increased FDG uptake in BAT occurs more often as an acute response to cold weather (1-7 days) rather than to prolonged periods of average cold weather. (orig.)

  8. Contrasting effects of exercise and NOS inhibition on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Bracy, Deanna; Malabanan, Carlo; Yue, Zou; Clanton, Jeff; Wasserman, David H

    2002-07-01

    Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

  9. Difference in Uptake of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxins into Liver Tissue Slices among Pufferfish, Boxfish and Porcupinefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Nagashima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic species Takifugu rubripes and non-toxic species Lagocephalus spadiceus, L. cheesemanii and Sphoeroides pachygaster incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0.99–1.55 µg TTX/mg protein after 8 h, regardless of the toxicity of the species. In contrast, in liver tissue slices of boxfish (Ostracion immaculatus and porcupinefish (Diodon holocanthus, D. liturosus, D. hystrix and Chilomycterus reticulatus, TTX content did not increase with incubation time, and was about 0.1 µg TTX/mg protein. When liver tissue slices were incubated with 50 µM STXs for 8 h, the STXs content was <0.1 µg STXs/mg protein, irrespective of the fish species. These findings indicate that, like the toxic species of pufferfish T. rubripes, non-toxic species such as L. spadiceus, L. cheesemanii and S. pachygaster, potentially take up TTX into the liver, while non-toxic boxfish and porcupinefish do not take up either TTX or STXs.

  10. Neutral tissue uptake and clearance of iohexol following lumbar myelography in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.E.; Foley, M.; Morris, T.W.; Sahler, L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of water-soluble contrast media (CM) into the extracellular space of the central nervous system following injection into the subarachnoid space has previously been shown. As a result of this, water-soluble CM will come in direct contact with the neurons and may interfere with their normal function. The toxic effects would thus be a result both of the molecular properties of the CM as well as the local tissue concentration. The neuronal tissue uptake and clearance of metrizamide in rabbits following lumbar myelography was described in a previous study by our group. This study indicated some retention of metrizamide in the spinal cord probably as a result of binding of the CM to the cell membrane. The mechanism for this has not yet been shown although it may relate to the binding of metrizamide via its 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) portion and the specific glucose membrane carrier. The present investigation was performed to evaluate the diffusion kinetics of a new non-ionic CM. With iohexol, which lacks a 2-DG component in its molecule a direct relationship between the neural tissue and CSF concentration was found which seems to follow a simple diffusion model. Since iohexol shows no sign of entrapment in the tissue, the contact time for neurons will be shorter than that seen with metrizamide assuming that their rate of drainage from the SCF is identical. (orig.)

  11. Uptake of ingested bovine lactoferrin and its accumulation in adult mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Romy; Debbabi, Hajer; Blais, Anne; Dubarry, Michel; Rautureau, Michèle; Boyaka, Prosper N; Tome, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties, which is found in milk, other external secretions, and in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The present study examined the time course of uptake and the pattern of tissue accumulation of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) following intragastric intubation of a single dose to adult naïve mice or to mice daily fed bLf for 4 weeks. Following ingestion, bLf was transferred from the intestine into peripheral blood in a form with intact molecular weight (80 kDa) and localized within 10 to 20 min after oral administration in the liver, kidneys, gall bladder, spleen, and brain of both groups of mice. Immunoreactive bLf could also be detected in the luminal contents of the stomach, small intestine and colon 1 h after intragastric intubation. Interestingly, serum and tissue accumulation of bLf was approximately 50% lower in mice chronically fed this protein than in those given only the single oral dose. Furthermore, significant levels of bLf-specific IgA and IgG antibodies as well as bLf-containing IgA- and IgG immune complexes were detected in mice chronically fed bLf but not in those fed only once. Taken together, these results indicate that bLf resists major proteolytic degradation in the intestinal lumen and is readily absorbed in an antigenic form in blood and various mouse tissues. Chronic ingestion of lactoferrin reduces its uptake, probably through mechanisms such as immune exclusion, which minimize potential harmful reactions to food products.

  12. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ([22Na]) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with [22Na] and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of [22Na], which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts

  13. AIB1 regulates the ovarian cancer cell cycle through TUG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Gan, Z-H; Qin, L; Jiao, S-H; Shi, Y

    2017-12-01

    To explore the mechanism of amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) to promote ovarian cancer progress. Cor correlation analysis was performed to obtain the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The relationship of taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) and clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed to predict the biological process where TUG1 may be involved in. At last, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colon formation and flow cytometry were conducted to explore the biological process that TUG1 may influence. Meanwhile, Western blot was performed to explore the mechanism of TUG1. In this study, it was found that P73 antisense RNA 1T (TP73-AS1), LINC00654 and TUG1 had the tumor-promoting effect in the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The expression level of TUG1 was significantly decreased after intervention of AIB1. Then, the clinical data were analyzed and the results showed that TUG1 was related to the tumor residue, tumor staging, tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis revealed that TUG1 was mainly involved in the regulation of cell cycle. After intervention in TUG1, it was found that the cell proliferation capacity was significantly decreased, and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. Finally, Western blot revealed that the expressions of G1 phase-related proteins were significantly changed. This study indicated that AIB1 regulates the cycle of ovarian cancer cells through TUG1. This study proved that AIB1 can regulate the cell cycle through regulating TUG1.

  14. Uptake of three [3H]progestins by target tissues in vivo: implications for the design of diagnostic imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.; Brandes, S.J.; Pomper, M.G.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the tissue distribution of radioactivity for 0.5-4 h following the i.v. injection of three tritium-labeled progestins in estrogen-primed, immature rats. Whereas [ 3 H]progesterone shows minimal uterine uptake ( 3 H]R 5020 (promegestrone) and [ 3 H]ORG 2058 show highly selective uptake that reaches 4-5% ID/g by 1-3 h. The uterus to non-target tissue activity ratio at 2-4 h is approximately 12-20 for R 5020 and ORG 2058, but less than 2 for progesterone; the uterus to blood activity ratio for R 5020 is also high (approximately 15), but is lower for ORG 2058, possibly due to the accumulation of radiolabeled metabolites in the blood. The uterine uptake is selectively blocked by simultaneous injection of a large dose of unlabeled steroid, indicating that the uptake is mediated by a high affinity, low capacity binding system, presumably the progesterone receptor. Pronounced uptake is also observed by the liver and into fat, but is not receptor-mediated. The highly selective target tissue uptake by the two synthetic steroids, but not by progesterone, indicates that one must have ligands with sufficiently high affinity for the target tissue receptor, as well as low affinity for certain non-receptor binding proteins, in order to obtain adequate contrast between target and non-target tissues in dynamic uptake studies. These guidelines will be important in the development of suitable in vivo imaging agents based on the progesterone receptor. (author)

  15. Cadmium and zinc uptake by vegetable tissues after nine annual applications of phosphate fertilizer to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortvedt, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn applied to soil as contaminants in P fertilizers is of concern because of their possible entry into the human food chain. Concentrations in P fertilizers generally range from 1 to 50 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd and 50 to 500 mg kg/sup -1/ of Zn, but much higher concentrations have been reported. Such wide ranges are due to variations in heavy metal contents of phosphate rock (PR) used to produce P fertilizers. Samples of vegetable tissues grown in New York on soil fertilized with triple superphosphate (TSP) for nine years of a 10-year experiment were analyzed for Cd and Zn. Results of this study show that plant availability of Cd and Zn contaminants in P fertilizers is rather low, even at high rates of P fertilization

  16. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137 Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137 Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137 Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137 Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137 Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137 Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137 Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137 Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137 Cs in the human food chain

  17. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcuta......Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric...

  18. Effect of exercise and obesity on skeletal muscle amino acid uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    To determine if amino acid uptake by muscle of the obese Zucker rat is impaired, epitrochlearis (EPI) and soleus strip (SOL) muscles from 32 pairs of female lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were incubated using [ 14 C]α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). Because contractile activity also influences amino acid uptake, the effect of acute endurance exercise on amino acid uptake by skeletal muscle from lean and obese rats was also studied. Muscle wet and dry weights were similar in lean and obese rats. However, both muscle protein content and concentration from obese rats were significantly reduced. In preliminary studies, pinning EPI at resting length during incubation significantly increased AIB uptake and reduced muscle water accumulation. AIB uptake was similar in stripped and intact SOL. Lean and obese rats were studied at rest or following a 1 hr treadmill run at 8% grade Muscles were pinned, and preincubated for 30 min at 37 degree C in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer (KRB) containing 5mM glucose under 95:5 O 2 /CO 2 , followed by 30, 60, 120, or 180 min of incubation in KRB with 0.5 mM AIB, [ 14 C]-AIB to measure amino acid, and [ 3 H]-inulin to determine extracellular water

  19. Uptake, distribution, and incorporation of 59Fe in tissue and blood of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the storage iron facilities in various tissues and to trace the distribution of radioiron in tissues and blood following an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 59 Fe. Iron deficiency anemia was induced in an experimental group of rainbow trout in order to measure its effect on red blood cell production and mobilization of storage iron. Most of the 59 Fe was absorbed from the peritoneal cavity within 24 hrs. after the i.p. injection. Equilibrium between the plasma 59 Fe pool and that of the tissue was established by day 8. Experimental fish RBC 59 Fe content increased to 70 to 80 percent of the initial injected dose by day 16 compared to 50 percent in the controls. This was attributed to the difference in reticulocyte count which was 10 to 12 percent for the bled and 2 to 3 percent for control fish. The rate that iron is incorporated into hemoglobin by immature red cells is much slower (about half) than the rate of RBC 59 Fe uptake, thus, iron is temporarily stored in the cytoplasm. The iron for hemoglobin formation was obtained from liver iron stores which dropped from 12 percent to less than 1 percent of the initial injected dose by day 16. Total iron concentration in liver decreased from 200 to less than 100 μg Fe/g. The decrease in liver iron may have stimulated iron absorption by the intestine and pyloric caeca. There is evidence for a feedback mechanism mediated by transferrin

  20. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  1. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent-Hansen, L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 ± 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 ± 0.009 ml(min*100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min*100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min*100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport

  2. Pre-medication to block [18F]FDG uptake in the brown adipose tissue of pediatric and adolescent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; O'Hara, Sara M.; Curtwright, Lois A.; MacLean, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical uptake of [ 18 F]2-deoxy-2-glucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue is noted on 15-20% of positron emission tomography (PET) scans in children and adolescents. To determine whether [ 18 F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue can be adequately blocked by pre-medication other than moderate-dose oral diazepam. One hundred and eighteen [ 18 F]FDG PET body imaging studies were performed in 69 pediatric patients with a variety of solid tumors. The mean age at the time of imaging was 12.9 years (range 1.2-22.6 years), and 33 studies were performed in patients younger than 10 years old. Seventy-six were performed in boys and 42 in girls. Patients were imaged using a dedicated PET camera. Pre-medication was given in 88 studies: 45 received intravenous fentanyl (0.75-1.0 μg/kg), 34 received low-dose oral diazepam (0.06 mg/kg) and 9 received moderate-dose oral diazepam (0.10 mg/kg). Thirty patients received no pre-medication, 7 of whom were known to have received opiates for pain during the 12 h before the study. Six body regions in the neck and chest were reviewed for [ 18 F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue. Uptake of FDG in brown fat was visually graded: 0 for no FDG uptake, 1 for low-grade uptake, 2 for moderate uptake, and 3 for intense uptake. Visual grades 2 and 3 were considered to interfere potentially with image interpretation in the neck and chest. Data were analyzed by multivariate regression using a Poisson distribution. [ 18 F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue was most often seen in the lateral neck region and superior and lateral to the lungs (in 36 and 39 studies, respectively). Uptake was also seen near the costovertebral junctions (15 studies), in the superior and central neck in 7 studies and in the anterior mediastinum in 2. Brown adipose tissue uptake was thought to interfere potentially with image interpretation (visual grades 2 and 3) in 19 studies - in 6 of 23 (26.1%) studies after no pre-medication and no opiates for pain, in 10 of

  3. Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well...

  4. AIB1 is required for the acquisition of epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhui; Zhang Qingyuan; Kang Xinmei; Jin Shi; Lou Changjie

    2009-01-01

    Acquired resistance to tamoxifen has become a serious obstacle in breast cancer treatment. The underlying mechanism responsible for this condition has not been completely elucidated. In this study, a tamoxifen-resistant (Tam-R) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was developed to mimic the occurrence of acquired tamoxifen resistance as seen in clinical practice. Increased expression levels of HER1, HER2 and the estrogen receptor (ER)-AIB1 complex were found in tamoxifen-resistant cells. EGF stimulation and gefitinib inhibition experiments further demonstrated that HER1/HER2 signaling and AIB1 were involved in the proliferation of cells that had acquired Tam resistance. However, when AIB1 was silenced with AIB1-siRNA in Tam-R cells, the cell growth stimulated by the HER1/HER2 signaling pathway was significantly reduced, and the cells were again found to be inhibited by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the AIB1 protein could be a limiting factor in the HER1/HER2-mediated hormone-independent growth of Tam-R cells. Thus, AIB1 may be a new therapeutic target, and the removal of AIB1 may decrease the crosstalk between ER and the HER1/HER2 pathway, resulting in the restoration of tamoxifen sensitivity in tamoxifen-resistant cells.

  5. A PET study of 18FDG uptake in soft tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodge, M.A.; Marsden, P.K.; Cronin, B.F.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Lucas, J.D.; Smith, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study was performed with the aim of investigating some of the methodological factors affecting the ability of quantitative 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography to assess tumour malignancy. Twenty-nine patients with soft tissue masses were studied using a 6-hour scanning protocol and various indices of glucose metabolism were compared with histological grade. Significant differences were observed in the time-activity response of benign and high-grade tumours. High-grade sarcomas were found to reach a peak activity concentration approximately 4 h after injection whereas benign lesions reached a maximum within 30 min. This translated to improved differentiation between these two tumour types using a standard uptake value (SUV) derived from images acquired at later times. An SUV measured 4 h post-injection was found to be as useful an index of tumour malignancy as the metabolic rate of FDG determined using either Patlak or non-linear regression techniques. Each of these indices had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 76% respectively for the discrimination of high-grade sarcomas from benign tumours. (orig.)

  6. Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Spiegelman, Donna; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Speizer, Frank E; Brown, Myles; Hunter, David J

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the association between a glutamine repeat polymorphism in AIB1 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study (464 cases, 624 controls) nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We observed no association between AIB1 genotype and breast cancer incidence, or specific tumor characteristics. These findings suggest that AIB1 repeat genotype does not influence postmenopausal breast cancer risk among Caucasian women in the general population. A causal association between endogenous and exogenous estrogens and breast cancer has been established. Steroid hormones regulate the expression of proteins that are involved in breast cell proliferation and development after binding to their respective steroid hormone receptors. Coactivator and corepressor proteins have recently been identified that interact with steroid hormone receptors and modulate transcriptional activation [1]. AIB1 (amplified in breast 1) is a member of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family that interacts with estrogen receptor (ER)α in a ligand-dependent manner, and increases estrogen-dependent transcription [2]. Amplification and overexpression of AIB1 has been observed in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines and in breast tumors [2,3]. A polymorphic stretch of glutamine amino acids, with unknown biologic function, has recently been described in the carboxyl-terminal region of AIB1 [4]. Among women with germline BRCA1 mutations, significant positive associations were observed between AIB1 alleles with 26 or fewer glutamine repeats and breast cancer risk [5] To establish whether AIB1 repeat alleles are associated with breast cancer risk and specific tumor characteristics among Caucasian women. We evaluated associations prospectively between AIB1 alleles and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study using a nested case-control design. The Nurses' Health Study was initiated in 1976, when 121 700 US-registered nurses between the ages of 30 and 55 years returned an

  7. Tissue uptake, distribution and elimination of {sup 14}C-PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhaq, Mazhar [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Sundström, Maria [Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Pia; Gabrielsson, Johan [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergman, Åke [Environmental Chemistry Unit, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Norrgren, Leif [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Örn, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Orn@slu.se [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Bioconcentration of PFOA at steady-state was approximately 20–30 times. • High concentrations were observed in bile and intestines implying enterohepatic circulation. • PFOA accumulated in oocytes indicating maternal transfer. - Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a long-chain perfluorinated chemical that has been shown to be non-degradable and persistent in the environment. Laboratory studies on bioconcentration and compound-specific tissue distribution in fish can be valuable for prediction of the persistence and environmental effects of the chemicals. In the present study male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to 10 μg/L of radiolabeled perfluorooctanoic acid ({sup 14}C-PFOA) for 40 days, after which the exposed fish were transferred to fresh clean water for another 80 days wash-out period. At defined periodic intervals during the uptake and wash-out, fish were sampled for liquid scintillation counting and whole body autoradiography to profile the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of PFOA. The steady-state concentration of {sup 14}C-PFOA in the zebrafish was reached within 20–30 days of exposure. The concentration-time course of {sup 14}C-PFOA displayed a bi-exponential decline during washout, with a terminal half-life of approximately 13–14 days. At steady-state the bioconcentration of {sup 14}C-PFOA into whole-body fish was approximately 20–30 times greater than that of the exposure concentration, with no differences between females and males. The bioconcentration factors for liver and intestine were approximately 100-fold of the exposure medium, while in brain, ovary and gall bladder the accumulation factors were in the range 15–20. Whole-body autoradiograms confirmed the highest labeling of PFOA in bile and intestines, which implies enterohepatic circulation of PFOA. The {sup 14}C-PFOA was also observed in maturing vitellogenic oocytes, suggesting chemical accumulation via yolk proteins

  8. Characterization of positron emission tomography hypoxia tracer uptake and tissue oxygenation via electrochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowen, S.R.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Nordsmark, M.; Bentzen, S.M.; Jeraj, R.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Unique uptake and retention mechanisms of positron emission tomography (PET) hypoxia tracers make in vivo comparison between them challenging. Differences in imaged uptake of two common hypoxia radiotracers, [(61)Cu]Cu-ATSM and [(18)F]FMISO, were characterized via computational modeling to

  9. AIB1 gene amplification and the instability of polyQ encoding sequence in breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Robert

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The poly Q polymorphism in AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer gene is usually assessed by fragment length analysis which does not reveal the actual sequence variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the sequence variation of poly Q encoding region in breast cancer cell lines at single molecule level, and to determine if the sequence variation is related to AIB1 gene amplification. Methods The polymorphic poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene was investigated at the single molecule level by PCR cloning/sequencing. The amplification of AIB1 gene in various breast cancer cell lines were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Significant amplifications (5–23 folds of AIB1 gene were found in 2 out of 9 (22% ER positive cell lines (in BT-474 and MCF-7 but not in BT-20, ZR-75-1, T47D, BT483, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-330. The AIB1 gene was not amplified in any of the ER negative cell lines. Different passages of MCF-7 cell lines and their derivatives maintained the feature of AIB1 amplification. When the cells were selected for hormone independence (LCC1 and resistance to 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (4-OH TAM (LCC2 and R27, ICI 182,780 (LCC9 or 4-OH TAM, KEO and LY 117018 (LY-2, AIB1 copy number decreased but still remained highly amplified. Sequencing analysis of poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene did not reveal specific patterns that could be correlated with AIB1 gene amplification. However, about 72% of the breast cancer cell lines had at least one under represented (3CAA(CAG9(CAACAG3(CAACAGCAG2CAA of the original cell line, a number of altered poly Q encoding sequences were found in the derivatives of MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion These data suggest that poly Q encoding region of AIB1 gene is somatic unstable in breast cancer cell lines. The instability and the sequence characteristics, however, do not appear to be associated with the level of the gene amplification.

  10. Dissociation Between Brown Adipose Tissue 18F-FDG Uptake and Thermogenesis in Uncoupling Protein 1-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Kranz, Mathias; Keipert, Susanne; Weiner, Juliane; Andreasen, Sille G; Kern, Matthias; Patt, Marianne; Klöting, Nora; Heiker, John T; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Jastroch, Martin; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2017-07-01

    18 F-FDG PET imaging is routinely used to investigate brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, which requires mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). It remains uncertain, however, whether BAT 18 F-FDG uptake is a reliable surrogate measure of UCP1-mediated heat production. Methods: UCP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice housed at thermoneutrality were treated with the selective β3 adrenergic receptor agonist CL 316, 243 and underwent metabolic cage, infrared thermal imaging and 18 F-FDG PET/MRI experiments. Primary brown adipocytes were additionally examined for their bioenergetics by extracellular flux analysis as well as their uptake of 2-deoxy- 3 H-glucose. Results: In response to CL 316, 243 treatments, oxygen consumption, and BAT thermogenesis were diminished in UCP1 KO mice, but BAT 18 F-FDG uptake was fully retained. Isolated UCP1 KO brown adipocytes exhibited defective induction of uncoupled respiration whereas their glycolytic flux and 2-deoxy- 3 H-glucose uptake rates were largely unaffected. Conclusion: Adrenergic stimulation can increase BAT 18 F-FDG uptake independently of UCP1 thermogenic function. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nianogo, A.J.; Amos, H.E.; Dean, R.; Froetschel, A.; Fernandez, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 μCi/ml of 14 C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 x 10 -3 μM/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake

  13. Early uptake and continuous accumulation of thallium-201 chloride in a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Kenichiro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of benign mixed tumor of the soft tissue in a 64-year-old Japanese male is presented. He noticed a painless, elastic hard mass sized 3 cm in the right knee, which gradually grew larger and harder in the last 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass lesion embedded in the subcutaneous tissue with low and high signal intensity at T1- and T2-weighted images, respectively. Tl-201 scintigraphy showed an early uptake of Tl-201 within the lesion at 10 minutes after injection, which was slightly decreased but still continued at 2 hours later. The patient underwent a resection of tumor, and the pathological diagnosis was a benign mixed tumor of soft tissue without high vascularity, characterized by histological features similar to pleomorphic adenomas in the salivary glands. Immunohistochemical study proved expression of Na+/K+-ATPase of tumor cells. Overexpression of Na+/K+-ATPase of the tumor might be responsible for the early uptake of Tl-201, and poor vascular structure in this tumor might lead to continuous accumulation. The Tl-201 scintigraphic features of mixed tumor of soft tissue are assessed to resemble those of malignant soft tissue tumors.

  14. AIB-OR: improving onion routing circuit construction using anonymous identity-based cryptosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changji; Shi, Dongyuan; Xu, Xilei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet applications has made communication anonymity an increasingly important or even indispensable security requirement. Onion routing has been employed as an infrastructure for anonymous communication over a public network, which provides anonymous connections that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis. However, existing onion routing protocols usually exhibit poor performance due to repeated encryption operations. In this paper, we first present an improved anonymous multi-receiver identity-based encryption (AMRIBE) scheme, and an improved identity-based one-way anonymous key agreement (IBOWAKE) protocol. We then propose an efficient onion routing protocol named AIB-OR that provides provable security and strong anonymity. Our main approach is to use our improved AMRIBE scheme and improved IBOWAKE protocol in onion routing circuit construction. Compared with other onion routing protocols, AIB-OR provides high efficiency, scalability, strong anonymity and fault tolerance. Performance measurements from a prototype implementation show that our proposed AIB-OR can achieve high bandwidths and low latencies when deployed over the Internet.

  15. The suprachiasmatic nucleus drives day-night variations in postprandial triglyceride uptake into skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Ramos, Sofía; Guerrero-Vargas, Natali N; Mendez-Hernandez, Rebeca; Basualdo, Maria Del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the factors influencing day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides? What is the main finding and its importance? Rats show low postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations early in the active period that are attributable to a higher uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. We show that these day-night variations in uptake are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, probably via a Rev-erbα-mediated mechanism and independent of locomotor activity. These findings highlight that the suprachiasmatic nucleus has a major role in day-night variations in plasma triglycerides and that disturbances in our biological clock might be an important risk factor contributing to development of postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Energy metabolism follows a diurnal pattern, mainly driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and disruption of circadian regulation has been linked to metabolic abnormalities. Indeed, epidemiological evidence shows that night work is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and postprandial hyperlipidaemia is an important contributor. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the factors that drive day-night variations in postprandial triglycerides (TGs). Intact and SCN-lesioned male Wistar rats were subjected to an oral fat challenge during the beginning of the rest phase (day) or the beginning of the active phase (night). The plasma TG profile was evaluated and tissue TG uptake assayed. After the fat challenge, intact rats showed lower postprandial plasma TG concentrations early in the night when compared with the day. However, no differences were observed in the rate of intestinal TG secretion between day and night. Instead, there was a higher uptake of TG by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue early in the active phase (night) when compared with the rest phase (day), and these variations were abolished in rats bearing bilateral SCN lesions. Rev-erbα gene expression

  16. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine.

  17. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine

  18. Distribution of α-aminoisobutyric acid in tissues of lean and genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tews, J.K.; Harper, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of tracer amounts of the nonmetabolizable neutral amino acid α-[1- 14 C]aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) between blood and several tissues was measured in lean and ob/ob mice over an 8-hr period. As AIB was injected on the basis of body weight and as ob/ob mice have a relatively low blood volume, absolute concentrations of AIB in blood and tissues were almost always higher in the obese than the lean mice. However, the ratio of AIB concentration in the tissues to that in the blood was clearly higher in skeletal muscle, diaphragm, and brain, and possibly higher in liver of the lean than of the obese animals. Ratios in heart were similar. The results suggest that lean and genetically obese mice differ in their capacity to transport amino acids between blood and various tissues

  19. Adherence of microplastics to soft tissue of mussels: A novel way to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Su, Lei; Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2018-01-01

    Microplastic pollution is recognized as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems. One of the main environmental risks associated with microplastics is their bioavailability to marine organisms. Up to date, ingestion has been widely accepted as the sole way for the animals to uptake microplastics. Nevertheless, microplastics have also been found in some organs which are not involved in the process of ingestion. We hypothesize that the animal might uptake microplastics through adherence in addition to ingestion. To test this hypothesis, we collected mussels from the fishery farms, conducted exposure/clearance experiments and analyzed the accumulation of microplastics in specific organ of mussels. Our studies clearly showed the uptake of microplastic in multiple organs of mussels. In the field investigations, we found that the abundance of microplastic by weight but not by individual showed significant difference among organs, and the intestine contained the highest level of microplastics (9.2items/g). In the uptake and clearance experiment, the accumulation and retention of microfibers could also be observed in all tested organs of mussels including foot and mantle. Our results strongly suggest that adherence rather than ingestion led to the accumulation of microplastics in those organs which are not involved in ingestion process. To our best knowledge, it is the first time to propose that adherence is a novel way for animals to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion. This new finding makes us rethink about the bioavailability, accumulation and toxicity of microplastics to aquatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Uptake of manganese in potatoes tolerant of high tissue manganese levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K.B.

    1987-01-01

    Observations on the accumulations of Mn in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Norland) focused on factors which enabled plants in field studies to withstand high concentrations of Mn in their foliage. A microculture method for assessing nutrient uptake was introduced and applied to studies of the effects of P and temperature on Mn toxicity. Potato plants in microculture behaved similarly in the symptomatology of Mn toxicity to those grown in solution culture but were more responsive to P. The effects of both P and temperature on Mn toxicity in microculture correlated with changes in Mn uptake and with growth reductions due to low P or temperature stress. The uptake of Mn from solution culture increased with increasing P level in solution. This increase was attributed to an increased health and vitality of potato plants under high P and to changes in pH and nutrient solution concentration as plants matured at different rates. When limited control over solution pH and nutrient concentration was provided the effects of P on Mn uptake were largely eliminated. The well-documented time dependence of Mn accumulation was confirmed in a fractionation experiment.

  1. Non-malignant FDG uptake in infradiaphragmatic adipose tissue: a new site of physiological tracer biodistribution characterised by PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Keidar, Zohar; Gaitini, Diana; Israel, Ora

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise a benign pattern of infradiaphragmatic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in cancer patients using PET/CT. Infradiaphragmatic foci of FDG uptake, localised by PET/CT in regions of normal fat tissues, were demonstrated, in conjunction with fatty uptake in the neck and shoulders, in 9 of 1,241 (0.7%) patients. The imaging and clinical characteristics of this pattern and its possible clinical significance were assessed. PET/CT precisely localised infradiaphragmatic fat uptake (IDFU) within normal retroperitoneal fatty tissue of the perirenal space (nine patients) and in the paracolic or parahepatic space (four patients). Perirenal uptake was bilateral in five patients and focal in six. Paracolic and parahepatic uptake was bilateral in three patients and linear in all four patients. There was no evidence of malignancy at any of the sites during a follow-up period of 9-21 months. IDFU was significantly more prevalent in young patients assessed for monitoring response to therapy, and was always associated with the benign supradiaphragmatic uptake pattern, although its prevalence was significantly lower. There were no significant differences between the clinical characteristics of these two patterns of benign fatty FDG uptake. It is concluded that PET/CT allows for precise identification of increased FDG uptake in abdominal fatty tissue and further exclusion of disease at such sites. This benign uptake may represent increased glucose consumption in activated brown adipose tissue, similar to the mechanism suggested for supradiaphragmatic uptake. Recognition of this benign IDFU pattern is important for correct interpretation of abdominal PET findings in cancer patients. (orig.)

  2. The effect of iodine uptake on radiation dose absorbed by patient tissues in contrast enhanced CT imaging. Implications for CT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Spanakis, Kostas [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hatzidakis, Adam [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the effect of iodine uptake on tissue/organ absorbed doses from CT exposure and its implications in CT dosimetry. The contrast-induced CT number increase of several radiosensitive tissues was retrospectively determined in 120 CT examinations involving both non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT imaging. CT images of a phantom containing aqueous solutions of varying iodine concentration were obtained. Plots of the CT number increase against iodine concentration were produced. The clinically occurring iodine tissue uptake was quantified by attributing recorded CT number increase to a certain concentration of aqueous iodine solution. Clinically occurring iodine uptake was represented in mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms. Standard 120 kV CT exposures were simulated using Monte Carlo methods and resulting organ doses were derived for non-enhanced and iodine contrast-enhanced CT imaging. The mean iodine uptake range during contrast-enhanced CT imaging was found to be 0.02-0.46% w/w for the investigated tissues, while the maximum value recorded was 0.82% w/w. For the same CT exposure, iodinated tissues were found to receive higher radiation dose than non-iodinated tissues, with dose increase exceeding 100% for tissues with high iodine uptake. Administration of iodinated contrast medium considerably increases radiation dose to tissues from CT exposure. (orig.)

  3. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Decristoforo, C.; Uprimny, C.; Warwitz, B.; Nilica, B.; Gabriel, M.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.J.; Widmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to establish the range of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUV max (mean ± standard deviation) values of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 ± 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 ± 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 ± 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 ± 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 ± 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUV max (p max between nonmalignant and malignant tissue for both bone and liver metastases and for pancreatic NET including the uncinate process (p max for differentiating tumours in the uncinate process were 93.6 % and 90.0 %, respectively (p 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUV max can offer important clinical information to distinguish between physiological and pathological somatostatin receptor expression, especially in the uncinate process. PRRT does not significantly influence SUV max , except in liver metastases of patients with NET. (orig.)

  4. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Decristoforo, C.; Uprimny, C.; Warwitz, B.; Nilica, B.; Gabriel, M.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.J. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Widmann, G. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-04-15

    We wanted to establish the range of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUV{sub max} (mean {+-} standard deviation) values of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 {+-} 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 {+-} 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 {+-} 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 {+-} 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 {+-} 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUV{sub max} (p < 0.02) was found in liver metastases of NET patients treated with PRRT. There were significant differences in SUV{sub max} between nonmalignant and malignant tissue for both bone and liver metastases and for pancreatic NET including the uncinate process (p < 0.0001). At a cut-off value of 17.1 the specificity and sensitivity of SUV{sub max} for differentiating tumours in the uncinate process were 93.6 % and 90.0 %, respectively (p < 0.0001). {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUV{sub max} can offer important clinical

  5. Glycine uptake by microvillous and basal plasma membrane vesicles from term human placentae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, J M; Verges, D; Kelley, L K; Smith, C H

    1993-01-01

    Like most amino acids, glycine is present in higher concentrations in the fetus than in the mother. Unlike most amino acids, animal studies suggest fetal concentrations of glycine are minimally in excess of those required for protein synthesis. Abnormal glycine utilization has also been demonstrated in small-for-gestational age human fetuses. The mechanism(s) of glycine uptake in the human placenta are unknown. In other mammalian cells glycine is a substrate for the A, ASC and Gly amino acid transport systems. In this study human placental glycine uptake was characterized using microvillous and basal plasma membrane vesicles each prepared from the same placenta. In both membranes glycine uptake was mediated predominantly by the sodium-dependent A system. Competitive inhibition studies suggest that in microvillous vesicles the small percentage of sodium-dependent glycine uptake not inhibited by methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) shares a transport system with glycine methyl ester and sarcosine, substrates of the Gly system in other tissues. In addition there are mediated sodium-independent and non-selective transport mechanisms in both plasma membranes. If fetal glycine availability is primarily contingent upon the common and highly regulated A system, glycine must compete with many other substrates potentially resulting in marginal fetal reserves, abnormal utilization and impaired growth.

  6. 99Tcm pertechnetate uptake by hepatoma cells induced by tissue specific hNIS gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Libo; Luo Quanyong; Yu Yongli; Yuan Zhibin; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen; Guo Lihe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene could be used both as an ideal reporter gene and promising therapeutic gene. Rather than radioiodine, 99 Tc m pertechnetate has been proven to be a better radiopharmaceutical for tracing and imaging purposes. Herein, the authors investigated the feasibility of monitoring hNIS gene expression in hepatoma cells using 99 Tc m pertechnetate as a tracer. Methods: Hepatoma cells MH3924A were stably transfected with recombinant retroviral vector in which hNIS cDNA was driven by murine albumin enhancer/promoter (mAlb) and coupled to hygromycin resistance gene. The uptake and efflux of 99 Tc m pertechnetate by transfected hepatoma cells were tested with 99 Tc m pertechnetate (74 kBq) solution adulterated into the culture media and counted after media suspension discharge at different intervals. In further tests, 50 μmol/L NaClO 4 and 500 μmol/L Ouabain were added into the media for 99 Tc m inhibition tests. For in vive studies, five ACI rats bearing NIS transfected hepatoma xenografts were injected with 99 Tc m pertechnetate (15.8 MBq) and followed by dynamic acquisition (0.57 1, 2 and 4 h) with small gamma camera to semi-quantitatively analyze the radioactivity distribution. Results: In vitro tests, the peak uptake of 99 Tc m pertechnetate by cultured transfected MH3924A cells was up to 254 folds higher than that by the wild type cells. 99 Tc m uptake by transfected cells were significantly inhibited by NaClO 4 down to 2.44% (P 99 Tc m pertechnetate out of cultured transfected cells became rapid immediately after renewal of culture media (half life 99 Tc m accumulations by hNIS transfected tumor xenografts were obvious in early phases of the acquisition with peak uptake at 12 min and gradually declining later on. Conclusions: hNIS transfected hepatoma cells can avidly uptake 99 Tc m pertechnetate both in vitro and in vive. It is feasible to utilize 99 Tc m pertechnetate for monitoring and even quantitatively analyzing

  7. In uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid hormone and sympathetic activators induce thermogenesis without increasing glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Miles E; Thaler, Joshua P; Wisse, Brent E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Meek, Thomas H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Cubelo, Alex; Fischer, Jonathan D; Kaiyala, Karl J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) imaging technology have renewed interest in the identification of BAT activators for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. In uncontrolled diabetes (uDM), activation of BAT is implicated in glucose lowering mediated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin, which normalizes blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The potent effect of icv leptin to increase BAT glucose uptake in STZ-diabetes is accompanied by the return of reduced plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and BAT uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) mRNA levels to nondiabetic controls. We therefore sought to determine whether activation of thyroid hormone receptors is sufficient in and of itself to lower blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetes and whether this effect involves activation of BAT. We found that, although systemic administration of the thyroid hormone (TR)β-selective agonist GC-1 increases energy expenditure and induces further weight loss in STZ-diabetic rats, it neither increased BAT glucose uptake nor attenuated diabetic hyperglycemia. Even when GC-1 was administered in combination with a β(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist to mimic sympathetic nervous system activation, glucose uptake was not increased in STZ-diabetic rats, nor was blood glucose lowered, yet this intervention potently activated BAT. Similar results were observed in animals treated with active thyroid hormone (T3) instead of GC-1. Taken together, our data suggest that neither returning normal plasma thyroid hormone levels nor BAT activation has any impact on diabetic hyperglycemia, and that in BAT, increases of Ucp1 gene expression and glucose uptake are readily dissociated from one another in this setting.

  8. Tritiated water uptake kinetics in tissue-free water and organically-bound fractions of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    The kinetics of tritiated water (HTO) vapour uptake into tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) fractions of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Vendor, were investigated under controlled growing conditions. Most uptake data fitted a first-order kinetic model, C t = C ∞ (1-e -kt ), where C t is the tritium concentration at time t, Ca the steady-state concentration and k the uptake rate constant. During atmospheric-HTO exposure with clean-water irrigation in open pots the TFWT k values were 0.024 ± 0.023 h -1 for new foliage, 0.104 ± 0.067 h -1 for old foliage and 0.042 ± to 0.136 h -1 for new green fruit. OBT uptake rate constants were 20 percent less for new foliage and 76 percent less for new green fruit. Under steady-state conditions the ratio of tritium specific activities of TWFT to atmospheric HTO were 0.43 in new foliage, 0.46 in old foliage and 0.19 in green fruit. Within the plant, OBT and TFWT ratios were 0.70 for new foliage, 0.63 for old foliage (maximum) and between 0.72 and 1.92 for green fruit. The greater than unity tritium specific activity ratios in green fruit were not attributed to tritium enrichment but rather to the translocation of foliar OBT to the growing fruit which contained lower specific activity TFWT derived from soil water

  9. Remarkable soft tissue uptake during bone scintigraphy in patients with ovarial cancer: Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.; Koreuber, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of patients with an ovarial cancer are described. Bone scintigraphy was able to diagnose previously unknown soft tissue metastases with important consequences for the patients' diagnosis and therapy. (orig.) [de

  10. Uptake of neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids by human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Røigaard, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    experiments revealed that all the neutral amino acids tested reduced the uptake of AIB, whereas there was no effect of taurine, L-aspartic acid, and L-arginine. By contrast, the influx of beta-alanine was only drastically reduced by beta-amino acids, whereas the inhibition by neutral alpha-amino acids...

  11. Fluoride Uptake Profiles of Selected European Toothpastes into Hard Tissues and Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joel; Schneiderman, Eva; Farmer, Teresa; Zsiska, Marianne

    2017-09-01

    To compare the fluoridating potential of selected European toothpastes using a combination of enamel, dentin, and plaque in vitromodels. Four in vitromodels were included: 1) Enamel Fluoride (F) Uptake (EFU); 2) Dentin F Uptake (DFU); 3) Enamel Solubility Reduction (ESR); and 4) Plaque F Uptake (PFU). A core set of marketed products was included in all studies, plus a standard toothpaste (1100 ppm F as NaF/silica) and placebo control (the PFU study did not include a placebo control). Test dentifrices: [A] Fluocaril® Bi-Fluoré 250 (1500 ppm F as NaF+1000 ppm F as SMFP); [B] LacerAnticaries (2500 ppm F as SMFP); [C] Elmex® Caries Professional™ (1450 ppm F as SMFP+1.5% arginine); [D] Colgate® Triple Action (1450 ppm F as SMFP); [E] Placebo (0 ppm F); and [F] standard toothpaste (1100 ppm as NaF/silica). In all studies (EFU, DFU, ESR, and PFU), assessments were compared for each pair using the Tukey-Kramer HSD test (p F = B = C = D > E; DFU: A > F = B = C = D = E; PFU: A = B > F = C = D). In demineralization prevention, the Fluocaril dentifrice [A] also provided the greatest benefit (ESR: A = F = C = B = D > E). In all studies that included a placebo control, all of the F-containing dentifrices performed better than the placebo control. While these results demonstrate that all of the marketed products tested provide effective anticaries benefits, the Fluocaril Bi-Fluoré 250 dentifrice consistently delivered unsurpassed performance. It delivered the highest level of F to plaque, provided greater measures of efficacy in both remineralization and inhibition of demineralization, and delivered substantial improvement in fluoridation of dentin, suggesting the potential for delivering both coronal and root caries benefits.

  12. Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wild Fish from Treated-Wastewater-Impacted Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Rumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakamura, Haruna; Kim, Joon-Woo; Isobe, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-10-06

    A fish plasma model (FPM) has been proposed as a screening technique to prioritize potential hazardous pharmaceuticals to wild fish. However, this approach does not account for inter- or intraspecies variability of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. The present study elucidated the uptake potency (from ambient water), tissue distribution, and biological risk of 20 pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) residues in wild cyprinoid fish inhabiting treated-wastewater-impacted streams. In order to clarify the uncertainty of the FPM for PPCPs, we compared the plasma bioaccumulation factor in the field (BAFplasma = measured fish plasma/ambient water concentration ratio) with the predicted plasma bioconcentration factor (BCFplasma = fish plasma predicted by use of theoretical partition coefficients/ambient water concentration ratio) in the actual environment. As a result, the measured maximum BAFplasma of inflammatory agents was up to 17 times higher than theoretical BCFplasma values, leading to possible underestimation of toxicological risk on wild fish. When the tissue-blood partition coefficients (tissue/blood concentration ratios) of PPCPs were estimated, higher transportability into tissues, especially the brain, was found for psychotropic agents, but brain/plasma ratios widely varied among individual fish (up to 28-fold). In the present study, we provide a valuable data set on the intraspecies variability of PPCP pharmacokinetics, and our results emphasize the importance of determining PPCP concentrations in possible target organs as well as in the blood to assess the risk of PPCPs on wild fish.

  13. Endocytic Uptake, Transport and Macromolecular Interactions of Anionic PAMAM Dendrimers within Lung Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Mansour, Omar; Griffiths, Peter; Gumbleton, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a promising class of nanocarrier with applications in both small and large molecule drug delivery. Here we report a comprehensive evaluation of the uptake and transport pathways that contribute to the lung disposition of dendrimers. Anionic PAMAM dendrimers and control dextran probes were applied to an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model and lung epithelial monolayers. Endocytosis pathways were examined in primary alveolar epithelial cultures by confocal microscopy. Molecular interactions of dendrimers with protein and lipid lung fluid components were studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Dendrimers were absorbed across the intact lung via a passive, size-dependent transport pathway at rates slower than dextrans of similar molecular sizes. SANS investigations of concentration-dependent PAMAM transport in the IPRL confirmed no aggregation of PAMAMs with either albumin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lung lining fluid components. Distinct endocytic compartments were identified within primary alveolar epithelial cells and their functionality in the rapid uptake of fluorescent dendrimers and model macromolecular probes was confirmed by co-localisation studies. PAMAM dendrimers display favourable lung biocompatibility but modest lung to blood absorption kinetics. These data support the investigation of dendrimer-based carriers for controlled-release drug delivery to the deep lung.

  14. Uptake and fate of IAA in apple callus tissue using IAA-1-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.; Lavee, S.

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of young growing and older non-growing apple callus tissues in a medium containing IAA-1- 14 C resulted in rapid disappearance of the IAA. In old calluses (3 months), the major portion of IAA was lost by decarboxylation (90% after 4 hr) and very little (1.4%) was maintained by the tissue. In young calluses, after 4 hr in light, decarboxylation reached 20% and absorption 35% of the labelled IAA. Some decomposition of IAA was caused by photolysis and autoclaving (19% and 3%, respectively) but the final distribution of radioactivity was not affected. Factors such as sucrose concentration in the incubation medium, distilled water as incubation medium, and cutting of the callus did not affect tissue behavior. Special precautions were taken to eliminate non-biological decomposition of IAA. Therefore, we believe that the rapid CO 2 evolution is of enzymatic nature. This theory is supported by the drop in decarboxylation after killing of the callus, and the increase of decarboxylation with age. No enzyme was secreted by the callus into the medium after 24 hr of incubation, and IAA decomposition in old tissues is done probably on the surface. Absorption of IAA increased with increasing callus size and decarboxylation decreased. (auth.)

  15. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases glucose uptake and fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida de França, Suélem; Pavani Dos Santos, Maísa; Nunes Queiroz da Costa, Roger Vinícius; Froelich, Mendalli; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Giordani, Morenna Alana; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Marlise Balbinotti Andrade, Cláudia; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate glucose uptake and the contribution of glucose to fatty acid (FA) synthesis and the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) of triacylglycerol synthesis by interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats. LPHC (6% protein; 74% carbohydrate) or control (17% protein; 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats (∼ 100 g) for 15 d. Total FA and G3P synthesis and the synthesis of FA and G3P from glucose were evaluated in vivo by (3)H2O and (14)C-glucose. Sympathetic neural contribution for FA synthesis was evaluated by comparing the synthesis in denervated (7 d before) IBAT with that of the contralateral innervated side. The insulin signaling and β3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) contents, as well as others, were determined by Western blot (Student's t test or analysis of variance; P ≤ 0.05). Total FA synthesis in IBAT was 133% higher in the LPHC group and was reduced 85% and 70% by denervation for the LPHC and control groups, respectively. Glucose uptake was 3.5-fold higher in the IBAT of LPHC rats than in that of the control rats, and the contribution of glucose to the total FA synthesis increased by 12% in control rats compared with 18% in LPHC rats. The LPHC diet increased the G3P generation from glucose by 270% and the insulin receptor content and the p-AKT insulin stimulation in IBAT by 120% and reduced the β3-AR content by 50%. The LPHC diet stimulated glucose uptake, both the total rates and the rates derived from glucose-dependent FA and G3P synthesis, by increasing the insulin sensitivity and the sympathetic flux, despite a reduction in the β3-AR content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide uptake and trafficking to adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, L-G.; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota and excessive ingestion of high-fat diets (HFD) are considered to be important factors for development of obesity. In this review we describe a coherent mechanism of action for the development of obesity, which involves the composition of gut microbiota, HFD...... is involved in the development of obesity as a direct targeting molecule for lipid delivery and storage in adipose tissue....

  17. Gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide uptake and trafficking to adipose tissue: implications for inflammation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersoug, L-G; Møller, P; Loft, S

    2016-04-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota and excessive ingestion of high-fat diets (HFD) are considered to be important factors for development of obesity. In this review we describe a coherent mechanism of action for the development of obesity, which involves the composition of gut microbiota, HFD, low-grade inflammation, expression of fat translocase and scavenger receptor CD36, and the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI). SR-BI binds to both lipids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, which may promote incorporation of LPS in chylomicrons (CMs). These CMs are transported via lymph to the circulation, where LPS is transferred to other lipoproteins by translocases, preferentially to HDL. LPS increases the SR-BI binding, transcytosis of lipoproteins over the endothelial barrier,and endocytosis in adipocytes. Especially large size adipocytes with high metabolic activity absorb LPS-rich lipoproteins. In addition, macrophages in adipose tissue internalize LPS-lipoproteins. This may contribute to the polarization from M2 to M1 phenotype, which is a consequence of increased LPS delivery into the tissue during hypertrophy. In conclusion, evidence suggests that LPS is involved in the development of obesity as a direct targeting molecule for lipid delivery and storage in adipose tissue. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Characterization of brown adipose tissue 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    18 F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake 18 F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of 18 F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of 18 F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of 18 F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had 18 F-FDG uptake in BAT. 18 F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of 18 F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUV max ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT 18 F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT 18 F-FDG uptake rate (P < 0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR < 1, P < 0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT 18 F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of 18 F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT 18 F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting 18 F-FDG uptake.

  19. FDG-PET of patients with suspected renal failure. Standardized uptake values in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Inoue, Tomio

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of renal function on 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and determine the clinical significance of renal function in this setting. We compared FDG distribution between normal volunteers and patients with suspected renal failure. Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 patients with suspected renal failure who underwent FDG-PET between November 2002 and May 2005 were selected for this study. We define ''patients with suspected renal failure'' as having a blood serum creatinine level in excess of 1.1 mg/dl. The serum creatinine level was examined once in 2 weeks of the FDG-PET study. Regions of interest were placed over 15 regions for semi-quantitative analysis: the white matter, cortex, both upper lung fields, both middle lung fields, both lower lung fields, mediastinum, myocardium of the left ventricle, the left atrium as a cardiac blood pool, central region of the right lobe of the liver, left kidney, and both femoris muscles. The mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of brain cortex and white matter were higher in healthy volunteers than in renal patients. The mean SUVs of the mediastinum at the level of the aortic arch and left atrium as a cardiac blood pool were lower in healthy volunteers than in patients with suspected renal failure. These regions differed between healthy volunteers and patients with suspected renal failure (P<0.05). We found decreasing brain accumulation and increasing blood pool accumulation of FDG in patients with high plasma creatinine. Although the difference is small, this phenomenon will not have a huge effect on the assessment of FDG-PET imaging in patients with suspected renal failure. (author)

  20. Experimental study of the tritium uptake in mammal tissues and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, P.; Lambotte, J.M.; Lafontaine, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors study the tritium-labelling of ADN in rabbits who receive the tritium as HTO in their drinking water during periods of one to three months. On the basis of the MPC for tritium (according to the belgian legislation, 30 μCi/l in drinking water of occupational workers for 168 h/week exposure) it is stated that for rabbits, this value of continuous impregnation by drinking water must be exceeded by a factor 100 to observe a measurable tritium activity in the ADN, isolated from tissue with fast turnover rate, such as bone marrow. The structural molecules proteins, lipids and carbon hydrates of different organs are labelled with tritium at 5 MPC, th lowest examined concentration. These statements do not evaluate whether the observed phenomenon of tritium labelling is hazardous or not, but rather tend to establish an order of magnitude

  1. Dose dependent transfer of 203lead to milk and tissue uptake in suckling offspring studied in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palminger Hallen, I.; Oskarsson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-dependent transfer of 203 Pb to milk and uptake in suckling rats and mice during a three-day nursing period was studied. On day 14 of lactation, the dams were administered a single intravenous dose of lead, labelled with 203 Pb, in four or five doses from 0.0005 to 2.0 mg Pb/kg b.wt. There was a linear relationship between Pb levels in plasma and milk of both species. The Pb milk: plasma ratios at 24 hr after administration were 119 and 89 in mice and rats, respectively. At 72 hr the Pb milk: plasma ratio had decreased to 72 in mice and 35 in rats. The tissue levels of lead in the suckling rats and mice were also linearly correlated with lead concentration in milk at 72 hr, showing that milk could be used as an indicator of lead exposure to the suckling offspring. It is concluded that lead is transported into rat and mouse milk to a very high extent and the excretion into milk is more efficient in mice than in rats. On the other hand, rat pups had higher lead levels in tissues than mice pups, which might be due to a higher bioavailability and/or a lower excretion of lead in rat pups. Thus, lead in breast milk could be used as a biological indicator of lead exposure in the mother as well as in the suckling offspring. (au) (38 refs.)

  2. Dose effect on the uptake and accumulation of hydroxytyrosol and its metabolites in target tissues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de las Hazas, Maria-Carmen; Rubió, Laura; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; de la Torre, Rafael; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the most prominent phenolic compound of virgin olive oil and due to its scientifically validated biological activities it is entering to the market as a potentially useful supplement for cardiovascular disease prevention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the HT dose intake and its tissue uptake in rats, and thus, providing complementary information in relation to the target-dose relationship. Rats were given a refined olive oil enriched with HT at different doses (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg) and they were sacrificed after 5 h to ensure the cell tissue uptake of HT and its metabolites. Plasma samples and different organs as liver, kidney, heart and brain were obtained, and HT metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that HT and its metabolites could be accumulated in a dose-dependent manner basically in the liver, kidney, and brain and were detected in these tissues even at nutritionally relevant human doses. The detection of free HT in liver and kidney was noteworthy. To date, this appears to be the only biologically active form, and thus, it provides relevant information for optimizing the potential applications of HT to prevent certain hepatic and renal diseases. In recent years, HT and its derivatives have led to a great interest from the virgin olive oil producers and manufacturers of nutraceutical supplements. The increasing interest in HT is mainly due to the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) scientific opinion that established a cause-and-effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols and protection of LDL particles from oxidative damage . Based on this positive opinion, the health claim "Olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress" was included in the list of health claims , being the only authorized health claim in the European Union regarding polyphenols

  3. Uptake, tissue distribution and metabolism of the insecticide endosulfan in Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.L.; Gonzalez, M.; Wunderlin, D.A.; Bistoni, M.A.; Miglioranza, K.S.B.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of technical endosulfan in Jenynsia multidentata. Adult females were exposed to acute sublethal concentrations (0.072, 0.288 and 1.4 μg L -1 ). After 24 h, fish were sacrificed and gills, liver, brain, intestine and muscle were removed. Results show that both isomers of technical-grade endosulfan (α- and β-) are accumulated in fish tissues and biotransformation to endosulfan sulfate occurs at all concentrations tested. Significantly differences in endosulfan accumulation were only found at 1.4 μg L -1 but not between the lowest concentrations. However a similar distribution pattern was observed at all exposure levels where liver, intestine and brain had the highest levels of α-, β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate. Moreover, liver and brain showed the highest endosulfan sulfate:α-endosulfan ratios due to high biotransfomation capacity. J. multidentata demonstrated to be a sensitive species under exposure to technical endosulfan and, therefore, could be used to assess aquatic pollution. - Highlights: → Acute exposure of Jenynsia multidentata to technical-grade endosulfan. → Endosulfan bioaccumulation in different organs of Jenynsia multidentata. → Technical-grade endosulfan biotransformation to endosulfan sulfate. - Endosulfan is accumulated in organs of J. multidentata as well as biotransformed to endosulfan sulfate, which relative abundance points out the time from exposure.

  4. Uptake, tissue distribution and metabolism of the insecticide endosulfan in Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae, Cyprinodontiformes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, M.L., E-mail: mlballesteros@efn.uncor.edu [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales, Catedra Diversidad Animal II, Av. Velez Sarsfield 299, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Gonzalez, M. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Wunderlin, D.A. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Cordoba-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Quimica Organica-CIBICI, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Bistoni, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales, Catedra Diversidad Animal II, Av. Velez Sarsfield 299, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Miglioranza, K.S.B. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    The study reports the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of technical endosulfan in Jenynsia multidentata. Adult females were exposed to acute sublethal concentrations (0.072, 0.288 and 1.4 {mu}g L{sup -1}). After 24 h, fish were sacrificed and gills, liver, brain, intestine and muscle were removed. Results show that both isomers of technical-grade endosulfan ({alpha}- and {beta}-) are accumulated in fish tissues and biotransformation to endosulfan sulfate occurs at all concentrations tested. Significantly differences in endosulfan accumulation were only found at 1.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} but not between the lowest concentrations. However a similar distribution pattern was observed at all exposure levels where liver, intestine and brain had the highest levels of {alpha}-, {beta}-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate. Moreover, liver and brain showed the highest endosulfan sulfate:{alpha}-endosulfan ratios due to high biotransfomation capacity. J. multidentata demonstrated to be a sensitive species under exposure to technical endosulfan and, therefore, could be used to assess aquatic pollution. - Highlights: > Acute exposure of Jenynsia multidentata to technical-grade endosulfan. > Endosulfan bioaccumulation in different organs of Jenynsia multidentata. > Technical-grade endosulfan biotransformation to endosulfan sulfate. - Endosulfan is accumulated in organs of J. multidentata as well as biotransformed to endosulfan sulfate, which relative abundance points out the time from exposure.

  5. Pre-medication to block [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the brown adipose tissue of pediatric and adolescent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; O' Hara, Sara M.; Curtwright, Lois A.; MacLean, Joseph R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Radiopharmaceutical uptake of [{sup 18}F]2-deoxy-2-glucose (FDG) in brown adipose tissue is noted on 15-20% of positron emission tomography (PET) scans in children and adolescents. To determine whether [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue can be adequately blocked by pre-medication other than moderate-dose oral diazepam. One hundred and eighteen [{sup 18}F]FDG PET body imaging studies were performed in 69 pediatric patients with a variety of solid tumors. The mean age at the time of imaging was 12.9 years (range 1.2-22.6 years), and 33 studies were performed in patients younger than 10 years old. Seventy-six were performed in boys and 42 in girls. Patients were imaged using a dedicated PET camera. Pre-medication was given in 88 studies: 45 received intravenous fentanyl (0.75-1.0 {mu}g/kg), 34 received low-dose oral diazepam (0.06 mg/kg) and 9 received moderate-dose oral diazepam (0.10 mg/kg). Thirty patients received no pre-medication, 7 of whom were known to have received opiates for pain during the 12 h before the study. Six body regions in the neck and chest were reviewed for [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue. Uptake of FDG in brown fat was visually graded: 0 for no FDG uptake, 1 for low-grade uptake, 2 for moderate uptake, and 3 for intense uptake. Visual grades 2 and 3 were considered to interfere potentially with image interpretation in the neck and chest. Data were analyzed by multivariate regression using a Poisson distribution. [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue was most often seen in the lateral neck region and superior and lateral to the lungs (in 36 and 39 studies, respectively). Uptake was also seen near the costovertebral junctions (15 studies), in the superior and central neck in 7 studies and in the anterior mediastinum in 2. Brown adipose tissue uptake was thought to interfere potentially with image interpretation (visual grades 2 and 3) in 19 studies - in 6 of 23 (26.1%) studies after no pre-medication and no

  6. Investigation of gold nanoparticles uptake and their tissue level distribution in rice plants by laser ablation-inductively coupled-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmel, Jeremy; Leland, Thomas; Wang, Huanhua; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and shoots under hydroponic conditions was investigated using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Rice plants were hydroponically exposed to positively, neutrally, and negatively charged AuNPs [AuNP1(+), AuNP2(0), AuNP3(−)] with a core diameter of 2 nm. Plants were exposed to AuNPs having 1.6 mg Au/L for 5 days or 0.14 mg Au/L for 3 months to elucidate how the surface charges of the nanoparticles affects their uptake into living plant tissues. The results demonstrate that terminal functional groups greatly affected the AuNP uptake into plant tissues. Au concentration determined by LA-ICP-MS in 5 day treated rice roots followed this order: AuNP1(+) > AuNP2(0) > AuNP3(−) but this order was reversed for rice shoots, indicating preferential translocation of AuNP3(−). Bioimages revealed distributions of mesophyll and vascular AuNP dependent on organ or AuNP concentration. Highlights: ► LA-ICP-MS technique was effectively used to quantify engineered AuNP in rice plant. ► Uptake and translocation of AuNPs are evident in rice roots and shoots. ► Organ level distribution of AuNPs is affected by their surface charges. ► Bioimaging of AuNP distribution in rice tissues by LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated. -- The tissue level uptake and spatial distribution of engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by rice plants was demonstrated by LA-ICP-MS bioimaging

  7. Correlation between tissue metabolism and cellularity assessed by standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient in peritoneal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Lai, Vincent; Chan, Queenie

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) (tissue metabolism) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (water diffusivity) in peritoneal metastases. Patients with peritoneal dissemination detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were prospectively recruited for MRI examinations with informed consent and the study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. FDG-PET/CT, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MRI, and DWI/MRI images were independently reviewed by two radiologists based on visual analysis. SUVmax/SUVmean and ADCmin/ADCmean were obtained manually by drawing ROIs over the peritoneal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and DWI, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics of each technique were evaluated. Pearson's coefficient and McNemar and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. Eight patients were recruited for this prospective study and 34 peritoneal metastases were evaluated. ADCmean was significantly and negatively correlated with SUVmax (r = -0.528, P = 0.001) and SUVmean (r = -0.548, P = 0.001). ADCmin had similar correlation with SUVmax (r = -0.508, P = 0.002) and SUVmean (r = -0.513, P = 0.002). DWI/MRI had high diagnostic performance (accuracy = 98%) comparable to FDG-PET/CT, in peritoneal metastasis detection. Kappa values were excellent for all techniques. There was a significant inverse correlation between SUV and ADC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Seasonal variation in the effect of constant ambient temperature of 24 C in reducing FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Laffin, Stephen; Davis, Royal; Treves, S. Ted; Grant, Frederick D.; Drubach, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that warming patients prior to and during 18 F-FDG uptake by controlling the room temperature can decrease uptake by brown adipose tissue (BAT). The aim of this study is to determine if this effect is subject to seasonal variation. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients referred for whole-body 18 F-FDG PET between December 2006 and December 2008. After December 2007, all patients were kept in the PET injection room at a constant 24 C for 30 min before and until 1 h following FDG administration. Patients over 22 years of age and those who received pre-medication known to reduce FDG uptake by BAT were excluded. One hundred and three patients were warmed to 24 C prior to scanning. The number of patients showing uptake by BAT in this group was compared to a control group of 99 patients who underwent PET prior to December 2007 when the injection room temperature was 21 C. Uptake by BAT occurred in 9% of studies performed after patient warming (24 C), compared to 27% of studies performed on the control group (21 C) (p 0.05). Maintaining room temperature at a constant 24 C for 30 min prior to and 1 h after IV tracer administration significantly decreases FDG uptake by BAT in children. This effect is greatest in the summer and winter. (orig.)

  9. Calcium transport in sealed vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. II. Characterization of 45Ca2+ uptake into plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, J.L.; Ruiz-Cristin, J.; Briskin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium uptake was examined in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using 45 Ca 2+ . Uptake of 45 Ca 2+ by the vesicles was ATP-dependent and radiotracer accumulated by the vesicles could be released by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. The uptake was stimulated by gramicidin D but slightly inhibited by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Although the latter result might suggest some degree of indirect coupling of 45 Ca 2+ uptake to ATP utilization via ΔμH + , no evidence for a secondary H + /Ca 2+ antiport in this vesicle system could be found. Following the imposition of an acid-interior pH gradient, proton efflux from the vesicle was not enhanced by the addition of Ca 2+ and an imposed pH gradient could not drive 45 Ca 2+ uptake. Optimal uptake of 45 Ca 2+ occurred broadly between pH 7.0 and 7.5 and the transport was inhibited by orthovanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol but insensitive to nitrate and azide. The dependence of 45 Ca 2+ uptake on both calcium and Mg:ATP concentration demonstrated saturation kinetics with K/sub m/ values of 6 micromolar and 0.37 millimolar, respectively. While ATP was the preferred substrate for driving 45 Ca 2+ uptake, GTP could drive transport at about 50% of the level observed for ATP. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of a unique primary calcium transport system associated with the plasma membrane which could drive calcium efflux from the plant cell

  10. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, A; Putzer, D; Decristoforo, C; Uprimny, C; Warwitz, B; Nilica, B; Gabriel, M; Kendler, D; Waitz, D; Widmann, G; Virgolini, I J

    2013-04-01

    We wanted to establish the range of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUVmax (mean ± standard deviation) values of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 ± 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 ± 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 ± 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 ± 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 ± 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUVmax (p TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUVmax can offer important clinical information to distinguish between physiological and pathological somatostatin receptor expression, especially in the uncinate process. PRRT does not significantly influence SUVmax, except in liver metastases of patients with NET.

  11. Comparison of linear and nonlinear implementation of the compartmental tissue uptake model for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallehauge, Jesper F; Sourbron, Steven; Irving, Benjamin; Tanderup, Kari; Schnabel, Julia A; Chappell, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Fitting tracer kinetic models using linear methods is much faster than using their nonlinear counterparts, although this comes often at the expense of reduced accuracy and precision. The aim of this study was to derive and compare the performance of the linear compartmental tissue uptake (CTU) model with its nonlinear version with respect to their percentage error and precision. The linear and nonlinear CTU models were initially compared using simulations with varying noise and temporal sampling. Subsequently, the clinical applicability of the linear model was demonstrated on 14 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer examined with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Simulations revealed equal percentage error and precision when noise was within clinical achievable ranges (contrast-to-noise ratio >10). The linear method was significantly faster than the nonlinear method, with a minimum speedup of around 230 across all tested sampling rates. Clinical analysis revealed that parameters estimated using the linear and nonlinear CTU model were highly correlated (ρ ≥ 0.95). The linear CTU model is computationally more efficient and more stable against temporal downsampling, whereas the nonlinear method is more robust to variations in noise. The two methods may be used interchangeably within clinical achievable ranges of temporal sampling and noise. Magn Reson Med 77:2414-2423, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Increased technetium-99 m hydroxy diphosphonate soft tissue uptake on bone scintigraphy in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: correlation with hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Heaf, James; Højgaard, Liselotte; Zerahn, Bo; Hasbak, Philip

    2017-03-01

    In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and/or hyperphosphataemia. As human vascular smooth muscle cells produce hydroxyapatite during cell culture with increased phosphate levels and as Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP primarily binds to hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that soft tissue accumulation would be found in patients with hyperphosphataemia. We identified 63 CKD patients diagnosed with secondary hyperparathyroidism admitted for Tc-99 m-HDP bone scan. Baseline characteristics and mean concentrations of biochemical markers (including P-calcium and P-phosphate) taken 0-3 months prior to the bone scans were collected. Soft tissue uptake was detected on bone scans in 37 of 63 (59%) patients. Primary locations were in the heart (27/37 = 73%), muscles (12/37 = 32%), lung (9/37 = 24%) and gastrointestinal tract (6/37 = 16%), and 13 of 37 (35%) patients had simultaneous uptake in more than one location. Regarding biochemical markers, patients with soft tissue uptake only differed from patients without in terms of plasma phosphate levels (1·95 ± 0·15 (n = 37) versus 1·27 ± 0·08 (n = 26), P = 0·0012). All patients with myocardial uptake (n = 27) had a coronary arteriography-verified history of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas CAD was only present in six of the 36 patients without myocardial uptake. In conclusion, dialysis-treated CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism have a high incidence of soft tissue uptake, and this finding is strongly correlated with elevated phosphate, but not calcium values. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Alkaline stress and iron deficiency regulate iron uptake and riboflavin synthesis gene expression differently in root and leaf tissue: implications for iron deficiency chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, En-Jung; Waters, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral that has low solubility in alkaline soils, where its deficiency results in chlorosis. Whether low Fe supply and alkaline pH stress are equivalent is unclear, as they have not been treated as separate variables in molecular physiological studies. Additionally, molecular responses to these stresses have not been studied in leaf and root tissues simultaneously. We tested how plants with the Strategy I Fe uptake system respond to Fe deficiency at mildly acidic and alkaline pH by measuring root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and expression of selected Fe uptake genes and riboflavin synthesis genes. Alkaline pH increased cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root FCR activity at full Fe supply, but alkaline stress abolished FCR response to low Fe supply. Alkaline pH or low Fe supply resulted in increased expression of Fe uptake genes, but riboflavin synthesis genes responded to Fe deficiency but not alkalinity. Iron deficiency increased expression of some common genes in roots and leaves, but alkaline stress blocked up-regulation of these genes in Fe-deficient leaves. In roots of the melon (Cucumis melo L.) fefe mutant, in which Fe uptake responses are blocked upstream of Fe uptake genes, alkaline stress or Fe deficiency up-regulation of certain Fe uptake and riboflavin synthesis genes was inhibited, indicating a central role for the FeFe protein. These results suggest a model implicating shoot-to-root signaling of Fe status to induce Fe uptake gene expression in roots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Influence of ceftriaxone treatment on fdg uptake - an in vivo [18f]-fluorodeoxyglucose imaging study in soft tissue infections in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, Matthias T.; Honer, Michael; Spaeth, Nicolas; Gottschalk, Jochen; Ametamey, Simon M.; Weber, Bruno; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Buck, Alfred; Kaim, Achim H.

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of antibiotic treatment using ceftriaxone on [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in experimental soft tissue infections. PET scans were performed in two groups (treated n=4; non-treated n=4) at days 3, 5, and 6 after inoculation of the infection. Additional autoradiography was performed in four animals at day 7 and in three animals at day 11. The difference of FDG uptake on day 5 (after three days of antibiotic treatment) between both groups proved to be significant (df=6; T=2.52; p=0.045). FDG uptake determined at the other days did not reveal significant difference between the two groups. It seems to be possible that the effect of antibiotic treatment on FDG uptake is less evident than reported for therapy monitoring of cancer treatment. The change of FDG uptake over time in treated and untreated infections is complex and further in vivo experiments have to be initiated to investigate the potential value of clinical FDG PET in therapy monitoring of infection

  15. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism

  16. Glucose uptake of the muscle and adipose tissues in diabetes and obesity disease models. Evaluation of insulin and β3-adrenergic receptor agonist effects by 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Seigo; Sugita, Taku; Kondo, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of diabetes and obesity is abnormality in glucose metabolism and glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissue based on an insufficient action of insulin. Therefore, many of the drug discovery programs are based on the concept of stimulating glucose uptake in these tissues. Improvement of glucose metabolism has been assessed based on blood parameters, but these merely reflect the systemic reaction to the drug administered. We have conducted basic studies to investigate the usefulness of glucose uptake measurement in various muscle and adipose tissues in pharmacological tests using disease-model animals. A radiotracer for glucose, 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG), was administered to Wistar fatty rats (type 2 diabetes model), DIO mouse (obese model), and the corresponding control animals, and the basal glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose (white and brown) tissues were compared using biodistribution method. Moreover, insulin and a β3 agonist (CL316, 243), which are known to stimulate glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissues, were administered to assess their effect. 18 F-FDG uptake in each tissue was measured as the radioactivity and the distribution was confirmed by autoradiography. In Wistar fatty rats, all the tissues measured showed a decrease in the basal level of glucose uptake when compared to Wistar lean rats. On the other hand, the same trend was observed only in the white adipose tissue in DIO mice, while brown adipose tissue showed increments in the basal glucose uptake in this model. Insulin administration stimulated glucose uptake in both Wistar lean and fatty rats, although the responses were inhibited in Wistar fatty rats. The same tendency was shown also in control mice, but clear increments in glucose uptake were not observed in the muscle and brown adipose tissue of DIO mice after insulin administration. β3 agonist administration showed the similar trend in Wistar lean and fatty rats as insulin

  17. Diagnostic significance of /sup 99m/tc-marked phosphate uptake in the soft tissues of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostel, F.; Meybier, H.

    1981-03-01

    A patient with a right-sided carcinoma of the breast had a bone scintigram with sup(99m)Tc-methylendisphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP), which showed intensive uptake in the abnormal breast; a year after mastectomy, similar high uptake of the drug was found in the remaining breast. The radiological findings indicated a fibrocystic mastopathy without evidence of malignancy in the left breast. A review of the literature suggested that uptake of osteotropic polyphosphate compounds in the breast was of considerable significance, indicating incipient or developing malignancy. A review of our own cases cast considerable doubt on this interpretation. It is probable that MDP uptake in the breast depends in part on the hormonal pattern and may occasionally be observed during oestrogen therapy in the male (e.g. carcinoma of the prostate).

  18. The diagnostic significance of sup(99m)TC-marked phosphate uptake in the soft tissues of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Meybier, H.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    A patient with a right-sided carcinoma of the breast had a bone scintigram with sup(99m)Tc-methylendisphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP), which showed intensive uptake in the abnormal breast; a year after mastectomy, similar high uptake of the drug was found in the remaining breast. The radiological findings indicated a fibrocystic mastopathy without evidence of malignancy in the left breast. A review of the literature suggested that uptake of osteotropic polyphosphate compounds in the breast was of considerable significance, indicating incipient or developing malignancy. A review of our own cases cast considerable doubt on this interpretation. It is probable that MDP uptake in the breast depends in part on the hormonal pattern and may occasionally be observed during oestrogen therapy in the male (e.g. carcinoma of the prostate). (orig.) [de

  19. Capsinoids activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) with increased energy expenditure associated with subthreshold 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in BAT-positive humans confirmed by positron emission tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Camps, Stefan G; Goh, Hui Jen; Govindharajulu, Priya; Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D; Townsend, David W; Verma, Sanjay K; Velan, S Sendhil; Sun, Lei; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Su Chi; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2018-01-01

    Capsinoids are reported to increase energy expenditure (EE) via brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulation. However, imaging of BAT activation by capsinoids remains limited. Because BAT activation is a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to prove that capsinoid-induced BAT activation can be visualized by 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We compared capsinoids and cold exposure on BAT activation and whole-body EE. Twenty healthy participants (8 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 26 y (range: 21-35 y) and a body mass index (kg/m2) of 21.7 (range: 18.5-26.0) underwent 18F-FDG PET and whole-body calorimetry after ingestion of 12 mg capsinoids or ≤2 h of cold exposure (∼14.5°C) in a crossover design. Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the region of interest and BAT volumes were calculated. Blood metabolites were measured before and 2 h after each treatment. All of the participants showed negligible 18F-FDG uptake post-capsinoid ingestion. Upon cold exposure, 12 participants showed avid 18F-FDG uptake into supraclavicular and lateral neck adipose tissues (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 participants (BAT-negative group) showed undetectable uptake. Capsinoids and cold exposure increased EE, although cold induced a 2-fold increase in whole-body EE and higher fat oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and HDL cholesterol compared with capsinoids. Capsinoids only increased EE in BAT-positive participants, which suggests that BAT mediates EE evoked by capsinoids. This implies that capsinoids stimulate BAT to a lesser degree than cold exposure as evidenced by 18F-FDG uptake below the presently accepted SUV thresholds defining BAT activation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02964442. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  20. Efeito do AIB sobre a qualidade e fitossanidade dos alporques de influência da Caryocar brasiliense Camb (caryocaraceae Effect of AIB on quality and phytossanity of Caryocar brasiliense Camb (caryocaraceae air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a influência de quatro concentrações do hormônio vegetal ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 ppm na obtenção de alporques de Caryocar brasiliense Camb (Caryocaraceae fitossanitariamente adequados. Avaliou-se o efeito direto desse hormônio na indução de galha por Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae nas folhas dos alporques, bem como o seu efeito indireto sobre os parasitóides de Eurytoma sp. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, cada parcela experimental com dois alporques, e cinco tratamentos: 1 sem anelamento; 2 anelado + 0 ppm de AIB; 3 anelado + 500 ppm de AIB; 4 anelado + 1.000 ppm de AIB; e 5 anelado + 2.000 ppm de AIB. Não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 nas taxas de enraizamento dos alporques, de raízes/alporque, de comprimento da maior raiz/alporque, de taxas de calejamento e de sobrevivência dos ramos anelados. Também, não se verificou diferença estatística entre os tratamentos quanto ao número do parasitóide Quadrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e das características morfológicas externas das galhas induzidas por Eurytoma sp. Entretanto, observaram-se efeito positivo entre as concentrações de AIB e o número de galhas e maior número de adultos de Eurytoma sp. e de seu principal parasitóide Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae na concentração de 2.000 ppm de AIB. Esses dados indicam que esse galhador pode selecionar partes da planta ou plantas com maior concentração de hormônio. Devido à baixa efetividade desse hormônio na produção de estacas para a propagação assexuada de C. brasiliense, mais estudos são necessários devido ao fato de esta ser uma das mais importantes espécies no bioma Cerrado. Estudos futuros também são necessários para elucidar o envolvimento do AIB na formação de galhas e o seu impacto indireto na comunidade de parasitóides associados.The aim of this study was

  1. Effects of hyperoxia on 18F-fluoro-misonidazole brain uptake and tissue oxygen tension following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents: Pilot studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Fryer

    Full Text Available Mapping brain hypoxia is a major goal for stroke diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment monitoring. 18F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO positron emission tomography (PET is the gold standard hypoxia imaging method. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO is a promising therapy in acute stroke. In this pilot study, we tested the straightforward hypothesis that NBO would markedly reduce FMISO uptake in ischemic brain in Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, two rat strains with distinct vulnerability to brain ischemia, mimicking clinical heterogeneity.Thirteen adult male rats were randomized to distal middle cerebral artery occlusion under either 30% O2 or 100% O2. FMISO was administered intravenously and PET data acquired dynamically for 3hrs, after which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and tetrazolium chloride (TTC staining were carried out to map the ischemic lesion. Both FMISO tissue uptake at 2-3hrs and FMISO kinetic rate constants, determined based on previously published kinetic modelling, were obtained for the hypoxic area. In a separate group (n = 9, tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 was measured in the ischemic tissue during both control and NBO conditions.As expected, the FMISO PET, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were much larger in SHRs than Wistar rats in both the control and NBO conditions. NBO did not appear to substantially reduce FMISO lesion size, nor affect the FMISO kinetic rate constants in either strain. Likewise, MRI and TTC lesion volumes were unaffected. The parallel study showed the expected increases in ischemic cortex PtO2 under NBO, although these were small in some SHRs with very low baseline PtO2.Despite small samples, the apparent lack of marked effects of NBO on FMISO uptake suggests that in permanent ischemia the cellular mechanisms underlying FMISO trapping in hypoxic cells may be disjointed from PtO2. Better understanding of FMISO trapping processes will be important for future applications of FMISO imaging.

  2. In-vivo tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA in a human subject with metastatic bone pain and in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailem, Fayez M.; Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Aguirre, Maria L.; Ellerson, Dawn L.; Walsh, T. Kent; Simpson, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Organ and tissue uptake and retention of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA were studied in a human subject treated for metastatic bone pain, and the results were compared with the biodistribution studies in five normal mice. The explanted organs from a patient who received a therapy dose of 18.6 mCi (688.2 MBq) Sn-117m(4+)DTPA and who died 47 days later were imaged with a γ-camera, and tissue samples were counted and also autoradiographed. Bone, muscle, liver, fat, lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart and pancreas tissue samples were assayed in a well counter for radioactivity. Regions of interest were drawn over bone and major organs to calculate and quantify clearance times using three in vivo Sn-117m(4+)DTPA whole-body scintigrams acquired at 1, 24 and 168 h after injection. Five normal mice injected with the same batch of Sn-117m(4+)DTPA as used for the human subject were sacrificed at 24 h, and tissue samples were collected and assayed for radioactivity for comparison with the human data. For the human subject, whole-body retention at 47 days postinjection was 81% of the injected dose, and the rest (19%) was excreted in urine. Of the whole-body retained activity at 47 days, 82.4% was in bone, 7.8% in the muscle and 1.5% in the liver, and the rest was distributed among other tissues. γ-Ray scintigrams and electron autoradiographs of coronal slices of the thoracolumbar vertebral body showed heterogenous metastatic involvement with normal bone between metastatic lesions. There was nonuniform distribution of radioactivity even within a single vertebral body, indicating normal bone between metastatic lesions. Lesion-to-nonlesion ratios ranged from 3 to 5. However, the osteoid-to-marrow cavity deposition ratio, from the microautoradiographs, was 11:1. The peak uptake in the human bone was seen at 137 h with no biological clearance. Soft tissues showed peak uptake at 1 h and exhibited three compartmental clearance components. Whole-body retention in normal mice was 38.7% of the injected

  3. Thyroid Hormone Effects on Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis and Tissue-Specific Fatty Acid Uptake in Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klieverik, Lars P.; Coomans, Claudia P.; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (TH) status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific substrate supply in vivo are incompletely understood. To study the effects of TH status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific fatty acid (FA) fluxes, we used metabolic cages as well as C-14-labeled FA and

  4. Cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein modulator, increases [18F]MPPF uptake in rat brain and peripheral tissues: microPET and ex vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M.; Plenevaux, Alain; Defraiteur, Caroline; Lemaire, Christian; Aerts, Joel; Luxen, Andre; Rubins, Daniel J.; Cherry, Simon R.; Melega, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment with cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulator increases brain uptake of 4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2''-pyridinyl)-p-[ 18 F] fluorobenzamido] ethylpiper azine ([ 18 F]MPPF) for binding to hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptors. Those increases were quantified in rat brain with in vivo microPET and ex vivo tissue studies. Each Sprague-Dawley rat (n=4) received a baseline [ 18 F]MPPF microPET scan followed by second scan 2-3 weeks later that included cyclosporine pretreatment (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Maximum a posteriori reconstructed images and volumetric ROIs were used to generate dynamic radioactivity concentration measurements for hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum, with simplified reference tissue method (SRTM) analysis. Western blots were used to semiquantify P-gp regional distribution in brain. MicroPET studies showed that hippocampus uptake of [ 18 F]MPPF was increased after cyclosporine; ex vivo studies showed similar increases in hippocampus and frontal cortex at 30 min, and for heart and kidney at 2.5 and 5 min, without concomitant increases in [ 18 F]MPPF plasma concentration. P-gp content in cerebellum was twofold higher than in hippocampus or frontal cortex. These studies confirm and extend prior ex vivo results (J. Passchier, et al., Eur J Pharmacol, 2000) that showed [ 18 F]MPPF as a substrate for P-gp. Our microPET results showed that P-gp modulation of [ 18 F]MPPF binding to 5-HT 1A receptors can be imaged in rat hippocampus. The heterogeneous brain distribution of P-gp appeared to invalidate the use of cerebellum as a nonspecific reference region for SRTM modeling. Regional quantitation of P-gp may be necessary for accurate PET assessment of 5-HT 1A receptor density when based on tracer uptake sensitive to P-gp modulation. (orig.)

  5. Increased technetium-99 m hydroxy diphosphonate soft tissue uptake on bone scintigraphy in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Heaf, James Goya; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and/or hyperphosphata......In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and...... patients diagnosed with secondary hyperparathyroidism admitted for Tc-99 m-HDP bone scan. Baseline characteristics and mean concentrations of biochemical markers (including P-calcium and P-phosphate) taken 0-3 months prior to the bone scans were collected. Soft tissue uptake was detected on bone scans....../or hyperphosphataemia. As human vascular smooth muscle cells produce hydroxyapatite during cell culture with increased phosphate levels and as Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP primarily binds to hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that soft tissue accumulation would be found in patients with hyperphosphataemia. We identified 63 CKD...

  6. Enraizamento de estacas de azaleia (Rhododendron simsii Planch. no outono em AIB e diferentes substratos Rooting of azalea cuttings (Rhododendron simsii Planch. in the fall of AIB and different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A azaleia é uma planta ornamental propagada comercialmente por meio de estacas, sendo difícil o seu o enraizamento em muitos casos, o que resulta em baixa produção de mudas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o uso do AIB e o efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de azaleia no outono. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em um fatorial 2x3, sendo adotados os fatores: aplicação ou não de ácido indol butírico - AIB (0mg L-1 e 1.000mg L-1 e tipos de substratos (vermiculita - grânulos médios, casca de arroz carbonizada e fibra de coco. Após 76 dias, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: retenção foliar (%, estacas enraizadas (%, sobrevivência das estacas (%, comprimento da maior raiz, número de folhas, massa de matéria fresca das raízes por estaca, pH e condutividade elétrica dos substratos. Os resultados mostraram não haver diferenças para o enraizamento pela aplicação ou não de AIB. As estacas enraizadas em casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita apresentaram número superior de folhas em relação às estacas do substrato fibra de coco. No entanto, a fibra de coco e a casca de arroz carbonizada proporcionaram um maior comprimento de raiz. Para massa de matéria fresca por estaca, a fibra de coco também apresentou o melhor resultado. Não houve contribuição do AIB no enraizamento de estacas de azaleia, e o substrato fibra de coco foi o que apresentou melhor desempenho para o enraizamento das estacas.Azalea is an ornamental plant commercially propagated by cuttings, and their rooting process in many cases, is difficult, which results in decreased production of seedlings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of IBA and the effect of different substrates on the rooting of cuttings of azalea in the fall. A randomized design with five replications in a factorial array was used as a statistical model, and it was adopted the

  7. Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Barros de Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Melo C.B., Fino T.C.M., Schwingel F.F., Santiago M.T., de Barros L.F.R., McManus C. & Sá M.E.P. [Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.] Dinâmica da apreensão de produtos de origem animal em bagagens internacionais no Aeroporto de Brasília (AIB-PJK/SBBR. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:265-276, 2016. Universidade de Brasília, PPGCA, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, ICC Sul, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brasil. E-mail: cristianomelo@unb.br The risk of introducing infectious agents increases as the volume of imported products rises. The illegal entry of animal products (POA brought in international passenger baggage is a factor that makes up the risk assessment and that grows proportionally to the intensification of international transit passengers. They evaluated the data on seizures of animal products intercepted in international baggage passengers in Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR between the years 2010 and 2012. The analysis of the dynamics of these seizures considered the POA category, origin, airline and months more frequently and also verified the correlation between these variables. According to retrospective analysis, nearly eight tons of POA were seized from 52 countries throughout the study period. The results showed Portugal (p <0.0001 as the source of passengers who had higher frequency and quantity of seizures, and, added to other European origins, totaled 84.3% of seizures. The months of July, August and September stood out for the highest number of seizures and greater movement of international passengers. The increase in the number of seizures accompanied by a rise in the percentage of inspected passengers (r=0.69, emphasizing the importance of airport surveillance. According to the calculation of relative risk, passengers from African and South American countries showed greater magnitude of risk to bring animal

  8. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Human hepatic lipase overexpression in mice induces hepatic steatosis and obesity through promoting hepatic lipogenesis and white adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedó, Lídia; Santos, David; Roglans, Núria; Julve, Josep; Pallarès, Victor; Rivas-Urbina, Andrea; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Laguna, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Human hepatic lipase (hHL) is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL) is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo. Experiments were carried out in hHL transgenic and wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet. Triglyceride metabolism studies included β-oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in liver and WAT, hepatic triglyceride secretion, and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated free fatty acid (FFA) lipolysis and influx. The expression of hHL promoted hepatic triglyceride accumulation and de novo lipogenesis without affecting triglyceride secretion, and this was associated with an upregulation of Srebf1 as well as the main genes controlling the synthesis of fatty acids. Transgenic mice also exhibited more adiposity and an increased LPL-mediated FFA influx into the WAT without affecting glucose tolerance. Our results demonstrate that hHL promoted hepatic steatosis in mice mainly by upregulating de novo lipogenesis. HL also upregulated WAT LPL and promoted triglyceride-rich lipoprotein hydrolysis and adipose FFA uptake. These data support the important role of hHL in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis and confirm the broad cardiometabolic role of HL.

  10. Interaction of slow highly charged ions with hard dental tissue: studies of fluoride uptake and reminalization efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalova, A; Kasperski, G; Rousseau, P; Domaracka, A; Lawicki, A

    2014-01-01

    TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy data are presented on ion irradiation of hard dental tissue using a beam of 129 Xe 20+ (15 kV) ions delivered in the ARIBE facility by an ECR source. The investigation was focused on the mass distribution of the fragment ions. A comparison is made between the mass spectra from hard dental tissue treated by olaflur-(C 27 H 60 F 2 N 2 O 3 ) and untreated hard dental tissue obtained under irradiation by low-energy highly-charged ions (HCIs). We found significant differences between the mass spectra of enamel after introducing amine fluoride (olaflur) and the mass spectra of pure untreated enamel. Further, we separated out the effects caused by radiation induced in the tooth enamel from those induced in dentin, which has not been performed before. In order to conduct a further detailed analysis, it is necessary to extend the research scope to include the influence of fluorine compounds on enamel and dentin.

  11. Micro Regional Heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FDG Uptake in Canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Hansen, Anders Elias; Oxboel, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tumour microenvironment heterogeneity is believed to play a key role in cancer progression and therapy resistance. However, little is known about micro regional distribution of hypoxia, glycolysis and proliferation in spontaneous solid tumours. The overall aim was simultaneous...... investigation of micro regional heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) and 18F-FDG (glycolysis) uptake and correlation to endogenous markers of hypoxia, glycolysis, proliferation and angiogenesis to better therapeutically target aggressive tumour regions and prognosticate outcome. METHODS: Exploiting...... the different half-lives of 64Cu-ATSM (13h) and 18F-FDG (2h) enabled simultaneous investigation of micro regional distribution of hypoxia and glycolysis in 145 tumour pieces from four spontaneous canine soft tissue sarcomas. Pairwise measurements of radioactivity and gene expression of endogenous markers...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  13. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl...... treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.......64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups...

  14. Effects of caloric deprivation on thyroid hormone tissue uptake and generation of low-T3 syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Heyden, J.T.M.; Docter, R.; van Toor, H.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Hennemann, G.; Krenning, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in the low-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) syndrome cannot be fully explained in all conditions by a decrease in 5'-deiodinase activity. Recent observations showed that in rat hepatocytes iodothyronines are taken up by an active transport mechanism. To investigate whether regulation, i.e., inhibition of active transmembraneous transport for iodothyronines in humans may contribute to the generation of the low-T 3 syndrome, tracer thyroxine (T 4 ) and T 3 kinetic studies were performed in 10 obese subjects before and after 7 days on a 240 kcal diet. Kinetics analyses were performed according to a three-pool model of distribution and metabolism for both T 4 and T 3 . For T 4 kinetics, during caloric deprivation serum total T 4 and plasma pool did not change and production rate and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) were significantly lower. Despite a significantly higher serum free T 4 , the mass transfer rate to the rapidly equilibrating pool (REP) and the slowly equilibrating pool (SEP) diminished significantly, leading to smaller tissue pools. For T 3 kinetics, both serum total T 3 , free T 3 , plasma pool, and production rate diminished significantly, while MCR remained unchanged. These changes cannot be fully explained by a similar decrease of serum free T 3 (only 25%), indicating a diminished transport efficiency for T 3 . In conclusion, during caloric restriction, transport of T 4 and T 3 into tissues is diminished, and this phenomenon is much more pronounced for T 4 transport per se may contribute to low-T 3 production and low-T 3 serum levels due to less substrate (i.e., T 4 ) availability in tissues

  15. Bioactive and metal uptake studies of carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid membranes for tissue engineering and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Rajkumar, M; Freitas, H; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Nair, S V; Furuike, T; Tamura, H

    2009-08-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid (CMCS-g-D-GA) was prepared by grafting D-GA onto CMCS in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and then the membranes were made from it. In this work, the bioactivity studies of CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were carried out and then characterized by SEM, CLSM, XRD and FT-IR. The CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were found to be bioactive. The adsorption of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions onto CMCS-g-D-GA membranes has also been investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of CMCS-g-D-GA for Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ was found to be 57, 56.4 and 70.2 mg/g, respectively. Hence, these membranes were useful for tissue engineering, environmental and water purification applications.

  16. Kinetics of [14C-5] 8-methoxypsoralen uptake by UVA irradiated and non-irradiated rabbit eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinin, G.I.; Glew, W.B.; Roberts, W.P.; Nigra, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    Total 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in intact and UVA irradiated rabbit eye tissues and its unaltered fraction in aqueous and eye lenses were determined over the 24 hours after i.v. injection of [ 14 C-5] and carrier 8-MOP at the concentration of 50 microCi and 5 mg/kg. No 8-MOP was detected at the end of 24 hours in intact and irradiated aqueous, vitreous and retina in contrast to one hour when the respective levels were congruent to 220, greater than 0 and congruent to 160 ng/g. Eye-plasma drug concentration ratios were less than 0.5 initially, but increased thereafter. While the average lens 8-MOP levels of congruent to 140 ng/g remained unchanged for 24 hours, no unaltered drug was detected beyond eight hours. Measurable amounts of label at the end of 24 hours also persisted in the cornea, iris, sclera and conjunctiva

  17. Bufalin-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD nanoparticles: preparation, cellular uptake, tissue distribution, and anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan YR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Peihao Yin,1,* Yan Wang,1,* YanYan Qiu,1 LiLi Hou,1 Xuan Liu,1 Jianmin Qin,1 Yourong Duan,2 Peifeng Liu,2 Ming Qiu,3 Qi Li11Department of Clinical Oncology, Putuo Hospital and Interventional Cancer Institute of Integrative Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2Shanghai Cancer Institute, Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China; 3Department of General Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Recent studies have shown that bufalin has a good antitumor effect but has high toxicity, poor water solubility, a short half-life, a narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study aimed to determine the targeting efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs made of methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, poly-L-lysine (PLL, and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD loaded with bufalin, ie, bufalin-loaded mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD nanoparticles (BNPs, in SW620 colon cancer-bearing mice.Methods: BNPs showed uniform size. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The tumor targeting, cellular uptake, and growth-inhibitory effect of BNPs in vivo were tested.Results: BNPs were of uniform size with an average particle size of 164 ± 84 nm and zeta potential of 2.77 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 81.7% ± 0.89%, and the drug load was 3.92% ± 0.16%. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that although the blank NPs were nontoxic, they enhanced the cytotoxicity of bufalin in BNPs. Drug release experiments showed that the release of the drug was prolonged and sustained. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that BNPs could effectively bind to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In the SW620

  18. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  19. Human hepatic lipase overexpression in mice induces hepatic steatosis and obesity through promoting hepatic lipogenesis and white adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Cedó

    Full Text Available Human hepatic lipase (hHL is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo. Experiments were carried out in hHL transgenic and wild-type mice fed a Western-type diet. Triglyceride metabolism studies included β-oxidation and de novo lipogenesis in liver and WAT, hepatic triglyceride secretion, and adipose lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated free fatty acid (FFA lipolysis and influx. The expression of hHL promoted hepatic triglyceride accumulation and de novo lipogenesis without affecting triglyceride secretion, and this was associated with an upregulation of Srebf1 as well as the main genes controlling the synthesis of fatty acids. Transgenic mice also exhibited more adiposity and an increased LPL-mediated FFA influx into the WAT without affecting glucose tolerance. Our results demonstrate that hHL promoted hepatic steatosis in mice mainly by upregulating de novo lipogenesis. HL also upregulated WAT LPL and promoted triglyceride-rich lipoprotein hydrolysis and adipose FFA uptake. These data support the important role of hHL in regulating hepatic lipid homeostasis and confirm the broad cardiometabolic role of HL.

  20. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [18F]fluorine substitution at the 16α-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-01-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ERα and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for 18 F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16α-position for 18 F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [ 18 F]fluoride at the 16- 18 F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16 18 F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators

  1. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  2. Uptake and phytotoxicity of the herbicide metsulfuron methyl in corn root tissue in the presence of the safener 1,8-naphthalic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhomme, H.; Bastide, J.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of Zea mays L. cv Potro roots was inhibited by the herbicide metsulfuron methyl (MSM) at the lowest concentration tested: 5 nanomoles per liter. Pretreatment of corn seeds with commercial 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) at 1% (w/w) partially reversed MSM-induced root growth inhibition. MSM at a concentration of 52 nanomoles per liter was taken up rapidly by roots and accumulated in the corn tissue to concentrations three times those in the external medium; the safener NA increased MSM uptake up to 48 hours. The protective effect of NA was related to the ability of the safener to increase the metabolism of MSM; ten-fold increases in the metabolic rates of MSM were observed in NA-pretreated corn seedlings grown for 48 hours on 52 nanomolar [ 14 C]MSM solution. DNA synthesis determined by measurement of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was inhibited by root MSM applications; after a 6-hour application period, 13 nanomolar MSM solution reduced DNA synthesis by 64%, and the same reduction was also observed with NA-treated seedlings. Pretreatment of corn seeds with safener NA did not increase the acetolactate synthase activity in the roots and did not change, up to 13 micromoles per liter, the in vitro sensitivity of roots to MSM

  3. Autoradiography of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): Uptake in the monoaminergic pathways and in melanin containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyden, A; Lindquist, N G; Bondesson, U; Larsson, B S; Olsson, L -I

    1985-01-01

    A recently discovered neurotoxic compound, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, has been found to cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome in man and monkey, but not in laboratory animals such as rat, mouse and guinea pig. MPTP seems to selectively destroy the melanin containing dopaminergic cells in pars compacta of substantia nigra. Lower mammalian species do not have melanin in these cells, which indicates that the presence of neuromelanin may be of importance for the development of MPTP-induced lesions. By means of whole-body autoradiography of TH-MPTP in mice, accumulation and retention was observed in the dopaminergic pathways, in locus ceruleus and in structures in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. A high uptake was also seen in melanin-containing tissues such as in the eyes of pigmented mice. MPTP has earlier been found to have high affinity in vitro for dopamine melanin, which is similar to the pigment in substantia nigra. The typical features of the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity with destruction of pigmented nerve cells and development of parkinsonism may be due to accumulation adn retention of MPTP and its metabolites in these cells. In species with pigmented nerve cells, such as man and monkey, the accumulation may be much more pronounced because of the melanin affinity of MPTP and its metabolites. (author).

  4. Enraizamento de estacas apicais de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' em função de época de coleta e AIB

    OpenAIRE

    Ohland,Tatiane; Pio,Rafael; Chagas,Edvan Alves; Barbosa,Wilson; Kotz,Tailene Elisa; Daneluz,Simone

    2009-01-01

    Estacas apicais de figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos' coletadas em épocas distintas, podem apresentar enraizamento diferenciado, o que propiciará, na prática, saber em qual época devem-se aproveitar as estacas para a produção de mudas. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar a época de coleta e o tratamento com AIB, no enraizamento de estacas apicais da figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos'. Estacas caulinares lenhosas da porção apical dos ramos, coletadas no final da primeira quinzena dos meses de maio, ...

  5. Efeito do AIB sobre o enraizamento e desenvolvimento de estacas de quivi (Actinidia deliciosa Effect of IBA on the rooting and development of kiwi cuttings (Actinidia deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o efeito do ácido 3-indoibiitirico (A/B no enraizamento e desenvolvimento de estacas semi-lenhosas de quivi, cv. Monte. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, e constou de cinco tratamentos, com cinco repetições, em blocos casualizados. Usou-se 19 sacos/parcela, com duas estacas/saco plástico, plantadas em uma mistura argila: areia.-esterco (1: 1: 1: e tratadas com AIB nas concentrações de: 2000ppm, 4000ppm, 6000ppm e 8000ppm, além da testemunha (sem AIB. O AIB não influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento das estacas, mas resultou no aumento linear do peso seco médio das raízes. Houve, da mesma forma, incrementos lineares no comprimento e no peso seco dos brotos, à medida que se elevou a concentração de AIB.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of the 3-indolbutiric acid (IBA on the rooting and development of semi-hardwood cuttings of kiwi, cv. Monty. The experiment was carried out at the Staccatos Experimental Agronomical/UFRGS in Eldorado do Soul. RS, Brazil with five treatments and five repetitions, in completely randomized blocks design. There were 19 bags per pilot with two cuttings per plastic bag grow in a catty: sane manure mixture (1:1:1 and treated by /BA at the concentrations of 2000ppm, 4000ppm, 6000ppm and 8000ppm. In addition to the contrail. IBA did not affect the rooting percentage but resulted in a linear increase of the mean root dry weight. Shoot development was not affected by the IBA. Buy there was a tendency for a linear increase of shoot length and dry weight in response to IBA concentrations above 2000 ppm.

  6. Changes in 35S-sulphate uptake in different tissues in the knee and hip regions of rabbits during immobilization, remobilization and the development of osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videman, T.; Michelsson, J.-E.; Rauhamaeki, R.; Langenskioeld, A.

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe phenomena accompanying the development of osteoarthritis of the rabbit knee, consistently appearing within 4-6 weeks as a consequence of immobilization of this joint, studies on 35 S-sulphate (Na 2 - 35 SO 4 ) uptake were carried out. The investigation suggests that immobilization of the knee leads within 2-4 weeks to increased sulphate uptake in bone, cartilage and ligaments in the knee region and in the hip (not immobilized) of the same leg. The first marked changes in 35 S-sulphate uptake were found in the ligaments and the articular cartilage as early as after 4 days of immobilization. (author)

  7. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium) into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of (/sup 14/C)-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric (/sup 3/H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.

  8. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat [N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium] into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of [ 14 C]-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of α-aminoisobutyric ( 3 H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems

  9. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells (ρ < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to 240 min with CsA. But

  10. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-02-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells ({rho} < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to

  11. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  12. Structure-activity relationship study of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide-cyclic RGD conjugates as carriers for siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shun-Ichi; Takesada, Anna; Nagamura, Yurie; Sogabe, Eri; Ohki, Rieko; Hayashi, Junsuke; Urata, Hidehito

    2017-12-15

    The conjugation of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cyclo(-Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Cys-) (cRGDfC) at the C-terminus of the helix peptide (PI) has been reported to be useful for constructing a carrier for targeted siRNA delivery into cells. In order to explore structure-activity relationships for the development of potential carriers for siRNA delivery, we synthesized conjugates of Aib-containing amphipathic helical peptide with cRGDfC at the N-terminus (PII) and both the N- and C-termini (PIII) of the helical peptide. Furthermore, to examine the influence of PI helical chain length on siRNA delivery, truncated peptides containing 16 (PIV), 12 (PV), and 8 (PVI) amino acid residues at the N-terminus of the helical chain were synthesized. PII and PIII, as well as PI, could deliver anti-luciferase siRNA into cells to induce the knockdown of luciferase stably expressed in cells. In contrast, all of the truncated peptides were unlikely to transport siRNA into cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of ET(B) receptor agonists: NMR spectroscopic and conformational studies of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewage, Chandralal M; Jiang, Lu; Parkinson, John A; Ramage, Robert; Sadler, Ian H

    2002-03-01

    In a previous report we have shown that the endothelin-B receptor-selective linear endothelin peptide, ET-1[Cys (Acm)1,15, Ala3, Leu7, Aib11], folds into an alpha-helical conformation in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent [Hewage et al. (1998) FEBS Lett., 425, 234-238]. To study the requirements for the structure-activity relationships, truncated analogues of this peptide were subjected to further studies. Here we report the solution conformation of ET7-21[Leu7, Aib11, Cys(Acm)15], in a methanol-d3/water co-solvent at pH 3.6, by NMR spectroscopic and molecular modelling studies. Further truncation of this short peptide results in it displaying poor agonist activity. The modelled structure shows that the peptide folds into an alpha-helical conformation between residues Lys9-His16, whereas the C-terminus prefers no fixed conformation. This truncated linear endothelin analogue is pivotal for designing endothelin-B receptor agonists.

  14. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans and treatment with its zoosporial components on uptake of 3H-leucine and protein synthesis potato tuber tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1978-01-01

    Both sides of aged disks of potato tubers were inoculated with incompatible race 0 or compatible race 1 of P. infestans. The uptake of radioactivity from 3 H-leucine into the disks was greatly reduced by the infection with the incompatible race, but the ratio of incorporated radioactivity in the acid soluble fraction of the disks to total radioactivity in the 20,000 x g supernatant was increased by the infection with the incompatible race 0. In case of the compatible race 1, the infection had less effect on the incorporation ratio of the radioactivity into the acid insoluble fraction than the case of the race 0. The results suggested that the reduction in 3 H-leucine uptake may be due to alteration of the physiological activity of host plasma membrane, instead of the reduction of metabolic activity. The treatment of tuber disks with the insoluble fraction of the zoosporial homogenate of race 0 or race 1 greatly reduced the uptake of 3 H-leucine by the disks. The supernatant fraction of the zoosporial homogenate also reduced the uptake, but the effect was lost by dialysis. The results suggest that some substances in the insoluble components of the zoosporial homogenate of P. infestans may be at least one cause of the reduction in the uptake of 3 H-leucine which begins to occur at very early period of the inoculation with race 0 or race 1 while penetration has not yet occurred. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Arterial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake reflects balloon catheter-induced thrombus formation and tissue factor expression via nuclear factor-κB in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji

    2013-01-01

    Imaging modalities to assess atherosclerotic plaque thrombogenicity have not been established, so in this study the relationship between [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake and thrombus formation was investigated in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in the iliacofemoral artery by balloon injury and a 0.5% cholesterol diet. At 3 weeks after the first balloon injury, the arteries were visualized by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging 2 h after an 18 F-FDG infusion, and then arterial thrombus was induced by a second balloon injury of both iliacofemoral arteries. Imaging with 18 F-FDG-PET revealed significantly more radioactivity along the injured (0.63±0.12 standardized uptake value (SUV)max), than the contralateral non-injured artery (0.34±0.08 SUVmax, n=17, P 18 F-FDG uptake reflects the thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque following balloon injury. (author)

  16. Micro Regional Heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FDG Uptake in Canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Hansen, Anders Elias; Oxboel, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    investigation of micro regional heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) and 18F-FDG (glycolysis) uptake and correlation to endogenous markers of hypoxia, glycolysis, proliferation and angiogenesis to better therapeutically target aggressive tumour regions and prognosticate outcome. METHODS: Exploiting...

  17. The critical main-chain length for helix formation in water: determined in a peptide series with alternating Aib and Ala residues exclusively and detected with ECD spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Edoardo; Moretto, Alessandro; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Critical main-chain length for peptide helix formation in the crystal (solid) state and in organic solvents has been already reported. In this short communication, we describe our results aiming at assessing the aforementioned parameter in water solution. To this goal, we synthesized step-by-step by solution procedures a complete series of N-terminally acetylated, C-terminally methoxylated oligopeptides, characterized only by alternating Aib and Ala residues, from the dimer to the nonamer level. All these compounds were investigated by electronic circular dichroism in the far-UV region in water solution as a function of chemical structure, namely presence/absence of an ester moiety or a negative charge at the C-terminus, and temperature. We find that the critical main-chain lengths for 3(10)- and α-helices, although still formed to a limited extent, in aqueous solution are six and eight residues, respectively. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Estimation of Tumor Volumes by 11C-MeAIB and 18F-FDG PET in an Orthotopic Glioblastoma Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, Bo; Thisgaard, Helge; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    starting immediately after the injection of 11C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (11C-MeAIB). One hour later, 18F-FDG was injected, followed by a 3-h dynamic PET scan. Images were reconstructed using 2-dimensional ordered-subsets expectation maximization and 3-dimensional maximum a posteriori probability (MAP3D......UNLABELLED: Brain tumor volume assessment is a major challenge. Molecular imaging using PET may be a promising option because it reflects the biologically active cells. We compared the agreement between PET- and histology-derived tumor volumes in an orthotopic glioblastoma rat model...... with a noninfiltrating (U87MG) and an infiltrating (T87) tumor phenotype using 2 different radiotracers, 2 different image reconstruction algorithms, parametric imaging, and 2 different image segmentation techniques. METHODS: Rats with U87MG- and T87-derived glioblastomas were continuously scanned with PET for 1 h...

  19. EFEITO DO ÁCIDO INDOL-3-BUTÍRICO (AIB NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS DE IPÊ-ROXO (Handroanthus heptaphyllus MATTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiane Pires de Freitas de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Handroanthus heptaphyllus Mattos know as “ipê-roxo” is usually propagated by seeds. An propagation alternative for species. Is the vegetative propagation, technique that stimulates seedling production on a commercial scale besides the expected gain in characteristic as the uniformity of seedlings in the nursery. The objective of this work was the evaluation the effect of different concentrations of indol-3-butiric acid (AIB on the apical minicutting rooting of this species. The cuttings were collected from the first ministumps shoots of the minigarden conducted in tubes, 231 days after germination. After the collect the minicuttings were submitted to five AIB concentrations (0; 2,000; 4,000; 6,000 and 8,000 mg L-1. Then were planted in tubes with Basaplant Forest® substrate and slow release fertilizer (Osmocote® 14-14-14. The experiment was carried out in a completely randonmized design with four replicates constituted by ten minicuttings. At 30 days the minicuttings were evaluated about survival, number of roots of the first and second orders, length of first order root and dry mass of the root system. At four months the cuttings were evaluated in height, root-collar diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, stem dry weight, number and length of first order roots and root dry weight. More than 95% survival the minicuttings was observed at 30 days in all treatments, and 80% of them rooted without IBA. However, the number of the second order roots was higher in cuttings submitted to 8,000 mg L-1. The use of IBA is not a condition for rooting of H. heptaphyllus cuttings, although it results in seedlings with longer roots of the first order and number of roots of the second order in the concentration of 8000 mg L-1.

  20. In vivo effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine on calcium uptake in several tissues in the rat: Evidence for a physiological role for calcium as the first messenger for the prompt action of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, J.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium has been shown in vitro to serve as the first messenger for the rapid effect of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane. In the present study the physiological relevance of this mechanism is examined in the whole animal. To this end, the effect of T3 on 45calcium uptake and sugar 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, an effect that requires extracellular calcium, and the influence of calcium blockers thereon were measured in ventricles, atria, diaphragm, fat, and liver in the rat. In the first three tissues, T3 produced comparable changes in 45Ca uptake and 2-DG uptake (T3 increased 2-DG uptake in fat, where 45Ca uptake was undetected, and had no effect in liver); this activity was blocked by the calcium channel blocker cadmium. The effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake, like its effect on the in vivo uptake of 2-DG described previously, was biphasic and time related; at physiological doses of 0.01 and 0.1 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 increased 45Ca uptake, whereas at greater (pharmacological) doses of 1 and 100 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 was without effect or inhibited 45Ca uptake. In ventricles and atria, the stimulatory effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake was very rapid within 2 min, at which time it was at or near maximum (50-90% above control) and then declined gradually and was not seen after 10-20 min. Of the several calcium blockers employed, verapamil (organic) and cadmium (inorganic) were found to be the most effective. Verapamil and cadmium produced a rapid, transient, and dose-related inhibition of 45Ca uptake in the tissues examined (except fat tissue where, under the experimental conditions employed, 45Ca uptake was undetected). Verapamil, given iv (200 micrograms/100 g BW) or ip (1 mg/100 g BW), reduced tissue 45Ca uptake by 50-90% within 2 or 10 min, respectively, and then its inhibitory effect diminished rapidly and was not seen after 20-30 min

  1. Uptake and bio-reactivity of polystyrene nanoparticles is affected by surface modifications, ageing and LPS adsorption: in vitro studies on neural tissue cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Kumarasamy; Kenesei, Kata; Li, Yang; Demeter, Kornél; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Madarász, Emilia

    2015-02-01

    Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the role of the chemical composition of particle surfaces in the in vitro interaction with different neural cell types. PS NPs within a size-range of 45-70 nm influenced the metabolic activity of cells depending on the cell-type, but caused toxicity only at extremely high particle concentrations. Neurons did not internalize particles, while microglial cells ingested a large amount of carboxylated but almost no PEGylated NPs. PEGylation reduced the protein adsorption, toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs. After storage (shelf-life >6 months), the toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs increased. The altered biological activity of ``aged'' NPs was due to particle aggregation and due to the adsorption of bioactive compounds on NP surfaces. Aggregation by increasing the size and sedimentation velocity of NPs results in increased cell-targeted NP doses. The ready endotoxin adsorption which cannot be prevented by PEG coating, can render the particles toxic. The age-dependent changes in otherwise harmless NPs could be the important sources for variability in the effects of NPs, and could explain the contradictory data obtained with ``identical'' NPs.Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the

  2. Dietary uptake of omega-3 fatty acids in mouse tissue studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sjövall, P.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hanrieder, J.; Kuda, Ondřej; Kopecký, Jan; Bryhn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 17 (2015), s. 5101-5111 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09347S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Omega-3 * TOF-SIMS * mouse tissue * lipids Imaging * PCA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  3. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose...

  4. Enraizamento e crescimento de estacas herbáceas do cacaueiro (clones Cepec 42, tsh 516 e tsh 1188 em função da aplicação do ácido indolbutírico (AIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria José Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estacas apicais herbáceas de ramos plagiotrópicos do cacaueiro (clones CEPEC 42, TSH 516 e TSH 1188 foram tratadas com 0 e 6.000 mg.kg-1 do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e estaqueadas em tubetes de 288 cm³ contendo como substrato uma mistura de Plantmax® e fibra de coco triturada (1:1, enriquecido com Osmocote® (19-06-20 e PG mix® (14-16-18. Os tubetes foram acondicionados em bandejas e estas foram mantidas em câmaras de nebulização. Na avaliação, realizada aos 78 dias após o estaqueamento, verificou-se que, independentemente da aplicação de AIB, as estacas dos clones avaliados apresentaram índices de enraizamento superiores a 87%, mas o tratamento das estacas com AIB aumentou os índices de sobrevivência e de estacas enraizadas de todos os clones, número de raízes (clones TSH 516 e TSH 1188, matéria seca de raízes (Clones CEPEC 42 e TSH 516 e matéria seca da parte aérea (Clones TSH 566 e TSH 1188.

  5. Unusual soft tissue uptake of F-18 sodium fluoride in three patients undergoing F-18 NaF PET/CT bone scans for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Andrew S.; Howard, Brandon A. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Three males aged 71 to 80 years with known stage IV metastatic prostate cancer underwent F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT to assess osseous metastatic disease burden and stability. In addition to F-18 NaF avid known osseous metastases, each patient also exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in soft tissues. The first patient exhibited multiple F-18 NaF avid enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes on consecutive PET/CT scans. The second patient demonstrated an F-18 NaF avid thyroid nodule on consecutive PET/CT scans. The third patient exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in a hepatic metastasis.

  6. Propagação de oliveira 'Koroneiki' pelo método de estaquia em diferentes épocas, concentrações de AIB e presença de folhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar as influências da época, da concentração de AIB e da presença de folhas na propagação por estaquia da oliveira 'Koroneiki'. Estacas de 10 cm de comprimento foram retiradas da porção mediana de ramos de plantas de três anos de idade, na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, entre junho de 2013 e março de 2014. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de dez estacas, sendo um fatorial triplo [épocas (junho, setembro, dezembro, março; número de pares de folhas (0, 1 e 2 e concentração de AIB (0, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1]. O tratamento com AIB consistiu na imersão rápida da base da estaca, por cinco segundos, seguida do plantio em tubetes com substrato comercial. Após, as estacas permaneceram em câmara úmida, sob nebulização, por 60 dias. Decorrido este período, mensuraram-se a sobrevivência (%, a formação de calos (%, o número de brotos por estaca e o enraizamento (%. Para maiores sobrevivência, formação de calo e enraizamento é necessária a manutenção de, pelo menos, um par de folhas nas estacas. A estaquia em dezembro não é recomendada, independentemente das técnicas auxiliares utilizadas. Sem a utilização de AIB, recomenda-se realizar a estaquia em junho e setembro, desde que mantido um par de folhas. Para a estaquia realizada em março, deve-se manter pelo menos um par de folhas, em combinação com doses de 2.000 ou 3.000 mg L-1 de AIB.

  7. Propagação vegetativa de Aloysia triphylla (L'Hér. Britton em função da concentração de AIB e do comprimento das estacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Paulus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Aloysia triphylla (L'Hér. Britton é uma planta medicinal de porte arbustivo com folhas aromáticas que possuem óleo essencial rico em citral. A crescente demanda da indústria farmacêutica e cosmética pelo óleo essencial de A. triphylla promoveram grande interesse sobre o cultivo dessa espécie. A estaquia é um dos principais métodos de propagação devido à dificuldade em obter sementes, e também pela vantagem dos descendentes serem iguais à planta-matriz. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de AIB e do comprimento das estacas no enraizamento de estacas de A. triphylla. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de Novembro de 2010 a Janeiro de 2011. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial onde os fatores foram cinco concentrações de ácido indol butírico (AIB (mg L-1: 0, 250, 500, 1000 e 1500, e quatro comprimentos de estaca: 4, 6, 8 e 10 cm. As estacas tiveram a base imersa em solução de AIB e foram colocadas para enraizar em substrato comercial Mecplant®. As variáveis analisadas foram: comprimento do sistema radicular, percentagem de estacas enraizadas (%, número de brotações, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, e massa seca das raízes. Nas condições em que o estudo foi realizado os resultados mostraram que o comprimento das estacas e concentração de AIB afetam o desenvolvimento das estacas, apresentando ajuste quadrático e linear para as variáveis analisadas. As mudas obtidas a partir de estacas com 10 cm e concentração de 1500 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram a maior percentagem de enraizamento e as maiores médias para o comprimento do sistema radicular, número de brotações, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea.

  8. Multiparametric voxel-based analyses of standardized uptake values and apparent diffusion coefficients of soft-tissue tumours with a positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance system: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagiyama, Koji; Kamei, Ryotaro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Yuji; Kawanami, Satoshi [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Hong, Sungtak [Philips Electronics Japan, Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihiro [Kyushu University, Departmant of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    To investigate the usefulness of voxel-based analysis of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for evaluating soft-tissue tumour malignancy with a PET/MR system. Thirty-five subjects with either ten low/intermediate-grade tumours or 25 high-grade tumours were prospectively enrolled. Zoomed diffusion-weighted and fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG)-PET images were acquired along with fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (FST2WIs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on FST2WIs including the tumour in all slices. ROIs were pasted onto PET and ADC-maps to measure SUVs and ADCs within tumour ROIs. Tumour volume, SUVmax, ADCminimum, the heterogeneity and the correlation coefficients of SUV and ADC were recorded. The parameters of high- and low/intermediate-grade groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. The mean correlation coefficient for SUV and ADC in high-grade sarcomas was lower than that of low/intermediate-grade tumours (-0.41 ± 0.25 vs. -0.08 ± 0.34, P < 0.01). Other parameters did not differ significantly. ROC analysis demonstrated that correlation coefficient showed the best diagnostic performance for differentiating the two groups (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 96.0%, specificity 60%, accuracy 85.7%). SUV and ADC determined via PET/MR may be useful for differentiating between high-grade and low/intermediate-grade soft tissue tumours. (orig.)

  9. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [{sup 18}F]fluorine substitution at the 16{alpha}-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois E-mail: francois.benard@USherbrooke.ca; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-08-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ER{alpha} and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for {sup 18}F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16{alpha}-position for {sup 18}F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [{sup 18}F]fluoride at the 16-{sup 18}F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16{sup 18}F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators.

  10. A comparison of the uptake of [75Se]Selenite [75Se] Selenomethionine and [35S]methionine by the tissues of ewes and lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, C.N.; Godwin, K.O.

    1975-01-01

    The fate of selenium, given as Na 2 75 SeO 3 , or [ 75 Se] selenomethionine, and of [ 35 S]methionine administered intravenously to ewes and lambs, has been examined. The main intention was to follow the incorporation of selenium into protein in a number of tissues, including liver and kidney, and to measure the extent of that incorporation of selenoamino acid, particularly with respect to the administration of selenite. The ewes chosen were lactating ewes with lambs at foot, and the lambs were animals which had been weaned on to fodder low in selenium and were recovering from white muscle disease with selenium therapy. These two experimental situations were chosen as they offered conditions under which selenium incorporation might be considered to be maximal. Entry of isotope into milk was rapid and was greater when 75 Se was given as the selenoamino acid than as selenite. In both ewes and lambs greater amounts of activity, derived from selenite, were bound to plasma proteins than to the proteins of milk. This was particularly evident in samples taken some hours after administration. This ability of the plasma to bind selenium was demonstrated by alkaline dialysis. Small, though significant amounts of selenium, derived from Na 2 75 SeO 3 , were incorporated as selenoamino acids into the proteins of liver, kidney and pancreas, as well as into the proteins of milk and plasma. In ewes, both selenomethionine and selenocystine were identified chromatographically in enzyme digests of defatted liver and kidney. Some differences occurred in the distribution of labelled compounds in organs from lactating ewes and recovering lambs. The incorporation of selenium into protein is discussed briefly in relation to the recent findings of an association between selenium and the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. (author)

  11. Milk transfer and tissue uptake of mercury in suckling offspring after exposure of lactating maternal guinea pigs to inorganic or methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru (Dept. of Public Health, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan)); Watanabe, Chiho (Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Satoh, Hiroshi (Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Kishimoto, Tsuyoshi (Dept. of Public Health, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan)); Yamamura, Yukio (Dept. of Public Health, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    Maternal guinea pigs were injected with mercuric chloride (HgCl[sub 2]; 1 mg Hg/kg body weight) or methylmercury (MeHg; 1 mg Hg/kg) 12 h after parturition, and exposure of the offspring to mercury (Hg) via breast milk were studied on days 3, 5 and 10 postpartum. Milk Hg concentrations were lower than maternal plasma Hg concentrations regardless of the form of Hg given to the dams. Milk Hg was higher in HgCl[sub 2]-treated dams than in MeHg-treated dams. In MeHg-treated dams, MeHg was separately determined. While the ratio of MeHg to T-Hg decreased in the dams' plasma, it did not in the milk. There was a strong correlation between milk and plasma T-Hg concentrations in HgCl[sub 2] treated dams. In the milk of MeHg-treated dams, the plasma MeHg concentrations correlated better than did the plasma T-Hg concentrations. In the offspring, regardless of the chemical forms of Hg given to the dams, the highest Hg concentrations were found in the kidney, followed by the liver and the brain. Brain Hg concentrations were, however, significantly higher in the offspring of MeHg-treated dams than in those of HgCl[sub 2]-treated dams. In addition, Hg levels in the major organs of the offspring of HgCl[sub 2]-treated dams peaked on day 5 postpartum, while those of MeHg-treated dams did not show a significant decrease up to day 10 postpartum. These facts indicate that the two chemical forms of Hg were transferred to the off-spring via the breast milk and were distributed differently, depending on the chemical form, to the off spring's tissues. (orig.)

  12. Reproductive biology in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber cultivars as a result of IBA application Biologia reprodutiva de cultivares monóicas e ginóicas de pepino em função do uso de AIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Diola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of both the reproductive biology and the regulation of the sexual expression of cucumber flowers (Cucumis sativus makes crop management easier and can improve fruit yield and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological answer of cucumber floral verticils to the application of IBA. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in completely randomized blocks, with four replications of 4-plant plots, and treatments applied to a 5 x 2 factorial (0, 50, 100, 200, and 500 µmol of IBA, and two cultivars: Wisconsin MR28, gynoecious, and Caipira, monoecious. Cultivar Wisconsin MR28 produced in average 7,636 pollen grains (PG per flower, with a positive linear response to the increase in IBA concentration. Instead, in cultivar Caipira (5,160 PG all IBA concentrations reduced PG production. Cultivars did not differ from each other in relation to PG viability (average in vitrogermination of 75.4 and 79.9% to cultivars Wisconsin MR28 and Caipira, respectively and in both PG viability increased linearly with the increase in AIB concentration. Cultivars Wisconsin MR28 and Caipira presented in average 71.6 and 70.6 seeds per fruit respectively, and responded with an increase in seed number and improvement in fruit general aspect to the rise in IBA concentration. The ratio male:female flowers was significantly different between cultivars (4.2:1 and 3.5:1, respectively to cultivars Wisconsin MR28 and Caipira and responded in a distinct way to IBA concentrations. While in cultivar Caipira, IBA concentrations near to 100 µmol increased the number of male flowers; in cultivar Wisconsin MR28 the same IBA concentration reduced it. The two cultivars had a similar number of female flowers. However, whereas it remained relatively stable in cultivar Caipira in spite of the increase in IBA concentration, there was an increase in the number of female flowers in cultivar Wisconsin MR28, as a result of the rise in IBA

  13. Molecular Characterization and Growth Association of Two Apolipoprotein A-Ib Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-09-16

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is functionally involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in vertebrates. In this study, two isoforms of apoA-Ib in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were characterized. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that C. carpio ApoA-Ib is relatively conserved within cyprinid fishes. During embryonic development, C. carpio apoA-Ib was first expressed at the stage of multi-cells, and the highest mRNA level was observed at the stage of optic vesicle. A ubiquitous expression pattern was detected in various tissues with extreme predominance in the liver. Significantly different expression levels were observed between light and heavy body weight groups and also in the compensatory growth test. Seventeen and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in matured mRNA of the C. carpio apoA-Ib.1 and apoA-Ib.2, respectively. Two of these SNPs (apoA-Ib.2-g.183A>T and apoA-Ib.2-g.1753C>T) were significantly associated with body weight and body length in two populations of common carp. These results indicate that apoA-Ib may play an important role in the modulation of growth and development in common carp.

  14. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  15. Eficiência das auxinas (AIB e ANA no enraizamento de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell Auxin (IBA and NAA effects on minicuttings rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniele de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência das auxinas AIB (ácido indolbutírico e ANA (ácido naftalenoacético no enraizamento adventício de miniestacas de clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana. Foram utilizadas miniestacas provenientes de sete clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana, estabelecidos em minijardim clonal, sendo avaliados os efeitos de AIB (0, 1.500, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida e em pó e ANA (0, 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 na forma líquida. Os resultados apontaram ser a miniestaquia técnica viável na propagação vegetativa dos clones de Eucalyptus cloeziana estudados, apresentando, de modo geral, alto índice de enraizamento das miniestacas. Os clones com maior potencial de enraizamento adventício responderam mais positivamente às menores dosagens de AIB, enquanto nos clones com capacidade de enraizamento reduzida houve tendência de as maiores dosagens de AIB serem mais eficientes no enraizamento, independentemente da forma de aplicação do fitorregulador (líquido ou pó. O ANA, de modo geral, não influenciou significativamente o enraizamento das miniestacas da maioria dos clones estudados.The present work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the auxins IBA (indolbutyric acid and NAA (naphtaleneacetic acid on the adventitious rooting of Eucalyptus cloeziana clones. Minicuttings originated from seven Eucalyptus cloeziana clones established in mini-clonal hedge, were evaluated for the effects of IBA (0, 1500, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid and powder forms and NAA (0, 3000 and 6000 mg L-1 in the liquid form. The results showed that minicutting is a viable technique for vegetative propagation of the studied Eucalyptus cloeziana clones, with overall high rooting rates. Clones with higher adventitious rooting potential gave better response to lower IBA doses, while clones with reduced rooting potential were more efficient with higher doses, independently of the form of the applied phytoregulator (powder or liquid. NAA

  16. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de pereira tratadas com AIB e mantidas em ambiente de estufa tipo B.O.D. e de telado Rooting of hardwood cuttings of pear tree with IBA under B.O.D. chamber and greenhouse environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o enraizamento da pereira em ambiente controlado de estufa tipo B.O.D. e em telado simples. Utilizou-se a cultivar híbrida 'Limeira', destinada exclusivamente para fins culinários e para porta-enxerto. Estacas lenhosas sem folhas, medindo 25 cm de comprimento, foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB nas concentrações de 0; 2.000; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 por 10 segundos. Como substrato, utilizou-se da mistura de vermiculita e areia grossa (2:1 v/v, sendo a mesma umedecida com meio contendo solução salina MS e sacarose 1%. As estacas permaneceram por 42 dias dentro de estufas tipo B.O.D. (temperatura de 25ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 90% e fotoperíodo de 8 horas e de telado com irrigação por microaspersão, sem controle ambiental. Em ambiente controlado de estufa, as estacas não-tratadas com AIB iniciaram intensa brotação das gemas e formação de calo após sete dias do plantio. Já em ambiente de telado, essas estacas demoraram 21 dias para o início de brotação das gemas, mostrando menor desenvolvimento de calo. Nas estacas tratadas com AIB, os calos surgiram nas regiões dos cortes após o terceiro dia de incubação na estufa B.O.D. As raízes desenvolveram-se a partir dos tecidos da base e dos calos, tornando-se mais nítidas a partir de 14 e 28 dias, respectivamente, para os ambientes de estufa e de telado. Após 42 dias, o melhor percentual de enraizamento (83% foi verificado no tratamento com AIB a 2.000 mg.L-1, em ambiente de estufa B.O.D. O emprego dessa estufa, com temperatura, luz e umidade relativa controladas, mostrou-se viável em relação ao telado, no processo de enraizamento das estacas lenhosas da pereira 'Limeira', podendo favorecer o sistema de propagação vegetativa da pereira e encurtar o período da formação de mudas.The rooting of cuttings pear under controlled environment of chamber (B.O.D. type and greenhouse was searched. Hardwood cuttings of 'Limeira' pear, without leaves, measuring

  17. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  18. Prognostic relevance of {sup 18}F-FDG PET uptake in patients with locally advanced, extremity soft tissue sarcomas undergoing neoadjuvant isolated limb perfusion with TNF-α and melphalan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreou, Dimosthenis [Muenster University Hospital, Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster (Germany); HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Sarcoma Center Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin (Germany); Boldt, Henrike [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Pink, Daniel [HELIOS Klinikum Bad Saarow, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Care, Sarcoma Center Berlin-Brandenburg, Bad Saarow (Germany); Jobke, Bjoern [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Werner, Mathias [HELIOS Klinikum Emil von Behring, Department of Pathology, Sarcoma Center Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin (Germany); Schuler, Markus [University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Department of Internal Medicine I, Dresden (Germany); Reichardt, Peter [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, Sarcoma Center Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin (Germany); Tunn, Per-Ulf [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Sarcoma Center Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can adequately assess the risk of systemic disease progression in patients with primary, localized, high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities undergoing neoadjuvant isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumour necrosis factor and melphalan. This was a retrospective analysis of the files of 35 patients who underwent a PET or PET/CT scan prior to and after ILP followed by surgical resection with curative intent between 2006 and 2012. SUV{sub max1} was defined as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at diagnosis, SUV{sub max2} as the maximum SUV after ILP and ΔSUV{sub max} as the percentage difference between SUV{sub max1} and SUV{sub max2}. The median follow-up was 40 months for all patients. The median SUV{sub max1} amounted to 7.6, while the median SUV{sub max2} was 4.7. The median ΔSUV{sub max} was -44 %. Overall survival (OS) probability at 2 and 5 years amounted to 78 and 70 %, respectively, while metastasis-free survival (MFS) probability at 2 and 5 years was 67 and 64 %, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that both SUV{sub max2} and ΔSUV{sub max} could predict systemic disease progression, while SUV{sub max1} could not adequately identify patients who went on to develop metastatic disease. The optimal cut-off value was 6.9 for SUV{sub max2} and -31 % for ΔSUV{sub max}. Patients with an SUV{sub max2} <6.9 had a 2-year MFS of 80 %, compared to 31 % for patients with an SUV{sub max2} ≥ 6.9 (p < 0.001). Patients with a ΔSUV{sub max} < -31 %, i.e. patients with a higher metabolic response, had an MFS of 76 % at 2 years, compared to 42 % for patients with a ΔSUV{sub max} ≥ -31 % (p = 0.050). SUV{sub max} after ILP for primary, locally advanced, non-metastatic high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities appears to be significantly correlated with prognosis. Whether patients

  19. SUDIKAH AKUNTAN MENGUNGKAP AIB KECURANGAN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Will the Accountant Whistle the Fraud? The research aims to examine the causality between the reward model, the reporting channel and the interaction between that factors to the whistleblowing intention of fraudulent. This research uses experiment between 2x2 factorial subject. This study shows that the accountant will reveal the cheating inclination due to the existence of non-indexing reporting path and the model of reward in the form of protection. Security guarantees for complainants are the key factor for them to dare to disclose information about fraud to the organization leader. On the other hand, disgrace disclosure systems need to consider mechanisms that provide protection to reporters.

  20. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  8. Enraizamento de estacas de oliveira submetidas a aplicação de fertilizantes orgânicos e AIB Rooting of olive tree cuttings using organic fertilizations and IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estacas semilenhosas de oliveiras 'Ascolano 315', foram preparadas com aproximadamente 12 cm de comprimento e quatro folhas, sendo, em seguida, tratadas, ou não, com 3000 mg L-1 de AIB por cinco segundos O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com sistema de nebulização intermitente, sendo as estacas colocadas em bancadas de propagação, contendo a perlita como substrato. Antes do plantio das estacas, foram aplicados os fertilizantes orgânicos Biofertilizante e Nippoterra, nas dosagens 0, 20, 40 e 60 mL L-1. Os produtos foram aplicados nas parcelas experimentais com regador manual, em dosagem única. Passados 58 dias, foi mensurada a porcentagem de estacas com calo, enraizadas, enraizadas e/ou com calo, número médio de raízes e comprimento médio das raízes. Concluiu-se que a dosagem de 40 mL L-1 de Biofertilizante propiciou melhores resultados, com a utilização de AIB.Semi hardwood cutting was colletecd in the medium portion of the 'Ascolano 315' olive trees, prepared with 12 cm in length and four leaves, treated or not with 3000 mg L-1 of IBA by five seconds. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with a system of intermittent nebulization. The cutting was placed in propagation supports, containing perlite as a substrate. Before the plantation of the cutting, organic fertilizers Biofertilizante and Nippoterra were applied in the proportion: 0, 20, 40 and 60 mL L-1. The products were applied in the experimental portions in a single dose. After 58 days, the percentage of cutting with callus, taken root, taken root and/or with callus, average number of roots and average length of the roots were evaluated. The 40 mL L-1 of Biofertilizante gave the best results, with IBA.

  9. Metodologias de aplicação de AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax Methodologies of IBA application in the rooting of Sapium glandulatum (vell. pax semi-hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G.A. Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Sapium glandulatum, conhecida vulgarmente como leiteiro, é uma das espécies nativas potencialmente recomendada para a recuperação de áreas degradadas, devido principalmente ao seu caráter pioneiro, além de possivelmente possuir características medicinais, uma vez que a família Euphorbiaceae, a qual pertence, é rica em compostos fenólicos. Em abril/2000 e dezembro/2000 foram conduzidos experimentos em casa-de-vegetação para verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolilbutírico (AIB, em solução concentrada (10 segundos de imersão, solução diluída (16 horas de imersão e em talco, associadas ou não ao ácido bórico, no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de Sapium glandulatum. As estacas foram confeccionadas a partir de brotações do ano, coletadas de plantas matrizes localizadas no município de Bocaiúva do Sul -PR, mantendo- as com comprimento de cerca de 10 cm e 2 folhas apicais reduzidas à metade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, sozinhos e em associação com 150 mg L-1 de ácido bórico (solução concentrada, 0, 200 e 400 mg L-1 de AIB, sozinhos e em associação com 150 mg L-1 ácido bórico (solução diluída e 0, 4000, 6000 e 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, na forma de talco. Pelos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que, após 70 dias em casa-de-vegetação, a melhor época para coleta das estacas correspondeu à instalação realizada em dezembro/2000 (verão, onde o tratamento com 8000 mg L-1 de AIB, em solução concentrada, proporcionou o maior percentual de enraizamento (14%, porém não diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. A utilização da solução diluída não se mostrou promissora para a indução do sistema radicial devido à alta mortalidade das estacas. Os tratamentos com AIB veiculados em talco não superaram os resultados obtidos pelos melhores tratamentos para estacas enraizadas em solução concentrada

  10. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  11. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  14. Radioisotopic Studies of Brain Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldendorf, W. H.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of the uptake of radioactive substances in the brain tissues after their administration by injection or inhalation provide an a traumatic approach to the study of blood flow and metabolic processes in the brain. This paper reviews the anatomical,physiological and physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain. The factors governing the passage of various classes of substances through the brain capillaries and their transport through the brain tissues are first considered. The physical problems arising in the measurement of radioactivity in the brain are then discussed. The main difficulties in such measurements is shown to arise from the contribution to the observed counting rate from radioactivity in the scalp and skull. This contribution can be minimized by the use of special collimators designed to view only a part of the brain but to include in their field of view a minimum of non-neural tissue. A further possibility arises with radioisotopes such as 113 In m which emit characteristic X radiation as well as y radiation since the contribution of the former to the total observed counting rate is almost entirely due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues whereas that of the latter is due to radioactivity in the superficial tissues and the brain. By recording the counting rates in appropriate channels of the photon spectrum it is thus possible to correct the results for radioactivity in the scalp and skull. With radioisotopes such as 75 Sc which emit two or more photons in cascade, coincidence counting techniques offer still a further possibility to minimize the contribution from radioactivity in the superficial tissues. Various potential applications of these techniques are described. (author)

  15. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  16. Effect of ethanol consumption during gestation on maternal-fetal amino acid metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 14 C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), administered intravenously, in maternal, fetal and placental tissues was examined in the rat on gestation-day 21. Ethanol consumption during gestation (day 6 through 21) significantly reduced the uptake of AIB by the placenta and fetus while exerting no influence on maternal tissue AIB uptake. The concentration of fetal plasma free histidine was decreased 50% as a result of maternal ethanol ingestion, but the free histidine level of maternal plasma was not altered. Since no effect on protein content of fetal tissue could be detected, it is speculated that reduced histidine to the fetus might significantly alter the amounts of histamine and carnosine formed via their precursor. The significance of these findings in relation to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is discussed

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  10. Tritium uptake kinetics in crayfish (Orconectes immunis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by Orconectes immunis was investigated under laboratory conditions. Tritium uptake in the tissue-free water fraction (TFWT) was described using an exponential model. When steady-state was reached, the ratio of TFWT to HTO was approximately 0.9. Uptake of tritium in the organically-bound fraction (OBT) proceeded slowly, and had not reached steady-state after 117 days of culture. Although steady-state was never reached, the maximum observed ration of OBT to TFWT in whole animals was approximately 0.6. However, this ratio exceeded unity in the exoskeleton. Specific activity ratios of OBT between crayfish and lettuce (food source) were less than or at unity for various test conditions

  11. Lipoprotein lipase: genetics, lipid uptake, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Martin; Eckel, Robert H; Goldberg, Ira J

    2002-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulates the plasma levels of triglyceride and HDL. Three aspects are reviewed. 1) Clinical implications of human LPL gene variations: common mutations and their effects on plasma lipids and coronary heart disease are discussed. 2) LPL actions in the nervous system, liver, and heart: the discussion focuses on LPL and tissue lipid uptake. 3) LPL gene regulation: the LPL promoter and its regulatory elements are described.

  12. Design of compounds having enhanced tumour uptake, using serum albumin as a carrier. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, U.; Friedrich, E.A.; Sinn, H.; Schrenk, H.H.; Clorius, J.H.; Maier-Borst, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the present in vivo study the uptake kinetics of radioiodinated albumin were determined in normal organs, and tumours of rats using sequential scintigraphy. Results indicate that cellular uptake of the marker takes place. Fluorescence was not observed in muscle tissue. This appears to suggest that the albumin uptake is greater in tumours than in normal tissue, and that it is metabolized in the tumour cells. (Author)

  13. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  16. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  19. Extraosseous uptake of 99sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of 99 sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate ( 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  20. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuichi, Yasuro; Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio; Takakura, Hisashi; Hanai, Yoshiteru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Masuda, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. ► An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. ► Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. ► OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL uptake ) of L-[ 3 H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL uptake of [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL uptake of L-[ 3 H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4–1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p uptake of [ 14 C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[ 3 H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly via the contraction-induced translocation of its specific transporter OCTN2 to the plasma membrane.

  1. Uptake of SPECT radiopharmaceuticals in neocortical brain cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, B.M. de; Royen, E.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The uptake, retention and uptake antagonism of /sup 201/Tl-DDC, /sup 201/Tl-Cl, /sup 123/I-IMP, /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ were compared in rat neocortex cultures. /sup 201/Tl-DDC and /sup 123/I-IP revealed the highest uptake of radioactivity in the cultures. /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO and /sup 123/I-IMP showed the highest retention of radioactivity within the tissue in washout experiments. Blocking of bioelectric activity by tetrodotoxin did not significantly affect the uptake of the radiopharmaceuticals (RPHA). Inhibition of Na K ATPase by ouabain inhibited the uptake of /sup 201/Tl-Cl (77%) and /sup 201/Tl-DDC (27%). Imipramine showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on /sup 123/I-IMP uptake in comparison with the effect on other RPHA. /sup 99m/Tc-O4/sup -/ was not concentrated within the cultured tissue. Under the in vitro conditions used in this study, the various RPHA were characterised by distinct differences in their interaction with cortical brain tissue.

  2. Uptake of tritium through foliage in capsicum fruitescens, L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Tritium uptake and release patterns throuogh foliage in Capsicum fruitescens, L. were investigated using twelve potted plants, under different conditions of exposure and release. The plants studied belonged to two age groups, 3 months and 5 months. The average half residence time for the species was found to be 42.6 min, on the basis of treating the entire group of plants as a single cluster. The individual release rates showed a variation of up to a factor of two, for half residence time values (Tsub(1/2)). The second component was not easily resolvable in most of the cases. Tissue bound tritium showed interesting uptake patterns. The ratios between tissue bound tritium and tissue free water tritium concentrations indicated regular mode of uptake with well defined rate constants in the case of long exposure periods. (author)

  3. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  4. The extent of arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian copperbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Mihaljevič, Martin; Sracek, Ondra; Knésl, Ilja; Ettler, Vojtěch; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2011-08-01

    The extent of arsenic (As) and metal accumulation in fronds of the As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) and in leaves of Cyperus involucratus, which grow on the surface of an old flotation tailings pond in the Zambian Copperbelt province, was studied. The tailings consist of two types of material with distinct chemical composition: (1) reddish-brown tailings rich in As, iron (Fe), and other metals, and (2) grey-green tailings with a lower content of As, Fe, and other metals, apart from manganese (Mn). P. vittata accumulates from 2350 to 5018 μg g(-1) As (total dry weight [dw]) in its fronds regardless of different total and plant-available As concentrations in both types of tailings. Concentrations of As in C. involucratus leaves are much lower (0.24-30.3 μg g(-1) dw). Contents of copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) in fronds of P. vittata (151-237 and 18-38 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) and in leaves of C. involucratus (96-151 and 9-14 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) are high, whereas concentrations of other metals (Fe, Mn, and zinc [Zn]) are low and comparable with contents of the given metals in common plants. Despite great differences in metal concentrations in the two types of deposited materials, concentrations of most metals in plant tissues are very similar. This indicates an exclusion or avoidance mechanism operating when concentrations of the metals in substrate are particularly high. The results of the investigation show that Chinese brake fern is not only a hyperaccumulator of As but has adapted itself to high concentrations of Cu and Co in flotation tailings of the Zambian Copperbelt.

  5. Dihydrotestosterone stimulates amino acid uptake and the expression of LAT2 in mouse skeletal muscle fibres through an ERK1/2-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, M M; Mutungi, G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has acute/non-genomic actions in adult mammalian skeletal muscles whose physiological functions are still poorly understood. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the acute/non-genomic effects of DHT on amino acid uptake as well as the cellular signal transduction events underlying these actions in mouse fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibre bundles. 14C-Labelled amino acids were used to investigate the effects of DHT and testosterone (T) on amino acid uptake and pharmacological interventions were used to determine the cellular signal transduction events mediating these actions. While T had no effect on the uptake of isoleucine (Ile) and α-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) in both fibre types, DHT increased their uptake in the fast-twitch fibre bundles. This effect was reversed by inhibitors of protein translation, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), system A, system L, mTOR and MEK. However, it was relatively insensitive to inhibitors of transcription, androgen receptors and PI3K/Akt. Additionally, DHT treatment increased the expression of LAT2 and the phosphorylation of the EGFR in the fast-twitch fibre bundles and that of ERK1/2, RSK1/2 and ATF2 in both fibre types. Also, it decreased the phosphorylation of eEF2 and increased the incorporation of Ile into proteins in both fibre types. Most of these effects were reversed by EGFR and MEK inhibitors. From these findings we suggest that another physiological function of the acute/non-genomic actions of DHT in isolated mammalian skeletal muscle fibres is to stimulate amino acid uptake. This effect is mediated through the EGFR and involves the activation of the MAPK pathway and an increase in LAT2 expression. PMID:21606113

  6. Cardiac retention of PET neuronal imaging agent LMI1195 in different species: Impact of norepinephrine uptake-1 and -2 transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ming; Bozek, Jody; Kagan, Mikhail; Guaraldi, Mary; Silva, Paula; Azure, Michael; Onthank, David; Robinson, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Released sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the heart is cleared by neuronal uptake-1 and extraneuronal uptake-2 transporters. Cardiac uptake-1 and -2 expression varies among species, but the uptake-1 is the primary transporter in humans. LMI1195 is an NE analog labeled with 18 F for PET evaluation of cardiac neuronal function. This study investigated the impact of cardiac neuronal uptake-1 associated with different species on LMI1195 heart uptake. Methods: Cardiac uptake-1 was blocked by desipramine, a selective uptake-1 inhibitor, and sympathetic neuronal denervation was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin, in rats, rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHP). Tissue biodistribution and cardiac imaging of LMI1195 and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were performed. Results: In rats, uptake-1 blockade did not alter LMI1195 heart uptake compared to the control at 60-min post injection [1.41 ± 0.07 vs. 1.47 ± 0.23 % injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g)]. In contrast, LMI1195 heart uptake was reduced by 80% in uptake-1 blocked rabbits. In sympathetically denervated rats, LMI1195 heart uptake was similar to the control (2.18 ± 0.40 vs. 2.58 ± 0.76 %ID/g). However, the uptake decreased by 79% in denervated rabbits. Similar results were found in MIBG heart uptake in rats and rabbits with uptake-1 blockade. Consistently, LMI1195 cardiac imaging showed comparable myocardial activity in uptake-1 blocked or sympathetically denervated rats to the control, but marked activity reduction in uptake-1 blocked or denervated rabbits and NHPs. Conclusions: LMI1195 is retained in the heart of rabbits and NHPs primarily via the neuronal uptake-1 with high selectivity and can be used for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic denervation. Similar to the human, the neuronal uptake-1 is the dominant transporter for cardiac retention of NE analogs in rabbits and NHPs, but not in rats

  7. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  8. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  9. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Li Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwon, Soon-Ik [Agricultural Environmental and Ecology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Bottoms, Rick [Desert Research and Extension Center, 1004 East Holton Road, El Centro, CA 92243 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C{sub Plant} = C{sub Solution} . PUF{sub max} . exp[-b . t], where C{sub Plant} and C{sub Solution} refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF{sub max} and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions.

  10. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiping; Li Lianqing; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng; Kwon, Soon-Ik; Bottoms, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C Plant = C Solution . PUF max . exp[-b . t], where C Plant and C Solution refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF max and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions

  11. Thyroid Uptake Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Tuan; Nguyen Thi Bao My; Nguyen Van Sy

    2007-01-01

    The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)

  12. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  13. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  14. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yand Shun, Fang; Yao, Ming; Zeng, Jun; Shi Zhen, Yu; Zhao Lan, Xiang; Dong Qiang, Gang

    2003-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake within tumor through analyze a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines ( SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, Bcap-37 Breast cancer, T-24 Bladder cancer, SKOV3 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, SCI-OS Osteosarcoma, SCI-375 Melanoma) and mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line. They were transplanted into athymic mice, SCID nude mice and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. Approximately 10(6) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 4 and 5 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 6 hours after tail vein injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. According to the Region Ratio program of Siemens Power Macintosh 9500 Computer System, region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left background (T/B) and thoracic spine (T/N) of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging. The average cpm/pixel ratios were calculated by standardized uptake measure (SUM) and determined the tumor-positive value (T/B) greater than or equal to 1.2. T/B of cell lines were sorted from higher to lower as follows: SCI-OS, Lewis, SKOV3, SCI-375, T-24, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. T/N: SCI-OS, SKOV3, T-24, SCI-375, Lewis, SPC-A1, Bcap-37, Hela-229. The biodistribution data of 99Tcm-MDP in SPC-A1 tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice were given as ID/g and represent the means D (n=13) in 30 hours after injection of Tc-99m MDP. ID/g of major tissue were sorted from higher to lower as follows: thoracic spine, lumbar, ribs, kidneys, the center of tumor, the ulcer of tumor, the surrounding of tumor, lymph node, blood, lungs, heart, liver. Conclusions: Most of tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including human adenocarcinoma. The uptake rate in the center tissue of

  15. Regulation of Dopamine Uptake by Vasoactive Peptides in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Rukavina Mikusic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the key role of renal dopamine in tubular sodium handling, we hypothesized that c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP and Ang-(1-7 may regulate renal dopamine availability in tubular cells, contributing to Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Present results show that CNP did not affect either 3H-dopamine uptake in renal tissue or Na+, K+-ATPase activity; meanwhile, Ang-(1-7 was able to increase 3H-dopamine uptake and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex. Ang-(1-7 and dopamine together decreased further Na+, K+-ATPase activity showing an additive effect on the sodium pump. In addition, hydrocortisone reversed Ang-(1-7-dopamine overinhibition on the enzyme, suggesting that this inhibition is closely related to Ang-(1-7 stimulation on renal dopamine uptake. Both anantin and cANP (4-23-amide did not modify CNP effects on 3H-dopamine uptake by tubular cells. The Mas receptor antagonist, A-779, blocked the increase elicited by Ang-(1-7 on 3H-dopamine uptake. The stimulatory uptake induced by Ang-(1-7 was even more pronounced in the presence of losartan, suggesting an inhibitory effect of Ang-(1-7 on AT1 receptors on 3H-dopamine uptake. By increasing dopamine bioavailability in tubular cells, Ang-(1-7 enhances Na+, K+-ATPase activity inhibition, contributing to its natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  16. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form of gamma rays. Special cameras detect this energy, and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is usually performed on an outpatient ...

  18. Influence of drugs on myocardial iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in rabbit myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.; Karanikas, G.; Rodrigues, M.; Sinzinger, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2000-03-01

    About 15 years ago, iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging was introduced for the evaluation of myocardial sympathetic nerve function. Two uptake mechanisms for MIBG have so far been identified: uptake type I, a saturable, energy-dependent mechanism, and uptake type II, a non-saturable, energy-independent mechanism. We incubated isolated rabbit myocardial tissue samples with{sup 123}I-MIBG in order to assess the uptake characteristics and the influence of varying incubation conditions. Furthermore, we examined the effects of several drugs and uptake inhibitors on the myocardial uptake of MIBG. The in vitro myocardial uptake of MIBG reached a steady plateau at 23.87%{+-}3.63% after 1 h, i.e. a concentration gradient of 10, in a thermo-independent manner within a concentration range from 1.5 to 1500 {mu}M. This indicates an unsaturable uptake process in the tested concentrations. Pre-incubation with the following drugs caused a significant inhibitory effect on myocardial MIBG uptake: haloperidol, levomepromazine, metoprolol, labetalol and clomipramine. According to our findings, the uptake mechanism seems to be an unspecific process, but the concentration gradient of 10 makes passive diffusion unlikely. Further studies with uptake-II-blocking substances as well as with isolated myocardial cells will be needed to clarify the nature of the myocardial MIBG uptake mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Can tumor uptake Tc-99m MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.F.; Zeng, Z.J.; Yao, Y.M.; Shi, S.M.P.; Shi, S.Z.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study a distribution of Tc-99m MDP in mice bearing tumor cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m MDP was analyzed in seven human tumor cell lines (SPC-A1 adenocarcinoma of lung cancer, P37 Breast cancer, T24 Bladder cancer, SKOV2 Ovary carcinoma, Hela-229 Cervical carcinoma, Osteosarcoma, A375 Melanoma) and one mouse lung cancer cell line (Lewis). They were transplanted into 13, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5 athymic mice, 6 SCID nude mice and 4 C57 black mice, respectively. Approximately 10(7) cells of each cell line were injected subcutaneously into a right chest of mouse. After 5∼6 weeks, the Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy were determined 5-6 hours after i.v. injection of 74MBq in 0.05ml every mouse. Result: Biodistribution and tumor uptake MDP was different in the various cell types investigated. Region of interests (RIOs) placed on a small part of the tumor and horizontal copied to left chest or spine of mice in Tc-99m MDP imaging and the average count ratio (tumor to background ratio: T/B, tumor to spine ratio: T/NT) in each ROI was calculated. 13 nude mice bearing the adenocarcinoma (SPC-A1) were sacrificed and biodistribution was determined after Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Results were expressed as % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), mean±SD. T-ulcer=ulcer of tumor, T-round=surrounding of tumor, T-center=the center of tumor, Thor-sp=thoracic spine, Lum-ver=lumbar vertebra, LN=lymph node. Conclusions: Tumor can uptake Tc-99m MDP including adenocarcinoma. Higher uptake rate in the center tissue of tumor is than other part of tumor. It maybe connected with necrosis or fibrosis of tumor

  20. Radioiodine uptake measurements in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadireshn, A.; Kapur, S.C.; Samuel, J.R.; Mahajan, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of thyroid function can be carried out by measuring the uptake of orally administered radioactive iodine. The results of the thyroid uptake measurements for the period 1982-1987 in Christian Medical College, Ludhiana are presented here. About 3000 patients were screened during the analysis period. (author)

  1. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  2. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  3. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  4. Uptake of selected metals in tissues and organs of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v37i2.65864 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  5. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  6. 10B uptake by cells for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binello, E.; Yanch, J.C.; Shortkroff, S.

    2000-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS) proposes to use the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction to ablate inflamed synovium (a tissue lining articular joints) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Boron uptake is an important parameter for treatment design. In this study, a simple method was developed to determine K 2 B 12 H 12 (KBH) uptake in vitro by non-adhering monocytic cells (representative of synovial cells in inflamed joints). Uptake was quantified as a function of incubation time and boron concentration, as well as following washout: no significant difference was found between incubation times tested; average uptake ranged from 55 to 60% of 10 B incubation concentrations varying from 1000 to 5000 ppm: approximately 15% of the 10 B concentration was measured upon re-incubation in boron-free medium. These results agree well with those obtained ex vivo using human arthritic synovium, a significant finding in light of the difficulty typically associated with obtaining such tissue. The full characterization of 10 B uptake for BNCS (with KBH) is discussed. (author)

  7. Uptakes of trace elements in Zn-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, T.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshida, T.; Maetsu, H.; Suganuma, H.; Omori, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multitracer technique was used to obtain uptake rates of essential trace elements in various organs and tissues in Zn-deficient mice. A multitracer solution, containing more than 20 radioisotopes, was injected intraperitoneally into Zn-deficient state mice and control ones. Uptake rates of the radioisotopes were compared with concentrations of trace elements determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to study a specific metabolism of Zn and other essential trace elements, such as Mn, Co, Se, Rb, and Sr. The result suggests that Zn is supplied from bone to other organs and tissues and an increase in Co concentration in all organs and tissues depends on its chemical form, under the Z-deficient state. (author)

  8. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  9. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  10. Cold exposure potentiates the effect of insulin on in vivo glucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerand, A.L.; Perusse, F.; Bukowiecki, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cold exposure and insulin injection on the rates of net 2-[ 3 H]deoxyglucose uptake (K i ) in peripheral tissues were investigated in warm-acclimated rats. Cold exposure and insulin treatment independently increased K i values in skeletal muscles, heart, white adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue. The effects of cold exposure were particularly evident in brown adipose tissue where the K i increased >100 times. When the two treatments were combined, it was found that cold exposure synergistically enhanced the maximal insulin responses for glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue, all white adipose tissue depots, and skeletal muscles investigated. The results indicate that cold exposure induces an insulin-like effect on K i that does not appear to be specifically associated with shivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscles, because that effect was observed in all insulin-sensitive tissues. The data also demonstrate that cold exposure significantly potentiates the maximal insulin responses for glucose uptake in the same tissues. This potentialization may result from (1) an enhanced responsiveness of peripheral tissues to insulin, possibly occurring at metabolic steps lying beyond the insulin receptor and (2) an increased tissue blood flow augmenting glucose and insulin availability and thereby amplifying glucose uptake

  11. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  12. The relevance of parametric U-uptake models in ESR age calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    In the ESR dating three basic parametric U-uptake models have been applied for dating teeth: early U-uptake (EU: closed system), linear U-uptake (LU) and recent U-uptake (RU, it is assumed that the dose rate contribution of U in the dental tissues is zero). In many ESR dating publications it is still assumed that samples comply with one or the other parametric U-uptake model calculation or that their correct age lies somewhere between EU and LU. Observations of the spatial distribution of uranium in dental tissues show that it is difficult to predict any relationships between the relative uptake in the dental tissues. Combined U-series/ESR age estimates can give insights into the actual U-uptake. An evaluation of published data shows that for cave sites, a significant number of results fall outside the EU and LU bracket, while for open air sites, the majority of data are outside this bracket, particularly showing greatly delayed U-uptake. This may be due to changes in the hydrological system, leading to erosion which exposes the open air site. U-leaching has also been observed on samples from open air sites, in which case any reasonable age calculation is impossible.

  13. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  14. Technetium uptake by Sinapis Alba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Ter Meer-Bekk, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Transfer factors for pertechnetate uptake was determined for Sinapis Alba cultured hydroponically. For the freshly harvested, undried plants transfer factors were found between 13 and 40 depending on the growth period. (author)

  15. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  16. Uptake and distribution of mercury within higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauford, W; Barber, J; Barringer, A R

    1977-04-15

    The uptake and distribution of inorganic mercury (HgCl/sub 2/) within higher plants (Pisum sativum and Mentha spicata) was examined using solution culture and radiotracer techniques. Plants were found to tolerate an external level of 1 mgHg/kg of solution but both physiological and biochemical processes were affected at 5 mgHg/kg and 10 mgHg/kg. The uptake of Hg into plants grown in hydroponic solution was a function of external concentration. Over the concentration range considered the accumulation of Hg in the roots was linear on a log-log basis although the uptake of the element into the shoots appeared to be two-phased. The distribution of Hg in plants was asymmetrical with much greater amounts of the element in the roots than the shoots. Although the level of Hg increased generally in plant tissues with increasing external levels, the proportion retained in the roots, relative to the shoots, was constant (approximately 95%). Two binding characteristics of the Hg within plant tissue were detected. A major proportion of Hg was tightly bound, being unaffected by treatment with ethanol and hydrochloric acid. The remaining Hg in the tissue was removed by either water or hydrochloric acid treatment. Cell fractionation indicated that the major binding component of Hg in plant tissues was the cell wall.

  17. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  18. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites

  19. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 ± 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 ± 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells

  20. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  1. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  2. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg -1 day -1 . The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day -1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L -1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  3. Relationship between root growth, temperature and anion uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holobrada, M; Mistrik, I; Kolek, J [Institute of Experimental Biology and Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and release were studied of /sup 35/S-sulfate ions by whole intact roots of maize seedlings. From the total incorporated sulfur only 20% were released back to the unlabelled culture solution. In correspondence to the physiological and biochemical-structural vertical gradient of the growing differentiating roots, the release of /sup 35/S from the apical root part was much lower than from the differentiated tissues.

  4. The relationship between root growth, temperature and anion uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobrada, M.; Mistrik, I.; Kolek, J.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and release were studied of 35 S-sulfate ions by whole intact roots of maize seedlings. From the total incorporated sulfur only 20% were released back to the unlabelled culture solution. In correspondence to the physiological and biochemical-structural vertical gradient of the growing differentiating roots, the release of 35 S from the apical root part was much lower than from the differentiated tissues. (author)

  5. Correlation of hepatic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 {+-} 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), {gamma} -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and {gamma} -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration.

  6. Correlation of hepatic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 ± 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), γ -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and γ -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration

  7. Correlation of leaf damage with uptake and translocation of glyphosate in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P.C.C.; Ryerse, J.S.; Sammons, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of glyphosate in three commercial formulations were examined in velvetleaf, a dicotyledonous weed that is commonly treated with glyphosate. The formulations included Roundup(R) (MON35085), Roundup Ultra, and Touchdown(R) as sold in Canada. A minimal amount of 14C-glyphosate was spiked into a lethal rate of each formulation, and the short-term (3 to 72 h) uptake into the treated leaf and subsequent translocation into the plant were measured. Time-course studies showed very rapid uptake and translocation of glyphosate in the Ultra formulation. In comparison, the uptake and translocation of glyphosate in Touchdown was much slower but continued throughout the 72-h period. Glyphosate in the Roundup formulation showed intermediate uptake and translocation. Tissue necrosis at the application sites of Ultra and Roundup was visible within 24 h after treatment. Examinations using stereo and fluorescence microscopy revealed extensive cell death and tissue disruption. Tissue necrosis from Ultra and Roundup was also observed in blank formulations containing no glyphosate and therefore was likely caused by the surfactants. In contrast, the application sites of Touchdown produced little to no leaf damage. Our results demonstrated a direct correlation between tissue necrosis and rapid rates of glyphosate uptake and translocation. (author)

  8. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, J., E-mail: j.millett@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Foot, G.W. [Centre for Hydrological and Ecosystem Science, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Svensson, B.M. [Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  9. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, J.; Foot, G.W.; Svensson, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant–prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. - Highlights: • We measured nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia across Europe. • We measured tissue nutrient concentrations and prey and root N uptake at 16 sites. • Tissue N concentrations were a product of root N availability and prey N uptake. • N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey. • N deposition reduced the strength of a

  10. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  11. Patterns of brown fat uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Recognizing the uptake patterns is important for optimal FDG PET interpretation. The introduction of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) revolutionized PET imaging, bringing much-needed anatomical information. Careful review and correlation of FDG PET images with anatomical imaging should be performed to characterize accurately any lesion having high FDG uptake

  12. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  13. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  14. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  15. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  16. Phosphate uptake kinetics for four species of submerged freshwater macrophytes measured by a 33P phosphate radioisotope technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina Høj; Andersen, Frede Østergaard; Jensen, Henning S.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) uptake kinetics were determined in shoot and root tissues for four freshwater macrophyte species, Littorella uniflora, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum and Elodea canadensis, using a radioactive 33P phosphate technique. Collection of plant material in the oligotr...

  17. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Claudia P.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Geerling, Janine J.; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  18. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Geerling, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated

  19. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  20. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  1. FDG uptake in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) to predict FDG uptake on PET. 153 patients(102 men; mean age, 55 y) were diagnosed with AGC by surgery were included in this study. PET images were evaluated by visual and semi-quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in primary tumors. Primary tumors size were measured and divided according to Borrmann classification. Tumor histology was classified under WHO classification, depth of invasion and Iymphovascular invasion. The tumors were also grouped by high cellular(cellularity = 50%) and low cellular group (<50%). Microscopic growth type was based on Lauren classification. Stromal fibrosis degree and inflammatory cell infiltration amount was graded as low(none∼mild), or high(moderate∼severe). Lymph node metastases was assessed in all patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate differences in SUV as to histopathologic factors. Of the 153 patients, 21 patients(14%) had primary tumor invisible on initial whole body images. After water ingestion, the tumors became visible in 15 of the 21 patients due to disappearance of physiologic stomach uptake. Polypoid or ulcerofungating tumors, high cellularity, intestinal growth pattern, and larger tumors significantly predicted increased tumor SUVs. Well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to show high cellularity and intestinal growth pattern. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had diverse spectrum of histopathology. Signet ring cell carcinomas were mostly ulceroinfiltrative or diffusely infiltrative in macroscopic type and diffuse in microscopic tumor growth. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly low in cellularity. FDG uptake patterns are useful in representing histopathologic characteristics of the entire tumor in gastric cancers. The degree of FDG uptake depends on tumor size, macroscopic type, cellularity, and microscopic growth pattern and it shows no association with well known important prognostic

  2. Cases of diffusely increased 18F FDG uptake in bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2009-01-01

    A whole body imaging of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT provides assessment of FDG uptake in bone marrow and other systemic organs. Diffuse increase of FDG uptake in bone marrow can be associated with leukocytosis, infection, anemia, administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or erythropoietin. and cytokine-producing neoplasms and myeloproliferative syndromes, and etc, and this finding can be an important sign indicative of hyper-metabolism in hemopoietic tissue associated by various etiology. Diffuse increase of FDG uptake in bone marrow affect on FDG uptake in other organs or primary lesions, and must be differentiated from diffuse bone marrow involvement of malignant tumors. In this paper, we report cases of diffuse increase of FDG uptake in bone marrow experienced in our hospital, and discuss the mechanisms and diagnostic importance of this finding, by referring to the published literatures. (author)

  3. Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy in chronic liver disease: assessment of Tl-201 uptake indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin; Lee, Min Ho

    1999-01-01

    Heart to liver ratio on Tl-201 per rectal scintigraphy (shunt index) is known to be useful in the assessment of portal systemic shunt. We assessed Tl-201 uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate of Tl-201 and correlated with shunt index in patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and liver cirrhosis (LC). Fifty eight patients with biopsy-proven chronic liver disease (35 with CAH, 23 with LC) underwent Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy after instillation of 18.5 MBq of Tl-201 into the upper rectum. We evaluated hepatic uptake (type 1: homogeneous, 2: inhomogeneous segmental, 3: inhomogeneous nonsegmental) and extrahepatic uptake of spleen, heart and kidney (grade 0: no uptake, 1: less than liver, 2: equal to liver, 3: greater than liver). We measured the early liver/heart uptake rate (the slope of the liver to heart uptake ratio for 10 mim) and shunt index (heart to liver uptake ratio). Tl-201 uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate of Tl-201 was correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and shunt index. Hepatic uptake patterns of type 1 and 2 were dominant in CAH (CAH: 27/35, LC: 8/23), and type 3 in LC (CAH: 8/35, LC: 15/23)(p<0.005). The grades of extrahepatic uptake were higher in LC than in CAH (spleen: p<0.001, other soft tissue: p<0.005). The early liver/heart uptake rate of CAH (0.110±0.111) was significantly higher than that of LC (0.014±0.090)(p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the early liver/heart uptake rate were 77.7% and 67.7% in differentiating LC from CAH. There was negative correlation between early liver/heart uptake rate and shunt index (r=-0.3347, p<0.01). Hepatic and extrahepatic uptake pattern and early liver/heart uptake rate on Tl-201 per rectum scintigraphy are useful in the assessment of portal systemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease

  4. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-indu...

  5. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  6. Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate. Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate (/sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  7. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  8. Biodistribution of [11C] methylaminoisobutyric acid, a tracer for PET studies on system A amino acid transport in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutinen, E.; Jyrkkioe, S.; Groenroos, T.; Haaparanta, M.; Lehikoinen, P.; Naagren, K.

    2001-01-01

    [N-methyl- 11 C]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid ( 11 C-MeAIB) is a potentially useful tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) studies on hormonally regulated system A amino acid transport. 11 C-MeAIB is a metabolically stable amino acid analogue specific for system A amino acid transport. We evaluated the biodistribution of 11 C-MeAIB in rats and humans to estimate the usefulness of the tracer for in vivo human PET studies, for example, on regulation of system A amino acid transport and on tumour imaging. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14) were killed 5, 20, 40 or 60 min after the injection of 11 C-MeAIB, and the tissue samples were weighed and counted for 11 C radioactivity. Ten lymphoma patients with relatively limited tumour burden underwent whole-body (WB) PET imaging with 11 C-MeAIB. In addition, three other patients had dynamic PET scanning of the head and neck area, and the tracer uptake was quantitated by calculating the kinetic influx constants (K i values) for the tracer. In animal studies, the highest activity was detected in the kidney, pancreas, adrenal gland and intestines. In humans, the highest activity was found in the salivary glands, and after that in the kidney and pancreas, similar to the results in animal studies. Rapid uptake was also detected in the skeletal muscle. In the graphical analysis, linear plots were obtained, and the mean fractional tracer uptake values (K i ) of the parotid glands (n=3) and cervical muscles (n=3) were 0.039±0.008 min -1 and 0.013±0.006 min -1 , respectively. The K i value of the tumour (n=1) was 0.064 min -1 . Higher uptake of 11 C-MeAIB into the tumour tissue was encountered. These results encourage further 11 C-MeAIB PET studies in humans on the physiology and pathology of system A amino acid transport and on tumour detection. (orig.)

  9. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca 2+ in the form of CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 μg/l as CdNO 3 for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca 2+ , and Na + in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca 2+ /g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca 2+ diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca 2+ and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca 2+ and Cd. As the Ca 2+ concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca 2+ uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca 2+ (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na + uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca 2+ surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca 2+ /g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca 2+ , Na + , and Cl - levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca 2+ protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca 2+ uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 μg/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca 2+ (but not Na + ) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca 2+ reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca 2+ -rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation

  10. Diffuse Myocardial Uptake of 99mTc-HDP in Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Koray; Sadic, Murat; Korkmaz, Meliha; Comak, Aylin; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Koca, Goekhan

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue uptake is a rare finding in bone scintigraphy, with an incidence of 2%. Although the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified, several causes have been reported for this unusual uptake pattern. This paper presents a case of diffuse myocardial accumulation of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-HDP) without either solid/visceral organ or soft tissue with multiple myeloma (MM) in skeletal scintigraphy. A 93-year-old man with hypertension and chronic heart failure for 14 years underwent bone scanning due to a 2-month history of back pain within a 1-year period of MM. Three hours later, 99m Tc-HDP late static images showed diffuse myocardial radiotracer accumulation and there were no other sites of abnormal soft tissue or visceral uptake. Myocardial accumulation had disappeared on 24-h delayed static images. This accumulation was thought to be related with AL-type amyloidosis associated with MM

  11. Diffuse Myocardial Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in Multiple Myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Koray; Sadic, Murat; Korkmaz, Meliha; Comak, Aylin; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Koca, Goekhan [Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    Soft tissue uptake is a rare finding in bone scintigraphy, with an incidence of 2%. Although the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified, several causes have been reported for this unusual uptake pattern. This paper presents a case of diffuse myocardial accumulation of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP) without either solid/visceral organ or soft tissue with multiple myeloma (MM) in skeletal scintigraphy. A 93-year-old man with hypertension and chronic heart failure for 14 years underwent bone scanning due to a 2-month history of back pain within a 1-year period of MM. Three hours later, {sup 99m}Tc-HDP late static images showed diffuse myocardial radiotracer accumulation and there were no other sites of abnormal soft tissue or visceral uptake. Myocardial accumulation had disappeared on 24-h delayed static images. This accumulation was thought to be related with AL-type amyloidosis associated with MM.

  12. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  13. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  14. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  15. Rabbit hindlimb glucose uptake assessed with positron-emitting fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossberg, K.A.; Rowe, R.W.; Tewson, T.J.; Taegtmeyer, H.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of estimating skeletal muscle glucose uptake in vivo was examined by using the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (2-[ 18 F]FDG) in the rabbit hindlimb. A pair of collimated coincidence gamma photon detectors was used to monitor the accumulation of tracer in the tissue after 2-[ 18 F]FDG injection. Time-activity curves were generated on a second-by-second basis under control conditions, during increased contractile activity, or hyperinsulinemia. The arterial input of 2-[ 18 F]FDG, plasma glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, and insulin were determined. A graphical (Patlak plot) procedure was used to determine the fractional rate of tracer phosphorylation and therefore trapping in the muscle. From the graphical analysis, the estimated rate of glucose phosphorylation (R) in the unperturbed state was calculated to be 0.037 mumol.min-1.ml-1 of tissue. During perturbation by electrical stimulation, an increase in the rate of tracer phosphorylation (K) was observed. No change in the rate of tracer phosphorylation was observed during hyperinsulinemia. The results support the use of 2-[ 18 F]FDG and the graphical procedure for the noninvasive assessment of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle in vivo. The method described is sensitive to changes in the rate of tracer uptake with respect to time and physiological interventions

  16. Silicate reduces cadmium uptake into cells of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Kabir, Ahmad H.; Landberg, Tommy; Maity, Pooja J.; Lindberg, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health threat all over the world and high Cd content in wheat causes high Cd intake. Silicon (Si) decreases cadmium content in wheat grains and shoot. This work investigates whether and how silicate (Si) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake at the cellular level in wheat. Wheat seedlings were grown in the presence or absence of Si with or without Cd. Cadmium, Si, and iron (Fe) accumulation in roots and shoots was analysed. Leaf protoplasts from plants grown without Cd were investigated for Cd uptake in the presence or absence of Si using the fluorescent dye, Leadmium Green AM. Roots and shoots of plants subjected to all four treatments were investigated regarding the expression of genes involved in the Cd uptake across the plasma membrane (i.e. LCT1) and efflux of Cd into apoplasm or vacuole from the cytosol (i.e. HMA2). In addition, phytochelatin (PC) content and PC gene (PCS1) expression were analysed. Expression of iron and metal transporter genes (IRT1 and NRAMP1) were also analysed. Results indicated that Si reduced Cd accumulation in plants, especially in shoot. Si reduced Cd transport into the cytoplasm when Si was added both directly during the uptake measurements and to the growth medium. Silicate downregulated LCT1 and HMA2 and upregulated PCS1. In addition, Si enhanced PC formation when Cd was present. The IRT1 gene, which was downregulated by Cd was upregulated by Si in root and shoot facilitating Fe transport in wheat. NRAMP1 was similarly expressed, though the effect was limited to roots. This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake on the cellular level. - Highlights: • Si decreases accumulation and translocation of Cd in plants at tissue level. • This work is the first to show how Si influences Cd uptake. • Si decreases Cd uptake into cell and downregulates heavy metal transporter LCT1. • Si downregulates HMA2 transporter, which regulates Cd transport from root to shoot. • Si increases phytochelatin formation

  17. Cadmium uptake in oyster isognomon alatus under laboratory condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayon Saed; Ahmad Ismail; Missri Kusnan; Hishamuddin Omar

    1999-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium in Flat tree oyster Isognomon alatus was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for two weeks. Oysters were exposed to 100 μg 1'-1 cadmium and the accumulation of cadmium in the tissues was measured for every two days. Soft tissues of oyster were digested in concentrated acid and cadmium concentrations were determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The accumulation of cadmium in the soft tissues of oysters was increased during the first six days from 0.73 μg g- 1 to 10.77 μg g'-1, and remaining constant for four days at average level of 10.96 μg g'-1. The Cl concentrations was increased to 32.70 μg g'-1 until the end of experiment. There was no sign of cadmium accumulation approaching saturation for the period of exposure. (author)

  18. High prevalence of thyroid FDG uptake on PET study in patients with thyroid hormone replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.-Q.; Kumar, R.; Xiu, Y.; Dadparvar, S.; Kung, J.W.; Kunjunmen, B.D.; Feng, Q.; Alavi, A.; Zhuang, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid uptake is commonly seen on whole-body FDG-PET images. One well-known cause for this uptake is hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypothyroidism also affects FDG uptake by the thyroid gland. Hospital records of 2765 patients who had undergone whole-body FDG-PET imaging for malignancies were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, those who had thyroid cancer, history of thyroid ablation for hyperthyroidism, neck lymphoma, and other types of head and neck cancer or recent neck surgery were excluded from analysis. The prevalence and level of thyroid FDG uptake in the remaining 1939 patients was compared with the state of patients' thyroid function. There were 141 hypothyroid subjects and the rest (n=1798) were euthyroid. The prevalence of thyroid tissue uptake in euthyroid subjects was 2.34% (42 of 1798), while it was 22% (31 out of 141) in hypothyroid patients. This was statistically significant. Similarly, the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients in patients showing thyroid uptake was 42.5% (31 of 73), while it was 5.9% (110 of 1866) in patients without thyroid uptake. This was again statistically significant (p<0.001). Based on this retrospective analysis it was concluded that the prevalence of increased thyroid FDG uptake is significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than those who are euthyroid. (author)

  19. Channel-mediated and carrier-mediated uptake of K+ into cultured ovine oligodendrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertz, L.; Soliven, B.; Hertz, E.; Szuchet, S.; Nelson, D.J. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of radioactive K+ by mature ovine oligodendrocytes (OLGs) maintained in primary culture was measured under steady-state conditions, i.e., in cells maintained in a normal tissue culture medium (5.4 mM K+), and in cells after depletion of intracellular K+ to less than 15% of its normal value by pre-incubation in K(+)-free medium. The latter value is dominated by an active, carrier-mediated uptake (although it may include some diffusional uptake), whereas the former, in addition to active uptake, also reflects passive K+ diffusion through ion selective channels and possible self-exchange between extracellular and intracellular K+, which may be carrier-mediated. The total uptake rate was 144 +/- 10 nmol/min/mg protein, and the uptake after K+ depletion was 60 +/- 2 nmol/min/mg protein, much lower rates than previously observed in astrocytes. The uptake into K(+)-depleted cells was inhibited by about 80% in the presence of ouabain (1 mM) and about 30% in the presence of furosemide (2 mM). Activators of protein kinase C (phorbol esters) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (forskolin) have been shown to alter the myelinogenic metabolism as well as outward K+ current in cultured OLGs. The present study demonstrates that K+ homeostasis in OLGs is modulated through similar second messenger pathways. Active uptake was inhibited by about 60% in the presence of active phorbol esters (100 nM) but was not affected by forskolin (100 nM). Forskolin likewise had no effect on total uptake, whereas phorbol esters caused a much larger inhibition than expected from their effect on carrier-mediated uptake alone, suggesting that channel-mediated uptake was also reduced.

  20. Biodistribution and breast tumor uptake of 16α-[18F]-fluoro-17β-estradiol in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuichi; Masuda, Kouji

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of 16α-[ 18 F]-fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) for the assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), we examined the tissue distribution and kinetics of FES in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats and then examined FES uptake in rat breast tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The FES uptake by the uterus, an ER-rich tissue, was highly selective and it was 3.34±0.79%ID/g at 60 minutes and 1.57±0.57%ID/g at 120 minutes after injection. The FES uptakes in ER-negative tissues were 0.12±0.05%ID/g or less and 0.05±0.03%ID/g or less, respectively. Coadministration of unlabeled β-estradiol showed marked depression of uterine FES uptake. The FES uptake by rat breast tumors was 0.14±0.06%ID/g at 60 min and 0.12±0.09%ID/g at 120 min. The FES uptake by rat breast tumors correlated with the ER concentration (r=0.45, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that the FES uptake by tissue is mainly ER mediated and FES is thus useful for detecting ER positive breast tumors. (author)

  1. Quantitation of abnormal Ga-67 uptake in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Golish, J.A.; Cordasco, E.M.; Go, R.T.; Feiglin, D.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Gallium-67 is useful in differentiating active pneumonitis from the underlying changes of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), especially when advanced disease precludes detection of subtle radiographic changes. Diffuse Ga-67 uptake, however, is often difficult to estimate. For 22 patients with IPF, they employed both emission tomography (SPECT) of the thorax and a modified Ga-67 index technique for digital planar images basing lung regions on Tc-99m MAA outlines and background on thigh soft-tissue activity. The degree of abnormal Ga-67 uptake measured by these techniques correlated closely with disease activity by all clinical criteria. Repeat studies for six patients after steroid therapy paralleled clinical response (4+/2-)

  2. Lung uptake in bone scan - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, N.; Kabir, F.; Islam, N.; Karim, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in female in our country. When a case of breast cancer is diagnosed a base line bone scan is asked for to exclude skeletal metastasis. This helps for treatment planning and future follow up. Scan pattern in bone metastasis is usually multiple, randomly distributed foci of intensely increased tracer accumulation. Uptake of radio pharmaceutical in breast tissue is frequently observed. Kidneys are another extra skeletal organs through which 99m Tc-MDP is excreted and that's why normal kidneys are faintly visualized in delayed views suggesting normal exertion of tracer. If there is any outflow obstruction in any kidney, it will show hold up of radiotracer on that side. Often radiopharmaceuticals are seen to accumulate in other organs like lungs. Here two cases of breast cancer are discussed where bone scan shows significant uptake of tracer in lungs

  3. Selective uptake of boronophenylalanine by glioma stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Zhou, Youxin; Xie, Xueshun; Chen, Guilin; Li, Bin; Wei, Yongxin; Chen, Jinming; Huang, Qiang; Du, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends on the amount of boron in cells and the tumor/blood and tumor/(normal tissue) boron concentration ratios. For the first time, measurements of boron uptake in both stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells were performed along with measurements of boron biodistribution in suitable animal models. In glioma stem/progenitor cells, the selective accumulation of boronophenylalanine (BPA) was lower, and retention of boron after BPA removal was longer than in differentiated glioma cells in vitro. However, boron biodistribution was not statistically significantly different in mice with xenografts. - Highlights: ► Uptake of BPA was analyzed in stem/progenitor and differentiated glioma cells. ► Selective accumulation of BPA was lower in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Retention of boron after BPA removal was longer in glioma stem/progenitor cells. ► Boron biodistribution was not statistically different in mice with xenografts.

  4. Unexpected radionuclide uptake due to calcification in muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khier, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A male patient aged 27 years was injected with 1000 MBq of 99 Tc m -MDP. The patient was an active man indulging in contact sport. He presented with lower back and pelvic pain. Spot pictures were made of the pelvis, lumbar spine and femurs. Unexpected active radionuclide uptake in the muscles was seen. In the delayed static images, there was focal accumulation of tracer uptake in the muscles overlying the mid-shaft of the left femur consistent with myositis ossificans. Myositis ossificans is a benign ossifying process that is generally solitary and well circumscribed. It is most commonly found in the muscles but it may occur in other connective tissues, especially tendons and subcutaneous fat. This was presumably associated with chronic muscular injuries contracted during sports activity

  5. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.

  6. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  7. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  8. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia, E-mail: G.Keramida@bsms.ac.uk [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Potts, Jon [Department of Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A. Michael [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUV{sub LV}). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUV{sub ave}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub LV} displayed similar relations with BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV}, but not SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}, correlated significantly with BG. SUV{sub max}, but not SUV{sub ave}, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub ave} correlated more strongly with CT density than SUV{sub max}. CT density correlated inversely with SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV} but positively with SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUV{sub max} because SUV{sub ave} is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat.

  9. Uptake of pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions and natural occurring plant species: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Ncube, Somandla; Chimuka, Luke

    2018-04-27

    Sizeable amount of research has been conducted on the possible uptake of pharmaceuticals by plants from contaminated soil and water used for irrigation of crops. In most cases, pharmaceuticals are taken by roots and translocated into various tissues by transpiration and diffusion. Due to the plant uptake, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in food sources such as vegetables is a public concern. Few review papers focusing on the uptake of pharmaceuticals, in particular antibiotics, and their translocation in plant tissues have been published. In the current review paper, the work conducted on the uptake of pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic groups such as antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, β-blockers and antiepileptics is reviewed. Such work includes the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in plants, translocation once taken by plants, toxicity studies as well as implications and future studies. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks associated with the detection and uptake of these pharmaceuticals by plants are discussed. In addition, the physico-chemical properties that could influence the plant uptake of pharmaceuticals are deliberated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  11. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  12. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  13. Positron imaging feasibility studies: characteristics of [3H]thymidine uptake in rodent and canine neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Grunbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uptake [ 3 H]thymidine was studied in BALB/c mice with EMT-6 sarcoma, in Buffalo rats with Morris 7777 hepatoma, and in nine dogs with spontaneous neoplasms: four lymphomas, two osteosarcomas, two soft-tissue sarcomas, and a thyroid carcinoma. High tumor-to-tissue ratios were observed for all tumor types assayed, and absolute uptakes, when computed as percent dose per gram tumor normalized for body weight, were similar for transplanted and spontaneous tumors. In the rodent tumors, radiothymidine was retained for at least 3 hr in the tumor without appreciable loss. In canine neoplasms, although the highest uptakes were observed in cellular tumors with many mitotic figures, tumor uptake showed significant variability that did not correlate with any obvious histologic change, and thus may reflect true biologic differences in metabolism among tumors at different sites in the same animal. These studies provide additional experimental evidence that the ratios of neoplastic to normal tissue and the kinetics of thymidine uptake by tumors are suitable for positron emission tomography of neoplasms in small and large, animals, including both transplanted and spontaneous tumors

  14. Uptake and utilization of nutrients by developing kernels of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyznik, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in amino acid and sugar uptake by developing maize kernels were investigated. In the pedicel region of maize kernel, the site of nutrient unloading from phloem terminals, amino acids are accumulated in considerable amounts and undergo significant interconversion. A wide spectrum of enzymatic activities involved in the metabolism of amino acids is observed in these tissues. Subsequently, amino acids are taken up by the endosperm tissue in processes which require energy and the presence of carrier proteins. Conversely, no evidence was found that energy and carriers are involved in sugar uptake. This process of sugar uptake is not inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and shows nonsaturable kinetics, but the uptake is pH-dependent. L-glucose is taken up at a significantly reduced rate in comparison to D-glucose uptake. Based on analysis of radioactivity distribution among sugar fractions after incubations of kernels with radiolabeled D-glucose, it seems that sucrose is not efficiently resynthesized from D-glucose in the endosperm tissue. Thus, the proposed mechanism of sucrose transport involving sucrose hydrolysis in the pedicel region and subsequent resynthesis in endosperm cells may not be the main pathway. The evidence that transfer cells play an active role in D-glucose transport is presented

  15. Plant–Water Relations (1): Uptake and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow tracheary elements are just one of many adaptations that enable plants to cope with a very dry atmosphere. This lecture examines the physical laws that govern water uptake and transport, the biological properties of cells and plant tissues that facilitate it, and the strategies that enable plants to survive in diverse environments

  16. Redistribution of radiocolloid uptake after focal hepatic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R P; Knowlton, A H

    1975-01-01

    A woman with colonic carcinoma metastatic to the liver received 2,200 rad external beam radiation to the right hepatic lobe. A repeat liver scan, 2 months after conclusion of radiation therapy, showed a shift in the distribution of radiocolloid uptake to the left lobe and spleen. This altered pattern was likely related to the large volume of hepatic tissue included in the radiation portal, with damage to the radiated area. The clinician must be alert to abnormalities induced not only by neoplastic disease, but by the therapy utilized.

  17. The role of glutamine transport in metabolism in the brain cortical tissue slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, N.; Bubb, W.A.; Rae, C.; Broeer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The widely accepted 'glutamate/glutamine cycle' holds that glutamate released as a neurotransmitter in the brain is taken up by surrounding astrocytes, converted to neuro-inactive glutamine and transported back to neurons for reconversion to glutamate. Little, however, is known about the role of glutamine transport in this process. The situation is complicated by the fact that glutamine is transported by a variety of general amino-acid transporters of low specificity. The role of these transporters in flux of glutamine through the glutamate/glutamine cycle was investigated by 13 C NMR monitoring of the flux of C from [3- 13 C]L-lactate in guinea pig cortical tissue slices in the presence of competitive inhibitors of the A-type(α-(methylamino)isobutyrate; MeAIB) and N-type (histidine) transporters. The presence of each inhibitor (10 mM) produced no significant decrease in total metabolite pool size but resulted in a significant decrease in flux of [ 13 C] into the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA and also into glutamine and alanine. The factional enrichment of glutamate and GABA was also significantly lower. By contrast there was no effect on the amount of [ 13 C] incorporated into aspartate isotopomers which may represent a predominantly astrocyte-labelled pool. These results are consistent with involvement of glutamine transporters in the recycling of synaptic glutamate by demonstrating partial blockage of incorporation of [ 13 C] label into neuronal metabolites

  18. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  19. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Portolés, M T; Marques, P A A P; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M

    2012-11-23

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml(-1) pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent's uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  20. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M; Portolés, M T; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Marques, P A A P; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml −1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy. (paper)

  1. Estimation of sodium uptake through the gill of the rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardaire, E.; Avella, M.; Isaia, J.; Bornancin, M.; Mayer-Gostan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sodium exchanges through the gill epithelia were estimated in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, using the perfused head technique. The head tissues accumulate radioactivity. In addition there exists an extrabranchial entry of sodium, which is 20 times smaller than the branchial one. The study of the evolution of venous and arterial sodium specific activities as a function of time is necessary before flux measurements are achieved. Contrary to previous studies, an uptake at the primary lamella level is demonstrated. Uptake of sodium through the secondary lamellae can be measured rapidly while at least 30 min are needed for measurement of uptake through the primary lamellae. Chloride cells of the primary lamellae contribute to about 20% of the total sodium uptake.

  2. The effect of potassium nutrition on sup 137 Cs uptake in two upland species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H E; Harrison, A F; Poskitt, J M; Roberts, J D; Clint, G [Institute for Terrestrial Ecology, Grange-over-Sands (UK)

    1991-01-01

    Agrostis capillaris (Agrostis) and Calluna vulgaris (Calluna), two species with differing phenologies and widespread presence in upland areas of Britain where high Chernobyl fallout occurred, were grown in pot culture with varying concentrations of potassium in the rooting medium. Tissue content of potassium increased with increasing supply in both species. Roots, excised from these plants, were placed in a solution of {sup 137}Cs-labelled caesium chloride for 15 min to determine uptake potential. There were clear negative relationships between the rate of uptake of {sup 137}Cs by both species and (a) the concentration of potassium supplied and (b) plant issue potassium concentrations. With Agrotis, there was an approximately ten-fold difference in {sup 137}Cs uptake between potassium-deficient and optimum plants; with Calluna, it was approximately eight-fold. These results demonstrate the suppression of {sup 137}Cs uptake into plants by potassium supply. (author).

  3. Positron imaging feasibility studies: characteristics of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in rodent and canine neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Grunbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    Uptake of [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose was studied in BALB/c mice with EMT-6 sarcoma, in Buffalo rats with Morris 7777 hepatoma, and in eight dogs with spontaneous neoplasms: five osteosarcomas and three diffuse lymphomas. High tumor-to-tissue ratios were observed for all tumor types studies. In rodents, peak levels of uptake occurred between 30 min and 1 hr, with a slow loss from the tumor of about 10% per hour thereafter. In dogs there was considerable variability in uptake, both between individuals and at different tumor sites within an individual. Necrotic tumor did not take up the radiotracer. Absolute uptakes, when normalized for body weight, were similar for spontaneous and transplanted neoplasms. These studies provide additional support for the concept that positron emission tomography can be used to obtain functional images of important metabolic processes of tumors, including glycolysis

  4. Technetium-99m-HDP uptake characteristics in equine fractures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, E; Geissbühlerl, U; Doherr, M G; Lang, J

    2006-10-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive diagnostic tool to detect elevated bone metabolism. In cases of fractures and fissure fractures, the radiopharmaceutical uptake in the bone is said to be increased within a few hours after the injury. In this retrospective study, the scintigraphic uptake characteristics at the fracture site of 36 horses with radiographically confirmed fractures or fissure fractures were evaluated. Uptake ratios between the fracture region and adjacent normal bone or soft tissue activity respectively were calculated and compared to different anamnestic and radiographic data. The overall sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 94.4% (34 positive cases out of 36). In the 36 horses, no correlation between the age of the fracture and the radiopharmaceutical uptake was found. However, there seems to be a lack of sensitivity in early detection of equine pelvic fractures when a standing bone scintigraphy examination protocol is used.

  5. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects

  6. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects with high

  7. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism: comparison among mandible, cranium, radius and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)

  8. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Comparison of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A.; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Albuquerque Bernardo, V.V. de; Macedo, S. Mello Santana de; Oliveira, Andre Ribeiro Nogueira de; Pires Kasai, Erika Tami; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate the bone involvement of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate sodium (MDP) uptake correlated with the serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi). In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) in the mandible posterior cranium, distal radius, and proximal femur. In addition, soft tissue uptake was measured in one ROI in the soft tissues of the medial thigh (BG). The ROI-BG ratio was used as an index of the normalized bone uptake. The uptake differences in the SHPT and control groups were statistically significant for the mandible (P=0.001) and cranium (P=0.002). When the SHPT group was subclassified according to serum PTHi levels, the bone uptake increased with the serum PTHi level. All mandibles of the patients with SHPT were abnormal, and 33% had focal lesions. The bone uptake in the SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, and a high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP was correlated with an increased serum PTHi. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-03-15

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  10. Evaluation of Significance of Diffusely Increased Bilateral Renal Uptake on Bone Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook; Yang, Woo Jin; Byun, Jae Young; Park, Jung Mi; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected renal abnormality can be detected on bone scan using 99m Tc-MDP. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake on bone scan. 1,500 bone scan were reviewed and 43 scans which showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake were selected for analysis. Laboratory findings for renal and liver function tests including routine urinalysis were reviewed in 43 patients. 26 of 43 case showed abnormality in urinalysis and renal function study. 20 of 43 cases showed abnormal liver function study and 3 of these cases were diagnosed as hepatorenal syndrome later. 13 of those 20 cases had liver cirrhosis with or without hepatoma. 12 of 43 cases showed abnormality both in renal and liver function studies. 2 of 43 cases showed diffusely increased bilateral renal uptake after chemotherapy for cancer but not on previous scans before chemotherapy. 2 of 43 cases showed hypercalcaemia and 8 of 43 cases had multifocal bone uptake due to metastasis or benign bone lesion. But the latter showed no hypercalcaemia at all. There was no significant correlation between increased renal uptake and MDP uptake in soft tissue other than kidneys. This study raised the possibility that the impaired liver and/or renal function may result in diffuse increase of bilateral renal uptake of MDP of unknown mechanism. It seems to need further study on this correlation.

  11. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stirling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake.

  12. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  13. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  14. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  15. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  16. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  17. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  18. Increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in calcified synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, T.; Mogle, P.; Finsterbush, A.; Gordin, M.; Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Mount Scopus; Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Mount Scopus

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of a partially calcified synovial sarcoma of the soft tissues of the thigh in a young girl. The roentgenographic, arteriographic and radio-nuclide scans were unusual. The finding and possible causes of increased uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in synovial sarcoma are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Influence of hydraulics on the uptake of ammonium by two freshwater plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, K.D.; Brion, N.; Woule-Ebongué, V.; Schoelynck, J.; Jooste, A.; Barrón, C.; Dehairs, F.; Meire, P.; Bouma, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    1 Macrophytes are important in the biogeochemistry of flowing rivers, although most information so far has relied on measurements of nutrients in plant tissues. This yields only indirect information on the nutrient uptake fluxes by roots and shoots and about nutrient translocation between roots

  20. 14 C-Glucose uptake studies in the red rot toxin treated sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal toxins cause serious damage to the cellular functions of host tissue. In the present report the toxin extracted from Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified and treatments were given to the callus of susceptible sugarcane callus variety CoC 671. The influence on 14C-glucose uptake and its further utilization ...

  1. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  2. Distribution of 238Pu in tissues of fish from the canal in Miamisburg, Oho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The 238 Pu concentrations of varous tissues were measured for seven species of freshwater fish from an ecosystem containing elevated levels of 238 Pu. The highest levels of 238 Pu were found in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills, while the lowest levels were found in muscle tissue. A rapid uptake of 238 Pu was observed for hatchery bluegills introduced into this system. High plutonium concentrations in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills suggest that these organs are potential uptake sites. The presence of 238 Pu in certain tissues (liver, gonads, bone, and muscle) indicates that there is a translocation of 238 Pu from the uptake sites

  3. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in the surgical scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B.; Bekis, R.; Durak, H.; Derebeck, E. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sen, M. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1999-07-01

    Indium-111 octreotide uptake has been reported in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors, granulomas and autoimmune diseases in which activated leucocytes may play a role, subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma and angiofibroma. We present Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical abdominal scar tissue 1.5 to 6 months after surgery in a patient who had been treated for recurrent carcinoid tumor in the rectosigmoid junction. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical scar may be related to the binding to somatostatin receptors in the activated lymphocytes and fibroblasts that is previously reported. (orig.) [German] In verschiedenen Somatostatinrezeptor-positiven Tumoren, Granulomen, bei Autoimmunerkrankungen, in denen aktivierte Leukozyten eine Rolle spielen, subcutanen kavernoesen Hammangiomen und Angiofibromen wurde ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid berichtet. Wir berichten ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in einer chirurgischen Narbe ueber dem Abdomen nach 1,5 und 6 Monaten bei einem Patienten mit einem Rezidiv-Karzinoid im rektosigmoidalen Uebergang. Die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in chirurgischen Narbengewebe koennte in Zusammenhang stehen mit einer Bindung an Somatostationrezeptoren in aktivierten Lymphozyten und Fibroblasten, ueber die schon berichtet wurde. (orig.)

  4. Isoguvacine binding, uptake, and release: relation to the GABA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W F; Snodgrass, S R

    1983-06-01

    Isoguvacine (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist with limited conformational flexibility. In these studies we investigated the binding, uptake, and release of (3H) isoguvacine by use of tissue preparations of rat CNS, comparing the results with similar studies of (3H)GABA. The results from these investigations indicate that isoguvacine binds to membrane preparations of rat forebrain with pharmacological characteristics similar to the post-synaptic GABA recognition site; that it is transported into synaptosomal preparations by an uptake system similar to the high-affinity GABA uptake system; and that recently accumulated isoguvacine is released in a Ca2+-dependent manner and by heteroexchange with external GABA. The ability of isoguvacine and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to decrease the K+-stimulated Ca2+-dependent release process was also investigated. The results indicate that isoguvacine interactions have many of the biochemical features of GABA synaptic function, isoguvacine being, however, less potent than GABA.

  5. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of 14 C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal 14 C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were < 0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge

  6. Quantitative understanding of nanoparticle uptake in watermelon plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Raliya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30 to 80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues.

  7. The effect of dynamic knee-extension exercise on patellar tendon and quadriceps femoris muscle glucose uptake in humans studied by positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Langberg, Henning; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine

    2005-01-01

    Both tendon and peritendinous tissue show evidence of metabolic activity, but the effect of acute exercise on substrate turnover is unknown. We therefore examined the influence of acute exercise on glucose uptake in the patellar and quadriceps tendons during dynamic exercise in humans. Glucose...... that tendon glucose uptake is increased during exercise. However, the increase in tendon glucose uptake is less pronounced than in muscle and the increases are uncorrelated. Thus tendon glucose uptake is likely to be regulated by mechanisms independently of those regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake....... uptake was measured in five healthy men in the patellar and quadriceps tendons and the quadriceps femoris muscle at rest and during dynamic knee-extension exercise (25 W) using positron emission tomography and [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). Glucose uptake index was calculated by dividing...

  8. Enhanced intratumoral uptake of quantum dots concealed within hydrogel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ashwin; Shen Jinhui; Thevenot, Paul; Zou Ling; Tang Liping; Cai Tong; Hu Zhibing

    2008-01-01

    Effective nanomedical devices for tumor imaging and drug delivery are not yet available. In an attempt to construct a more functional device for tumor imaging, we have embedded quantum dots (which have poor circulatory behavior) within hydrogel nanoparticles made of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide. We found that the hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots are more readily taken up by cultured tumor cells. Furthermore, in a melanoma model, hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots also preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue compared with normal tissue and have ∼16-fold greater intratumoral uptake compared to non-derivatized quantum dots. Our results suggest that these derivatized quantum dots, which have greatly improved tumor localization, may enhance cancer monitoring and chemotherapy.

  9. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  10. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  11. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presl, J.; Figarova, V.; Herzmann, J.; Roehling, S.

    1975-01-01

    3 H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  12. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  13. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgny Nasholm; Knut Kielland; Ulrika. Ganeteg

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for...

  14. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases

  15. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    that for nitrate [2.8 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] and urea [0.37 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1]. Half-saturation constants for uptake of the three nitrogen compounds were in the range of 10-15 mu mol.l/1. Generally, uptake of any one nitrogen substrate appears to be inhibit...

  17. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  18. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author)

  19. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  20. Uptake, disposition, and elimination of acrylamide in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, D.W.; Kleinow, K.M.; Kraska, R.C.; Lech, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake, disposition, and elimination of [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide was studied in fingerling rainbow trout exposed to 0.388 and 0.710 mg/liter [2,3- 14 C]acrylamide at 12 degrees C under static water conditions for 72 hr. 14 C in carcass and viscera was determined at times ranging from 4 to 72 hr after the beginning of the exposure period and 4 to 96 hr after transfer of the fish to fresh flowing water for the elimination studies. Uptake of 14 C was initially rapid and plateaued after 72 hr of acrylamide exposure. No appreciable bioaccumulation occurred in carcass or viscera at either exposure concentration and 14 C distributed approximately equally to all tissues studied. Elimination of 14 C from carcass and viscera was biphasic with a terminal half-life of approximately 7 days. 14 C elimination was not uniform in all tissues studied with the most rapid elimination occurring in blood and gill and the slowest elimination occurring in muscle and intestine. In addition, 10 to 15% of the initial total 14 C in carcass or viscera was nonextractable and was associated with the protein fraction of the sample at all time points in the depuration period. Approximately 20% of an ip administered dose of [ 14 C]acrylamide was eliminated via the gills, 7% via the urine, and less than 1% via the bile in 2 hr. At least three biliary metabolites were isolated by HPLC

  1. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  2. Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Mitrou, Panayota; Lambadiari, Vaia; Boutati, Eleni; Maratou, Eirini; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Koukkou, Efi; Tzanela, Marinela; Thalassinos, Nikos; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2006-12-01

    Although insulin resistance in thyroid hormone excess is well documented, information on insulin action in hypothyroidism is limited. To investigate this, a meal was given to 11 hypothyroid (HO; aged 45 +/- 3 yr) and 10 euthyroid subjects (EU; aged 42 +/- 4 yr). Blood was withdrawn for 360 min from veins (V) draining the anterior abdominal sc adipose tissue and the forearm and from the radial artery (A). Blood flow (BF) in adipose tissue was measured with 133Xe and in forearm with strain-gauge plethysmography. Tissue glucose uptake was calculated as (A-V)glucose(BF), lipoprotein lipase as (A-V)Triglycerides(BF), and lipolysis as [(V-A)glycerol(BF)]-lipoprotein lipase. The HO group had higher glucose and insulin levels than the EU group (P hypothyroidism: 1) glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue is resistant to insulin; 2) suppression of lipolysis by insulin is not impaired; and 3) hypertriglyceridemia is due to decreased clearance by the adipose tissue.

  3. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  4. Stimulatory effect of insulin on glucose uptake by muscle involves the central nervous system in insulin-sensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, Claudia P; Biermasz, Nienke R; Geerling, Janine J; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Havekes, Louis M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2011-12-01

    Insulin inhibits endogenous glucose production (EGP) and stimulates glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. We examined the contribution of central insulin signaling on circulating insulin-stimulated tissue-specific glucose uptake. Tolbutamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP) channels), or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle in the basal state and during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions in postabsorptive, chow-fed C57Bl/6J mice and in postabsorptive C57Bl/6J mice with diet-induced obesity. Whole-body glucose uptake was measured by d-[(14)C]glucose kinetics and tissue-specific glucose uptake by 2-deoxy-d-[(3)H]glucose uptake. During clamp conditions, intracerebroventricular administration of tolbutamide impaired the ability of insulin to inhibit EGP by ∼20%. In addition, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle (by ∼59%) but not in heart or adipose tissue. In contrast, in insulin-resistant mice with diet-induced obesity, intracerebroventricular tolbutamide did not alter the effects of insulin during clamp conditions on EGP or glucose uptake by muscle. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in muscle in part through effects via K(ATP) channels in the central nervous system, in analogy with the inhibitory effects of insulin on EGP. High-fat diet-induced obesity abolished the central effects of insulin on liver and muscle. These observations stress the role of central insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of diet-induced insulin resistance.

  5. The effects of capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH on the cerebral uptake of glucose and glucose analogs:Application to FDG and comparison to oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Angleys

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is the brain’s principal source of ATP, but the extent to which cerebral glucose consumption (CMRglc is coupled with its oxygen consumption (CMRO2 remains unclear. Measurements of the brain’s oxygen-glucose index OGI=CMRO2/CMRglc suggest that its oxygen uptake largely suffices for oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, during functional activation and in some disease states, brain tissue seemingly produces lactate although cerebral blood flow (CBF delivers sufficient oxygen, so-called aerobic glycolysis. OGI measurements, in turn, are method-dependent in that estimates based on glucose analog uptake depend on the so-called lumped constant (LC to arrive at CMRglc. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH, which is believed to change during functional activation and some disease states, affects the extraction efficacy of oxygen from blood. We developed a three-compartment model of glucose extraction to examine whether CTH also affects glucose extraction into brain tissue. We then combined this model with our previous model of oxygen extraction to examine whether differential glucose and oxygen extraction might favor nonoxidative glucose metabolism under certain conditions. Our model predicts that glucose uptake is largely unaffected by changes in its plasma concentration, while changes in CBF and CTH affect glucose and oxygen uptake to different extents. Accordingly, functional hyperemia facilitates glucose uptake more than oxygen uptake, favoring aerobic glycolysis during enhanced energy demands. Applying our model to glucose analogs, we observe that LC depends on physiological state, with a risk of overestimating relative increases in CMRglc during functional activation by as much as 50%.

  6. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.A.; Azmitia, E.C.; Krieger, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with [3H]5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of [3H]5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min [3H]5HT. The total uptake of [3H]5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with [3H]5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with [3H]5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to [3H]5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT

  7. Evaluation of uptake and distribution of gold nanoparticles in solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Christopheri G.; Gobin, André M.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-11-01

    Although nanotherapeutics offer a targeted and potentially less toxic alternative to systemic chemotherapy in cancer treatment, nanotherapeutic transport is typically hindered by abnormal characteristics of tumor tissue. Once nanoparticles targeted to tumor cells arrive in the circulation of tumor vasculature, they must extravasate from irregular vessels and diffuse through the tissue to ideally reach all malignant cells in cytotoxic concentrations. The enhanced permeability and retention effect can be leveraged to promote extravasation of appropriately sized particles from tumor vasculature; however, therapeutic success remains elusive partly due to inadequate intra-tumoral transport promoting heterogeneous nanoparticle uptake and distribution. Irregular tumor vasculature not only hinders particle transport but also sustains hypoxic tissue kregions with quiescent cells, which may be unaffected by cycle-dependent chemotherapeutics released from nanoparticles and thus regrow tumor tissue following nanotherapy. Furthermore, a large proportion of systemically injected nanoparticles may become sequestered by the reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in overall diminished efficacy. We review recent work evaluating the uptake and distribution of gold nanoparticles in pre-clinical tumor models, with the goal to help improve nanotherapy outcomes. We also examine the potential role of novel layered gold nanoparticles designed to address some of these critical issues, assessing their uptake and transport in cancerous tissue.

  8. Relationship between catalase activity and uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake of mercury by brain after intravenous injection of elemental mercury was investigated in the rat. Catalase activity was inhibited by aminotriazole either by intraperitoneal affecting catalase in most tissues of the animal or by intraventricular injections affecting catalase in the brain selectively. Uptake of elemental mercury by rat brain was not influenced by intraperitoneal administration of aminotriazole resulting in 50% inhibition of brain catalase. However, when the inhibitor was injected intraventricularly in concentrations to give a 50% inhibition of brain catalase, it was shown that the mercury uptake by brain was significantly decreased. In the latter case when only brain catalase was inhibited and the supply of elemtal mercury to brain was maintained, mercury uptake by brain was proportional to the activity of catalase in brain tissue and to the injected amount of elemental mercury. Contrary to the intraventricular injection of aminotriazole, in animals recieving aminotriazole intraperitoneally prior to elemental mercury injection, we suggest that the lower activity of brain catalse is compensated by an increased supply of elemtal mercury caused by the generally lower oxidation rate in the animal. This view is supported by the finding that mercury uptake by liver increased due to aminotriazole intraperitoneally although activity of catalase was depressed. (author)

  9. The relationship between histopathological findings in oral squamous cell carcinoma and FDG uptake on PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Shozushima, Masanori; Sato, Hirotaka

    2003-01-01

    It is known that, in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of oral cancer, FDG uptake may vary even among different cases of the same squamous cell carcinoma. However, the details of this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between histopathological findings in oral squamous cell cancer and PET findings on FDG uptake. We examined 45 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who had undergone FDG PET before treatment. FDG uptake was assessed by a standardized uptake value (SUV) calculated according to the PET-measured tissue concentration of FDG, the administered dose of radionuclide, and the body weight of the patient. The relationship between the mean SUV and each of the following parameters was examined: histological grade of malignancy, degree of cell differentiation, size and/or local extent of the primary lesion, and cell density of the tumor. The mean SUV of FDG uptake did not depend on the histological grade of malignancy or on the degree of cell differentiation, but tended to be greater the larger the primary lesion. SUV also depended on cell density, increasing with the percentage of tumor parenchyma. It is concluded that cancer cell density greatly influences the SUV of FDG, in that a tumor with fewer cellular elements in cancer tissue tends to become a false negative. (author)

  10. Influence of lead on atrazine uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2005-01-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide, and its persistence in soil and water causes environmental concerns. In the past, plant uptake processes are mainly investigated for single contaminants. However, in many cases, contaminants co-exist in environmental matrix, such as soil, and plant uptake of one contaminant may be influenced by its co-existing ones. The uptake of atrazine by rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) from nutrient solution through the roots was investigated in a solution culture, over an exposure period of 4 weeks. Atrazine accumulation in plant tissues was determined by gas chromatography, and lead was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. With different ratios of atrazine and Pb2+ concentrations in solution, the observed atrazine concentrations in shoots and roots varied significantly. In atrazine-Pb2+ mixture systems, the added Pb2+ either increased or decreased the concentrations or BCFs of atrazine in seedlings (relative to those without Pb2+), depending on the atrazine-Pb2+ ratio in nutrient solution. The enhanced atrazine uptake results presumably from atrazine-Pb2+ complex formation. The reduced atrazine uptake, which occurred mainly at high atrazine concentrations, is attributed to atrazine toxicity that inhibited seedling growth and transpiration. The formation of atrazine-Pb2+ complex both in the solution and within plant tissues may affect the accumulation of both contaminants by rice plants.

  11. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  12. Inert gas transport in blood and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A Barry; Farmery, Andrew D

    2011-04-01

    This article establishes the basic mathematical models and the principles and assumptions used for inert gas transfer within body tissues-first, for a single compartment model and then for a multicompartment model. From these, and other more complex mathematical models, the transport of inert gases between lungs, blood, and other tissues is derived and compared to known experimental studies in both animals and humans. Some aspects of airway and lung transfer are particularly important to the uptake and elimination of inert gases, and these aspects of gas transport in tissues are briefly described. The most frequently used inert gases are those that are administered in anesthesia, and the specific issues relating to the uptake, transport, and elimination of these gases and vapors are dealt with in some detail showing how their transfer depends on various physical and chemical attributes, particularly their solubilities in blood and different tissues. Absorption characteristics of inert gases from within gas cavities or tissue bubbles are described, and the effects other inhaled gas mixtures have on the composition of these gas cavities are discussed. Very brief consideration is given to the effects of hyper- and hypobaric conditions on inert gas transport. © 2011 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 1:569-592, 2011.

  13. Uptake studies with chondrotropic 99mTc-chondroitin sulfate in articular cartilage. Implications for imaging osteoarthritis in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Dorotka, Ronald; Menzel, Johannes; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an endogenous component of extracellular matrix in the cartilage and can be valuable for imaging of cartilage degeneration after radiolabeling. Data monitoring the uptake of 99m TcCS by human cartilage are rare. Radiolabeling was performed by 99m TcO 4 − /tin method at pH 5.0 in 0.5 M sodium acetate. For uptake studies human articular cartilage (n = 4, 65–79a) derived from individuals undergoing knee replacement (pieces of 3–5 mg wet weight), or frozen tissue sections (5 μ) for autoradiography (10 μCi) were used. The uptake was monitored from 10 min up to 96 h to achieve saturation. As the commercially available drug Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano) contains Mg-stearate (0.25%) as additive (to improve its gastrointestinal resorption), we investigated the uptake ± additive. The washout of the tracer was examined by tissue incubation after uptake experiments (3 h and 24 h) with PBS-buffer for 10 min to 3 h. Using human articular cartilage the maximal uptake of 99m TcCS (specific activity of 4.1–6.1 Ci/mmol) was continuously increasing with time amounting to a maximum of 53.2% ± 3.2% with additive, versus 39.4% ± 2.3%, without additive, at saturation. Additive increased the resorption of the drug and consecutively its uptake. The washout of the tracer from cartilage after 3 h uptake amounted to 1.5% ± 0.2% with additive, versus 2.6% ± 0.5%, without. After 24 h washout was lower amounting to 1.1% ± 0.1% versus 1.75% ± 0.15%, respectively. Autoradiography revealed also a continuous increase in uptake of 99m TcCS with time. After 10 min of incubation the uptake increase was proportional to the incubation time, reaching the maximum at 48–72 h. Enhanced uptake at the surface (superficial zone) as compared to the subchondral part (deep zone) of slices, was observed. The non-specific uptake in the presence of 50-fold excess of cold CS was time-dependent up to a maximum of 15% (tissue) and 10% (autoradiography), at saturation. The

  14. Uptake and elimination of some radionuclides by eggs and fry of rainbow trout, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihide

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies on the uptake and elimination of radionuclides, 60 Co, 131 I, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 106 Ru by the advanced fry and the fingerlings of rainbow trout were conducted under laboratory conditions. The general patterns of uptake of 60 Co, 131 I, 144 Ce, 106 RuNO-nitro and -binuclear complexes by both the advanced fry and the fingerlings were similar to each other. On the other hand, the uptake of 137 Cs by the advanced fry was more rapid than that by the fingerlings although the uptake of 106 RuNO-nitro complex by the advanced fry was much slower. The remarkable differences in rate of uptake and turnover rate for 137 Cs and in turnover rate for 144 Ce were observed between the advanced fry and the fingerlings. The concentration factors for 60 Co and 137 Cs in the fry increased with growth of the fish. However, this trend was not necessarily observed for 131 I, 144 Ce and 106 RuNO complexes. In comparison of the tissue uptake of the radionuclides, the high concentration factor for 60 Co, 106 RuNO complexes and 144 Ce in visera including digestive tract were observed, while for 131 I in the gills. (auth.)

  15. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  16. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours in rats, and to retard the growth of 2 out of 3 lines of human colonic tumours propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice.

  17. P-32 uptake in lentic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, J.R.; Williamson, G.D.; Fletcher, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the Flat Creek Embayment of Lake Sidney Lanier near Gainesville, Georgia revealed three genera of algae, Chlorococcum, Fragillaria and Nostoc, to be prominent in this eutrophic region of the lake. The algae was grown in phosphate-rich media and subsequently labelled with P-32. All species incorporated luxury amounts of phosphorus as determined by the uptake of P-32. The results indicate that the P-32 uptake is proportional to the surface-per-volume ratio. The higher surface-per-volume ratio resulted in greater uptake of P-32

  18. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Silva, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3 H 2 ; b) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO; c) Air + 3 H 2 + CO; d) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author) [pt

  19. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  20. A protective effect of dietary calcium against acute waterborne cadmium uptake in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldisserotto, B.; Kamunde, C.; Matsuo, A.; Wood, C.M

    2004-03-30

    The present study examined the interactions between elevated dietary calcium (as ionic Ca{sup 2+} in the form of CaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) and acute waterborne Cd exposure (50 {mu}g/l as CdNO{sub 3} for 3 h) on whole body uptake and internal distribution of newly accumulated Cd, Ca{sup 2+}, and Na{sup +} in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed with three diets 20 (control), 30 and 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g food: for 7 days before fluxes were measured with radiotracers over a 3 h period. The two elevated Ca{sup 2+} diets reduced the whole body uptake of both Ca{sup 2+} and Cd by >50% and similarly reduced the internalization of both newly accumulated metals in most tissues, effects which reflect the shared branchial uptake route for Ca{sup 2+} and Cd. As the Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of the fluid phases of the stomach and intestinal contents were greatly elevated by the experimental diets, increased gastrointestinal Ca{sup 2+} uptake likely caused the down-regulation of the branchial Ca{sup 2+} (and Cd) uptake pathway. Waterborne Na{sup +} uptake and internal distribution were not affected. While plasma Ca{sup 2+} surged after the first two feedings of the 60 mg Ca{sup 2+}/g diet, internal homeostasis was quickly restored. Total Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, and Cl{sup -} levels in tissues were not affected by diets. While dietary Ca{sup 2+} protected against waterborne Cd uptake, it did not protect against the relative inhibition of waterborne Ca{sup 2+} uptake caused by waterborne Cd. Acute exposure to 50 {mu}g/l Cd reduced the uptake and internalization of newly accumulated Ca{sup 2+} (but not Na{sup +}) by 70% or more, regardless of diet. Since elevated dietary Ca{sup 2+} reduces waterborne Cd uptake, fish eating a Ca{sup 2+}-rich invertebrate diet may be more protected against waterborne Cd toxicity in a field situation.

  1. LDL Receptors as Gateways for Intracellular Porphyrin Uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, S.; Laster, B.; Quastel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Boronated compounds are currently being studied for possible use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). We found that one of these agents, BOPP (tetrakis-carborane-carboxylate, esters of 2,4-bis (a,b- dihydroxyethyl) deuteroporphyrin IX), could also be labeled with indium (In-BOPP) and, therefore, could also be used potentially to transport high Z atoms into tumor cell DNA for AET (Auger Electron Therapy). In order to assess the uptake of these agents into cells, the role of the LDL receptor in the intracellular accumulation of BOPP and In-BOPP was investigated. Pre-incubation of V-79 Chinese hamster cells in medium containing delipidized fetal bovine serum (FBS) markedly increased the subsequent uptake of intracellular boron transported by both BOPP and In-BOPP when compared with cells that had been pre-incubated with medium containing 10% normal FBS (lipidized). The increased uptake was characterized by elevated levels of receptor, and greater affinity was shown for both BOPP and In-BOPP, although less marked with the latter. Positive cooperativity was demonstrated by sigmoid saturation curves, Scatchard analysis and Hill plots. Increasing the amount of LDL in the incubation medium had a relatively small effect on the total accumulation of either indium or boron atoms inside the cell. Furthermore, chemical acetylation of LDL did not decrease the intracellular uptake of either boron or indium transported by BOPP or In-BOPP. It is thus concluded that BOPP and In-BOPP preferentially enter the cells directly by way of the LDL receptor and that only a small fraction of these molecules are transported into the cells indirectly using serum LDLs as their carriers. These data suggest a novel way of bringing greater amounts of boron and indium (and perhaps other agents) into tissues. Porphyrins can be used to transport different agents into tumor cells because they are tumor affinic molecules. Tumors express a higher number of LDL receptors than do most normal tissues

  2. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  3. Characteristics of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1997-01-01

    Cancer tissues are characterized by increased glucose uptake. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG), a glucose analogue is used for the diagnosis of cancer in PET studies. This study was aimed to compare the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 1(GLUT1) expression in various human colon cancer cells. We measured FDG uptake by cell retention study and expression of GLUT1 using Western blotting. Human colon cancer cells, SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5, were used. The cells were incubated with 1μ Ci/ml of FDG in HEPES- buffered saline for one hour. The FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 16.8±1.36, 12.3±5.55 and 61.0±2.17 cpm/μg of protein, respectively. Dose-response and time-course studies represent that FDG uptake of cancer cells were dose dependent and time dependent. The rate of FDG uptake of SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were 0.29±0.03, 0.21±0.09 and 1.07±0.07 cpm/min/μg of protein, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that the GLUT1 expression of SNU-C5 was significantly higher than those of SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. These results represent that FDG uptake into human colon cancer cells are different from each other. In addition, FDG uptake and expression of GLUT1 are closely related in human colon cancer cells

  4. Metal uptake by corn grown on media treated with particle-size fractionated biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Chang, Andrew C.; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhang, Yongsong [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 31009 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Particle-size of biosolids may affect plant uptake of heavy metals when the biosolids are land applied. In this study, corn (Zea mays L.) was grown on sand media treated with biosolids to study how particle-size of biosolids affected the plant uptake of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Two biosolids, the Nu-Earth biosolids and the Los Angeles biosolids, of dissimilar surface morphology were utilized. The former exhibited a porous and spongy structure and had considerably greater specific surface area than that of the latter, which was granular and blocky. The specific surface area of the Los Angeles biosolids was inversely proportional to its particle-size, while that of Nu-Earth biosolids did not change significantly with particle-size. For each biosolid, the metal concentrations were not affected by particle sizes. The biomass yields of plants grown on the treated media increased as the biosolid particle-size decreased, indicating that plant uptake of nutrients from biosolids was dependent on interactions at the root-biosolids interface. The effect of particle-size on a metal's availability to plants was element-specific. The uptake rate of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni was correlated with the surface area of the particles, i.e., smaller particles having higher specific area provided greater root-biosolids contact and resulted in enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn and slightly less increased uptake of Cu and Ni. The particle morphology of biosolids had limited influence on the plant tissue concentrations of Cr and Pb. For both types of biosolids, total metal uptake increased as biosolid particle-size decreased. Our research indicates that biosolid particle-size distribution plays a deciding role in plant uptake of heavy metals when they are land applied.

  5. Standardized uptake values of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: the value of different normalization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Reichel, C.; Sommer, T.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    While the evident advantages of absolute metabolic rate determinations cannot be equalled by static image analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG PET) studies, various algorithms for the normalization of static FDG uptake values have been proposed. This study was performed to compare different normalization procedures in terms of dependency on individual patient characteristics. Standardized FDG uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for liver and lung tissue in 126 patients studied with whole-body FDG PET. Uptake values were normalized for total body weight, lean body mass and body surface area. Ranges, means, medians, standard deviations and variation coefficients of these SUV parameters were calculated and their interdependency with total body weight, lean body mass, body surface area, patient height and blood sugar levels was calculated by means of regression analysis. Standardized FDG uptake values normalized for body surface area were clearly superior to SUV parameters normalized for total body weight or lean body mass. Variation and correlation coefficients of body surface area-normalized uptake values were minimal when compared with SUV parameters derived from the other normalization procedures. Normalization for total body weight resulted in uptake values still dependent on body weight and blood sugar levels, while normalization for lean body mass did not eliminate the positive correlation with lean body mass and patient height. It is concluded that normalization of FDG uptake values for body surface area is less dependent on the individual patient characteristics than are FDG uptake values normalized for other parameters, and therefore appears to be preferable for FDG PET studies in oncology. (orig.)

  6. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  7. Mechanisms of DNA uptake by cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Three categories of cellular uptake of DNA can be distinguished. First, in the highly transformable bacteria, such as Diplococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Bacillus subtilis, elaborate mechanisms of DNA transport have evolved, presumably for the purpose of genetic exchange. These mechanisms can introduce substantial amounts of DNA into the cell. Second, methods have been devised for the forced introduction of DNA by manipulation of bacterial cells under nonphysiological conditions. By such means small but significant amounts of DNA have been introduced into various bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Third, mammalian cells are able to take up biologically active DNA. This has been most clearly demonstrated with viral DNA, although the mechanism of uptake is not well understood. The intention, here, is to survey current understanding of the various mechanisms of DNA uptake. A review of experience with the bacterial systems may throw some light on the mammalian system and lead to suggestions for enhancing DNA uptake by mammalian cells.

  8. Gallium-67 uptake in meningeal sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.G.; Hicks, B.H.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    A case of sarcoidosis limited to the central nervous system is described in which the diagnosis was suggested by high Ga-67 uptake in the cranial and spinal meninges. The diagnosis was confirmed by meningeal biopsy. Treatment with oral corticosteroids resulted in clinical improvement and marked reduction in Ga-67 uptake in the meninges. This is the first reported case of the central nervous system sarcoid diagnosed by Ga-67 imaging

  9. Urological indications of Hg uptake in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, A.

    1976-01-01

    The circumstances motivating the mercury bichloride uptake study of the kidney are specified: choice between excision and conservation surgery; estimation of the benefits of conservation surgical operations on the kidney or its excretion passage; estimation of the degree of compensative kidney hypertrophy in unilateral diseases or after nephrectomy. The urinary disorders for which mercury bichloride uptake is particularly suitable are also listed: acquires and congenital bilateral diseases of the excretion passage; hydronephrosis; complex lithiases [fr

  10. Citrate and succinate uptake by potato mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, D.W.; Laties, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    Potato mitochondria, in the absence of respiration, have a very low capacity for uptake by exchange with endogenous anions, taking up only 2.4 nanomoles citrate and 2.0 nanomoles succinate per milligram protein. Maximum citrate uptake of over 17 nanomoles per milligram protein occurs in the presence of inorganic phosphate, a dicarboxylic acid, and an external energy source (NADH), conditions where net anion accumulation proceeds, mediated by the interlinking of the inorganic phosphate, dicarboxylate, and tricarboxylate carriers. Maximum succinate uptake in the absence of respiratory inhibitors requires only added inorganic phosphate. Compounds which inhibit respiration (antimycin), the exchange carriers (mersalyl and benzylmalonate), or the establishment of the membrane proton motive force (uncouplers) reduce substrate accumulation. A potent inhibitor of the citrate carrier in animal mitochondria, 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid, does not inhibit citrate uptake in potato mitochondria. Citrate uptake is reduced by concurrent ADP phosphorylation and this reduction is sensitive to oligomycin. The initiation of state 3 after a 3-minute substrate state results in a reduction of the steady-state of citrate uptake by approximately 50%. Accumulation of succinate initially is inhibited by increasing sucrose concentration in the reaction medium from 50 to 400 millimolar. Limited substrate uptake is one of the factors responsible for the often observed depressed initial state 3 respiration rates in many mitochondrial preparations. Since nonlimiting levels of substrate in the matrix cannot be attained by energy-independent exchange, a dependence on respiration for adequate uptake results. Substrate limitation therefore occurs in the matrix for the period of time needed for energy-dependent accumulation of nonlimiting levels

  11. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  12. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; de Graeff, J.; te Velde, J.; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1982-04-01

    Bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologic parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increased bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy.

  13. Platinum uptake from chloride solutions using biosorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hakan Morcali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigates platinum uptake from synthetically prepared, dilute platinum-bearing solutions using biomass residues, i.e. pistachio nut shell and rice husk, which are abundant in Turkey, and provides a comparison between these two biosorbents. Effects of the different uptake parameters, sorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and pH of solution on platinum uptake (% were studied in detail on a batch sorption. Before the pistachio nut shell was activated, platinum uptake (% was poor compared to the rice husk. However, after the pistachio nut shell was activated at 1000 °C under an argon atmosphere, the platinum uptake (% increased two-fold. The pistachio nut shell (original and activated and rice husk were shown to be better than commercially available activated carbon in terms of adsorption capacity. These two sorbents have also been characterized by FTIR and SEM. Adsorption equilibrium data best complied with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacities, Qmax, at 25 °C were found to be 38.31 and 42.02 mg.g- 1for the activated pistachio nut shell and rice husk, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations using the measured ∆H°, ∆S° and ∆G° values indicate that the uptake process was spontaneous and endothermic. The experimental data were shown to be fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  14. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with 18 F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that 18 F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation

  15. Uranium uptake of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Maslov, O.D.; Trinh Thi Thu My; Phung Khac Nam Ho; Dang Duc Nhan

    2010-01-01

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (BG), Dystric Fluvisols (HP) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg/kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF U , kg·kg -1 ). It was found that the TF U values are dependent upon the soils properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increased soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content, as well as iron and potassium, inhibits the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil, the higher uranium uptake. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studied is almost higher than that in its shoot. It seems that vetiver grass could potentially be used for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium

  16. Plutonium uptake by marine phytoplankton in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.S.; Olson, B.L.; Bowen, V.T.

    1980-01-01

    At environmentally realistic atom concentrations 237 Pu tracer was used to examine Pu uptake by unialgla cultures of Thalassiosira pseudonana (live and dead), Thalassiosira sp., and Platymonas sp., as well as by glass particles. Live or dead cells and glass particles accumulated Pu at similar rates, indicating that initial uptake was a passive phenomenon. Uptake was strongly affected by the nature of particle surfaces, but much less by composition of the media. Cells from rapidly growing cultures took up more Pu, than did those from late log or senescent cultures. Acid-washed glass took up more Pu, faster, than did unwashed glass. Cells accumulated more Pu from uv-treated seawater than from seawater untreated or enriched with f/50-level EDTA or f/50 vitamins; from complete f/50 medium uptake was even less, as with f/50 trace metals + EDTA. After a shot uptake Pu was 25% removable in tracer-free media, but after 3 days of uptake none was removable in seawater or exometabolite media, and only 15% in f/50-level EDTA. The data support the hypothesis that Pu in marine environments associates with suspended particles that could act as vertical vectors for this element

  17. Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled chondroitin sulfate by chondrocytes and cartilage: a promising agent for imaging of cartilage degeneration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobal, Grazyna [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)], E-mail: grazyna.sobal@meduniwien.ac.at; Menzel, Johannes [Institute of Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Sinzinger, Helmut [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria)

    2009-01-15

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is used in the treatment of human osteoarthritis as a slow-acting symptomatic drug. For this reason, we performed uptake studies with {sup 99m}TcCS using different chondrocyte cultures, as well as cartilage tissue in vitro. For uptake studies, adherent monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes (2.7x10{sup 4} cells/well) and {sup 99m}TcCS (1 {mu}Ci) were used. In parallel, we also performed uptake studies with cell suspensions of human chondrocytes at 1x10{sup 6} cells/well incubated with {sup 99m}TcCS (5 {mu}Ci) under identical conditions. Uptake was studied also in cartilage tissue samples and frozen tissue sections for autoradiography. The uptake was monitored for 10-240 min, every 10-30 min for cell cultures and for cartilage tissue up to 72 h. As the commercially available drug Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland) contains magnesium (Mg) stearate as additive, we investigated the uptake with and without this additive. The washout of the tracer was assessed after the uptake experiments with PBS buffer for different time intervals (10 min-3 h). Tracer uptake in monolayer{+-}additives with low number of cells was low. With the use of chondrocytes in culture suspensions with higher number of cells, a higher uptake of 5.9{+-}0.65% and 1.0{+-}0.1% (n=6) was found, with and without additive, respectively. The saturation was achieved after 100 min. With the use of human rib cartilage, the uptake of {sup 99m}TcCS was continuously increasing with time and was very high with additive amounting to 101.8{+-}5.2% vs. 53.0{+-}8.3% (n=6) without after 72 h and showing delayed saturation up to 30 h. Thus, not only the resorption of the drug is enhanced by Mg-stearate, but also the uptake. The washout of the tracer from cartilage after 3 h of uptake amounted to 3.75{+-}1.5% with additive vs. 13.1{+-}2.1% without. After 24 h, washout was lower amounting to 1.75{+-}0.15% vs. 3.25{+-}0.25%, respectively. The autoradiographic studies paralleled the results

  18. The mechanisms of caesium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.; Bowen, H.; Broadley, M.; Hammond, J.; Hampton, C.; Payne, K.

    2004-01-01

    Persistent radioactive isotopes of caesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in the environment are of concern because they impact on both health and commerce. They enter the terrestrial food chain through plants. Plant roots take up Cs + from the soil solution. To reach the shoot via the xylem, Cs + must cross the plasma membranes of root cells at least twice. This is catalysed by transport proteins. Since Cs is an alkali metal with chemical properties similar to potassium (K), it has been suggested that the same proteins that transport K + also transport Cs + . However, the Cs:K ratio in the shoots of different plant species grown under identical conditions varies widely. Since different transport proteins have contrasting abilities to discriminate between Cs + and K + , this varying Cs:K ratio suggests that a different complement of transport proteins operates in different plant species. In the plasma membrane of root cells inward-rectifying K + channels (KIRCs), outward-rectifying cation channels (KORCs and NORCs), voltage-independent cation channels (VICCs) and voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (HACCs and DACCs) are all permeable to Cs + and K + . In addition, the 'high-affinity' K + /H + symporters (KUPs) and 'low affinity' transporters, such as the wheat TaLCT1 protein, may also transport Cs + and K + . The relative abundance and selectivity of these transport proteins in the root plasma membrane will determine the relative fluxes of Cs + and K + to the shoot. Theoretical models describing Cs + fluxes across the plasma membrane of root cells predict that, under natural conditions, VICCs mediate most (30 to 90%) of the Cs + influx, with KUPs mediating the remainder, Cs + influx through KIRCs is negligible, and stelar KORCs load Cs + into the xylem. These predictions are consistent with the identical pharmacology of VICCs and Cs + uptake by plants, which are both partially inhibited by La 3+ , Ba 2+ or Ca 2+ at millimolar concentrations, and the phenotypes of Arabidopsis

  19. Discrepant uptake of the radiolabeled norepinephrine analogues hydroxyephedrine (HED) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischpler, Christoph [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Munich (Germany); Fukushima, Kenji; Isoda, Takuro; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Dannals, Robert F.; Wahl, Richard [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abraham, Roselle [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Higuchi, Takahiro [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wuerzburg University, CHFC/Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 11}C-Hydroxyephedrine (HED) and radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I/{sup 131}I-MIBG) are catecholamine analogue tracers for sympathetic nerve positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT) imaging. In contrast to humans, rat hearts demonstrate high nonneural catecholamine uptake-2 in addition to neural uptake-1, the contributions of which to tracer accumulation are not fully elucidated. Wistar rats were studied using the following pretreatments: uptake-1 blockade with desipramine 2 mg/kg IV, both uptake-1 and -2 blockade with phenoxybenzamine 50 mg/kg IV, or control with saline IV. HED or {sup 123}I-MIBG was injected 10 min after pretreatment, and rats were sacrificed 10 min later. Heart to blood tissue count ratio (H/B ratio) was obtained using a gamma counter. To determine regional tracer uptake, dual-tracer autoradiography was performed with HED and {sup 131}I-MIBG in Wistar rats with chronic infarction by transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion and in healthy control rats. Local tracer distributions were analyzed, and the infarcted rats' local tracer distributions were compared with histology. The H/B ratios in control hearts were 34.4 {+-} 1.7 and 25.5 {+-} 2.1 for HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG, respectively. Desipramine led to a significant decrease in HED (3.2 {+-} 0.5, p < 0.0001), while there was no change in {sup 123}I-MIBG (25.5 {+-} 6.4, p = n.s.). Phenoxybenzamine led to a significant decrease in both HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG (3.5 {+-} 0.02, 4.3 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.0001). Only HED showed a subepicardium-subendocardium gradient in healthy control hearts which is consistent with physiological innervation, while {sup 131}I-MIBG was evenly distributed throughout the myocardium. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake defect closely matched the scar area determined by histology [3.8 {+-} 2.3 % ({sup 131}I-MIBG defect) vs 4.0 {+-} 2.4 % (scar)]. However, the scar area was clearly exceeded by the HED uptake defect (9

  20. Incidental Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Bladder Due to Uptake of 99mTc-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant A; Pandey, Dinesh Chand; Gautam, Awadhesh Kumar; Subbarao, Kiran; Singh, Prabhjot; Mishra, Rohini; Das, Nitendra Lal; Pandey, Dinesh Chand; Gautam, Awadhesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A bone scan was per-formed using 740 MBq (29 mCi) 99 mTc-MDP. Whole-body planar images were acquired 3 h after injection (Fig. 1). Soft tissue uptake of 99 mTc-MDP is described in various benign and malignant conditions. It is known to accumulate in adenocarcinoma of lung, primary breast cancer, and colonic carcinoma among others. The postulated causes of 99 mTc-MDP uptake in extraosseous neoplasms are numerous and include tumor vascularity, inflammation, local pH factors, altered calcium metabolism, hormonal influences and cell wall damage. Our case shows that TCC of the bladder was incidentally diagnosed due to MDP uptake in multiple bladder polyps detected on a bone scan done for low backache in an 80-year-old man

  1. Boron uptake measurements in metastatic tumours in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide; despite the introduction over the last few years of new therapeutic agents, very little progress has been made in terms of survival, and the overall prognosis for these patients remains poor. For these reasons any efforts to find and validate new effective therapeutic procedures for lung cancer are very timely and essential. To study the possibility to apply BNCT in the cure of diffuse pulmonary tumours, we created a BNCT Lung Project in Pavia, supported by Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR), in which Physicists, Medical Doctors and Biologists are involved. The first steps were; 1. development of an animal model for Boron uptake measurements in healthy and tumour lung tissues; 2. evaluation of the possibility to treat patients with epithermal neutron beams (See S. Altieri et al., this Conference); 3. in-vitro study of BNCT efficacy (see A. Zonta et al.). Spatial Boron distribution by neutron radiography in lung metastases from Colon Adenocarcinoma is reported; furthermore we present preliminary results of Boron concentration measures in rat lung tissues. The measures were performed using alpha spectrometry in thin tissue samples. (author)

  2. Analysis of gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas with regard to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jae Myun; Choi, Youjeong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Woo Jung; Yang, Woo Ick; Park, Young Nyun; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Yoo, Naechun; Lim, Sang Moo

    2004-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) scan has been found to reflect tumour aggressiveness and prognosis in various types of cancer. In this study, the gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were evaluated to determine whether HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake have more aggressive biological potential than those with low uptake. Surgical specimens were obtained from ten patients with HCC (six males and four females, age range 38-68 years). The tumour samples were divided into two groups based on the 18 F-FDG PET scan findings: high 18 F-FDG uptake (n=4) and low 18 F-FDG uptake (n=6). The pathological tumour grade was closely correlated with the 18 F-FDG uptake pattern: HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake were pathologically Edmondson-Steiner grade III, while those with low uptake were either grade II or grade II with a focal area of grade III. The total RNA was extracted from the frozen tissues of all HCCs (n=10) and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (n=7). The gene expression profiles were evaluated using an oligoDNA microarray. The HCCs with high 18 F-FDG uptake showed increased expression of 11 genes - including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, vinexin beta and core 1 UDP-galactose: N-acetylgalactosamine-alpha-R-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase and the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor - compared to those with low uptake (p 18 F-FDG uptake appear to have more aggressive biological properties than those with low uptake. (orig.)

  3. Extravascular transport in normal and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R K; Gerlowski, L E

    1986-01-01

    The transport characteristics of the normal and tumor tissue extravascular space provide the basis for the determination of the optimal dosage and schedule regimes of various pharmacological agents in detection and treatment of cancer. In order for the drug to reach the cellular space where most therapeutic action takes place, several transport steps must first occur: (1) tissue perfusion; (2) permeation across the capillary wall; (3) transport through interstitial space; and (4) transport across the cell membrane. Any of these steps including intracellular events such as metabolism can be the rate-limiting step to uptake of the drug, and these rate-limiting steps may be different in normal and tumor tissues. This review examines these transport limitations, first from an experimental point of view and then from a modeling point of view. Various types of experimental tumor models which have been used in animals to represent human tumors are discussed. Then, mathematical models of extravascular transport are discussed from the prespective of two approaches: compartmental and distributed. Compartmental models lump one or more sections of a tissue or body into a "compartment" to describe the time course of disposition of a substance. These models contain "effective" parameters which represent the entire compartment. Distributed models consider the structural and morphological aspects of the tissue to determine the transport properties of that tissue. These distributed models describe both the temporal and spatial distribution of a substance in tissues. Each of these modeling techniques is described in detail with applications for cancer detection and treatment in mind.

  4. The effect of steroid on FDG uptake in experimental tumors, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Songji; Yuji Kuge; Kunihiro Nakada; Masayuki Sato; Toshiki Takei; Zhao Yan; Nagara Tamaki; Masashi Kohanawa; Ken-ichi Seki

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: FDG accumulates not only in malignant tumors but also inflammatory lesions, especially in granulomatous lesions, which makes differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions difficult. To obtain a clue for differentiating malignant lesions from benign ones by FDG-PET, we determined the effect of steroid on FDG uptake in granulomatous and inflammatory lesions, and compared them with those in malignant tumors in rats. Methods: Rats were inoculated with a suspension of allogenic hepatoma cells (KDH-8), Bacille bili e de Calmette-Guerin-(BCG) or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), or with turpentine oil into the left calf muscle. Two weeks after KDH-8, 19 days after BCG, or one week after S. aureus or turpentine oil inoculations, the rats were fasted overnight and divided into two subgroups (n=5-6, in each group): Prednisolone (PRE)-pretreated (Methylprednisolone acetate, 8 mg/kg body weight, i.m. injection 20 hour before the FDG intravenous injection) and control (untreated) groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined one hour after i.v. injection of FDG. FDG uptake in tissues were expressed as the percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue after normalization to animal's weight (%ID/g tissue/kg body weight). Results: FDG uptake in the tumor, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions were shown in Table. In the untreated animals, remarkably higher accumulations of FDG were observed in the tumor and granulomatous lesions, compared with those in the inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil. There was no significant difference in the level of FDG uptake between the tumor and granulomatous lesions, and between the two inflammatory lesions. PRE pre-treatment significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in granulomatous lesions induced by BCG, inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil to 52%, 73% and 76% of the control value, respectively. The level of FDG uptake in the tumor was not significantly decreased by PRE

  5. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  6. Rolipram depresses [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose uptake in mouse brain and heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Hosoi, Rie; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoue, Osamu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    The effects of systemic administration of rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on [{sup 3}H]2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake in brain and peripheral tissues were examined. Rolipram significantly and dose-dependently decreased [{sup 3}H]DG uptake in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast, the radioactivity concentrations in the plasma of rolipram-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice at all times after injection of the tracer. In the kinetic study, the initial uptake of [{sup 3}H]DG in brain was decreased by rolipram, whereas no significant differences were observed in the uptake in heart and skeletal muscle. However, radioactivity concentrations in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle 30 min after the injection of [{sup 3}H]DG were significantly lowered by rolipram to about 60%, 10% and 10% of control values, respectively. The uptake of [{sup 13}N]ammonia in brain and heart of rolipram-treated mice was slightly decreased, which indicated that rolipram diminished both cerebral and cardiac blood flow. These results indicate that the phosphorylation process via hexokinase rather than the transport of [{sup 3}H]DG might be depressed by rolipram. Together with the previous observations that inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly enhanced [{sup 14}C]DG uptake in rat brain, these results indicate an important role of the cAMP/PKA systems in the regulation of glucose metabolism in the living brain as well as in peripheral tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. (orig.)

  7. Tritium uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked feed exposures simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M.; Festarini, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in edible fish. The major questions revolve around whether or not tritium can accumulate in fish after being released into aquatic environments. Since OBT formation rates in large, edible fish are poorly understood, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies, where fish were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days, were conducted to evaluate tritium uptake. The measured HTO activity concentrations in fish tissue confirmed that HTO in fish tissue equilibrates quickly with HTO in tank water. The data obtained also confirmed that OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). The difference between the two exposure types is such that the groups exposed to tritiated water and OBT-spiked feed simultaneously were showing the same uptake rates as OBT-spiked feed only exposures. Contrary to what was expected, the rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish. Another observation from these studies was that OBT activity concentrations in all organs (viscera) had a tendency to be higher than OBT activity concentrations measured in fish flesh. - Highlights: • Edible size of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days. • OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). • The rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish

  8. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P.; Karhu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15±0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19±0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15{+-}0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19{+-}0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bambuterol: uptake and metabolism in guinea pig isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lung uptake and biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. 14 C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent 3 H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung

  11. Uptake and elimination of radiotungsten in black bullheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Black bullheads, Ictalurus melas (Rafinesque), accumulated radiotungsten from food and water. Whole-body activity reached a plateau after the fish had been in tagged water 4 days (mean temperature 154 0 C). Whole-body elimination of radiotungsten varied with the method of uptake. Fish that had accumulated radiotungsten from water had a single exponential component of elimination with a biological half-life of 2.75 days. Fish that had received radioisotope in a single feeding lost activity at two rates; one component had a biological half-life of 14 hr and the second 6 days. The bone, skin, flesh, blood, and gills contained the greatest percentages of whole-body activity after 1 day of uptake from tagged water; after 8 days, the flesh, gills, bone, and gut together contained 78.6 percent of the total activity. The bone had the longest biological half-life (8.0 days) of the tissues examined and contained 69.8 percent of the whole-body acitivty after 16 days of elimination

  12. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  13. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  14. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively.

  15. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  16. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to cyanide in plant...... tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis−Menten parameters vmax and KM (maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1715 - Triiodothyronine uptake test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triiodothyronine uptake test system. 862.1715... Systems § 862.1715 Triiodothyronine uptake test system. (a) Identification. A triiodothyronine uptake test... plasma. Measurements of triiodothyronine uptake are used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid...

  18. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg/sup 2 +/, Au/sup +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/, /sup 67/Ga/sup 3 +/, /sup 181/Hf/sup 4 +/, and /sup 95/Nb/sup 5 +/, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases. Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl/sub 4/ and SbCl/sub 3/ behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  19. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  20. Influence of aspartic acid and lysine on the uptake of gold nanoparticles in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinxin; Li, Hongying; Wang, Qingyun; Chai, Rushan; Ma, Chao; Gao, Hongjian; Mao, Jingdong

    2018-02-01

    The interactions between plants and nanomaterials (NMs) can shed light on the environmental consequences of nanotechnology. We used the major crop plant rice (Oryza sativa L.) to investigate the uptake of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with either negatively or positively charged ligands, over a 5-day period, in the absence or presence of one of two amino acids, aspartic acid (Asp) or lysine (Lys), acting as components of rice root exudates. The presence of Asp or Lys influenced the uptake and distribution of GNPs in rice, which depended on the electrical interaction between the coated GNPs and each amino acid. When the electrical charge of the amino acid was the same as that of the surface ligand coated onto the GNPs, the GNPs could disperse well in nutrient solution, resulting in increased uptake of GNPs into rice tissue. The opposite was true where the charge on the surface ligand was different from that on the amino acid, resulting in agglomeration and reduced Au uptake into rice tissue. The behavior of GNPs in the hydroponic nutrient solution was monitored in terms of agglomeration, particle size distribution, and surface charge in the presence and absence of Asp or Lys, which depended strongly on the electrostatic interaction. Results from this study indicated that the species of root exudates must be taken into account in assessing the bioavailability of nanomaterials to plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The uptake of radioactive iodine in rat intact Graafian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Lieberman, G.L.; Lieberman, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of iodine-131 in the ovaries of mammals has important implications in the use of I-131 for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease in women. The authors studied the I-131 uptake in whole ovaries and in isolated Graafian follicles of sexually mature rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, in groups of 5-6 animals, were injected IP with 10-50 μCi of I-131, at 3, 12, and 24 hrs prior to the day of proestrus and killed on the day of proestrus. The thyroid gland and ovaries were removed intact and these organs, as well as eight other tissue specimens, were weighed. The large preovulatory follicles (6-9/ovary) were then isolated under a dissecting microscope and the remaining ovary weighed. All samples were counted in a gamma well counter and the % dose/g estimated. The thyroid gland showed 23.7% dose/organ at 24 hrs. Blood decreased from 1.6% dose/g at 3 hrs to 0.5% dose/g at 24 hrs with the uterus showing 1.1% dose/g and 0.4% dose/g at the same times. Ovarian tissue was 0.5, 0.1, and 0.1% dose/g at 3,12, and 24 hrs respectively, while the intact Graafian follicles had from one-tenth to one-third the concentration of the ovary at the same times. (0.05, 0.03, and 0.03% dose/g). The authors found that the intact Graafian follicle concentrates approximately one-thirtieth to one-sixteenth of the I-131 in the blood and one-tenth to one-third of the I-131 in the ovary. This suggests that there is no active uptake of I-131 in the follicle or follicular fluid

  2. Comparison of simplified quantitative analyses of FDG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.M.; Peterson, L.M.; Hayward, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of [ 18 F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is important in oncologic positron emission tomography (PET) studies to be able to set an objective threshold in determining if a tissue is malignant or benign, in assessing response to therapy, and in attempting to predict the aggressiveness of an individual tumor. The most common method used today for simple, clinical quantitation is standardized uptake value (SUV). SUV is normalized for body weight. Other potential normalization factors are lean body mass (LBM) or body surface area (BSA). More complex quantitation schemes include simplified kinetic analysis (SKA), Patlak graphical analysis (PGA), and parameter optimization of the complete kinetic model to determine FDG metabolic rate (FDGMR). These various methods were compared in a group of 40 patients with colon cancer metastatic to the liver. The methods were assessed by (1) correlation with FDGMR, (2) ability to predict survival using Kaplan-Meier plots, and (3) area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for distinguishing between tumor and normal liver. The best normalization scheme appears to be BSA with minor differences depending on the specific formula used to calculate BSA. Overall, PGA is the best predictor of outcome and best discriminator between normal tissue and tumor. SKA is almost as good. In conventional PET imaging it is worthwhile to normalize SUV using BSA. If a single blood sample is available, it is possible to use the SKA method, which is distinctly better. If more than one image is available, along with at least one blood sample, PGA is feasible and should produce the most accurate results

  3. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  4. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  5. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  6. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  7. Uptake, transport and persistence of 14C yeast mannans in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.G.; Kluge, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-molecular branched-chain 14 C-mannan from Candida tropicalis and high-molecular linear 14 C-mannan from Rhodotorula rubra are not taken up by intact plants. Mechanical injury of plants is a prerequisite for the uptake and transport of polysaccharides in plant tissues. Mannans injected through the epidermis into the parenchyma of tobacco leaves remain mostly confined to the place of injection or to the respective intercostal field. The presence of dimethyl sulfoxide in the solution stimulates the uptake of mannans through intact roots of tobacco, thorn apple and potato plants. Mannans injected in the intercellular space of the parenchyma tissue of tobacco leaves maintain their polymeric structure for at least five days, which almost corresponds with the duration of their antiviral activity in the plants. These results suggest the antiphytoviral activity in fact to be due to the mannans or to principles stimulated by them rather than to their catabolites. (author)

  8. Uptake of 137Cs in cultured fresh water fish (Cyprinus carpio): physiological and histological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.; Kesidou, A.; Kalfa, A.; Moumtzis, A.; Karakoltsidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in fresh-water fish (Cyprinus carpio) cultured, in small water tanks, artificially contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs (3000 Bq/1) to determine the uptake of 137 Cs and its physiological and histological effects in different fish organs. It was found that 137 Cs was located in muscular tissues, gills, head muscles, liver and kidneys. Moderate amounts were found in spleen, eyes, gonads, intestine and urinary bladder. It seems that sorption was of much less importance than ingestion in the uptake of 137 Cs. The histological examination in musculature tissue, revealed an acute hyperemia with focal haemorrages which may be due to allergic effects of 137 Cs. Hyperemia and focal fatty degeneration of hepatic cells was also noted in the liver which may be due to toxic effects of 137 Cs. Diffused hyperemia has also occurred in the brain and focal degeneration of epithelial cells of renal tubules. (Author)

  9. Foliar uptake of cesium from the water column by aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Hinton, T.G. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States)]. E-mail: thinton@srel.edu; Whicker, F.W. [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1618 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The probable occurrence and rate of foliar absorption of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) from the water column by aquatic macrophyte species was analyzed following the addition of {sup 133}Cs into a small reservoir near Aiken, South Carolina, USA. An uptake parameter u (10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}) and a loss rate parameter k (d{sup -1}) were estimated for each species using time series of {sup 133}Cs concentrations in the water and plant tissues. Foliar uptake, as indicated by rapid increases in plant concentrations following the {sup 133}Cs addition, occurred in two floating-leaf species, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, and two submerged species, Myriophyllum spicatum and Utricularia inflata. These species had values of u {>=} 0.75 x 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Less evidence for foliar uptake was observed in three emergent species, including Typha latifolia. Ratios of u to k for B. schreberi, M. spicatum, N. odorata and U. inflata can be used to estimate concentration ratios (CR) at equilibrium, and these estimates were generally within a factor of 2 of the CR for {sup 137}Cs for these species in the same reservoir. This correspondence suggests that foliar uptake of Cs was the principal absorption mechanism for these species. Assessments of: (1) the prevalence of foliar uptake of potassium, rubidium and Cs isotopes by aquatic macrophytes and (2) the possible importance of foliar uptake of Cs in other lentic systems are made from a review of foliar uptake studies and estimation of comparable u and k values from lake studies involving Cs releases.

  10. Utilization of a Model for Uptake of Cadmium by Plants as a Phytoremediation Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Furbish, D. J.; Clarke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some traditional methods of environmental remediation, such as removal and disposal of contaminated soil, are loosing economic favor and public acceptance, while others, such as in situ phytoremediation, are being carefully examined because of their attractiveness as environmentally friendly, low-cost solutions to site clean-up. The success of phytoremediation strategies, however, hinges on the ability of selected plants, or plant communities, to effectively uptake, accumulate and tolerate targeted contaminants. Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd), are not essential nutrients to plants. However, chemically similar zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and is actively taken up by hyperaccumulators. For this reason, the mechanisms involved in uptake of Cd parallel those of Zn. Ideally, Cd would be allocated to the stem, leaf, and/or flower, where it becomes harvestable. Our modeling work simulates the uptake and the storage of Cd in a growing hyperaccumulator. After uptake, Cd is partitioned between adsorption to plant tissue and upward movement to leaves driven by transpiration. Uptake, adsorption and transport are also regulated by phytotoxicity. Simulations suggest that a young plant with small biomass can quickly reach phytotoxicity, which shuts down the normal operation of the plant. Conversely, mature plants on a mildly contaminated site, if harvested before the plants die due to phytotoxicity or natural cause, not only survive but may occasionally thrive. The immediate aim is to estimate the effectiveness and limitations of Cd uptake by hyperaccumulators. The eventual goal of this study is to expand the model in spatial and temporal scales, from individual plants to the community scale, and from one harvest interval to several generations. Understanding the interface between physical and biological processes, specifically the uptake and release of contaminants, provides scientists and engineers tools to assess whether phytoremediation is a reasonable strategy for a

  11. Uptake and localisation of lead in the root system of Brassica juncea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Donald E.R.; Auchterlonie, Graeme J.; Webb, Richard I.; Wood, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of Pb sequestered by hydroponically grown (14 days growth) Brassica juncea (3 days exposure; Pb activities 3.2, 32 and 217 μM) was investigated. Lead uptake was restricted largely to root tissue. Examination using scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed substantial and predominantly intracellular uptake at the root tip. Endocytosis of Pb at the plasma membrane was not observed. A membrane transport protein may therefore be involved. In contrast, endocytosis of Pb into a subset of vacuoles was observed, resulting in the formation of dense Pb aggregates. Sparse and predominantly extracellular uptake occurred at some distance from the root tip. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the Pb concentration was greater in root tips. Heavy metal rhizofiltration using B. juncea might therefore be improved by breeding plants with profusely branching roots. Uptake enhancement using genetic engineering techniques would benefit from investigation of plasma membrane transport mechanisms. - The sites of Pb sequestration within the root system of hydroponically grown Brassica juncea were identified

  12. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  13. Influence of ornithine decarboxylase antizymes and antizyme inhibitors on agmatine uptake by mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; López-Contreras, Andrés J; Lambertos, Ana; Dardonville, Christophe; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Agmatine (4-aminobutylguanidine), a dicationic molecule at physiological pH, exerts relevant modulatory actions at many different molecular target sites in mammalian cells, having been suggested that the administration of this compound may have therapeutic interest. Several plasma membrane transporters have been implicated in agmatine uptake by mammalian cells. Here we report that in kidney-derived COS-7 cell line, at physiological agmatine levels, the general polyamine transporter participates in the plasma membrane translocation of agmatine, with an apparent Km of 44 ± 7 µM and Vmax of 17.3 ± 3.3 nmol h(-1) mg(-1) protein, but that at elevated concentrations, agmatine can be also taken up by other transport systems. In the first case, the physiological polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine), several diguanidines and bis(2-aminoimidazolines) and the polyamine transport inhibitor AMXT-1501 markedly decreased agmatine uptake. In cells transfected with any of the three ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (AZ1, AZ2 and AZ3), agmatine uptake was dramatically reduced. On the contrary, transfection with antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) markedly increased the transport of agmatine. Furthermore, whereas putrescine uptake was significantly decreased in cells transfected with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the accumulation of agmatine was stimulated, suggesting a trans-activating effect of intracellular putrescine on agmatine uptake. All these results indicate that ODC and its regulatory proteins (antizymes and antizyme inhibitors) may influence agmatine homeostasis in mammalian tissues.

  14. Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Liu, Kangchien; Shannon, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of 14 C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in 14 C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of 14 C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue

  15. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  16. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  17. P21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) regulates glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Pallavi; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2016-07-05

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are recently reported as important players of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in tissues like muscle, pancreas and liver. However, their role in neuronal insulin signaling is still unknown. Present study reports the involvement of PAK2 in neuronal insulin signaling, glucose uptake and insulin resistance. Irrespective of insulin sensitivity, insulin stimulation decreased PAK2 activity. PAK2 downregulation displayed marked enhancement of GLUT4 translocation with increase in glucose uptake whereas PAK2 over-expression showed its reduction. Treatment with Akti-1/2 and wortmannin suggested that Akt and PI3K are mediators of insulin effect on PAK2 and glucose uptake. Rac1 inhibition demonstrated decreased PAK2 activity while inhibition of PP2A resulted in increased PAK2 activity, with corresponding changes in glucose uptake. Taken together, present study demonstrates an inhibitory role of insulin signaling (via PI3K-Akt) and PP2A on PAK2 activity and establishes PAK2 as a Rac1-dependent negative regulator of neuronal glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of time-dependent enhancement of amino acid transport by leukemic leukocytes: a possible index of the sensitivity of cells to drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frengley, P A; Peck, W A; Lichtman, M A

    1975-01-01

    Leukemic leukocytes increase their rates of alpha aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) accumulation when incubated for prolonged periods in amino acid deficient media. The time-dependent increase was prevented by concurrent exposure of cells to cycloheximide or actinomycin D in vitro. In addition, the increase in AIB uptake was not present in leukemic blasts studied in vitro when the cells were obtained from subjects with acute myeloblastic leukemia who had received antileukemic therapy. Cortisol added to cell suspensions in vitro inhibited the development of time-dependent increases in AIB uptake in lymphoid cells, but accentuated the process slightly in myeloblasts. Cortisol administered to a subject with CLL by infusion reduced the time-dependent increase in AIB uptake by CLL cells subsequently studied in vitro. These data indicate that the time-dependent increase in AIB uptake may be a means of testing the sensitivity of leukemic cells to drugs.

  19. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  20. Effect of zinc source and picolinic acid on 65Zn uptake in an in vitro continuous-flow perfusion system for pig and poultry intestinal segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.; Peo, E.R. Jr.; Lewis, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty weanling pigs and fourteen 9-wk-old broiler chickens were used in three continuous-flow in vitro perfusion experiments using noneverted intestinal sacs to 1) determine differences in 65 Zn absorption due to location within the intestinal tract, 2) evaluate 65 Zn uptake from ZnCl 2 and Zn-methionine (ZnMet) with or without added picolinic acid (PA) in pig intestinal sacs and 3) evaluate 65 Zn uptake from ZnCl 2 and ZnMet in chicken intestinal sacs. No differences in 65 Zn uptake due to gut segment position were observed in the pigs. A Zn source x PA interaction was observed for 65 Zn uptake into the pig gut tissue and for 65 Zn uptake to the serosal side of the gut sacs. Total 65 Zn absorption in the pig gut sacs from the two Zn sources was not different, but the addition of a 5 M ratio of PA to Zn depressed 65 Zn absorption. No differences were observed in total 65 Zn absorption or 65 Zn uptake in poultry gut sac tissue. There was, however, greater uptake of 65 Zn from ZnCl 2 to the serosal side of the sacs than from ZnMet. The data indicate that 65 Zn from ZnCl 2 and ZnMet is similar in total absorption and that the addition of PA depresses Zn uptake

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma with marginal superparamagnetic iron oxide uptake on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: Histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Kousei; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with marginal superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) uptake on T2*-weighted MRI. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 73 patients with 83 surgically resected HCCs. Preoperative SPIO-enhanced MRI studies were retrospectively reviewed. Marginal SPIO uptake was considered positive if a rim-like or band-like low intensity area was present on SPIO-enhanced T2*-weighted images. The prevalence of marginal SPIO uptake was evaluated. Pathological specimens with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining of CD68 were reviewed in HCCs with marginal SPIO uptake and 33 HCCs without marginal SPIO uptake (control group). Results: Ten of 83 (12%) HCCs showed marginal SPIO uptake. All HCCs were hypervascular, and only one nodule showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance on imaging findings. The pathology specimens suggested possible causes of marginal SPIO uptake, including marginal macrophage infiltration in moderately or poorly differentiated HCC (n = 4), residual normal hepatic tissue at the marginal area of confluent multinodular or single nodular with extranodular growth type HCC (n = 3), and a well-differentiated HCC component in nodule-in-nodule type HCC (n = 3). Marginal macrophage infiltration was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: SPIO-enhanced MRI may be able to demonstrate marginal macrophage infiltration in HCC.

  2. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  3. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  4. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-01-01

    14 C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  5. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Painter, Meghan M.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Logue, Amanda; Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimeplwles promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish—a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.

  6. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...... of glucose. At maximal insulin concentrations, the enhancing effect of exercise on glucose uptake may involve enhancement of glucose disposal, an effect that is probably less in muscle from diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise...

  7. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheloske, Stefan E-mail: stefan.scheloske@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Maetz, Mischa; Schuessler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  8. Limited uptake, translocation and enhanced metabolic degradation contribute to glyphosate tolerance in Mucuna pruriens var. utilis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; De Prado, Rafael; Luque de Castro, María Dolores; Franco, Antonio Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens, Fabaceae) plants exhibits an innate, very high resistance (i.e., tolerance) to glyphosate similar to that of plants which have acquired resistance to this herbicide as a trait. We analyzed the uptake of [(14)C]-glyphosate by leaves and its translocation to meristematic tissues, and used scanning electron micrographs to further analyze the cuticle and 3D capillary electrophoresis to investigate a putative metabolism capable of degrading the herbicide. Velvet bean exhibited limited uptake of glyphosate and impaired translocation of the compound to meristematic tissues. Also, for the first time in a higher plant, two concurrent pathways capable of degrading glyphosate to AMPA, Pi, glyoxylate, sarcosine and formaldehyde as end products were identified. Based on the results, the innate tolerance of velvet bean to glyphosate is possibly a result of the combined action of the previous three traits, namely: limited uptake, impaired translocation and enhanced degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Environment Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dvorakova, Marcela [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas, E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, v.v.i. and Crop Research Institute, v.v.i., Rozvojova 263, 162 05 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-06-15

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC{sub 50} value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC{sub 50} = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: > The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. > Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. > Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. > The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  10. Uranium uptake by hydroponically cultivated crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Dvorakova, Marcela; Vanek, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponicaly cultivated plants were grown on medium containing uranium. The appropriate concentrations of uranium for the experiments were selected on the basis of a standard ecotoxicity test. The most sensitive plant species was determined to be Lactuca sativa with an EC 50 value about 0.1 mM. Cucumis sativa represented the most resistant plant to uranium (EC 50 = 0.71 mM). Therefore, we used the uranium in a concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mM. Twenty different plant species were tested in hydroponic solution supplemented by 0.1 mM or 0.5 mM uranium concentration. The uranium accumulation of these plants varied from 0.16 mg/g DW to 0.011 mg/g DW. The highest uranium uptake was determined for Zea mays and the lowest for Arabidopsis thaliana. The amount of accumulated uranium was strongly influenced by uranium concentration in the cultivation medium. Autoradiography showed that uranium is mainly localized in the root system of the plants tested. Additional experiments demonstrated the possibility of influencing the uranium uptake from the cultivation medium by amendments. Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba up to 2.8 times or 1.9 times, respectively. Phosphate deficiency increased uranium uptake up to 4.5 times or 3.9 times, respectively, by Brassica oleracea and S. alba. In the case of deficiency of iron or presence of cadmium ions we did not find any increase in uranium accumulation. - Highlights: → The uranium accumulation in twenty different plant species varied from 0.160 to 0.011 mg/g DW. → Uranium is mainly localized in the root system. → Tartaric acid was able to increase uranium uptake by Brassica oleracea and Sinapis alba. → The phosphates deficiency increase the uranium uptake.

  11. Gastrointestinal uptake and fate of cadmium in rainbow trout acclimated to sublethal dietary cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.J.; McDonald, D.G.; Wood, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adult rainbow trout were pre-exposed to a sublethal concentration of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg dry wt.) for 30 days to induce acclimation. A gastrointestinal dose of radiolabeled Cd (276 μg/kg wet wt.) was infused into the stomach of non-acclimated and Cd-acclimated trout through a stomach catheter. Repetitive blood samples over 24 h and terminal tissue samples were taken to investigate the gastrointestinal uptake, plasma clearance kinetics, and tissue distribution of Cd. Only a small fraction of the infused dose (non-acclimated: 2.4%; Cd-acclimated: 6.6%) was internalized across the gut wall, while most was bound in the gut tissues (10-24%) or remained in the lumen (16-33%) or lost from the fish (∼50%) over 24 h. Cadmium loading during pre-exposure produced a profound increase of total Cd in the blood plasma (∼28-fold) and red blood cells (RBC; ∼20-fold). The plasma Cd-time profiles consisted of an apparent rising (uptake) phase and a declining (clearance) phase with a maximum value of uptake in 4 h, suggesting that uptake of gastrointestinally infused Cd was very rapid. Acclimation to dietary Cd did not affect plasma Cd clearance (∼0.5 ml/min), but enhanced new Cd levels in the plasma (but not in the RBC), and resulted in a longer half-life for plasma Cd. Tissue total and new Cd levels varied in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract, and overall levels in gut tissues were much greater than in non-gut tissues, reflecting the Cd exposure route. Dietary Cd, but not the infused Cd, greatly increased total Cd levels of all gut tissues in the order posterior-intestine (640-fold) > cecae (180-fold) > mid-intestine (94-fold) > stomach (53-fold) in Cd-acclimated fish relative to naieve fish. Among non-gut tissues in the Cd-acclimated fish, the great increases of total Cd levels were observed in the liver (73-fold), kidney (39-fold), carcass (35-fold), and gills (30-fold). The results provide some clear conclusions that may be useful for environmental risk

  12. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  13. Uptake and distribution of 14C during and following exposure to [14C]methyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Kennedy, A.L.; Stock, M.F.; Brown, W.E.; Alarie, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to [ 14 C]methyl isocyanate ( 14 CH 3 -NCO, 14 C MIC) for periods of 1 to 6 hr at concentrations of 0.5 to 15 ppm. Arterial blood samples taken during exposure revealed immediate and rapid uptake of 14 C. Clearance of 14 C was then gradual over a period of 3 days. Similarly 14 C was present in urine and bile immediately following exposure, and clearance paralleled that observed in blood. Guinea pigs fitted with a tracheal cannula and exposed while under anesthesia showed a reduced 14 C uptake in blood indicating that most of the 14 C MIC uptake in normal guinea pigs occurred from retention of this agent in the upper respiratory tract passages. In exposed guinea pigs 14 C was distributed to all examined tissues. In pregnant female mice similarly exposed to 14 C MIC, 14 C was observed in all tissues examined following exposure including the uterus, placenta, and fetus. While the form of 14 C distributed in blood and tissues has not yet been identified, these findings may help to explain the toxicity of MIC or MIC reaction products on organs other than the respiratory tract, as noted by several investigators

  14. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mariëtte R.; Bakker, Leontine E. H.; van der Linden, Rianne A. D.; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use

  15. Physiological and tumoral uptake of 68Ga-DOTATATE. Standardized uptake values and challenges in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyumcu, Serkan; Oezkan, Zeynep Goezde; Sanli, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Ebru; Mudun, Ayse; Adalet, Isik; Unal, Seher

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the range of standardized uptake value (SUV) max of 68Ga-DOTA-tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) in normal organs and tumoral lesions and establish uptake unrelated to neuroendocrine tumors (NET). One hundred and twenty patients (57 men, 63 women), who underwent 68 Ga-DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging in our institution were analyzed. Patients were indicated for 68 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging to detect primary tumor or metastasis of suspected or previously known NET, to determine somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positivity and to detect occult source of ectopic Cushing syndrome. Normal range of uptake was calculated for the organs that were proven to have no pathology by either conventional radiological imaging or clinical follow-up, using SUV max as a semiquantitative measure. Uptake and tumor to background (T/B) ratios of tumoral lesions in liver, pancreas, bone, brain and lymph nodes were calculated. Uptakes due to lesions unrelated to NET were also documented. Significant uptake was found in spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, liver and pituitary gland with mean SUV max of 24.67, 14.30, 13.73, 9.12 and 9.74 respectively. Uptake was measured separately for the pancreatic head and body separately, however, besides a slightly heterogeneous uptake; the difference was not statistically significant. Uptake in the tumoral lesions had high (T/B) ratios with mean SUV max of 28.72, 25.21, 18.28, 34.73 and 12.59 for liver, pancreas, bone, brain and lymph nodes, respectively. Incidental benign tumoral lesions were detected in 3 patients (2.5%) which were meningioma and fibrous dysplasia demonstrating significant and breast fibroadenoma demonstrating mild 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake. Non-neoplastic processes were detected in 4 patients (14.1%), including postsurgical inflammation, reactive lymph nodes, arthritis and demonstrated faint to mild 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake, with the exception of significant uptake in accessory spleen. 68 Ga

  16. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  17. Neutron autoradiography imaging of selective boron uptake in human metastatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: saverio.altieri@pv.infn.it; Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P.; Chiari, P.; Fossati, F.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Prati, U.; Roveda, L. [Unit of cancer surgery, Cancer Center of Excellence, Foundation T. Campanella, Catanzaro (Italy); Zonta, A.; Zonta, C.; Ferrari, C.; Clerici, A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Pinelli, T. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The ability to selectively hit the tumour cells is an essential characteristic of an anti-tumour therapy. In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) this characteristic is based on the selective uptake of {sup 10}B in the tumour cells with respect to normal tissues. An important step in the BNCT planning is the measurement of the boron concentration in the tissue samples, both tumour and healthy. When the tumour is spread through the healthy tissue, as in the case of metastases, the knowledge of the different kinds of tissues in the sample being analysed is crucial. If the percentage of tumour and normal tissues cannot be evaluated, the obtained concentration is a mean value depending on the composition of the different samples being measured. In this case an imaging method that could give information both on the morphology and on the spatial distribution of boron concentration in the sample would be a fundamental support. In this paper, the results of the boron uptake analysis in the tumour and in the healthy samples taken from human livers after boron phenylalanine (BPA) infusion are shown; boron imaging was performed using neutron autoradiography.

  18. Radioactive choline uptake in the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. A biochemical and autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldsema-Currie, R.D.; van Marle, J.; Langemeijer, M.W.; Lind, A.; van Weeren-Kramer, J.

    1984-10-01

    When hemidiaphragms are stimulated via the phrenic nerve in the presence of 10 microM radioactive choline (Ch), the rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the endplate-rich area (EPA) is greater than that in the endplate-poor muscle (M). Ch uptake in the EPA is temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of 2.9 and an activation energy of 19.5 kcal/mol. It is inhibited in a Na+-depleted medium, in the absence of Ca2+, and by 10-20 microM hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) and it is not inhibited by alpha-bungarotoxin even when the muscle is completely paralyzed. In the absence of stimulation the rate of uptake in the EPA is slightly, but not significantly, greater than in M. Using autoradiography, we find an enhanced amount of isotope in the nerve terminals and their immediate vicinities compared with the muscle fibres, in both stimulated and unstimulated hemidiaphragms. There is no enhanced uptake of isotope into the nerve terminals in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3. The uptake of isotope into the muscle is not altered by any of these treatments. There is a positive correlation between the initial rate of radioactive Ch uptake in the EPA and the amount of isotope in the nerve terminals (the mean corrected grain density above the nerve terminals). Without correcting for the large amount of diffusion that occurs, the ratio of the grain density above the synapses to that above the muscle fibres is 1.66 in tissue stimulated at 1 Hz, 1.04 in stimulated tissues in the presence of 26 microM HC-3, and 1.31 in unstimulated tissues.

  19. Influence of TSH on uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in human thyroid cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichen, J.T.; Schmidt, C.; Prante, O.; Maschauer, S.; Kuwert, T.; Papadopoulos, T.

    2004-01-01

    Recent clinical evidence suggests that positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is more accurate in detecting thyroid carcinomatous tissue at high than at low TSH levels. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of TSH on FDG uptake in human thyroid cells in vitro. Monolayers of human thyroid tissue were cultured after mechanical disintegration and enzymatic digestion of samples from patients undergoing surgery for nodular goitre. The purity of thyroid cell preparations was ascertained by immunohistochemical staining for the epithelial antigen KL-1, and their viability by measuring the synthesis of thyroglobulin in vitro. The cells were incubated with 0.8-1.5 MBq FDG/ml uptake medium for 1 h. FDG uptake in thyroid cells was quantified as percent of whole FDG activity per well (% ID) or as % ID in relation to total protein mass. This experimental protocol was subsequently varied to study the effect of incubation time, glucose dependency and TSH. Furthermore, radio-thin layer chromatography was used to identify intracellular FDG metabolites. FDG accumulated in the thyroid cells linearly with time, doubling roughly every 20 min. Uptake was competitively inhibited by unlabelled glucose and decreased to approximately 70% at 100 mg/dl glucose compared to the value measured in glucose-free medium. FDG was intracellularly trapped as FDG-6 phosphate and FDG-1,6-diphosphate. TSH significantly increased FDG uptake in vitro in a time- and concentration-dependent manner: Cells cultured at a TSH concentration of 50 μU/ ml doubled FDG uptake compared to TSH-free conditions, and uptake after 72 h of TSH pre-incubation was approximately 300% of that without TSH pre-incubation. TSH stimulates FDG uptake by benign thyroid cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This supports the clinical evidence that in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas, most of which are still TSH-sensitive, FDG-PET is more accurate at high levels of

  20. Gastrointestinal uptake of cadmium and zinc by a marine teleost Acanthopagrus schlegeli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Wenxiong

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metal uptake represents a potential route for metal bioaccumulation in marine fish. Drinking of seawater for osmoregulation causes constant waterborne exposure of the gastrointestinal tract. Tissue specific Cd and Zn accumulation and distribution were investigated in juvenile black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) exposed to waterborne Cd (5.7 nM) and Zn (2.6 nM) for 4 h-7 days. The intestine accumulated a large portion of the Cd (43-58%) and Zn (18-28%), and had the highest Cd (>1.0 nmol g -1 ) and Zn (>1.8 nmol g -1 ) concentrations of all body fractions, suggesting that the intestines were the major uptake sites for these waterborne metals. Among all the segments of the gastrointestinal tract, the anterior intestine played the most important role in Cd and Zn uptake. A gastrointestinal injection assay was conducted to distinguish waterborne metal uptake by the intestines and the gills. The intestine contained over 90% of the Cd in the body after depuration for 3-7 days, suggesting that little waterborne Cd entered the rest of the body through the intestine, and that Cd may exert its toxic effects on the gastrointestinal system. In contrast, intestine retained less than 20% of the total Zn after depuration, suggesting that Zn tended to be transported from the intestine to the internal tissues via the cardiovascular system. The uptake kinetics of waterborne Cd and Zn by the intestines and the gills were determined as a first-order and saturated pattern, respectively, over a wide range of ambient metal concentrations (6.2 nM-4.5 μM for Cd, and 13 nM-15 μM for Zn). An in vitro intestinal perfusion assay investigated the effects of intestinal metal composition and drinking rate on uptake. The presence of EDTA significantly reduced intestinal Zn uptake to 11%, while cysteine improved it by 59%. The intestinal Cd and Zn uptake rates were unaffected by the perfusion rate

  1. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W [Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, General Hospital, University of Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hindoostuart@googlemail.com

    2008-09-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  2. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W

    2008-01-01

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  3. Chromium Uptake Efficiency of Spinacea olaracea from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of chromium by Spinacea olaracea and its accumulation in roots and shoots of plants grown in pots at various concentrations of chromium (30, 60, 90,120,150 mg/l). The results revealed that the levels of chromium accumulation in roots and shoots were higher at minimum ...

  4. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  5. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-03-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  6. BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND PLATELET SEROTONIN UPTAKE AS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the blood chemistry and platelet serotonin uptake as alternative method of determining HIV disease stage in HIV/AIDS patients. Whole blood was taken from subjects at the Human Virology of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. Subjects were judged suitable for ...

  7. Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.P.; Escher, M.; Portielje, R.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for above-ground and below-ground uptake and subsequent internal translocation of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by the macroalga Chara spp. was investigated. In a two compartment experimental set-up separating above-ground and below-ground algal parts, the charophytes were exposed

  8. Routes and mechanisms of extracellular vesicle uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ann Mulcahy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are small vesicles released by donor cells that can be taken up by recipient cells. Despite their discovery decades ago, it has only recently become apparent that EVs play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs can carry a range of nucleic acids and proteins which can have a significant impact on the phenotype of the recipient. For this phenotypic effect to occur, EVs need to fuse with target cell membranes, either directly with the plasma membrane or with the endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. EVs are of therapeutic interest because they are deregulated in diseases such as cancer and they could be harnessed to deliver drugs to target cells. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EVs are taken up into cells. This comprehensive review summarizes current knowledge of EV uptake mechanisms. Cells appear to take up EVs by a variety of endocytic pathways, including clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-independent pathways such as caveolin-mediated uptake, macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and lipid raft–mediated internalization. Indeed, it seems likely that a heterogeneous population of EVs may gain entry into a cell via more than one route. The uptake mechanism used by a given EV may depend on proteins and glycoproteins found on the surface of both the vesicle and the target cell. Further research is needed to understand the precise rules that underpin EV entry into cells.

  9. Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental approval and readiness for HPV vaccine uptake were found to be significantly associated (p =0.000). Since knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination is quite low, there is need to increase awareness about the Vaccination among female adolescents and their mothers. Also, peer educators in schools ...

  10. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and K + ), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  11. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  12. Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 μM for hippocampus, 16.6 μM< for cortex and 25 μM for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

  13. Use of positron emission tomography for determination of tissue specific kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.; Kabalka, G.; Khan, M.; Rahim, A.; Wyatt, M.; Thie, J.; Apostoaei, I.; Nichols, T.; Smith, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic PET scans from several patients with GBM are analyzed to determine the biokinetic characteristics of various tissue types. Time-dependent responses are extracted from several regions of interest (ROIs), and these time-dependent data sets are analyzed to obtain biokinetic information from normal brain tissue, from various regions of tumors, and from areas that represent concentration in blood. Uptake rates, time constants, and other biokinetic data are obtained. It is noted that rates of uptake in tumor regions are approximately twice as fast as in normal tissue and that two rates of uptake are clearly identified in each tissue region and in blood. This information is useful for optimization of BNCT treatment protocols and for determining rate constants that can be related to cellular-level distributions of pharmaceuticals. (author)

  14. Quantitative clinical uptake measurements using conjugate counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Bartlett, R.D.; Chen, C.T.; Chou, J.S.; Faulhaber, P.F.; Harper, P.V.; Stark, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    While the use of conjugate counting for determination of organ uptake in human subjects has been extensively described, in the present study the determination of the organ uptake of ortho-iodohippurate presented several opportunities for validation of the in vivo counting data. Ortho-iodohippurate is distributed in the extracellular space, is largely extracted on each pass through the kidneys, and is not significantly deiodinated in vivo. Thus, the kidney uptake rate should be proportional to the blood level, the appearance rate of activity in the bladder is equal to the disappearance rate from the kidneys, and direct measurement of activity in the urine after voiding provides an internal standard for imaging measurements of bladder activity. Since the activity levels in the kidneys, bladder, and remainder of the body changed fairly rapidly, especially in the first 20 to 30 minutes following injection, posterior images of the trunk including kidneys and bladder were obtained continuously using a gamma camera fitted with a diverging collimator for 30 minutes and then at intervals for several hours. Simultaneous conjugate counting determinations were made using a whole body scanning system previously described at these meetings. Imaging data corrected for decay and adjacent background were fitted by least squares methods to curves representing a sum of exponentials, and the curves were normalized to the conjugate uptake measurements. The uptake curves of the kidneys and bladder matched well with the direct measurements of the urinary excretion. Data were collected in 16 normal subjects, and the estimated absorbed dose was calculated for the kidneys, the bladder and the remainder of the body for seven radioisotopes of iodine. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  15. Uptake and release of 54Mn and 60Co in Fucus vesiculosus L. and its epiphytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Lena

    1990-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus with epiphytic Pilayella littoralis was collected at a locality with low contamination of 54 Mn and 60 Co and transplanted at a locality in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in the Oeresund, southern Sweden and vice versa. The highest uptake of the radionuclides discharged from the nuclear power plant was observed in the filamentous epiphytic P. littoralis and difference in uptake of 60 Co was also observed between tissues of different ages in F. vesiculosus, with slightly higher uptake in the new vegetative fronds. P. Littoralis was succeded as epiphyte by Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora sp. and the highest uptake of both radionuclides was observed in Cladophora sp. Compared with the native Fucus plants at Barsebaeck, the transplanted Fucus plants showed about the same activity concentrations of 54 Mn while the 60 Co concentrations in the transplanted plants were higher than in the native plants after about four months. The release of 54 Mn and 60 Co was most rapid in the epiphytic P. littoralis. Biological half-lives calculated from an exponential relation were found to be about 10 days for p. littoralis and about 40 days for new vegetative fronds of F vesiculosus. Longer half-lives were found for 1-year-old tissues of F. vesiculosus: about 95 and 165 days for 54 Mn and 60 Co, respectively. One year after transplantation about 30% of the initial activity concentration of 60 Co was still present in the older part of the F. vesiculosus plants. The differences in uptake of 54 Mn and 60 Co between the algal species illustrates the difficulties encountered in comparing results from different algal species. (author)

  16. Uptake of inflammatory cell marker [{sup 11}C]PK11195 into mouse atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, Iina; Marjamaeki, Paeivi; Naagren, Kjell; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Laine, V.J.O. [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Wilson, Ian [GE Healthcare Biosciences, Medical Diagnostics, London (United Kingdom); Leppaenen, Pia; Ylae-Herttuala, Seppo [University of Kuopio, A.I. Virtanen Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The ligand [{sup 11}C]PK11195 binds with high affinity and selectivity to peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, expressed in high amounts in macrophages. In humans, [{sup 11}C]PK11195 has been used successfully for the in vivo imaging of inflammatory processes of brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in imaging inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of PK11195 binding sites in the atherosclerotic plaques was verified by examining the in vitro binding of [{sup 3}H]PK11195 onto mouse aortic sections. Uptake of intravenously administered [{sup 11}C]PK11195 was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of a LDLR/ApoB48 atherosclerotic mice. Accumulation of the tracer was compared between the atherosclerotic plaques and non-atherosclerotic arterial sites by autoradiography and histological analyses. The [{sup 3}H]PK11195 was found to bind to both the atherosclerotic plaques and the healthy wall. The autoradiography analysis revealed that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 to inflamed regions in plaques was more prominent (p = 0.011) than to non-inflamed plaque regions, but overall it was not higher than the uptake to the healthy vessel wall. Also, the accumulation of {sup 11}C radioactivity into the aorta of the atherosclerotic mice was not increased compared to the healthy control mice. Our results indicate that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 is higher in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques containing a large number of inflammatory cells than in the non-inflamed plaques. However, the tracer uptake to other structures of the artery wall was also prominent and may limit the use of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. (orig.)

  17. Uptake and allocation of 15N in alpine plants. Implications for the importance of competitive ability in predicting community structure in a stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodose, T.A.; Jaeger, C.H.; Bowman, W.D.; Schardt, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several potential components of competitive ability were determined for 13 plant species in a N-limited alpine moist meadow community in order to determine if competition had an influence on relative abundance in this stressful environment. The components of competitive ability examined were 15 N uptake rate, 15 N allocation, whole plant biomass, root:shoot ratio, and tissue N concentrations. It was hypothesized that 15 N uptake rate would be the component most correlated with relative abundance. However, 15 N uptake rate was negatively correlated with percent cover in the community. In contrast, whole plant biomass and root:shoot ratio were positively correlated with relative abundance. Tissue N concentrations and 15 N allocation were not important predictors of relative abundance. These results suggest that in a harsh environment, high resource uptake rates are not indicative of competitive ability, but may instead by a mechanism by which rare species are able to coexist with competitive dominants. (au) 47 refs

  18. Effects of insulin and glucose loading on FDG uptake in experimental malignant tumours and inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Songji; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Kato, Takashi; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Hikosaka, Kenji; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Hosokawa, Masuo; Kohanawa, Masashi

    2001-01-01

    Fluorine-18 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation in tumours has been well investigated, but much less is known regarding FDG accumulation in inflammatory lesions. In this study, we determined the effects of hypo- and hyperglycaemia on FDG uptake in inflammatory lesions of infectious and non-infectious origin and compared them with those in malignant tumours in rats, to provide a biological basis for differentiating malignant lesions from benign lesions by means of FDG-PET. Rats were inoculated with a suspension of allogenic hepatoma cells (KDH-8) or Staphylococcus aureus, or with turpentine oil into the left calf muscle. Two weeks after KDH-8 inoculation and 1 week after S. aureus and turpentine oil inoculations, the rats were divided into three subgroups: insulin-loaded (2 U/kg body weight, i.p.), glucose-loaded (1.2 g/kg body weight, p.o.) and control groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined 1 h after i.v. injection of FDG. Intraperitoneal injection of insulin and oral administration of glucose induced hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, respectively. In the control animals, tumours showed a level of FDG uptake which was 2.2 and 3.0 times higher than the levels in the inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil, respectively (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the level of FDG uptake between the two inflammatory lesions of infectious and non-infectious origin. Insulin loading significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in tumours and in both types of inflammatory lesion to approximately one-half of the control values (P=0.001 in the tumour group and P<0.0001 in the two inflammatory lesion groups). In the glucose-loaded group, the level of FDG uptake in both types of inflammatory lesion decreased significantly to 50%-61% of the control value (P=0.0002 in the S.aureus group and P<0.0001 in the turpetine group), while the tumour uptake did not decrease significantly (86% of the control value) (P=NS). It is concluded

  19. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    exercise), as well as during non-steady-state (onset of exercise and early exercise) experimental settings. Fourteen healthy women [age: 74 +/- 1 (SE) yr] were studied at rest and during 60-min continuous bicycling at 60% of peak O(2) uptake. Calculated and measured subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue...... venous glycerol concentrations increased substantially from rest to exercise but were similar both at rest and during later stages of exercise. In contrast, during the initial approximately 40 min of exercise, calculated glycerol concentration was significantly lower (approximately 40%) than measured...... and continuous prolonged exercise. However, during shorter periods of exercise (

  20. Effect of whole body irradiation on different tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, V.; Nardino, A.; Tomassi, I.; Becciolini, A.; Rizzi, M.; Martelli, T.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of 14 C leucine were analysed in controls and in rats irradiated 2 h before injection with 8 Gy whole-body irradiation. Plasma, small intestine, kidney and skin were assayed after homogenization for TCA soluble and insoluble activity curves. In highly differentiated tissues with poor proliferative activity and low protein turnover, the uptake and elimination of the tracer did not appear to be affected by irradiation. In the small intestine differences between control and irradiated animals seemed significant. (Auth.)

  1. Uptake and metabolism of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.A.; Spector, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if 12-HETE, a lipoxygenase product that mediates inflammation and tissue injury, can interact with RTEC, confluent Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were incubated for 2-16 hr with 1.0 μM [ 3 H]-12-HETE. Initial uptake of 12-HETE was rapid; at 16 hrs. 70% of the 12-HETE uptake was incorporated into phospholipids (PL). The distribution among the choline, ethanolamine, inositol, and serine PL was 36, 36, 20 and 8%, respectively. Incubation of MDCK cells with 0.5 to 5.0 μM [ 3 H]-12-HETE for 1 hr indicated linear uptake without evidence of saturation. Incubation with 1.0 μM 12-HETE and 0.25-10.0 μM arachidonic acid for 1 hr revealed no competition for uptake at the lower concentrations but a 40% reduction in 12-HETE uptake at 10.0 μM. Polarity of 12-HETE uptake was indicated by a preference of the basolateral surface over the apical surface by 1.4. After 2 hr, analysis of the medium by reverse phase HPLC revealed that 12-HETE was converted to three polar metabolites which eluted at 25.9, 29.4 and 31.3 min respectively; 12-HETE eluted at 37.5 min. The appearance of these polar metabolites was not prevented by ibuprofen (50 μM) nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 μM), allopurinol (15 mM), or butylated hydroxytoluene (20 μM). These findings suggest that the lipoxygenase product 12-HETE may affect RTEC through incorporation into membrane PL and/or conversion to polar metabolites

  2. Mild traumatic brain injury results in depressed cerebral glucose uptake: An (18)FDG PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Reed; Hockenbury, Nicole; Jaiswal, Shalini; Mathur, Sanjeev; Armstrong, Regina C; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2013-12-01

    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans and rats induces measurable metabolic changes, including a sustained depression in cerebral glucose uptake. However, the effect of a mild TBI on brain glucose uptake is unclear, particularly in rodent models. This study aimed to determine the glucose uptake pattern in the brain after a mild lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI. Briefly, adult male rats were subjected to a mild LFP and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG), which was performed prior to injury and at 3 and 24 h and 5, 9, and 16 days post-injury. Locomotor function was assessed prior to injury and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injury using modified beam walk tasks to confirm injury severity. Histology was performed at either 10 or 21 days post-injury. Analysis of function revealed a transient impairment in locomotor ability, which corresponds to a mild TBI. Using reference region normalization, PET imaging revealed that mild LFP-induced TBI depresses glucose uptake in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in comparison with sham-injured and naïve controls from 3 h to 5 days post-injury. Further, areas of depressed glucose uptake were associated with regions of glial activation and axonal damage, but no measurable change in neuronal loss or gross tissue damage was observed. In conclusion, we show that mild TBI, which is characterized by transient impairments in function, axonal damage, and glial activation, results in an observable depression in overall brain glucose uptake using (18)FDG-PET.

  3. Uptake and/or utilization of two simple phenolic acids by Cucumis sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shann, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) from solutions (0.1 to 1.00 mM, pH 4.0 to 7.0), was determined for intact and excised roots of Cucumis sativus. Uptake methods based on high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acid depletion from solution were compared to those radioisotopic methods employing [U-ring- 14 C]FA or p-HBA. Although radiotracer methods more accurately reflected actual uptake of the compounds by cucumber seedlings, HPLC solution depletion methods may be useful in the elucidation of trends over very limited periods of time. The uptake of FA was unaffected by the presence of p-HBA. The uptake of p-HBA was reduced by 30% in the presence of FA when compared to the uptake from solutions containing p-HBA alone. Ferulic acid acts both as an allelopathic agent and precursor in the endogenous process of lignification. To evaluate the involvement of exogenous FA in lignin biosynthesis, roots of hydroponically grown cucumber seedlings were exposed to concentrations of FA labeled with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. Radiotracer was distributed throughout the seedling. A quantitative change in lignification occurred in treated seedlings. In roots and stems, the level of lignin increased with the number of exposures and as the concentrations of exogenous FA increased. Radiotracer was found in the residues of lignin isolated from seedling tissue treated with [U-ring- 14 C]FA. This suggested the utilization of the exogenously applied FA in the endogenous process of lignification

  4. The influence of the chemical form of technetium on its uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.R.; Desmet, G.M.; Cremers, A.

    1985-01-01

    Spinach plants, grown on a Steiner nutrient solution containing TcO/sup -//sub 4/ at different concentrations, show a linear relationship between the concentration in the nutrient solution and the amount of Tc in the plant (concentration range O Bq/ml-58 Bq/ml). When Tc is added to the plants as a Tc-cysteine complex, less amounts of Tc are present in the plants. The Tc present in the plants is mainly due to the uptake of TcO/sup -//sub 4/, formed by reoxidation of the Tc-cysteine complex in the nutrient solution. Plant tissue analysis together with a mathematical analysis of the uptake, show some evidences for for TcO/sup -//sub 4/ as the most important chemical form of Tc taken up by the plants. In the case of anionic complexes, it's impossible to study only the uptake of the complex. Due to rexodization of the complexed Tc, a mixture of TcO/sup -//sub 4/ and the complex is present in the nutrient solution. In the case of cationic complexes, the TcO/sup -//sub 4/ can be removed from the nutrient solution by an anion exchange resin, so that only the complexed form of Tc is present in the nutrient solution. Its uptake by plants can be studied without interference of TcO/sup -//sub 4/. Uptake of Tc-complexes is possible, but the uptake rate (or transfer factor) is lower by two order of magnitude as compared with TcO/sup -//sub 4/

  5. Differential expression of fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, D.; Bernlohr, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured 3T3-L1 cells have been used as a model system to investigate the mechanism of fatty acid uptake by adipose tissue. Using a 1:1 molar ratio of 14 C-oleate and defatted bovine serum albumin (BSA), fatty acid (FA) uptake was quantitated at 4 0 and 37 0 as cell associated radioactivity. The profile of FA uptake in preadipocytes and adipocytes was biphasic; an initial rapid phase (1-20s) followed by a second slower phase (60-480s). At 37 0 the initial rate of FA accumulation in preadipocytes was identical to that in adipocytes, whereas the rate of accumulation during the second phase increased 7-fold (100 μM total FA) as a consequence of adipose conversion. When uptake measurements were made at 4 0 in adipocytes, the initial rate was identical to that at 37 0 , however the rate of second phase decreased 5-fold. Incubation of 14 C-BSA and nonradiolabeled FA with adipocyte monolayers (100 μM total FA) resulted in the rapid association (t/sub 1/2/ = 20s) of the BSA-FA complex with the cell surface. Incubation of 100, 10, and 1 μM total FA with adipocytes resulted in a 50-fold change in FA accumulation during the second phase. These results suggest that (1) FA uptake is significantly increased after differentiation, suggesting the participation of specialized proteins, (2) the temperature-insensitive initial FA accumulation can be attributed to rapid association of the BSA-FA complex to the cell surface, (3) the second phase of FA accumulation represents uptake

  6. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using [3H]paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand

  7. Lung Cancer Signature Biomarkers: tissue specific semantic similarity based clustering of Digital Differential Display (DDD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Mousami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used ‘Gene Ontology semantic similarity score’ to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal and disease (cancer sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability. Results Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95 identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1–4. Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1, chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2, hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3 and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4. Conclusions Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3, HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1

  8. Can Canopy Uptake Influence Nitrogen Acquisition and Allocation by Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Richard; Perks, Mike; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization due to atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (NDEP) may explain some of the net carbon (C) sink (0.6-0.7 Pg y-1) in temperate forests, but estimates of the additional C uptake due to atmospheric N additions (ΔCΔN) can vary by over an order of magnitude (~ 5 to 200 ΔCΔN). High estimates from several recent studies [e.g. Magnani (2007), Nature 447 848-850], deriving ΔCΔN from regional correlations between NDEP and measures of C uptake (such as eddy covariance -derived net ecosystem production, or forest inventory data) contradict estimates from other studies of 15N tracer applications added as fertilizer to the forest floor. A strong ΔCΔN effect requires nitrogen to be efficiently acquired by trees and allocated to high C:N, long-lived woody tissues, but these isotope experiments typically report relatively little (~ 20 %) of 15N added is found above-ground, with estimates are often attributed to co-variation with other factors across the range of sites investigated. However 15N-fertilization treatments often impose considerably higher total N loads than ambient NDEP and almost exclusively only apply mineral 15N treatments to the soil, often in a limited number of treatment events over relatively short periods of time. Excessive N deposition loads can induce negative physiological effects and limit the resulting ΔCΔN observed, and applying treatments to the soil may ignore the importance of canopy nitrogen uptake in overall forest nutrition. As canopies can directly take up nitrogen, the chronic, (relatively) low levels of ambient NDEP inputs from pollution may be acquired without some of the effects of heavy N loads, obtaining this N before it reaches the soil, and allowing canopies to substitute for, or supplement, edaphic N nutrition. The strength of this effect depends on how much N uptake can occur across the canopy under field conditions, and if this extra N supplies growth in woody tissues such as the stem, as

  9. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  10. Participation of cob tissue in the transport of medium components into maize kernels cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) kernels cultured in vitro while still attached to cob pieces have been used as a model system to study the physiology of kernel development. In this study, the role of the cob tissue in uptake of medium components into kernels was examined. Cob tissue was essential for in vitro kernel growth, and better growth occurred with larger cob/kernel ratios. A symplastically transported fluorescent dye readily permeated the endosperm when supplied in the medium, while an apoplastic dye did not. Slicing the cob tissue to disrupt vascular connections, but not apoplastic continuity, greatly reduced [ 14 C]sucrose uptake into kernels. [ 14 C]Sucrose uptake by cob and kernel tissue was reduced 31% and 68%, respectively, by 5 mM PCMBS. L-[ 14 C]glucose was absorbed much more slowly than D-[ 14 C]glucose. These and other results indicate that phloem loading of sugars occurs in the cob tissue. Passage of medium components through the symplast cob tissue may be a prerequisite for uptake into the kernel. Simple diffusion from the medium to the kernels is unlikely. Therefore, the ability of substances to be transported into cob tissue cells should be considered in formulating culture medium

  11. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  12. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  13. Uptake of the glycosphingolipid sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas in vivo and in isolated islets of Langerhans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredman Pam

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosphingolipid sulfatide has previously been found in several mammalian tissues, but information on the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide in different organs in vivo is limited. In pancreatic beta cells, sulfatide has been shown to be involved in insulin processing and secretion in vitro. In this study, we examined the uptake of exogenously administered sulfatide and its distribution to the pancreatic beta cells. This might encourage future studies of the function(s of sulfatide in beta cell physiology in vivo. Radioactive sulfatide was given orally to mice whereafter the uptake of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent delivery to the pancreas was examined. Sulfatide uptake in pancreas was also studied in vivo by i.p. administration of radioactive sulfatide in mice, and in vitro in isolated rat islets. Isolated tissue/islets were analysed by scintillation counting, autoradiography and thin-layer chromatography-ELISA. Results Sulfatide was taken up in the gastrointestinal tract for degradation or further transport to other organs. A selective uptake of short chain and/or hydroxylated sulfatide fatty acid isoforms was observed in the small intestine. Exogenously administered sulfatide was found in pancreas after i.p, but not after oral administration. The in vitro studies in isolated rat islets support that sulfatide, independently of its fatty acid length, is endocytosed and metabolised by pancreatic islets. Conclusion Our study supports a selective uptake and/or preservation of sulfatide in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration and with emphasises on pancreatic sulfatide uptake, i.p. administration results in sulfatide at relevant location.

  14. Hyperoxia increases the uptake of 5-fluorouracil in mammary tumors independently of changes in interstitial fluid pressure and tumor stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvesen Gerd S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is associated with increased resistance to chemo- and radiation-therapy. Hyperoxic treatment (hyperbaric oxygen has previously been shown to potentiate the effect of some forms of chemotherapy, and this has been ascribed to enhanced cytotoxicity or neovascularisation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether hyperoxia also enhances any actual uptake of 5FU (5-fluorouracil into the tumor tissue and if this can be explained by changes in the interstitium and extracellular matrix. Methods One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to repeated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment (2 bar, pO2 = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 min, whereas one group was exposed to one single identical HBO treatment. Animals housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO2 = 0.2 bar served as controls. Three doses of 5FU were tested for dose response. Uptake of [3H]-5FU in the tumor was assessed, with special reference to factors that might have contributed, such as interstitial fluid pressure (Pif, collagen content, oxygen stress (measured as malondialdehyd levels, lymphatics and transcapillary transport in the tumors. Results The uptake of the cytostatic agent increases immediately after a single HBO treatment (more than 50%, but not 24 hours after the last repeated HBO treatment. Thus, the uptake is most likely related to the transient increase in oxygenation in the tumor tissue. Factors like tumor Pif and collagen content, which decreased significantly in the tumor interstitium after repeated HBO treatment, was without effect on the drug uptake. Conclusion We showed that hyperoxia increases the uptake of [3H]-5FU in DMBA-induced mammary tumors per se, independently of changes in Pif, oxygen stress, collagen fibril density, or transendothelial transport alone. The mechanism by which such an uptake occur is still not elucidated, but it is clearly stimulated by elevated pO2.

  15. Uptake of myocardial imaging agents by rejected hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A.; Carroll, M.; Wright, J.W.; Feldman, M.J.; Massucci, J.; Bhayana, J.N.; Gona, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, Gallium 67 and Thallium 201 uptakes were measured in heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Five days after transplantation, Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate, and Gallium 67 uptakes were significantly higher in allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts. At an early stage of rejection (three days after transplantation), only Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate uptake in the left ventricle of allogeneic grafts showed a significant difference (p less than 0.04). At five days, Thallium 201 uptake was significantly lower in allo- than syngeneic grafts. There was a positive correlation between radionuclide uptake and histologic degree of rejection for Technetium 99 m pyrophosphate and Gallium 67 while Thallium 201 uptake correlated negatively. Analysis of variance revealed that hearts with no or minimal rejection had statistically different uptakes than hearts with mild to moderate rejection. These results suggest that uptake of imaging agents might be useful in the diagnosis of rejection of the transplanted heart

  16. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  17. Uptake of mineral elements by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ven Babu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Scientific investigations into the mineral nutrition of plants, date back to the late 17th century and vast amount of literature has accumulated since then, encompassing the occurrence of mineral elements, their interaction in soil and within plants, kinetics of their uptake, role in metabolism, toxicity to plants and animals and so on. Despite great advances made in the fields of plant physiology, plant biochemistry and genetic engineering and application of sophisticated analytical and biochemical techniques, many aspects of nutrient uptake by plants, their movement within roots and the long distance transport to shoots remain yet to be fully answered and a combination of hypothesis and assumptions are taken into account, for understanding the phenomena. This write up deals with the subject in a brief and narrative manner, so as to enable the reader to get an insight into the field

  18. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  20. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  1. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  2. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  3. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and