WorldWideScience

Sample records for tire quality grading

  1. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  2. Tire safety : everything rides on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This booklet presents a comprehensive overview of tire safety, including information on the following topics: basic tire maintenance; Uniform Tire Quality Grading System; fundamental characteristics of tires; and tire safety tips.

  3. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  4. Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    measure heat from the casing. Tread surface temperature. Tread (surface) infrared temperature can be inconsistent since the measurements are...have any adverse effect on rubber products. b. Avoid areas that are wet, humid, oily, greasy, or in direct sunlight. Do not store tires in the...used, from sticking to the tire. Do not let soapstone accumulate in the tire. Inspect and clean the tire beads to remove corrosion or residual rubber

  5. Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, II, James Alfred (Inventor); Kish, James Christopher (Inventor); Asnani, Vivake Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A tire includes a plurality of helical springs. Each helical spring includes a first end portion, a second end portion, and an arching middle portion. Each helical spring is interlaced with at least one other helical spring thereby forming a laced toroidal structure extending about an entire circumference of the tire.

  6. The Implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in Tire Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Abdul Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research had two main objectives. The first research objective was to make the right design of new product according to customer requirements with the implementation of Quality Function Deployment (QFD in the tire industry. The second research objective was to enhance competitiveness based on the renewal of marketing strategy and consumer needs, non-explosive prohibition, non-slip tires, no bulgy, and competitive prices. The research was carried out by using costumer satisfaction rating by comparing with the competitor companies. Based on calculation using QFD method, it shows that split liner has the highest percentage of technical requirement in tire industry about 30,57%. The second factor is pattern design about 25,98%. Then, the third factor is compound technology about 22,68%. Therefore, the researchers can recommend several strategies for the quality improvement based on customer needs for the tire industry.

  7. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. 49 CFR 575.104 - Uniform tire quality grading standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... physical relationship from a set of data which involve random error. The method may be used to establish a... throughout the test within human eye range of the vehicle immediately ahead of it. (iv) A test convoy... used within two months after removal from storage. (D) Determine the adjusted wear rate for each...

  9. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  10. Tire Log™

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2013-01-01

    The Tire Log™ is a patented innovation made from waste tires with a unique and energy efficient approach to recycling tires. Re-Tread Products (RTP) process takes full advantage of the embedded energy in tires that is wasted in conventional tire recycling that primarily involves the grinding, burying or burning of waste tires.

  11. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  12. Pressão de insuflagem dos pneus no desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos Tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pressão de insuflagem dos pneus nos parâmetros de desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos. As pressões avaliadas foram: 100 kPa nos pneus da frente e 70 kPa nos pneus atrás; 140 kPa nos quatro pneus; 190 kPa nos quatro pneus. Os testes de um trator com grades de discos foram desenvolvidos em condições de campo, em solos de textura franca, mobilizados e secos. Os parâmetros de avaliação foram: o patinamento, a velocidade, a capacidade de trabalho, a eficiência energética global e o consumo de combustível por hectare. Entre as situações de pressão de insuflagem dos pneus indicadas pelo fabricante do trator e a pressão de insuflagem indicada pelo fabricante dos pneus, não se verificam diferenças significativas, tanto na capacidade de trabalho como no consumo de combustível por hectare. A utilização de elevadas pressões de insuflagem dos pneus conduz a uma redução da ordem de 3 a 5% na capacidade de trabalho e um aumento significativo entre 10 e 25% do consumo de combustível por hectare, mesmo em condições de boa aderência dos pneus, refletidas no intervalo de 7 a 15% de patinamento registrados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance. The pressures tested were: 100 kPa in front tires and 70 kPa in rear tires; 140 kPa in the tires of both axles; 190 kPa in the tires of both axles. Field tests with disc harrow in secondary tillage were performed under real working conditions, in tilled and dry medium textured soils. The evaluation parameters were: the slip, the actual forward speed, the work capacity, the overall energy efficiency and the fuel consumption per hectare. Concerning the situations of tire inflation pressure specified by the tractor manufacturer and the inflation pressure specified by the tire manufacturer, there were no significant differences, both in work capacity and in fuel

  13. The grading management of the quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaozheng; Han Shufang; Yu Bei; Tian Xuehang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the quality assurance grading management of the items, services and technology process on nuclear power plants (nuclear island, conventional island, BOP), such as the requirements and aim in the related code, guide, technical document, the requirements for the related units, the grading principle and grading, the considering method for the differences of QA requirements of the each QA grand, as well as the status and propositions in the QA grading management in China. (authors)

  14. Perceptions of restaurateurs on quality grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roberson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A restaurateur's strategic focus is to maximise wealth for the owner(s. To achieve wealth maximisation, a restaurateur could implement one or more of the following strategies: focus strategy, cost-leadership strategy and/or differentiation strategy. A management intervention a restaurateur could implement to achieve this is quality differentiation. Grading of an establishment will assist a restaurateur in becoming a market leader. Currently there no national restaurant grading system exists in South Africa. As support and participation of restaurateurs in any future quality grading system are essential, it is imperative to test their perceptions of the implementation of a quality grading scale. The aim of this paper is to gather the perceptions of restaurateurs of an envisaged scale that could be used to grade independent full-service restaurants. In this study the researcher tested the perceptions of restaurateurs using nine possible outcomes of implementing quality grading in the independent fullservice restaurant segment. The outcomes to be tested were presented to restaurateurs in a questionnaire uploaded on "survey monkey". This was emailed to 3 286 restaurateurs and 265 responses were received. Respondents who were positive regarding grading indicated that they were enthusiastic about the impact grading would have on international tourism, as well as the fact that it could contribute to an increase in the value of their establishments.

  15. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  16. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF MARKS ON TIRES USING ARTIFICIAL VISION FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire inspection is presently done by workers who have as their main problems, besides identifying the defects, the time available for defect identification and the inherent costs. Companies can become more sustainable by adopting automated methods to perform such type of processes, such as artificial vision, with advantages both in the processing time and in the incurred costs. This paper addresses the development of an artificial vision system that aims to be an asset in the field of tyre inspection, having as main characteristics its execution speed and its reliability. The conjugation of these criteria is a prerequisite for this system to be able to be integrated in inspection machines. The paper focusses on the study of three image processing methods to be used in the identification of marks (red dots on tires. In this work was used the free Open Computer Vision artificial vision library to process the images acquired by a Basler matrix camera. Two different techniques, namely Background Subtraction and Hough Transform, were tested to implement the solution. After developing the artificial vision inspection application, tests were made to measure the performance of both methods and the results were promising: processing time was low and, simultaneous, the achieved accuracy is high.

  18. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  19. Quality assurance grading of conventional equipment at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Li Shichang

    2006-01-01

    Equipment QA grading with the systematic and standardized approach will benefit the concerned organizations by effective allocating of limited resources to guarantee the quality of essential equipment. This paper presents a new quality assurance grading system for the convention systems/equipment of nuclear power station, which is operative and at the same time could help the owner to allot resource reasonably through the analysis of the purpose of grading and the experience and lessons of LINGAO Phase I project. (authors)

  20. Evaluating the Quality of Transfer versus Nontransfer Accounting Principles Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, J. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Using 1989-92 student records from three colleges accepting large numbers of transfers from junior schools into accounting, regression analyses compared grades of transfer and nontransfer students. Quality of accounting principle grades of transfer students was not equivalent to that of nontransfer students. (SK)

  1. Instructional quality of lower grades natural science classes: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... classes: the case of primary schools linked to Kemise College of Teacher Education. ... the quality of natural science education classroom instruction in lower grade ... on pedagogical and subject matter issue, closer support and supervision.

  2. Effects of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda:Cyclopidae) on mosquitoes that inhabit tires: influence of litter type, quality, and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E T; Hallmon, C F; Eskridge, K M; Marten, G G

    1996-12-01

    A 59-week study was conducted to evaluate the impact of adult Mesocyclops longisetus populations on larval mosquito species inhabiting tires. Greater than 90% reduction of number of 1st and 2nd instars was recorded by 4 wk with 90% reduction of number of 3rd and 4th instars after 7 wk. Reduced control was noted with the onset of cooler winter water temperature. Overall. a 52% reduction in the number of 1st and 2nd instars was achieved, and a 57% reduction was noted in number of 3rd- and 4th-instar mosquito larvae. Cooler temperatures resulted in a decline of adult Mesocyclops, which resulted in reduced larval control. Significantly greater numbers of Mesocyclops adults were collected in tires with either new litter or heavy amounts of litter regardless of litter type. Lastly, litter type, either oak leaves or pine needles, did not influence mosquito reduction or abundance of Mesocyclops populations.

  3. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  4. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  5. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  6. Technical and environmental assessment of the scrap tire vacuum pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Caumia, B. de; Lebrecque, B.; Blanchette, D.; Pakdel, H.; Roy, V.

    1991-01-01

    Tire recycling has become a necessity because of the huge piles of tires which represent a threat to the environment. There is about one worn tire produced per year and per person in the developed countries. The used tires represent a source of energy and valuable chemical products. By thermal decomposition of rubber under reduced pressure, it is possible to recover the useful compounds. A step by step approach has been used, from bench-scale batch systems, to process development and finally pilot plant, to experiment and develop vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. Yields are: 55% oil, 25% carbon black, 9% steel, 5% fiber and 6% gas. The maximum recovery of oil was performed at 415 degree C below 2 kPa abs. The specific gravity of this oil was 0.95, its gross heating value was 43 MJ/kg and total sulfur content about 0.8%. It was rich in limonene, benzol and other petrochemical components. The carbon black favorably compared with the low standard grades and may find an application in low grade rubber goods following further research and development. From an environmental point of view, the quality of the gas emissions was found to be acceptable based on the province of Quebec regulations. The aqueous phase contains toxic substances which will be eliminated after blending and burning it with pyrolysis oils used to heat up the reactor. The heat of pyrolysis for the reactions is low, estimated around 700 kJ/kg. The process has been tested in a 200 kg/h pilot plant, which positively demonstrated the possibility of continuously feeding large chunks of rubber under a vacuo. The process feasibility is promising, with returns on the investment of 31% after three years of operation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhe; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Peng, Zhiwei; Andriese, Matthew; Li, Bowen; Huang, Xiaodi; Wang, Xinli

    The recycling of waste tires has been a big environmental problem. About 280 million waste tires are produced annually in the United States and more than 2 billion tires are stockpiled, which cause fire hazards and health issues. Tire rubbers are insoluble elastic high polymer materials. They are not biodegradable and may take hundreds of years to decompose in the natural environment. Microwave irradiation can be a thermal processing method for the decomposition of tire rubbers. In this study, the microwave absorption properties of waste tire at various temperatures are characterized to determine the conditions favorable for the microwave heating of waste tires.

  8. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  9. Studless Winter Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company developed a material for Johnson Space Center used as parachute shrouds to soft land the Vikings through the tenuous Martian atmosphere and has been adapted to new radial tire five times stronger than steel. Fiber has a chain-like molecular structure that gives it incredible strength in proportion to its weight. Material is expected to increase tread life by 10,000 miles.

  10. Optimal tread design for agricultural lug tires determined through failure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seok Song

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural lug tires, commonly used in tractors, must provide safe and stable support for the body of the vehicle and bear any additional load while effectively traversing rough, poor-quality ground surfaces. Many agricultural lug tires fail unexpectedly. In this study, we optimised and validated a tread design for agricultural lug tires intended to increase their durability using failure analysis. Specifically, we identified tire failure modes using indoor driving tests and failure mode effects analysis. Next, we developed a threedimensional tire model using the Ogden material model and finite element method. Using sensitivity analysis and response surface methodology, we optimised the tread design. Finally, we evaluated the durability of the new design using a tire prototype and drum test equipment. Results indicated that the optimised tread design decreased the tire tread stress by 16% and increased its time until cracking by 38% compared to conventional agricultural lug tires.

  11. The role of quality function deployment in meeting customers’ requirements: A case study on the Egyptian tire manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mehelmi Heba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the use of QFD within the Egyptian public sector. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of QFD as an improvement approach within the Egyptian public sector organizations. Where QFD had consistently been claimed in the Western world and Europe. This study aimed to extend the knowledge of choosing an appropriate TQM tool for the Egyptian PSOs. Where it serves as an extension to previous studies carried out in the Western world but within the Egyptian context. This study is based on two sources of data collection, semi structured interviews from customers which were analyzed using content analysis and focus groups with managers to construct the QFD model. A purposive sample targeting the company's customers and managers were selected who had the requisite information. Semi-structured interviews helped to identify the factors affecting customers' purchase preferences, customers' opinions, perception, requirements, and problems. Moreover, it served the purpose to identify the 'WHATs' that are an essential part of the proposed QFD framework. Two focus group sessions were conducted to construct the QFD model. The findings of the study indicate that QFD is a generic framework that is appropriate and feasible for application within the public sector tire manufacturing company in Egypt. It was quite a good scientific exercise to demonstrate how customers' requirements were identified, the technical specifications needed and finally constructing the QFD framework to meet customers' requirements. The current study is a single case study which might limit the ability to generalize the research findings, although it identified powerful context and specific insights into QFD implementation. Yet, generalization of findings could be applied to other public sector companies in Egypt facing almost the same problems and having the same surrounding context and environment. Another limitation of this study is the sample

  12. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  13. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  14. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  15. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  16. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines part 3 of 3. The GRADE approach to developing recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brożek, J. L.; Akl, E. A.; Compalati, E.; Kreis, J.; Terracciano, L.; Fiocchi, A.; Ueffing, E.; Andrews, J.; Alonso-Coello, P.; Meerpohl, J. J.; Lang, D. M.; Jaeschke, R.; Williams, J. W.; Phillips, B.; Lethaby, A.; Bossuyt, P.; Glasziou, P.; Helfand, M.; Watine, J.; Afilalo, M.; Welch, V.; Montedori, A.; Abraha, I.; Horvath, A. R.; Bousquet, J.; Guyatt, G. H.; Schünemann, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third and last article in the series about the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines and its application in the field of allergy. We

  17. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  18. Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita V Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michelin tire baby syndrome (MTBS, is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by generalized folding of excess skin and may be associated with various phenotypic abnormalities. The pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. Various congenital anomalies can be associated with it. It may be a clinical finding associated with various syndromes. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, and skin folds gradually diminish and disappear with age without any intervention. Here, we report a case of MTBS associated with convergent squint and hydrocephaly.

  19. Classroom Quality and Student Engagement: Contributions to Third-Grade Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Connor, Carol McDonald; Tompkins, Virginia; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students’ third-grade behavioral engagement on students’ third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students’ third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association between classroom quality and children's reading skills. SEM results revealed that controlling for family socio economic risk and students’ first-grade reading achievement, classroom quality significantly, and positively predicted children's behavioral engagement, which in turn predicted greater reading achievement. Higher levels of children's behavioral engagement were associated with higher reading achievement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:21779272

  20. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  1. Analysis of Lexical Quality and Its Relation to Writing Quality for 4th Grade, Primary School Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Vera, Gabriela; Sotomayor, Carmen; Bedwell, Percy; Domínguez, Ana María; Jéldrez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have addressed vocabulary quality in developing writing skill in Spanish. Even less addressed it within the Chilean educational system. The specific objective of this study was to characterize, using a comprehensive set of indicators, the quality of the vocabulary produced by Chilean 4th grade students. Based on a national writing…

  2. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  3. [Procedure of seed quality testing and seed grading standard of Prunus humilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hao; Ren, Guang-Xi; Gao, Ya; Luo, Jun; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Li, Wei-Dong

    2014-11-01

    So far there exists no corresponding quality test procedures and grading standards for the seed of Prunus humilis, which is one of the important source of base of semen pruni. Therefor we set up test procedures that are adapt to characteristics of the P. humilis seed through the study of the test of sampling, seed purity, thousand-grain weight, seed moisture, seed viability and germination percentage. 50 cases of seed specimens of P. humilis tested. The related data were analyzed by cluster analysis. Through this research, the seed quality test procedure was developed, and the seed quality grading standard was formulated. The seed quality of each grade should meet the following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 68%, thousand-grain weight 383 g, purity ≥ 93%, seed moisture ≤ 5%; for second grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 26%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 266 g, purity ≥ 73%, seed moisture ≤9%; for third grade seeds, germination percentage ≥ 10%, purity ≥ 50%, thousand-grain weight ≥ 08 g, seed moisture ≤ 13%.

  4. Investigating Profiles of Lexical Quality in Preschool and Their Contribution to First Grade Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Farquharson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated profiles of lexical quality domains in preschool children and the extent to which profile membership predicted reading comprehension in first grade. A latent profile analysis was conducted to classify 420 preschool children on lexical quality domains, including orthography, phonology, morphosyntax, and…

  5. Predictors of Quality Verbal Engagement in Third-Grade Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how reading ability and personality traits predict the quality of verbal discussions in peer-led literature circles. Third grade literature discussions were recorded, transcribed, and coded. The coded statements and questions were quantified into a quality of engagement score. Through multiple linear regression, the…

  6. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  7. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  8. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0054; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car...

  9. 49 CFR 574.7 - Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information requirements-new tire manufacturers, new tire brand name owners. 574.7 Section 574.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., new tire brand name owners. (a)(1) Each new tire manufacturer and each new tire brand name owner...

  10. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ...-0054; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 6,964 passenger car replacement tires manufactured between January 23, 2011 and March 26, 2011, do not fully comply...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 57.14104 Section 57.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14104 - Tire repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tire repairs. 56.14104 Section 56.14104 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14104 Tire repairs. (a) Before a tire is removed from a vehicle for tire repair, the valve core shall be partially removed to allow for gradual deflation and then...

  13. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  14. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rebecca L; Thayer, Kristina A; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A; Rehfuess, Eva A; Rooney, Andrew A; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S; Woodruff, Tracey J; Verbeek, Jos H; Holloway, Alison C; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this demand. For over a decade, GRADE has been applied successfully to areas of clinical medicine, public health, and health policy, but experience with GRADE in environmental and occupational health is just beginning. Environmental and occupational health questions focus on understanding whether an exposure is a potential health hazard or risk, assessing the exposure to understand the extent and magnitude of risk, and exploring interventions to mitigate exposure or risk. Although GRADE offers many advantages, including its flexibility and methodological rigor, there are features of the different sources of evidence used in environmental and occupational health that will require further consideration to assess the need for method refinement. An issue that requires particular attention is the evaluation and integration of evidence from human, animal, in vitro, and in silico (computer modeling) studies when determining whether an environmental factor represents a potential health hazard or risk. Assessment of the hazard of exposures can produce analyses for use in the GRADE evidence-to-decision (EtD) framework to inform risk-management decisions about removing harmful exposures or mitigating risks. The EtD framework allows for grading the strength of the recommendations based on judgments of the certainty in the evidence (also known as quality of the evidence), as well as other factors that inform recommendations such as social values and preferences, resource implications, and benefits. GRADE represents an untapped opportunity for environmental and occupational health to make evidence-based recommendations in a systematic and transparent manner. The objectives of this article are

  15. Improvement of wheel skidder tractive performance by tire inflation pressure and tire chains

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilov, Stanimir

    2007-01-01

    The motion resistance ratio, gross traction ratio and net traction ratio of a wheel cable skidder were determined and mathematical models derived for three tire inflation pressure values with or without tire chains on forest road in mountainous conditions. The motion resistance ratio increases with the increase of tire inflation pressure. On the contrary, the gross traction ratio increases with the decrease of tire inflation pressure. However, when the tires are equipped with tire chains t...

  16. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  17. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  18. Method and apparatus for inspecting tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting tires by the use of x-rays is disclosed in which a tire is advanced to an inspection station, engaged along opposite bead rims and inflated to axially spread the bead rims and side walls. An x-ray source is advanced axially into the tire and the tire is eccentrically rotated relative to the x-ray source to enable radial positioning of the source relative to the tire near the tire bead rim diameter without requiring radial movement of the x-ray source. The x-ray source produces an x-ray beam which sweeps about the interior of the expanded tire from bead rim to bead rim while the tire is rotated about its centerline. An x-ray detection system detects x-rays which have penetrated the wall and produces inspection information concerning the tire construction. (Patent Office Record)

  19. Health-related quality of life of long-term high-grade glioma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Douw, Linda; Vos, Maaike J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Muller, Martin; Vandertop, W. Peter; Slotman, Ben J.; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Heimans, Jan J.; Klein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of long-term to short-term high-grade glioma (HGG) survivors, determine the prognostic value of HRQOL for overall survival, and determine the effect of tumor recurrence on HRQOL for long-term survivors. Following

  20. The Essence, Classification and Quality of the Different Grades of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I define information from a philosophical perspective as a category that indicates the presence of indirect existence, which is a self-display by material entities (with direct existence of the status and trajectory of that existence. In this paper, based in part on articles published only in Chinese over the last 30 years, information is shown to include three basic forms: In-itself, for-itself and regenerated information, which is constituted by the first two. Information in these three basic forms establishes the essence of information which is further developed in a fourth form—social information. Information is further characterized by the qualities of its three different grades, corresponding to these forms: The quality of first-grade information demonstrates direct objective existence and indirect objective existence; the quality of second-grade information demonstrates multiple levels of direct objective and indirect objective existence; the quality of third-grade information is that of the subjective relationships in human understanding that are encoded as information. The grounding of information in the ontological structure of the world gives it a central role in the approach to knowledge, constituting a new and necessary critique of the classical separation of the academic disciplines and the bases of modern philosophy.

  1. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the mass fraction of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality containing more than 100 g/kg of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method

  2. Consumer assessment of beef tenderloin steaks from various USDA quality grades at 3 degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, Travis G; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F

    2015-02-01

    A consumer study was conducted to determine palatability ratings of beef tenderloin steaks from USDA Choice, USDA Select, and USDA Select with marbling scores from Slight 50 to 100 (USDA High Select) cooked to various degrees of doneness. Steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 degree of doneness categories: very-rare, medium-rare, or well-done. Consumers (N = 315) were screened for preference of degree of doneness and fed 4 samples of their preferred doneness (a warm-up and one from each USDA quality grade treatment in a random order). Consumers evaluated steaks on an 8-point verbally anchored hedonic scale for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like as well as rated steaks as acceptable or unacceptable for all palatability traits. Quality grade had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer ratings for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like scores, with all traits averaging above a 7 ("like very much") on the 8-point scale. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) were found in the percentage of samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits, with more than 94% of samples rated acceptable for each trait in all quality grades evaluated. Steaks cooked to well-done had lower (P Choice and Select quality grades. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  4. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  5. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Tire-soil interaction model for turning (steered) tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafiath, L. L.

    1985-07-01

    A review of the experimental information on the development of lateral forces on tires traveling at an angle to their center plane is presented and the usefulness of the consideration of the lateral forces for the development of an analytical model is evaluated. Major components of the lateral force have been identified as the forces required to balance the tractive force and the drawbar pull vectorially. These are the shear stresses developing in the contact area and the horizontal component of the normal stresses acting on the in-ground portion or the curved side walls of the tire. The tire-soil interaction model for steady state straight travel has been expanded to include the necessary algorithms for the calculation of these lateral forces. The pattern of tractive force-slip and longitudinal-lateral force relationships is in general agreement with experiments.

  7. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  8. Grade pending: lessons for hospital quality reporting from the New York City restaurant sanitation inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Andrew M; Detsky, Allan S

    2015-02-01

    Public quality reporting programs have been widely implemented in hospitals in an effort to improve quality and safety. One such program is Hospital Compare, Medicare's national quality reporting program for US hospitals. The New York City sanitary grade inspection program is a parallel effort for restaurants. The aims of Hospital Compare and the New York City sanitary inspection program are fundamentally similar: to address a common market failure resulting from consumers' lack of information on quality and safety. However, by displaying easily understandable information at the point of service, the New York City sanitary inspection program is better designed to encourage informed consumer decision making. We argue that this program holds important lessons for public quality reporting of US hospitals. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  10. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management.

  11. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  12. Quality assessment and comparison of grading between examiners and supervisors of Bachelor theses in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Solveig M; Halvarsson, Maud; Robertsson, Barbro

    2008-01-01

    This study compares supervisors' and examiners' grading of quality of theses at Bachelor level in nursing. An instrument developed to asses the quality of theses was used. Eight aspects of quality were rated. One hundred and fifteen theses were rated by both examiner and supervisor. Significant correlations were found between examiners' and supervisors' ratings of all aspects of quality. Good agreement was found in 89-96% of the ratings on individual aspects of quality. The means of differences between ratings were small but significantly differed from zero in four out of eight aspects. In theses rated low for quality of language and formality, differences between examiners' and supervisors' ratings on all aspects of quality were significantly larger than in theses rated high for quality of language and formality. The general conclusion is that the evaluations made by examiners and by supervisors corresponded well. Differences found indicates that examiners in general give lower scores than supervisors especially on quality aspects that are most closely related to research methods and experiences. This study is part of a larger project that is investigating quality of theses and the student's attitudes and learning experiences of writing theses.

  13. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Higgins, Russell A; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C; Nichols, William L; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    : Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of 'pass' or 'fail' is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance.

  14. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.; Srivastava, Alok; Walker, Isobel

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results. Eleven EQA organizations using eight different analytical approaches participated. Data for a normal and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and a normal and reduced factor VIII (FVIII) from 218 laboratories were sent to the EQA providers who analyzed the data set using their method of evaluation for aPTT and FVIII, determining the performance for each laboratory record in the data set. Providers also summarized their statistical approach to assignment of target values and laboratory performance. Each laboratory record in the data set was graded pass/fail by all EQA providers for each of the four analytes. There was a lack of agreement of pass/fail grading among EQA programs. Discordance in the grading was 17.9 and 11% of normal and prolonged aPTT results, respectively, and 20.2 and 17.4% of normal and reduced FVIII results, respectively. All EQA programs in this study employed statistical methods compliant with the International Standardization Organization (ISO), ISO 13528, yet the evaluation of laboratory results for all four analytes showed remarkable grading discordance. PMID:29232255

  15. p-charts in the quality control of the grading process in the high education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries are making efforts to change their educational system These changes include implementation of the ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System and are based on the Bologna Declaration. Adoption of ECTS will necessitate new quality standards in higher education especially in grading procedures. With only small modifications, the control charts(such as p-charts used in production and distribution applications can be applied to educational purposes.

  16. External quality assurance for image grading in the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatman, K A; Philip, S; Fleming, A D; Harvey, R D; Swa, K K; Styles, C; Black, M; Sell, G; Lee, N; Sharp, P F; Olson, J A

    2012-06-01

    To develop and evaluate an image grading external quality assurance system for the Scottish Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme. A web-based image grading system was developed which closely matches the current Scottish national screening software. Two rounds of external quality assurance were run in autumn 2008 and spring 2010, each time using the same 100 images. Graders were compared with a consensus standard derived from the top-level graders' results. After the first round, the centre lead clinicians and top-level graders reviewed the results and drew up guidance notes for the second round. Grader sensitivities ranged from 60.0 to 100% (median 92.5%) in 2008, and from 62.5 to 100% (median 92.5%) in 2010. Specificities ranged from 34.0 to 98.0% (median 86%) in 2008, and 54.0 to 100% (median 88%) in 2010. There was no difference in sensitivity between grader levels, but first-level graders had a significantly lower specificity than level-two and level-three graders. In 2008, one centre had a lower sensitivity but higher specificity than the majority of centres. Following the feedback from the first round, overall agreement improved in 2010 and there were no longer any significant differences between centres. A useful educational tool has been developed for image grading external quality assurance. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  17. Pneumatic Tire Performance on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anudeep

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of vehicle safety systems, from the earliest brakes to today's accident avoidance systems, has led vehicles to have very high passenger safety. Driving on ice, though, still happens to be one of the driving conditions of low safety. A multitude of factors were identified by various studies to contribute to the complex frictional mechanism at the tire-ice interface. The tire is only force transmitting element of the vehicle, to the surface. Thus it is very essential to have in de...

  18. Energy requirements of tire pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per M; Mamen, Asgeir

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the effect using walking poles and pulling tires at 4 and 6 km·h-1 (1.11 and 1.67 m·s-1) speeds on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and heart rate. Eleven subjects, 6 males, with a mean (SD) age of 25.2 (6.9) years participated in field tests involving walking without poles, walking with poles and tire pulling with poles. Increasing the load caused the largest increases in energy demand, more than 4 MET. Speed increase also caused substantial energy increase, approximately 4 MET. Increasing the inclination only modestly increased the oxygen uptake, approximately 2 MET. In both level walking and uphill walking, using poles marginally increased oxygen uptake compared to working without poles. Pulling one tire (12.5 kg) required an oxygen uptake of 27 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1 at 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination. Adding one more tire (6 kg) drove the oxygen uptake further up to 39 (4) mL·kg-1·min-1. This is close to the requirement of level running at 10.5 km·h-1. Pulling both tires at 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination required a V̇O2 of 54 (6) mL·kg-1·min-1, equal to running uphill at 5% inclination and 12.5 km·h-1 speed. Heart rate rose comparably with oxygen uptake. At 4 km·h-1 and 0% inclination the increase was 29 bpm, from 134 (21) to 163 (22) bpm when going from pulling one tire to two tires. In the hardest exercise, 6 km·h-1 and 5% inclination, heart rate reached 174 (14) bpm. The study showed that tire pulling even at slow speeds has an energy requirement that is so large that the activity may be feasible as endurance training.

  19. Measurement of whole tire profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongyue; Jiao, Wenguang

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a precision measuring device is developed for obtaining characteristic curve of tire profile and its geometric parameters. It consists of a laser displacement measurement unit, a closed-loop precision two-dimensional coordinate table, a step motor control system and a fast data acquisition and analysis system. Based on the laser trigonometry, a data map of tire profile and coordinate values of all points can be obtained through corresponding data transformation. This device has a compact structure, a convenient control, a simple hardware circuit design and a high measurement precision. Experimental results indicate that measurement precision can meet the customer accuracy requirement of +/-0.02 mm.

  20. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.

  2. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  3. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  4. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  5. Complementary therapy use and quality of life in persons with high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sherry; Laws, Edward R; Anderson, Frederick; Farace, Elana

    2006-08-01

    Studies have indicated that 30%-80% of cancer patients use complementary and alternative practices and products (CAPPs), but little is known about CAPPs use by persons with brain tumors. This secondary analysis of Glioma Outcomes Project data compared CAPPs users with nonusers, compared those who stopped using CAPPs with those who continued use, described frequency and patterns of CAPPs use, and compared the relationship of CAPPs use to self-reported quality of life (QOL) over time, in 186 persons with high-grade gliomas. CAPPs users at all three measurement points rated QOL higher, although not significantly higher, than nonusers. Study findings support further exploration of CAPPs use and its effects on key outcomes in persons with high-grade gliomas.

  6. Establishment of quality system program for the manufacture of nuclear grade steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Toru

    1978-01-01

    Recently, the pressure vessels employed in the fields of nuclear power generation, petroleum refining, and chemical industry tend to be large size and high performance, therefore thick steel plates and forgings of high quality are demanded, and the establishment and maintenance of strict quality assurance system for material production are required. In Mizushima Works, Kawasaki Steel Corp., the installations for large forgings and thick plates were constructed from 1969 to 1976, and the researches on the development of production techniques were forwarded in parallel. A Quality System Certificate (Material) has been granted to Mizushima Works on March 11, 1977, by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for the manufacture of steel plates and forgings of nuclear grade. The quality system manual as the basis of quality assurance activities, the organization for quality assurance, its responsibility and authority, the discrimination of materials, the control of manufacturing processes, the qualification of workers in charge of nondestructive test, welding, heat treatment and others, the management of tests and inspections, the management of products with faults and repairing measures, and internal supervisory system are explained. The wide use of computers is novel in the field of quality system program. (Kako, I.)

  7. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  8. Health-related quality of life in patients with high-grade gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2015-01-01

    follow-up after 1 year. Scores of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), physical activity, anxiety and depression and health-related quality of life (FACT-Br) are obtained. Patients' physical activity level and KPS decrease during the disease- and treatment trajectory. The majority of patients did......The diagnosis of a high-grade glioma usual is followed by functional impairment(s), cognitive decline and an impaired psycho-social well-being. This might well have a significant and negative impact on the health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity...... levels, prevalence and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life among patients with a highgrade glioma. This paper is based on a longitudinal mixed methods study. Patients (n = 30) completed questionnaires at 5 time points from time of diagnosis until the final...

  9. 49 CFR 230.113 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 33/4 inches of the flange. (g) Worn flanges... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 230.113 Section 230.113... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.113 Wheels and tire defects. Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires...

  10. Model-based state estimator for an intelligent tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A. P.; Schmeitz, A. J.C.; Besselink, I.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  11. Model-based State Estimator for an Intelligent Tire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, J.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Tire State Estimator (TSE) is developed and validated using data from a tri-axial accelerometer, installed at the inner liner of the tire. The Flexible Ring Tire (FRT) model is proposed to calculate the tire deformation. For a rolling tire, this deformation is transformed into

  12. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  13. Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This international Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the uranium content in uranyl nitrate product solutions of nuclear grade quality at concentrations above 100 g/l of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method. Uranyl nitrate is converted into uranium octoxide (U 3 O 8 ) by ignition in air to constant mass at 900 deg. C ± 10 deg. C. Calculation of the uranium content in the sample using a gravimetric conversion factor which depends on the isotopic composition of the uranium. The isotopic composition is determined by mass spectrometry

  14. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Walvekar Rashmi; Afiq Zulkefly Mohammad.; Ramarad Suganti; Khalid Siddiqui

    2018-01-01

    This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due t...

  15. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  16. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  17. Beef customer satisfaction: USDA quality grade and marination effects on consumer evaluations of top round steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-03-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and marination. Consumers evaluated each steak for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales (1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and none at all to 10 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor, respectively). Quality grade affected several consumer sensory traits, with top Choice receiving higher (P Consumers in Chicago rated steaks cooked "medium and less" higher for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount than those in Philadelphia (city x degree of doneness; P customers in Philadelphia received among the highest scores for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount compared with any cooking method used by customers in Chicago (cooking method x city; P customers' satisfaction with top round steaks, and was the sensory trait most highly correlated to overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Preparation of top round steaks was crucial in consumers' likes and dislikes, and by improving flavor, higher consumer satisfaction may be achieved.

  18. Vehicle Tire and Wheel Creation in BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Tire Tread Modeling 4  4.  Setting Tire Thickness 7  5.  Changing the Rim Width 9  6.  Changing the Radial Location of the... treaded or nontreaded model in the tire -model.c combination based on the analysis. 4. Setting Tire Thickness Tire thickness is manipulated via... tread is not modeled by default but can be added using options. • Fine-grained control of parameters such as tire thickness is available with

  19. Tire Models for Use in Braking Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svendenius, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    The tire is a significant part for control of a vehicle. For a well-working brake system the contact properties between the tire and the ground is the limiting factor for a safe braking. To get optimal performance it is important that the system can utilize all friction resources. The brush tire model was a popular method in the 1960's and 1970's before the empirical approaches became dominating. The brush model gives an educational interpretation of the physics behind the tire behavi...

  20. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  2. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  3. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-21

    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  4. POST-MISSION QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE FOR SURVEY-GRADE MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kerstinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners and a Position and Orientation System (POS, designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as “mapping-grade” or “survey-grade” depending on the system’s attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s to the IMU body frame as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges. As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  5. High-speed potato grading and quality inspection based on a color vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; Otten, Gerwoud W.; Timmermans, Toine J. M.; van Zwol, Bauke H.

    2000-03-01

    A high-speed machine vision system for the quality inspection and grading of potatoes has been developed. The vision system grades potatoes on size, shape and external defects such as greening, mechanical damages, rhizoctonia, silver scab, common scab, cracks and growth cracks. A 3-CCD line-scan camera inspects the potatoes in flight as they pass under the camera. The use of mirrors to obtain a 360-degree view of the potato and the lack of product holders guarantee a full view of the potato. To achieve the required capacity of 12 tons/hour, 11 SHARC Digital Signal Processors perform the image processing and classification tasks. The total capacity of the system is about 50 potatoes/sec. The color segmentation procedure uses Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in combination with a Mahalanobis distance classifier to classify the pixels. The procedure for the detection of misshapen potatoes uses a Fourier based shape classification technique. Features such as area, eccentricity and central moments are used to discriminate between similar colored defects. Experiments with red and yellow skin-colored potatoes have shown that the system is robust and consistent in its classification.

  6. Meat quality parameters of descendants by grading hybridization of Boer goat and Guanzhong Dairy goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W; Kou, L; Cao, B; Wei, Y

    2010-03-01

    Chemical composition, cholesterol levels, fatty acid profile, meat taste, and quality parameters were evaluated in 48 buck kids from goats of the Guanzhong Dairy breed (Group G) and their crosses (Group F1: 1/2 Boermale symbolx1/2 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F2: 3/4 Boermale symbolx1/4 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol; Group F3: 7/8 Boermale symbolx1/8 Guanzhong Dairyfemale symbol) at different ages of slaughter (6, 8 and 10 months). Results indicated that grading hybridization (Pmeat nutritive value. The muscle of hybrid goats had lower crude fat and cholesterol, higher crude protein, and greater proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 than that of Group G at each age. Group F1 goats had better (Pgoats were tenderer and juicier compared to Group G. In all four groups, cholesterol levels increased (Pmeat quality, and the higher ratio of unsaturated to SFA in Group F1 indicate better quality for human consumption. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The effect of tape casting operational parameters on the quality of adjacently graded ceramic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Gudik-Sørensen, Mads; Della Negra, Michela

    2016-01-01

    For small length tape casting of ceramic slurries varying green film thickness is often a problem. To optimise this, the following parameters were investigated: single blade, double blade, using a pump system and a modelled speed change mode have been analysed. Advantages and limitations of every...... method are described here. The tape casting experiments were built to be generic in order to allow the control of various processing conditions. From these results, the single-blade technique was chosen for a study of side-by-side tape casting. The influence of the geometric parameters of partitioning...... the casting tank into chambers, on the quality of graded tape was studied. Tape casting experiments at different speeds and partition tongue lengths in combination with rheological tests revealed that high casting speeds and absence of the partition under the blade are detrimental to the formation...

  8. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  9. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  10. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  11. Usage of post-consumer tires as raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vovk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of post-consumer tires accumulation and recycling both in Europe and Ukraine. It describes general tires properties, their structure and composite elements which are valuable secondary resources. Also there are analyzed the most known methods of used tires treatment and final product of tires utilizations.

  12. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire identification requirements. 574.5 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDKEEPING § 574.5 Tire identification requirements. Each tire manufacturer shall conspicuously label on one...

  13. 40 CFR 202.23 - Visual tire inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual tire inspection. 202.23 Section... Visual tire inspection. No motor carrier subject to these regulations shall at any time operate any motor vehicle of a type to which this regulation is applicable on a tire or tires having a tread pattern which...

  14. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A.; Rehfuess, Eva A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Verbeek, Jos H.; Holloway, Alison C.; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2016-01-01

    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this

  15. Colorimetric grading scale can promote the standardization of experiential and sensory evaluation in quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-bo Wang

    Full Text Available Experiential and sensory evaluation is an ancient method that remains important in the current quality control system of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs. The process is rapid and convenient when evaluating the quality of crude materials in TCM markets. However, sensory evaluation has been met with skepticism because it is mainly based on experience and lacks a scientific basis. In this study, rhubarb was selected to demonstrate how color-based sensory evaluation could differentiate the quality of herbal medicines objectively. The colors of the rhubarb samples, expressed as RGB values, were obtained from different parts and forms of the plant, including the plant's surface, fracture surface color, and a powdered form with or without treatment with a color-developing reagent. We first divided the rhubarb samples into three grades based on the total content of five hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives, the major pharmacological components in rhubarb. Then, a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, calibrated with selected training samples, was used to correlate the quality of the rhubarb with its color. The color of the rhubarb powder after coloration attained the highest accuracy (92.3% in predicting the quality grade of the test samples with the established artificial neural networks. Finally, a standardized colorimetric grading scale was created based on the spatial distribution of the rhubarb samples in a two-dimensional chromaticity diagram according to the colors of the powdered rhubarb after color enhancement. By comparing the color between the scale and the tested samples, similar to performing a pH test with indicator paper, subjects without sensory evaluation experience could quickly determine the quality grade of rhubarb. This work illustrates the technical feasibility of the color-based grading of rhubarb quality and offers references for quantifying and standardizing the sensory evaluation of TCMs, foods and

  16. Post-consumer tires back into new tires: de-vulcanization and re-utilization of passenger car tires

    OpenAIRE

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah

    2013-01-01

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The opportunity lies in the wide availability of the material and in the fact that passenger car tires form a huge potential market for recycled rubber. The aim of this study is to develop a de-vulcanizatio...

  17. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012--Analysis of grading to test quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickler, Angela; Brüstle, Peter; Biller, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC) and the other teaching hospitals could be found. In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time. The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315). The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (Landesprüfungsamt). The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of "very good" less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165). This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before. The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  18. Writing fluency and quality in kindergarten and first grade: The role of attention, reading, transcription, and oral language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students’ reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language component skills. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that a model including attention was better fitting than a model with only language and literacy factors. Attention, a higher-order literacy factor related to reading and spelling proficiency, and automaticity in letter-writing were uniquely and positively related to compositional fluency in kindergarten. Attention and higher-order literacy factor were predictive of both composition quality and fluency in first grade, while oral language showed unique relations with first grade writing quality. Implications for writing development and instruction are discussed. PMID:25132722

  19. Forestry Tire Tractive Performance: New, Worn, and with Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Vechinski; C.R. Johnson; R.L. Raper; T.P. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The tractive perfomance of a new tire, a worn tire, and a worn tire with forestry tire chains was measured in four soil types. Two of the soil types simulated forest-floor conditions with one soil type having a sulfate cover of pine straw and the other having a surface cover of sod. The two remaining soil types were bare. The worn tire with and without chains had...

  20. Survivability Enhanced Run-Flat Variable Footprint Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    with tire tread . By varying the thickness and geometry of the polyurethane soft layer, this unique tire -wheel assembly can generate a wide array of...carcass severely damaged/punctured, provide the same dynamic deflection as the normal pneumatic tire , and provide similar tread life. Could a tire be...be for an optimized shape. Fig 8 shows the actual process applied to a current tire . The carbon fiber was added by removing the tread , cutting

  1. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  2. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and....501 Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and... imports: (1) Potatoes, onions or tomatoes for consumption by charitable institutions or distribution by...

  3. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  4. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Chen Liang; Jing Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5) was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS). The ti...

  5. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  6. Effect of Fermented Cocoa Pod Husk Level in Concentrate on Etawah Grade Semen Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, F. F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the effect of fermented CPH supplementation level in concentrate toward semen quality of Etawah Grade Buck (EGB). This research was conducted from August to October, 2011 at experiment pen and Feeds Science Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah, Yogyakarta. Semen was collected from 4 heads of EGB with about 2 years old and weight approximately of 24 kg. Concentrate was main material of CPH fermentation with composition P0 0, P1 20%, P2 40% and P3 60% from total of ration. The composer was used by the Aspergillus niger BPT with density 9.1 × 107 of colony/g as many as 1% of CPH material (on dry matter). Semen collection was done every 1 time/week and to be done five times semen collection. An examination was consisting of volume, color, smell, consistency, and the pH. Meanwhile, for microscopic examination was motion of mass, individual, motility, viability of spermatozoa. pH of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 6.95, 7.03, 7.50 and 7.79, respectively. Mass movement of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were +++, +++, ++ and ++, while viability of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 79.57%, 79.47%, 59.97% and 51.13%, respectively. It was concluded that addition of CPH fermentation in concentrates up to 20% for of EGB has not affect to feed consumption but it has affect to decreasing of semen quality in both of microscopic and microscopic.

  7. Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Cozzolino, Daniel; Bastian, Susan E P; Jeffery, David W

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation.

  8. Melt quality induced failure of electrical conductor (EC grade aluminum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of electrical conductor grade (EC aluminum during wire drawing process was investigated. The fractured aluminum wires were subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses for an initial examination. Thermodynamic analyses of molten aluminum interaction with refractories was also carried out using FactSage at 710°C to predict the stable phases. The SEM/EDX analyses has revealed the inclusions in aluminum matrix. The typical inclusions observed were Al2O3, Al3C4 (Al-Carbide and oxides of refractories elements (Al, Mg, Si and O that have particle size ranging up to 5 μm. The transition metal boride particles were not identified during SEM/EDX analyses these might be too fine to be detected with this microscope. The overall investigation suggested that the possible cause of this failure is second phase particles presence as inclusions in the aluminum matrix, and this was associated with the poor quality of melt. During wire drawing process, these inclusions were pulled out of the aluminum matrix by the wiredrawing forces to produce micro-voids which led to ductile tearing and final fracture of wires. It was recommended to use ceramic foam filters to segregate inclusions from molten aluminum.

  9. Differences in the quality of school-based assessment: Evidence in Grade 9 mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surette van Staden

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive study, using a qualitative case study approach, aims to investigate whether there is evidence of variance in the quality of school-based assessment (SBA in Grade 9 mathematics. Participants were purposefully selected from five schools in a district in the Northern Cape in South Africa. After questionnaires were completed, individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from the participating schools. Documents were collected and analysed to corroborate or contradict data from the questionnaires and interviews. Lack of adherence to policy, variation in classroom practice and inconsistent monitoring and moderation practices were identified as themes of possible sources of variation in SBA. An analysis of the interviews and document analysis revealed that most of the Heads of Department and principals lacked in-depth knowledge and understanding of their roles and functions in making SBA reliable, credible and valid. This was not only due to a lack of capacity to perform such functions, but was also due to a lack of effective induction and training by the district and provincial offices. Findings from the current study point to the necessary role that a periodic evaluation of SBA may play to ensure its effectiveness, credibility and reliability as part of successful assessment practices in a mostly developing context.

  10. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion: a category with an increased outcome of high-grade lesions: use as a quality assurance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Ha T; Wilbur, David C; Tambouret, Rosemary H

    2012-08-01

    "Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL-H) is an increasingly used, equivocal interpretive category in gynecologic cytology. In an effort to evaluate its potential usefulness as a measure of quality assurance, we studied patterns of use of the LSIL-H diagnosis compared with "LSIL" and "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (HSIL) with corresponding histologic outcomes for 10 cytopathologists in our practice. In our laboratory, while the overall rate of associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater on histologic follow-up for LSIL-H was intermediate between that of LSIL and HSIL, the outcomes for individual cytopathologists varied widely. Monitoring this particular utilization-outcome data with periodic confidential feedback to individual cytopathologists offers an opportunity for practice improvement within a laboratory and serves as an additional measure of quality assurance. These data may be useful for establishing and/or realigning the diagnostic criteria for this equivocal cytologic interpretation endorsed by a pathology practice.

  13. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  14. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  15. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  16. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  17. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  18. Wheels and Tires: Understanding the Numbers on the Sides of Tires Might Lead to Longer Life Tires and Improved Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Automotive wheels and tires require knowledge to understand their specifications and use. While the durability and useful life of tires have increased substantially over the last several decades, in all probability consumers will purchase a number of vehicle tires over their lifetime. Knowing how they are made and what the numbers mean will assist…

  19. Impact of focal spot size on radiologic image quality: A visual grading analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, Sinead [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Brennan, Patrick C., E-mail: patrick.brennan@ucd.i [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    Fine and broad focal spot sizes are available on general X-ray tubes. Excessive use of fine focus can impact on tube life and whilst it is established that fine focal spot size reduces geometric unsharpness, the extent of this benefit on clinical image quality is unclear. The current cadaver-based work compares images produced with effective focal sizes of 0.8 mm and 1.8 mm. Four projection types were included, lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine, and a visual grading analysis was used to assess visibility of anatomical criteria. Five clinicians scored each image using a 1-4 scoring scale, a reference image was employed for standardization and a Mann-Whitney U statistical test compared results derived from each focus. Radiation doses were monitored using a dose area product (DAP) meter. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant differences between images produced at each focus, although a relationship between body part thickness and number of criteria with a higher (non-significant) score for the fine focus compared with the broad focal spot size was demonstrated. Choice of focus had no radiation dose implications. Fine foci X-ray sources are used predominantly for extremity imaging to enhance visualization of fine detail such as trabecular patterns, yet there is no evidence to support this practice. The argument for regular employment of fine foci, particularly for the type of acquisition and display devices used in this study, needs to be revisited.

  20. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks

  1. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  2. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  3. Robust and Automated Internal Quality Grading of a Chinese Green Tea (Longjing by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Shu Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods were applied to internal quality control of a Chinese green tea, Longjing, with Protected Geographical Indication (PGI. A total of 2745 authentic Longjing tea samples of three different grades were analyzed by NIR spectroscopy. To remove the influence of abnormal samples, The Stahel-Donoho estimate (SDE of outlyingness was used for outlier analysis. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was then used to classify the grades of tea based on NIR spectra. Different data preprocessing methods, including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2 spectra, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation, were performed to reduce unwanted spectral variations in samples of the same grade before classification models were developed. The results demonstrate that smoothing, taking D2 spectra, and SNV can improve the performance of PLSDA models. With SNV spectra, the model sensitivity was 1.000, 0.955, and 0.924, and the model specificity was 0.979, 0.952, and 0.996 for samples of three grades, respectively. FT-NIR spectrometry and chemometrics can provide a robust and effective tool for rapid internal quality control of Longjing green tea.

  4. Evaluation of the tire pressure influence on the lateral forces that occur between tire and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoş, N.; Todoruţ, A.; Barabás, I.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to capture the behavior of a vehicle on a race circuit, depending on the different inflation pressures of the tires (underpressure and overpressure). Taking into account that in the cornering the forces and the moments of inertia rise due the vehicle mass, and an inertial force decomposes in two components, one in the longitudinal plane and one in the transverse plane, the work aims the assessing the lateral forces that appear, to the contact between the tires and the tread, depending on the inflation pressure. The results have a graphic interpretation, enabling a comparative study of them. Results have been obtained regarding the lateral tire forces that occur between the tire and the road. The differences between these forces were particularly noticeable in cornering, and the differences between these forces were interpreted according to the tire inflation pressure.

  5. 柴胡种子质量分级标准%Research on Quality Grading Standards of Radix Bupleuri Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立子; 张婕; 魏建和; 隋春; 金钺; 杨成民; 褚庆龙

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish quality grading standards of radix bupleuri seeds in order to control the quality and regulate the seeds' market supply and demand. In the research, five quality indicators of radix bupleuri seeds were tested including germination percentage, 1000-grain weight, neatness, water content and viability using the testing methods identified by our research group; the data were analyzed on the basis of K-means clustering algorithm with the SPSS 17.0 statistical analysis software. The research had finally set up the quality grading standards of radix bupleuri seeds totally with four indices and three grades, which took germination percentage and the 1000-grain weight as the main criteria, and the neatness and the water content as the reference. Except the seeds with germination percentage below 50%, among 25 samples, there were 8 accessions in the first grade, 11 accessions in the second grade, 6 accessions in the third grade. The standards can provide a reference for radix bupleuri seeds quality inspection.%为了建立柴胡种子质量分级标准,以便控制其质量,规范其供需市场.采用柴胡种子检验方法,测定不同来源的柴胡种子的发芽率、千粒重、净度、含水量和生活力等指标;根据K类中心聚类分析原理,使用SPSS17.0统计分析软件对数据进行了分析.最终确定了以发芽率和千粒重2项指标为主要标准,净度和含水量为参考标准的4项指标3个等级的柴胡种子质量分级标准.除去发芽率低于50%的不合格种子,25份试样中Ⅰ级有8个,Ⅱ级有11个,Ⅲ级有6个.此标准可为柴胡种子品质检验提供参考.

  6. New developments in tire derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, G. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Portland cement is a mixture of finely ground raw materials that are processed in a rotary kiln heated to 1500 degrees C by various fuels. Cooled clinker from the kiln is ground into portland cement. This presentation provided an overview of the role that tire-derived fuels is now playing in cement manufacturing. Data on the extent of TDF use in cement manufacturing processes were presented, as well as the results of air emissions monitoring programs conducted to assess the environmental impacts of TDF. During the cement manufacturing process, shredded and chipped tires are blown into the kiln to provide fuel, while whole tires are placed in the midpoint of long dry or wet kilns. For preheater and precalciner kilns, whole tires are added to raw material entering the kiln. The kiln's controlled combustion environment ensures the complete destruction of scrap tires. Approximately 130 million scrap tires were recycled in Portland cement plants in 2003. Forty-four portland cement plants are currently using TDF in North America. The United States Department of Energy has estimated that TDF produces less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) per unit of energy than coal. Monitoring programs at Portland cement plants have indicated that the use of TDF in place of coal has resulted in moderate reductions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, slightly lower sulfuric oxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions and moderate reductions in carbon monoxide (CO). Some plants have reported slight reductions in particulate matter (PM) emissions. It was concluded that the use of scrap tires as a fuel reduces a waste stream and contributes to energy and raw material requirements. Moreover, plant air emissions are either reduced or are not impacted by TDF use. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  8. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the Release of the 105-C Below-Grade Structures and Underlying Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The C Reactor is associated with the 100-BC-2 Operable Unit. The below-ground structures of the C Reactor are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). These structures include the fuel storage basin, lift station, and other below-grade rooms and tunnels. The goal of the data quality objectives process is to establish the sampling and analysis design strategy to support decontamination and closeout decisions

  9. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the Release of the 105-C Below-Grade Structures and Underlying Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The C Reactor is associated with the 100-BC-2 Operable Unit. The below-ground structures of the C Reactor are scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). These structures include the fuel storage basin, lift station, and other below-grade rooms and tunnels. The goal of the data quality objectives process is to establish the sampling and analysis design strategy to support decontamination and closeout decisions

  10. A Synthesis on the Evolution of the Studded Tire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angerinos, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Ever since studded tires were flrst introduced, the advantages, disadvantages, and effects of studded tires on vehicles, drivers and pavement systems has been the center of research and controversy...

  11. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  12. Federal Research on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground rubber is recovered from scrap tires or from the tire retreading process. It is used in road construction and in athletic and recreational applications,like ground cover under playground equipment, running track material, and as a soil additive.

  13. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  14. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  15. Rubber - application of radiation to tire manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.D.; Alliger, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the advent of commercial accelerators during the last several years capable of producing controllable electron beams of high energy, Firestone has devoted a considerable effort to the better understanding of the possible applications of such radiation to the production of tires or tire components. A number of chemical reactions can occur when elastomeric compounds are exposed to high energy waves, but crosslinking and degradation are the most important. The degree to which the crosslinking reaction predominates depends upon the nature of the rubber, compounding ingredients and the dosage. In general then, the effects achieved by the radiation of a rubber are quite similar to those resulting from heat. However, radiation cure or precure of compounds offers the advantage that the degree of crosslinking can be better controlled. Uniform crosslinking is possible since the high speed electrons penetrate uniformly throughout the sample. Curing with heat on the other hand may result in a greater degree of crosslinking on the surface of the sample than the center because of low heat conductivity. In general, radiation can be used to advantage to crosslink partially rubber tire components so that they retain better their shape and dimension during tire assembly and final cure or vulcanization. Added advantages of radiation precure include: a reduction of material usage, substitution of synthetic for natural rubber without loss in strength and the fact that partially crosslinked components will not thin out or become displaced during construction and vulcanization of the tire. (author)

  16. The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. End-uses for oil and carbon black products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.; Chaala, A.; Darmstadt, H. [Institut Pyrovac Inc., Parc Technologique du Quebec Metropolitain, rue Franquet, Sainte-Foy (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    By vacuum pyrolysis, the rubber portion of used tires is transformed into oil and gas and the carbon black filler is recovered as pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). Several commercial applications for the different products have been investigated and are reported in this article. CB{sub P} surface chemistry and activity are similar to those of commercial carbon blacks. Therefore, CB{sub P} has the potential to replace commercial carbon black grades in certain rubber applications. CB{sub P} was successfully tested as a filler in road pavement. The total pyrolytic oil can be used as a liquid fuel. The oil can also be distilled into different fractions: a light, a middle distillate and a heavy fraction. The light fraction was positively tested as a gasoline additive. Furthermore, this fraction contains valuable chemicals such as d,l-limonene. The middle fraction was successfully tested as a plasticizer in rubbers. The heavy fraction represents a good-quality feedstock for the production of coke and can also be used in road pavements. The pyrolytic gas can be used as a make-up heat source for the pyrolysis process

  17. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingzhang; Liu, Youhua; Li, Xuezhi

    2014-01-01

    For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to...

  18. Simulation of Thermal Signature of Tires and Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    the body-ply is a linear elastic material. To facilitate the analysis, the tire was divided into Tread and Sidewall by the dash line as shown in...only one element is assigned through the thickness of the tire . Therefore, the thickness of the element is the same as the thickness of the tire ...to the whole part of the 3D full tire in the thermal analysis. The average strain energy density for each part ( tread or sidewall) in the cross

  19. Proceedings of Two Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    understanding of this tire inspection area. But this better technical understanding will not guar - antee the success of either the industry or...control. Tires with very dark sur- face may be sprayed with talcum powder to improve their reflectance. Depending upon tire type and the required tire...products there has been a tendency to use some natural or synthetic cross-linking polymer gums which under extended heat conditions have tended to

  20. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tire defects. 229.75 Section 229.75....75 Wheels and tire defects. Wheels and tires may not have any of the following conditions: (a) A... two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length. (e) A seam running lengthwise that is...

  1. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... car tires. The final rule also established reporting requirements for the generated performance... aspects of tire performance: rolling resistance, wet traction, and treadwear life.\\3\\ The final rule also... provide information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear...

  2. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  3. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  4. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When... the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d...

  5. Application of granulating of tires; Aplicaciones de granulado de NFUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Justicia, A.

    2001-07-01

    At present, used tires are mainly used as fuel, retreading and granulating of tires. In this article. I will focus on the last option, talking about some of the multiple applications and going into detail of the making process of the granulation of used tires in a recycling plant. (Author)

  6. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  7. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  8. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  9. An Alternative Grading Tool for Enhancing Assessment Practice and Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Peter; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Assessing student learning in university courses is commonly done using a rubric that arranges the assessment criteria and standards descriptors in a matrix style or grid format. This paper introduces an alternative style of grading tool known as the continua model of a guide to making judgements, which arranges assessment criteria based on a…

  10. The Dynamics of Narrative Writing in Primary Grade Children: Writing Process Factors Predict Story Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Wenche A.; Helland, Turid

    2016-01-01

    In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local…

  11. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  12. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  13. Lack of grading agreement among international hemostasis external quality assessment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, John D.; Jennings, Ian; Meijer, Piet; Bon, Chantal; Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J.; Higgins, Russell A.; Keeney, Michael; Mammen, Joy; Marlar, Richard A.; Meley, Roland; Nair, Sukesh C.; Nichols, William L.; Raby, Anne; Reverter, Joan C.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and h...

  14. Empirical Analysis of Pneumatic Tire Friction on Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Troy Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Pneumatic tire friction on ice is an under-researched area of tire mechanics. This study covers the design and analysis of a series of pneumatic tire tests on a flat-level ice road surface. The terramechanics rig of the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Lab (AVDL) is a single-wheel test rig that allows for the experimental analysis of the forces and moments on a tire, providing directly the data for the drawbar pull of said tire, thus supporting the calculation of friction based on this data. This...

  15. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation on tire-aggregate friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The friction between tire and road surface is fundamentally depending on the molecular forces. In this paper, the nanoscale 3D contact model is employed to investigate the tire-aggregate friction mechanism. The tire and aggregate micro-structure are both constructed to evaluate the microscopic performance of tire-aggregate friction influence. Simulation results show for a high velocity, the energy dissipation of sliding on crystal structure is small, which results in a small friction coefficient; temperature will have influences on the friction coefficient, and with the increasing of velocity, the effect will gradually reduce. Keywords: Tire, Aggregate, Friction coefficient, Microscopic mechanism, MD simulation

  16. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  17. Increasing participation and improving the quality of discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Burleigh M.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Schaeffer, Janae; Sherman, James A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate procedures to improve classroom discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes. An increased number of students participated in discussions when rules were stated for discussions, students were praised for their contributions, the teacher restated or paraphrased students' contributions aloud or on the blackboard, the teacher planned an outline of discussion questions, student contributions to discussions were recorded and were used to determine par...

  18. Quality Assessment of the Physico-Mechanical and Elemental Composition of Three Pencil Grades and Eraser Types Produced in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Omoniyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality assessment of the physical (pH, electrical conductivity, density, writeability, eraseability, mechanical (compression test and break strength and elemental composition of the pencil grades HB, 2B and 3B and eraser types of brand names Ben 10, Tiky 20 and the commonest White eraser in Nigerian primary school (Gummes Co. China was carried out. The diameter of the graphite part increased in the order HB Cr > Cd. Though, the levels of the trace metals and essential elements detected in the school items are below the recommended limits, regulatory measures should be directed towards maintaining the standards of school items.

  19. Recovery and disposal of discarded tires in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J S; Roam, G D

    1994-12-01

    Urbanization and industrialization has resulted in a vast amount of artificial water containers in Taiwan, especially discarded automobile tires. 3.5 million automobile tires and several million motorcycle tires are discarded annually. The discarded tires contaminate the environment and also become a substantial number of breeding sites for the dengue vector mosquitoes. In order to establish a sound system for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires and to control dengue fever through source reduction, it has been emphasized that users must pay for their waste. It is necessary to recover and properly dispose of these discarded tired. The commercial firms which sell or manufacture tires are therefore advised to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Administration of the Executive Yuan, R.O.C. and follow the "Regulations of Recovery and Disposal of Discarded Tires". They are requested to establish foundations for the recovery of discarded tires. Those who are willing to join should prepay a deposit or related charge by the size of tire, which is imported or locally manufactured. The foundation utilizes the deposits for the recovery and disposal of discarded tires. From 1991 to 1993 the commercial tire firms had already achieved the 80% recovery rates declared by the authorities concerned. Some of the tires, after having been recovered, were recycled in the original form and the rest were cut into small pieces for recycling after physical treatment. It should be mentioned that the Department of Environmental Protection of Kaohsiung City has collected 80 thousand discarded automobile tires to be used as ocean jetty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Use of Bayesian Networks to Assess the Quality of Evidence from Research Synthesis: 2. Inter-Rater Reliability and Comparison with Standard GRADE Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Llewellyn

    Full Text Available The grades of recommendation, assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE approach is widely implemented in systematic reviews, health technology assessment and guideline development organisations throughout the world. We have previously reported on the development of the Semi-Automated Quality Assessment Tool (SAQAT, which enables a semi-automated validity assessment based on GRADE criteria. The main advantage to our approach is the potential to improve inter-rater agreement of GRADE assessments particularly when used by less experienced researchers, because such judgements can be complex and challenging to apply without training. This is the first study examining the inter-rater agreement of the SAQAT.We conducted two studies to compare: a the inter-rater agreement of two researchers using the SAQAT independently on 28 meta-analyses and b the inter-rater agreement between a researcher using the SAQAT (who had no experience of using GRADE and an experienced member of the GRADE working group conducting a standard GRADE assessment on 15 meta-analyses.There was substantial agreement between independent researchers using the Quality Assessment Tool for all domains (for example, overall GRADE rating: weighted kappa 0.79; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.93. Comparison between the SAQAT and a standard GRADE assessment suggested that inconsistency was parameterised too conservatively by the SAQAT. Therefore the tool was amended. Following amendment we found fair-to-moderate agreement between the standard GRADE assessment and the SAQAT (for example, overall GRADE rating: weighted kappa 0.35; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.87.Despite a need for further research, the SAQAT may aid consistent application of GRADE, particularly by less experienced researchers.

  2. Ghostwriters Guaranteeing Grades? The Quality of Online Ghostwriting Services Available to Tertiary Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Ghostwriting is difficult to detect, it has the potential to be high quality, and universities do not currently have adequate policies in place to police it. Determining the quality of the ghostwriting services available to tertiary students is of vital importance because underestimating the potential for students to use these services to pass…

  3. Measuring the Quality of the Assessment Process: Dealing with Grading Inconsistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosik, Dawid

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines an assessment process within the context of quality, accountability and institutional effectiveness in academia. Considered as one of the most important elements in higher education, the assessment process plays a significant role in contributing to holistic quality as well as the performance of an academic institution. As a…

  4. Mechanical Properties Experimental Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The vehicle refurbished tire test system was constructed, got load-deformation, load-stiffness, and load-compression ratio property laws of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact, and built radial direction loading deformation mathematics model of 26.5R25 engineering vehicle refurbished tire. The test results show that radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. The radial-direction stiffness and compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire were greatly influenced by radial-direction load and air inflation pressure. When load was certain, radial-direction stiffness would increase with air inflation pressure increasing. When air inflation pressure was certain, compression ratio of engineering vehicle refurbished tire would enlarge with radial-direction load increasing, which was a little less than that of the new and the same type tire. Aging degree of old car-case would exert a great influence on deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire, thus engineering vehicle refurbished tires are suitable to the working condition of low tire pressure and less load.

  5. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  6. Optimization of fuel recovery through the stepwise co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire was studied. • The effect of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature was investigated. • Co-pyrolysis successfully improved the quantity and quality of product yields. • Stepwise co-pyrolysis slightly increased oil and gas, and decreased char. • The co-pyrolysis of 50% biomass and 50% scrap tire is recommended. - Abstract: This study optimized the use of biomass waste to generate fuel through co-pyrolysis. In this paper, the effects of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature and different ratios between palm shells and scrap tires in feedstock were studied to observe any improvements in the quantity and quality of the liquid yield and its byproduct. The ratio of palm shells and scrap tires varied at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The experiment was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The study was divided into two scenarios. The first scenario was performed at the optimum temperature of 500 °C with a reaction time of 60 min. In the second scenario, the temperature was set at 500 °C for 60 min before the temperature was increased to 800 °C with a high heating rate. After the temperature reached 800 °C, the condition was maintained for approximately 45 min. Results showed that an increase in the liquid and gas yields was achieved when the temperature increased after optimum conditions. Increased yield was also obtained when the proportion of scrap tire was increased in the feedstock. Several other important findings are discussed in this paper, including the phases of pyrolysis oil, features of the liquid product, and characteristics of the byproducts. All products from both scenarios were analyzed by various methods to understand their fuel characteristics

  7. Quality assurance grading guidelines for research and development at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, T.B.; Morris, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The quality assurance (QA) requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) are established in DOE Order 5700.6C. This order is applicable for all DOE departmental elements, management, and maintenance and operating contractors and requires that documented Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) are prepared at all levels; it has one attachment. The DOE Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER) has issued a standard to ensure implementation of the full intent of this order in the ER community.

  8. Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta G.; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants’ recent circumstances 2002–2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals’ more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life. PMID:25220504

  9. The Effect of Different Location of Muscle on Quality of Frozen Simmental Ongole Grade Male Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triasih, D.; Krisdiani, D.; Riyanto, J.; Pratitis, W.; Widyawati, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the influence of different types of muscle on the characteristics physical quality frozen meat of Simmental Ongole Crossbreed Male frozen meat. The research had been conducted at the Laboratory of Meat Technology and Processing and Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Faculty of Animal Science, University GadjahMada, Yogyakarta. The physical quality with 4 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), Triceps brachii (TB), and Pectoralis profundus (PP). The chemical quality with 3 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Triceps brachii (TB). The research used Completely Randomized Design with 5 replications for each treatment. The variables of the physical quality test were pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test were water content, protein content, fat content, and cholesterol content. The result of the physical quality test showed that the different types of muscle were significantly influence the pH value (P<0,01), also the influence the tenderness and cooking loss (P<0,05), but there was no significant different on water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test showed that the different types of muscle significant influenced on protein content and fat content (P<0,01). They were significant different (P<0,05) on water content, and there was significant effect (P<0,05) on cholesterol. In conclusion, the BF have high value of pH, cooking loss, water content, protein content, and cholesterol than other muscle, but have low value of tenderness and fat content.

  10. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  11. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  12. A new use for old tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  13. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light quality with respect to correlated color temperature and color rendering properties. This shows a trade-off between high color rendering warm white light and energy efficiency. The lumen and color maintenance over time has been investigated and results for products running over 11000 h will be presented. A new internet based SSL product selection tool will be shown. Here the products can be compared on efficiency, light quality parameters, thus providing a better basis for the selection of SSL products for consumers.

  14. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  15. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianhu; Chu, Zhaojun; Liu, Yingfang; Luo, Weiming; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall h...

  16. Tire Shred Backfill in Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balunaini, Umashankar; Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Salgado, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Tire shred-soil mixture backfill for use in mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls has several advantages over traditional backfill materials: 1) good drainage, 2) high shear strength, 3) low compacted unit weight and 4) low lateral pressure exerted on retaining structures. This work presents the results of laboratory tests performed on tire shred-sand mixtures focusing on determining the properties required for their use as backfill in MSE wall applications. Three sizes of tire shreds are...

  17. Deterministic and Stochastic Semi-Empirical Transient Tire Models

    OpenAIRE

    Umsrithong, Anake

    2012-01-01

    The tire is one of the most important components of the vehicle. It has many functions, such as supporting the load of the vehicle, transmitting the forces which drive, brake and guide the vehicle, and acting as the secondary suspension to absorb the effect of road irregularities before transmitting the forces to the vehicle suspension. A tire is a complex reinforced rubber composite air container. The structure of the tire is very complex. It consists of several layers of synthetic polymer, ...

  18. The design and improvement of radial tire molding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Zhang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented that the high accuracy semisteel meridian tire molding machine structure configurations, combining tyre high precision characteristics, the original structure and parameter optimization, technology improvement innovation design period of opening and closing machine rotary shaping drum institutions. This way out of the shaft from the structure to the push-pull type movable shaping drum of thinking limit, compared with the specifications and shaping drum can smaller contraction, is conducive to forming the tire and reduce the tire deformation.

  19. Integrated forward and reverse supply chain: A tire case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Udoncy, Olugu Ezutah; Mahat, Abu Bakar; Pedram, Payam; Babalola, Ayo

    2017-02-01

    This paper attempts to integrate both a forward and reverse supply chain to design a closed-loop supply chain network (CLSC). The problem in the design of a CLSC network is uncertainty in demand, return products and the quality of return products. Scenario analyses are generated to overcome this uncertainty. In contrast to the existing supply chain network design models, a new application of a CLSC network was studied in this paper to reduce waste. A multi-product, multi-tier mixed integer linear model is developed for a CLSC network design. The main objective is to maximize profit and provide waste management decision support in order to minimize pollution. The result shows applicability of the model in the tire industry. The model determines the number and the locations of facilities and the material flows between these facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  1. Evaluation of long-term pavement performance and noise characteristics of open-graded friction courses : project 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the second of three experimental installations of open-graded friction course (OGFC) quieter pavements designed to reduce the noise generated at the tire/pavement interface. Experimental sections of OGFC were built using a...

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  3. Experiments on Spray from a Rolling Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, Charles; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    A novel laboratory apparatus has been built to understand the mechanisms and statistics of droplet production for spray emerging from a rolling tire. Using high-speed imaging, water passing through a single circumferential groove was observed to leave the tire contact patch in the form of a liquid sheet of non-uniform thickness. The sheet breaks into droplets as a result of several, organized instabilities. Measurements for the breakup length of the liquid sheet showed a dependence on Weber number proportional to We-1/6, for Weber numbers of 2700, 10900 and 24400. A technique to identify and size water droplets was developed and the distribution of droplet sizes was determined as a function of Weber number. At We = 2700, droplet sizes between 80 and 9000μm were detected, with a mean diameter near 800μm. Both the range of droplet sizes and the mean diameter were found to decrease with increasing Weber number as (approximately) We-1/2. Correlation Image Velocimetry (CIV) was used to estimate the distribution of droplet velocities as a function of droplet size. The spread of droplet velocities about the tire peripheral speed is strongly correlated with droplet size. The spread can be estimated by a simple physical model incorporating rigid droplets subject to gravity and drag.

  4. In-plane Tire Deformation Measurement Using a Multi-Laser Sensor System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between tires and roads are basic mechanisms that alter the dynamic states of vehicles. A fundamental understanding of tire-road interactions is clearly demanded in tire design to achieve performance improvements. The emergence of various tire sensors provides an opportunity to make accurate measurement of the physical quantities that are involved in tire-road interactions.  This thesis aims to measure and analyze the in-plane deformation of rolling tires through its direc...

  5. Adherence and delivery: Implementation quality and program outcomes for the 7th grade keepin’ it REAL program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Graham, John W.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Shin, Young Ju

    2014-01-01

    Poor implementation quality (IQ) is known to reduce program effects making it important to consider IQ for evaluation and dissemination of prevention programs. However, less is known about the ways specific implementation variables relate to outcomes. In this study, two versions of the keepin’ it REAL, 7th grade drug prevention intervention were implemented in 78 classrooms in 25 schools in rural districts in Pennsylvania and Ohio. IQ was measured through observational coding of 276 videos. IQ variables included adherence to the curriculum, teacher engagement (attentiveness, enthusiasm, seriousness, clarity, positivity), student engagement (attention, participation), and a global rating of teacher delivery quality. Factor analysis showed that teacher engagement, student engagement, and delivery quality formed one factor, which was labeled delivery. A second factor was adherence to the curriculum. Self-report student surveys measured substance use, norms (beliefs about prevalence and acceptability of use), and efficacy (beliefs about one’s ability to refuse substance offers) at two waves (pretest, immediate posttest). Mixed model regression analysis which accounted for missing data and controlled for pretest levels examined implementation quality’s effects on individual level outcomes, statistically controlling for cluster level effects. Results show that when implemented well, students show positive outcomes compared to students receiving a poorly implemented program. Delivery significantly influenced substance use and norms, but not efficacy. Adherence marginally significantly predicted use and significantly predicted norms, but not efficacy. Findings underscore the importance of comprehensively measuring and accounting for IQ, particularly delivery, when evaluating prevention interventions. PMID:24442403

  6. [Weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination of water environmental sensitive spots in Jiashan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rong-Rong; Pang, Yong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Ke; Sun, Ming-Yuan

    2012-07-01

    For the safety of the water environment in Jiashan county in Zhejiang Province, one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality models are established based on three large-scale monitoring of hydrology and water quality in Jiashan county, three water environmental sensitive spots including Hongqitang dam Chijia hydrological station and Luxie pond are selected to investigate weight parameters of water quality impact and risk grade determination. Results indicate as follows (1) Internal pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than the external, the average weight parameters of internal chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution is 55.3%, internal ammonia nitrogen (NH(4+)-N) is 67.4%, internal total phosphor (TP) is 63.1%. Non-point pollution impact in Jiashan areas was greater than point pollution impact, the average weight parameters of non-point COD pollutions is 53.7%, non-point NH(4+)-N is 65.9%, non-point TP is 57.8%. (2) The risk of Hongqitang dam and Chijia hydrological station are in the middle risk. The risk of Luxie pond is also in the middle risk in August, and in April and December the risk of Luxie pond is low. The strategic decision will be suggested to guarantee water environment security and social and economic security in the study.

  7. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  8. Who benefited from the US tariffs on the Chinese tires?

    OpenAIRE

    Joonhyung, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...

  9. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  10. Environmental impact caused by incorrect discard of tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Emanuella da Silva Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tires are wastes that need special treatment, because when buried whole, its shape facilitates the accumulation of gases from the decomposition of other waste and in case of emerge surface provides shelter for diseases. Thus, this research aimed to provide information about the environmental impacts caused by the improper disposal of unserviceable tires and about some techniques for reusing and recycling them. We opted for the literature search using databases SCIELO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, CAPES journals, resolutions of the MMA, the ANIP and regulations of IBAMA instructions. The consultation material comprises a period from 1992 to 2015 with the following descriptors: industrial waste; laws of tires; environmental impacts caused by improper disposal of tires and technological alternatives usable by tires and scrap therefore improper disposal of scrap tires can cause negative impacts such as floods, by reducing the flow capacity of water bodies and drains. In contrast, after use, the tire can undergo reform and be reused, but the wear out is completely characterized as waste tire and the correct disposal are the possible ways of recycling. Thus it is very important compliance of laws that deal with the proper disposal of tires.

  11. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comp...

  12. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality...... of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been...... on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light...

  13. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  14. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  15. Development of an Intelligent Tire Based Tire - Vehicle State Estimator for Application to Global Chassis Control

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kanwar Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The contact between the tire and the road is the key enabler of vehicle acceleration, deceleration and steering. However, under the circumstances of sudden changes to the road conditions, the driver`s ability to maintain control of the vehicle maybe at risk. In many cases, this requires intervention from the chassis control systems onboard the vehicle. Although these systems perform well in a variety of situations, their performance can be improved if a real-time estimate of the tire-road c...

  16. Riding on air: critical safety information for you and your tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This booklet is issued for public distribution by Transport Canada. It provides a few simple tips concerning automobile tire safety which, if followed, is expected to result in increased personal and vehicle safety, improved fuel economy, prolonged tire life, energy savings and reduced environmental pollution. The information provided include tips about tire pressure, tire inspection for damage and wear, rotation of tires for more even wear, replacing worn tires, the advantages of using snow tires in winter and an explanation of the meaning of the information found on the tire sidewall.

  17. Associations between diet quality and physical activity measures among a southern Ontario regional sample of grade 6 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine diet quality and physical activity behaviours of grade 6 students by sex and body weight status, and to determine the associations between diet quality and physical activity behaviours. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, which included a 24-h diet recall and the modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), was administered to a cross-section of schools (n = 405 students from 15 schools). Measured height and weight were used to calculate body mass index and weight status (Cole et al. 2000). A Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-C) was used to describe overall diet quality. The mean HEI-C was 69.6 (13.2) with the majority (72%) falling into the needs improvement category. The overall mean physical activity score was 3.7 out of a maximum of 5, with obese subjects being less active compared with normal weight and overweight (p < 0.001). Ordinal logistic regression analysis (of HEI-C vs. all measures of the PAQ-C, sex, and weight status) revealed that HEI-C ratings were likely to be higher in students that walked to and from school 5 days per week (vs. 0 days per week; odds ratio 3.18, p = 0.010); and were active 1 evening per week (vs. none; odds ratio 3.48, p = 0.039). The positive association between diet quality and some aspects of physical activity suggests possible clustering of health behaviours. Future research should test the potential benefits of promoting 1 health behaviour (e.g., healthy eating) with another (e.g., physical activity).

  18. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai

    2015-01-01

    . The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a

  20. A Novel Strain-Based Method to Estimate Tire Conditions Using Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia-Pozuelo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The so-called intelligent tires are one of the most promising research fields for automotive engineers. These tires are equipped with sensors which provide information about vehicle dynamics. Up to now, the commercial intelligent tires only provide information about inflation pressure and their contribution to stability control systems is currently very limited. Nowadays one of the major problems for intelligent tire development is how to embed feasible and low cost sensors to obtain reliable information such as inflation pressure, vertical load or rolling speed. These parameters provide key information for vehicle dynamics characterization. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on fuzzy logic to estimate the mentioned parameters by means of a single strain-based system. Experimental tests have been carried out in order to prove the suitability and durability of the proposed on-board strain sensor system, as well as its low cost advantages, and the accuracy of the obtained estimations by means of fuzzy logic.

  1. Assessment of Grade of Dysphonia and Correlation With Quality of Life Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Ana Lúcia; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to check the correlation between vocal self-assessment and results of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol, and whether there is a correlation between perceptual vocal assessment made by voice therapists and the results from the V-RQOL protocol. The study included 245 subjects with vocal complaints. This was a prospective analytical clinical study. Vocal perceptual assessment of each subject with dysphonia was made by three voice therapists, followed by self-assessment made by the subjects themselves, and the application of the V-RQOL protocol. The results have shown poor level of agreement between vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and self-assessment made by the subjects. The statistical analysis indicated that the results of V-RQOL protocol showed significant correlation with the vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and the self-assessment by the subjects. The agreement between the assessments was low and variable; age, gender, professional voice use, and clinical laryngoscopic diagnosis did not influence the agreement level. Protocol V-RQOL is sensitive to vocal assessment made by the voice therapists and self-assessment made by the patient. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Response of consumer and research grade indoor air quality monitors to residential sources of fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Delp, W W

    2018-04-23

    The ability to inexpensively monitor PM 2.5 to identify sources and enable controls would advance residential indoor air quality (IAQ) management. Consumer IAQ monitors incorporating low-cost optical particle sensors and connections with smart home platforms could provide this service if they reliably detect PM 2.5 in homes. In this study, particles from typical residential sources were generated in a 120 m 3 laboratory and time-concentration profiles were measured with 7 consumer monitors (2-3 units each), 2 research monitors (Thermo pDR-1500, MetOne BT-645), a Grimm Mini Wide-Range Aerosol Spectrometer (GRM), and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance with Filter Dynamic Measurement System (FDMS), a Federal Equivalent Method for PM 2.5 . Sources included recreational combustion (candles, cigarettes, incense), cooking activities, an unfiltered ultrasonic humidifier, and dust. FDMS measurements, filter samples, and known densities were used to adjust the GRM to obtain time-resolved mass concentrations. Data from the research monitors and 4 of the consumer monitors-AirBeam, AirVisual, Foobot, Purple Air-were time correlated and within a factor of 2 of the estimated mass concentrations for most sources. All 7 of the consumer and both research monitors substantially under-reported or missed events for which the emitted mass was comprised of particles smaller than 0.3 μm diameter. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  4. 14 CFR 27.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 27.475 Section 27.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise prescribed...

  5. 14 CFR 29.475 - Tires and shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires and shock absorbers. 29.475 Section 29.475 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.475 Tires and shock absorbers. Unless otherwise...

  6. Loading Deformation Characteristic Simulation Study of Engineering Vehicle Refurbished Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Xiaojie, Qi; Zhao, Yang; Yunlong, Wang; Guotian, Wang; Degang, Lv

    2018-05-01

    The paper constructed engineering vehicle refurbished tire computer geometry model, mechanics model, contact model, finite element analysis model, did simulation study on load-deformation property of engineering vehicle refurbished tire by comparing with that of the new and the same type tire, got load-deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire under the working condition of static state and ground contact. The analysis result shows that change rules of radial-direction deformation and side-direction deformation of engineering vehicle refurbished tire are close to that of the new tire, radial-direction and side-direction deformation value is a little less than that of the new tire. When air inflation pressure was certain, radial-direction deformation linear rule of engineer vehicle refurbished tire would increase with load adding, however, side-direction deformation showed linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was low; and it would show increase of non-linear change rule, when air inflation pressure was very high.

  7. The experimental assessment of dynamic tire handling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of steady state tire handling performance is nowadays common practice with slip angle sweeps and breaking being simulated in the laboratory with drum or flat belt, or on the road with a test trailer. In recent years, more emphasis is put on dynamic tire models, motivated by ride comfort

  8. Enhanced friction modeling for steady-state rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der R.

    2010-01-01

    Tire modeling is nowadays a necessary tool in the tire industry. Car manufacturers, governments and consumers demand better traction under all circumstances, less wear and more recently less noise and a lower rolling resistance. Therefore finite element analysis is adopted in the design process of

  9. Dual energy CT of peripheral arteries: Effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.C.; Werncke, T.; Hopfenmueller, W.; Raatschen, H.J.; Wolf, K.-J.; Albrecht, T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of automatic bone and plaque removal on image quality and grading of steno-occlusive lesions in patients undergoing dual energy CT angiography (CTA) of lower extremity. Materials and methods: Dual energy (DE) runoff CTA was performed in 50 patients using the following parameters: collimation 2 x 32 x 0.6; tube potentials, 80 kV and 140 kV; reconstructed slice thickness 1 mm. 100 mL iomeprol 400 and 50 mL saline were injected at 4 mL/s. Separate datasets were calculated for each of the two tubes and used to generate automatically bone-subtracted images (ABS) as well as bone and plaque subtracted images (ABPS). Residual bone in the ABS dataset was removed manually (=ABS-B dataset). In addition, a weighted average dataset from both dual energy acquisitions resembling a routine 120 kV CT acquisition was used for standard manual bone subtraction (MBS). Operator time for bone removal was measured. Effectiveness of bone subtraction and presence of vessel erosions was assessed by two readers in consensus. Stenosis grading in plaque subtracted and unsubtracted images was assessed and correlated. Results: Residual bone fragments (ribs: 46%, patella: 25%, spine: 4%, pelvis: 2%, tibia 2% of patients) were only observed with ABS. The time needed to manually remove these residual bones was 2.1 ± 1.1 min and was significantly lower than the duration of manual bone removal (6.8 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.0001, paired t-test). A total of 1159 arteries were analyzed. Compromising vessel erosions were observed less frequently in the ABS-B dataset (10.6%) than in the MBS dataset (15.2%, p < 0.001, wilcoxon's signed rank test). A total of 817 steno-occlusive lesions were assessed. While the agreement of grading of steno-occlusive lesions was good at the levels of the aorta and the pelvic arteries (κ = 0.70 in both, Cohen's kappa statistics), it was moderate at the level of the thigh arteries (κ = 0.57) and poor at the level of the calf (κ = 0.16). Conclusion

  10. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012 – Analysis of grading to test quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schickler, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC and the other teaching hospitals could be found.In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time.Methods: The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315. The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of “very good” less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165. This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training.

  11. The Final Oral/Practical State Examination at Freiburg Medical Faculty in 2012 – Analysis of grading to test quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickler, Angela; Brüstle, Peter; Biller, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the grades given for the oral/practical part of the German State Examination at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg. We examined whether or not the grades given for the written and the oral/practical examinations correlated and if differences in grading between the Freiburg University Medical Center (UMC) and the other teaching hospitals could be found. In order to improve the quality of the state examination, the medical school has been offering standardized training for examiners for several years. We evaluated whether or not trained and untrained examiners differed in their grading of the exam and how these differences have changed over time. Methods: The results of the 2012 spring and fall exams were analyzed (N=315). The relevant data set was made available to us by the Baden-Württemberg Examination Office (Landesprüfungsamt). The data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We observed a correlation of ρ=0.460** between the grades for the written and the oral/practical exams. The UMC and the teaching hospitals did not differ significantly in their grade distributions. Compared to untrained examiners, trained ones assigned the grade of “very good” less often. Furthermore, they displayed a significantly higher variance in the grades given (p=0.007, phi=0.165). This effect is stronger when concentrating specifically on those examiners who took part in the training less than a year before. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the standardized training for examiners at the Medical Faculty of Freiburg is effective for quality assurance. As a consequence, more examiners should be motivated to take part in the training. PMID:26483852

  12. Microtomography of elastomers for tire manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmuir, John H.; Dias, A. J.; Peiffer, D. G.; Kolb, R.; Jones, G.

    1999-09-01

    X-ray microtomography is used to image the internal structure of carbon black filled isobutylene-p-methylstyrene-p- bromomethylstyrene (PIB-PMS/BrPMS or ExxProTM) curing bladders before and after use-to-failure in the manufacture of automobile tires. Curing bladders operate under extreme conditions with extended mechanical cycling at high temperatures. Manufacturers typically do not run the bladders until failure but rather a pull policy is established which emphasizes the distribution of cyclic lifetimes. We examine the bladder elastomer structure at a resolution of about 10 microns with the objective of reducing the variability in performance. Using both edge crossing and absorption contrast we identify several types of heterogeneity including voids, foreign inclusions, and the distribution of curative agent from which we infer the uniformity of the cure. The results indicate several potential failure mechanisms. The small number of voids and foreign inclusions are mechanical defects that can initiate cracking. More widespread through the polymer matrix are small regions of polymer devoid of curative agent as shown by absorption edge imaging. These regions may be uncured polymer with poor mechanical and thermal properties that may lead to early failure. After several cure cycles the uncured regions are no longer present in the bladder tread area but they remain near the bead. At high cycles an approximately 500 micrometer thick zinc rich cap develops where the bladder contacts the inner tread area of the tire. This zinc rich cap may cause over-curing of the polymer resulting in crack initiation at the surface of the bladder that contacts the tire.

  13. Preliminary measurements on heat balance in pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, G. H.; Collart, D. Y.; Staples, R. J.; Lackey, J. I.; Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A variety of tests was undertaken to determine the nature of heat generation associated with a pneumatic tire operating under various conditions. Tests were conducted to determine the magnitude and distribution of internally generated heat caused by hysteresis in the rubber and ply fabric in an automobile tire operating under conditions of load, pressure, and velocity representative of normal operating conditions. These included tests at various yaw angles and tests with braking applied. In other tests, temperature sensors were mounted on a road to measure the effect of a tire rolling over and an attempt was made to deduce the magnitude and nature of interfacial friction from the resulting information. In addition, tests were performed using the scratch plate technique to determine the nature of the motion between the tire and road. Finally, a model tire was tested on a roadwheel, the surface covering which could be changed, and an optical pyrometer was used to measure rubber surface temperatures.

  14. Replacing coal by tire powder in ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothe, C.G. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Escola de Quimica/CT/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mothe Filho, H.F. [Dept. de Geociencias, Inst. de Agronomia/UFRRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays preserving nature, recycling or reusing materials are good policies. Around ten million tires are put out by year in Brazil, and it is not known for how long they will remain in environment till their complete degradation. This research used tires to replace coal in ceramic processing. In this way it helps to protect environment, to reduce the consumption of mineral deposits and to save money. Results show that tire powder can replace coal to obtain ceramic material, using one percent of tire. Experiments were carried out using TA instruments SDT 2960, in air or nitrogen atmospheres, at heating rate of 10 C/min., flow 120 ml/min. TG/DTA curves of tire and coal have exothermic events at close temperatures between 450-600 C. At range of temperatures clay have endothermic events. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic tire pressure sensor for measuring ground vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, James Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2012-11-07

    This work presents a convenient and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring ground vibration. This approach, which uses an instantaneous dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS), possesses the capability to replace the accelerometer or directional microphone currently being used for inspecting pavement conditions. By measuring dynamic pressure changes inside the tire, ground vibration can be amplified and isolated from environmental noise. In this work, verifications of the DTPS concept of sensing inside the tire have been carried out. In addition, comparisons between a DTPS, ground-mounted accelerometer, and directional microphone are made. A data analysis algorithm has been developed and optimized to reconstruct ground acceleration from DTPS data. Numerical and experimental studies of this DTPS reveal a strong potential for measuring ground vibration caused by a moving vehicle. A calibration of transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and ground acceleration may be needed for different tire system or for more accurate application.

  16. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  17. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  18. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  19. Within-Day Variability in the Quality of Classroom Interactions during Third and Fifth Grade: Implications for Children's Experiences and Conducting Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W.; Stuhlman, Megan; Grimm, Kevin; Mashburn, Andrew; Chomat-Mooney, Lia; Downer, Jason; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of classroom interactions has typically been studied using aggregates of ratings over time. However, within-day ratings may contain important variability. This study investigated within-day variability using the NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development's observational data during grades 3 and 5. The first question examined…

  20. Measuring health-related quality of life in high-grade glioma patients at the end of life using a proxy-reported retrospective questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, E.M.; Dirven, L.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Postma, T.J.; Heimans, J.J.; Deliens, L.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Taphoorn, M.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    To develop, validate, and report on the use of a retrospective proxy-reported questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the end-of-life (EOL) phase of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. Items relevant for the defined construct were selected using existing questionnaires,

  1. Quality-Related Monitoring and Grading of Granulated Products by Weibull-Distribution Modeling of Visual Images with Semi-Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinping; Tang, Zhaohui; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Jianyong

    2016-06-29

    The topic of online product quality inspection (OPQI) with smart visual sensors is attracting increasing interest in both the academic and industrial communities on account of the natural connection between the visual appearance of products with their underlying qualities. Visual images captured from granulated products (GPs), e.g., cereal products, fabric textiles, are comprised of a large number of independent particles or stochastically stacking locally homogeneous fragments, whose analysis and understanding remains challenging. A method of image statistical modeling-based OPQI for GP quality grading and monitoring by a Weibull distribution(WD) model with a semi-supervised learning classifier is presented. WD-model parameters (WD-MPs) of GP images' spatial structures, obtained with omnidirectional Gaussian derivative filtering (OGDF), which were demonstrated theoretically to obey a specific WD model of integral form, were extracted as the visual features. Then, a co-training-style semi-supervised classifier algorithm, named COSC-Boosting, was exploited for semi-supervised GP quality grading, by integrating two independent classifiers with complementary nature in the face of scarce labeled samples. Effectiveness of the proposed OPQI method was verified and compared in the field of automated rice quality grading with commonly-used methods and showed superior performance, which lays a foundation for the quality control of GP on assembly lines.

  2. 78 FR 54369 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... subject tires meet or exceed all applicable FMVSS performance standards for a tire labeled as either load...-0107; Notice 2] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Mootness of Petition for Decision of... Petition Mootness. SUMMARY: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  3. 75 FR 17830 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... safety as it ``does not affect the safety, performance and durability of the tire; the tires were built... requirements. Continental said that it performs ongoing compliance testing ``to assure tire performance'' and that ``all tires included in this petition will meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS...

  4. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... subject tires in fact have more tread plies than indicated and meet or exceed all performance requirements...-0109; Notice 1] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand tires manufactured...

  5. 77 FR 71679 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... noncompliant tires are mislabeled; the subject tires meet or exceed all performance requirements as required in...-0108; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of... petition. SUMMARY: Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC (BRIDGESTONE),\\1\\ has determined that certain...

  6. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0109; Notice 2] Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain Cooper brand replacement tires...

  7. 77 FR 11189 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...-0056; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Yokohama Tire Corporation, (YTC),\\1\\ replacement tires for passenger cars... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139, New Pneumatic Radial Tires for Light Vehicles. YTC...

  8. 41 CFR 101-25.110 - Tire identification/registration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tire identification...-General Policies § 101-25.110 Tire identification/registration program. The regulations issued by the Department of Transportation in 49 CFR part 574, Tire Identification and Recordkeeping, require that tire...

  9. Geotechnical Investigation of the Potential Use of Shredded Scrap Tires in Soil Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Silt-tire and clay-tire mixtures, containing 0% to 100% shredded tire material by weight, with tire chips ranging in size from 7mm-13mm, 13mm-25mm, and 25mm-38mm, were tested for a series of engineering properties including compaction characteristics...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported articles..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Tires, Tubes, and Tread Rubber § 48.4071-4 Original equipment tires on... than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no...

  11. High-dimensional nested analysis of variance to assess the effect of production season, quality grade and steam pasteurization on the phenolic composition of fermented rooibos herbal tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirova, I; Kazura, M; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Schulze, A E; Beelders, T; de Villiers, A; Walczak, B

    2013-10-15

    A nested analysis of variance combined with simultaneous component analysis, ASCA, was proposed to model high-dimensional chromatographic data. The data were obtained from an experiment designed to investigate the effect of production season, quality grade and post-production processing (steam pasteurization) on the phenolic content of the infusion of the popular herbal tea, rooibos, at 'cup-of-tea' strength. Specifically, a four-way analysis of variance where the experimental design involves nesting in two of the three crossed factors was considered. For the purpose of the study, batches of fermented rooibos plant material were sampled from each of four quality grades during three production seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) and a sub-sample of each batch was steam-pasteurized. The phenolic content of each rooibos infusion was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD). In contrast to previous studies, the complete HPLC-DAD signals were used in the chemometric analysis in order to take into account the entire phenolic profile. All factors had a significant effect on the phenolic content of a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. In particular, infusions prepared from the grade A (highest quality) samples contained a higher content of almost all phenolic compounds than the lower quality plant material. The variations of the content of isoorientin and orientin in the different quality grade infusions over production seasons are larger than the variations in the content of aspalathin and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Ferulic acid can be used as an indicator of the quality of rooibos tea as its content generally decreases with increasing tea quality. Steam pasteurization decreased the content of the majority of phenolic compounds in a 'cup-of-tea' strength rooibos infusion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Calibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, David H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Franklin, Jonathan P.; Wallace, Lisa M. M.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Heald, Colette L.; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2018-01-01

    The use of low-cost air quality sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions, and there is thus a critical need for understanding and optimizing the performance of such sensors in the field. Here we describe the deployment, calibration, and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the island of Hawai`i, which is an ideal test bed for characterizing such sensors due to its large and variable sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels and lack of other co-pollutants. Nine custom-built SO2 sensors were co-located with two Hawaii Department of Health Air Quality stations over the course of 5 months, enabling comparison of sensor output with regulatory-grade instruments under a range of realistic environmental conditions. Calibration using a nonparametric algorithm (k nearest neighbors) was found to have excellent performance (RMSE 0.997) across a wide dynamic range in SO2 ( 2 ppm). However, since nonparametric algorithms generally cannot extrapolate to conditions beyond those outside the training set, we introduce a new hybrid linear-nonparametric algorithm, enabling accurate measurements even when pollutant levels are higher than encountered during calibration. We find no significant change in instrument sensitivity toward SO2 after 18 weeks and demonstrate that calibration accuracy remains high when a sensor is calibrated at one location and then moved to another. The performance of electrochemical SO2 sensors is also strong at lower SO2 mixing ratios (pollutant species in other areas (e.g., polluted urban regions), the calibration and validation approaches described here should be widely applicable to a range of pollutants, sensors, and environments.

  13. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  14. Sampling for quality assurance of grading decisions in diabetic retinopathy screening: designing the system to detect errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Jim

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate various designs for a quality assurance system to detect and control human errors in a national screening programme for diabetic retinopathy. A computer simulation was performed of some possible ways of sampling the referral decisions made during grading and of different criteria for initiating more intensive QA investigations. The effectiveness of QA systems was assessed by the ability to detect a grader making occasional errors in referral. Substantial QA sample sizes are needed to ensure against inappropriate failure to refer. Detection of a grader who failed to refer one in ten cases can be achieved with a probability of 0.58 using an annual sample size of 300 and 0.77 using a sample size of 500. An unmasked verification of a sample of non-referrals by a specialist is the most effective method of internal QA for the diabetic retinopathy screening programme. Preferential sampling of those with some degree of disease may improve the efficiency of the system.

  15. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Defining the minimum clinically important difference for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: insights from the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Glassman, Steven D; Foley, Kevin T; Slotkin, Jonathan; Potts, Eric A; Shaffrey, Mark E; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John J; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Archer, Kristin R; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael S; Bydon, Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a pivotal role in defining the value of surgical interventions for spinal disease. The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is considered the new standard for determining the effectiveness of a given treatment and describing patient satisfaction in response to that treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the MCID associated with surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database registry from July 2014 through December 2015 for patients who underwent posterior lumbar surgery for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. Recorded PROs included scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for leg pain (NRS-LP) and back pain (NRS-BP). Anchor-based (using the North American Spine Society satisfaction scale) and distribution-based (half a standard deviation, small Cohen's effect size, standard error of measurement, and minimum detectable change [MDC]) methods were used to calculate the MCID for each PRO. RESULTS A total of 441 patients (80 who underwent laminectomies alone and 361 who underwent fusion procedures) from 11 participating sites were included in the analysis. The changes in functional outcome scores between baseline and the 1-year postoperative evaluation were as follows: 23.5 ± 17.4 points for ODI, 0.24 ± 0.23 for EQ-5D, 4.1 ± 3.5 for NRS-LP, and 3.7 ± 3.2 for NRS-BP. The different calculation methods generated a range of MCID values for each PRO: 3.3-26.5 points for ODI, 0.04-0.3 points for EQ-5D, 0.6-4.5 points for NRS-LP, and 0.5-4.2 points for NRS-BP. The MDC approach appeared to be the most appropriate for calculating MCID because it provided a threshold greater than the measurement error and was closest to the average change difference between the satisfied and not-satisfied patients. On subgroup analysis, the MCID thresholds for laminectomy-alone patients were

  17. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Korunović; Miloš Madić; Miroslav Trajanović; Miroslav Radovanović

    2015-01-01

    The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zo...

  18. Dielectric properties of various polymers (PVC, EVA, HDPE, and PP) reinforced with ground tire rubber (GTR)

    OpenAIRE

    Mujal Rosas, Ramón María; Marín Genescá, Marcos; Ballart Prunell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Mass production of tires as well as its difficult storage or elimination is a real environmental problem. Various methods for recycling tires are currently used, such as mechanical crushing, which puts vulcanized rubber, steel, and fibers apart. The rubber may be used in several industrial applications such as flooring, insulations, and footwear. The present paper focuses on finding a new application for old used tires [ground tire rubber (GTR)]. To this end, tires dust has been mixed with va...

  19. USING THE SCRAP TIRES TO PRODUCE A FLEXIBLE COUPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsean A. Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scrap tires considered a problematic source of waste, the old rubber tires causes a big environmental problem that is need much money and effort to disposes it safely. In Iraq there are more than two million used tires disposed to the environment annually. one of the tire’s recycling methods is the use of tire layers to produce a new rubber parts used in the engineering and industrial purposes as the bridges and machines dampers, this trend of recycling doesn’t take a sufficient care comparing with the other uses. There are a lot of studies conducted in these field, these studies suggests many methods to manage the huge number of scrap tires, the current paper aims to use the old rubber tires in engineering purposes (especially as a coupler joins the motor or engines with the other equipment as electric dynamo or pumps, the study focusing on the mechanical properties of a strip from a used tires and comparing with one prepared in the lab., and suggesting a new method to use as an engineering parts (for example the coupler lays between the IC engine and the dynamo of an electric generator. One of the results obtained from the experiments, there is no significant difference between the mechanical properties of the old and the new strip, (in the tensile test, the breaking force of the -Lab. tensile specimen- is 137 N whereas the specimen of old tire have a breaking force 113.27 N, but they are same in the elongation. A computational example is suggested to estimate the dimensions of a flexible coupler use an old tire pieces.

  20. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRUCKS TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now improvement of technological design specification of trucks tires develops very much. In modern mechanical engineering polyamide and kapron cords for tires of line-haul trucks and buses are replaced with all-metal ones (AMC even more often. It was defined that at increase in AMC tires production their technical characteristics were investigated insufficiently. In this regard there were carried out bench tests to compare the main operational indicators of domestic (JSC Nizhnekamskshina production and foreign tires with an all-metal cord: 315/60R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/60r22.5 the XZA2 ENERGY Michelin model (steering; 315/60R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/60R22.5 the XDA2+ ENERGY Michelin model (drive; 315/80R22.5 the NF-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D Michelin XZE X MultiWay model (steering; 315/80R22.5 the NR-201 model with 315/80R22.5 the 3D XDE X MultiWay model (drive. The laboratory researches were carried out for the purpose of an assessment of the universal, load, damping (hysteresis and other characteristics of tires with use of the universal functional SIB-1M test-bench. It was established that Michelin AMC tires of steering low-profile 315/60R22.5 XZA2 ENERGY models have the best indicators on power heterogeneity - 0.47-0.89 percent. The high-profile AMC tires of drive wheels 315/80R22.5 of the NR-201 model of JSC Nizhnekamskshina have the worst indicators. However, all the tested tires correspond to GOST 5513-97on this indicator. It was noted that Nizhnekamsk AMC tires of the size 315/60R22.5 are flush with AMC tires Michelin on set of operational indicators, except power heterogeneity, and last one of Michelin tires is lower than Nizhnekamsk ones by 2-3 times. It was suggested to conduct further researches on definition of optimum operational tires indicators because of an intensive use of KAMAZ trucks in agricultural production

  1. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  2. Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM). Part 1: Tire Material and Structure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Germany. p. 18. 2. Oertel, C., On Modeling Contact and Friction Calculation of Tyre Response on Uneven Roads . Vehicle System Dynamics, 1997. 27(S1): p...touching the ground. This massless tip acts as a sensor point and can be used to detect the tire- road contact . Also, using the direction and value of the...superiority of this model as compared to other lumped parameter models currently available. Keywords: Wheeled Vehicle, Terramechanics, Off- Road

  3. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment.

  4. INFLUENCE OF GRADED AEROBIC EXERCISE ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN POST SURGICAL MITRAL VALVE DISEASE INDIVIDUAL A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED OPEN LABEL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post surgical mitral valve disease individual focus their cardiac rehabilitation training on two major goal that is to improve cardiac output response exercises and place an important role in determining exercise tolerance and to improve quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programs involve prescribed exercise and education however various other method are being used to improve quality of life. But our study to find out the effectiveness of graded aerobic exercise protocol on ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals. Methods: The study design was open label studies total of 100 post surgical mitral valve disease individuals patients from the age group of 20-60 years were recruited from SVIMS hospital. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I underwent a twelve week structured graded individually tailored exercises. The group II received only none graded (not individualized exercise training. The ejection fraction and quality of life was measured before and after 12 weeks of exercise training for two groups. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare mean values of continuous variables between baseline and at the time of discharge and three months after surgery for each parameter. Comparison of means between groups was done by the unpaired student t test. Mean age of the subjects was 40.18±10.29. There was a significant increase in the ejection fraction in the group I(61.34±2.49 to 64.4±3.31 compared to with the group II (61.06±2.51. to 61.62 ±2.37. QOL had improved in group I than group II at p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12 week structured graded aerobic exercise training significantly improved ejection fraction and quality of life in post surgical mitral valve disease individuals.

  5. An evaluation of string theory for the prediction of dynamic tire properties using scale model aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    The string theory was evaluated for predicting lateral tire dynamic properties as obtained from scaled model tests. The experimental data and string theory predictions are in generally good agreement using lateral stiffness and relaxation length values obtained from the static or slowly rolling tire. The results indicate that lateral forces and self-aligning torques are linearly proportional to tire lateral stiffness and to the amplitude of either steer or lateral displacement. In addition, the results show that the ratio of input excitation frequency to road speed is the proper independent variable by which frequency should be measured.

  6. Calibration and assessment of electrochemical air quality sensors by co-location with regulatory-grade instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Hagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-cost air quality sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions, and there is thus a critical need for understanding and optimizing the performance of such sensors in the field. Here we describe the deployment, calibration, and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the island of Hawai`i, which is an ideal test bed for characterizing such sensors due to its large and variable sulfur dioxide (SO2 levels and lack of other co-pollutants. Nine custom-built SO2 sensors were co-located with two Hawaii Department of Health Air Quality stations over the course of 5 months, enabling comparison of sensor output with regulatory-grade instruments under a range of realistic environmental conditions. Calibration using a nonparametric algorithm (k nearest neighbors was found to have excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, MAE < 4 ppb, r2 > 0.997 across a wide dynamic range in SO2 (< 1 ppb, > 2 ppm. However, since nonparametric algorithms generally cannot extrapolate to conditions beyond those outside the training set, we introduce a new hybrid linear–nonparametric algorithm, enabling accurate measurements even when pollutant levels are higher than encountered during calibration. We find no significant change in instrument sensitivity toward SO2 after 18 weeks and demonstrate that calibration accuracy remains high when a sensor is calibrated at one location and then moved to another. The performance of electrochemical SO2 sensors is also strong at lower SO2 mixing ratios (< 25 ppb, for which they exhibit an error of less than 2.5 ppb. While some specific results of this study (calibration accuracy, performance of the various algorithms, etc. may differ for measurements of other pollutant species in other areas (e.g., polluted urban regions, the calibration and validation approaches described here should be widely applicable

  7. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  8. The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis (1985)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary economic analysis of the social benefits of EPA action to require more appropriate disposal of scrap tires versus the social costs of such an action.

  9. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  10. A Strain-Based Method to Detect Tires' Loss of Grip and Estimate Lateral Friction Coefficient from Experimental Data by Fuzzy Logic for Intelligent Tire Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Jorge; Garcia-Pozuelo, Daniel; Diaz, Vicente; Olatunbosun, Oluremi

    2018-02-06

    Tires are a key sub-system of vehicles that have a big responsibility for comfort, fuel consumption and traffic safety. However, current tires are just passive rubber elements which do not contribute actively to improve the driving experience or vehicle safety. The lack of information from the tire during driving gives cause for developing an intelligent tire. Therefore, the aim of the intelligent tire is to monitor tire working conditions in real-time, providing useful information to other systems and becoming an active system. In this paper, tire tread deformation is measured to provide a strong experimental base with different experiments and test results by means of a tire fitted with sensors. Tests under different working conditions such as vertical load or slip angle have been carried out with an indoor tire test rig. The experimental data analysis shows the strong relation that exists between lateral force and the maximum tensile and compressive strain peaks when the tire is not working at the limit of grip. In the last section, an estimation system from experimental data has been developed and implemented in Simulink to show the potential of strain sensors for developing intelligent tire systems, obtaining as major results a signal to detect tire's loss of grip and estimations of the lateral friction coefficient.

  11. Friends' knowledge of youth internalizing and externalizing adjustment: accuracy, bias, and the influences of gender, grade, positive friendship quality, and self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Lance P; Rose, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth. The study extends prior work by considering the degree to which friends' reports of youth adjustment are accurate (i.e., predicted by youths' actual adjustment) versus biased (i.e., predicted by the friend reporters' own adjustment). Findings indicated stronger bias effects than accuracy effects, but the accuracy effects were significant for both internalizing and externalizing adjustment. Additionally, friends who perceived their relationships as high in positive quality, friends in relationships high in disclosure, and girls perceived youths' internalizing symptoms most accurately. Knowledge of externalizing adjustment was not influenced by gender, grade, relationship quality, or self-disclosure. Findings suggest that friends could play an important role in prevention efforts.

  12. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick; KANE, Malal; CEREZO, Véronique; DO, Minh Tan

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless, only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film su...

  13. Effect of thin water film on tire/road friction

    OpenAIRE

    BEAUTRU, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    Water film on pavement surfaces entails a decrease of friction between the tire and the road. Nevertheless,only effects of water films above 1mm depth were investigated until now, considering hydroplaning risk. From these investigations, formulae were derived to predict the so-called hydroplaning speed at which happen hazardous situations for the driver because there is no more contact between the tire and the road. However, a significant number of accidents occurs on very thin water film suc...

  14. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  15. Tech Transfer Office discusses the finer points of tire recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis worked with a tire recycling company in St. Francisville, La., to help the company make better use of the cryogenics, or supercold fluids, in its recycling process. The process separates the rubber from the steel belts and other particles. The rubber is broken down into a material called crumb. Other parts of the tire particle removed is called fluff.

  16. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edincliler, Ayse; Baykal, Goekhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-01-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content.

  17. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. SIMULATION AND INVESTIGATION OF TIRE TREAD BLOCKS INTERACTION WITH ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Ružinskas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car tire is an essential subject analysing its interaction with the road. From tire’s tread condition, geometry and rubber compound depends grip and vehicle stability. This is especially relevant in winter time, when roads are covered with the layer of snow or ice. Generally, new tires are tested in real traffic conditions using vehicles. However, ensuring these conditions requires many resources and sometimes it could be a big challenge. For this reason, simulation of the tire interaction with the road becomes more important in nowadays tire researches. Since the tire is a complex engineering subject, the tire tread blocks could be separated for individual analysis. The interaction between the dry ice and the tread block with sipes was analysed using finite element analysis. The tread block was described using hyperelastic Mooney­Rivlin material model. The deformations, distribution of the contact pressure and shear stresses were obtained for the soft and hard rubber compounds with different vertical load conditions. Also a solid tread block interaction was analysed and it was found that values of contact pressure and shear stresses are much lower comparing to siped tread block.

  19. Spray From a Rolling Tire: Mechanics of Droplet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocher, Dennis; Browand, Fred

    2010-11-01

    The spray pattern immediately behind a single-groove tire rolling on a wet surface is produced in the laboratory using a specially designed tire spray simulator. The spray development is examined using high speed video. Water from the groove forms a liquid sheet as the tire-tread lifts away from the surface. The sheet is not of uniform thickness, but it remains attached to the tread. The thinner portions of the sheet become even thinner as the tire rotates, and eventually break to produce holes near the tire surface. The holes grow as the sheet margins surrounding the holes retract into the thicker portions of the sheet which become roughly cylindrical "ligaments" aligned at right angles to the direction of spray motion. The ligaments break into large droplets via a Rayleigh instability. The smallest droplets form when the margins of two holes collide. As Weber number, We = ρU^2w/2σ , based on tire groove half width, w/2, varies by a factor of 25, the sheet-ligament structure persists, but ligaments become less organized, and more small droplets appear in the pattern.

  20. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  1. Minimally invasive versus open fusion for Grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummaneni, Praveen V; Bisson, Erica F; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Glassman, Steven; Foley, Kevin; Slotkin, Jonathan R; Potts, Eric; Shaffrey, Mark; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Coric, Domagoj; Knightly, John; Park, Paul; Fu, Kai-Ming; Devin, Clinton J; Chotai, Silky; Chan, Andrew K; Virk, Michael; Asher, Anthony L; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Lumbar spondylolisthesis is a degenerative condition that can be surgically treated with either open or minimally invasive decompression and instrumented fusion. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approaches may shorten recovery, reduce blood loss, and minimize soft-tissue damage with resultant reduced postoperative pain and disability. METHODS The authors queried the national, multicenter Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion between July 2014 and December 2015 for Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis. The authors recorded baseline and 12-month patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, numeric rating scale (NRS)-back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society satisfaction questionnaire). Multivariable regression models were fitted for hospital length of stay (LOS), 12-month PROs, and 90-day return to work, after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. RESULTS A total of 345 patients (open surgery, n = 254; MIS, n = 91) from 11 participating sites were identified in the QOD. The follow-up rate at 12 months was 84% (83.5% [open surgery]; 85% [MIS]). Overall, baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts. Two hundred fifty seven patients underwent 1-level fusion (open surgery, n = 181; MIS, n = 76), and 88 patients underwent 2-level fusion (open surgery, n = 73; MIS, n = 15). Patients in both groups reported significant improvement in all primary outcomes (all p open surgical groups. However, change in functional outcome scores for patients undergoing 2-level fusion was notably larger in the MIS cohort for ODI (-27 vs -16, p = 0.1), EQ-5D (0.27 vs 0.15, p = 0.08), and NRS-BP (-3.5 vs -2.7, p = 0.41); statistical significance was shown only for changes in NRS-LP scores (-4.9 vs -2.8, p = 0.02). On risk-adjusted analysis for 1

  2. Static tests of constructive tires using hydraulic press on the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Thiago M.; Lanças,Kléber P.; Oliveira Junior,Mauro B. de; Artioli,José A.; Marasca,Indiamara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The power consumption and load capacity of agricultural machines have grown and the effects of pressure on the soil by tires have been still little investigated. In concern with sustainable development, the relationship machine-tire-soil must be in balance to give more consistency on the best use of tires for a given load. This study aimed to evaluate four tires of two constructive types, the bias belted tires and radial tires, both with respective rim diameters of 22.5 and 26.5 inch...

  3. The in-plane deformation of a tire carcass: analysis and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Yi; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of parts of a tire is the direct result of tire–road interactions, and therefore is of great interest in tire sensor development. This case study focuses on the analysis of the deformation of the tire carcass and investigates its potential for the estimation of the in-plane tire force. The deformation of the tire carcass due to applied steady-state in-plane forces is first analyzed with the flexible ring model and then validated through optical tire sensor measurements. Couple...

  4. Tire aging: a human factors analysis of failure to warn and inform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogalter, Michael S; Laughery, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    A scenario of an automotive accident caused by tire failure is given followed by a human factors analysis of the information available to consumers on tire aging. Consumers have not been told that the age of the tire is a safety concern. It is not easy to decode the date of manufacture on tires. More publicity and prominent warnings are needed to communicate the dangers of older tires. Also, better ways to present the date of manufacture so that consumers can more easily and accurately assess tire age are needed.

  5. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation...) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation pressure. Remove the tire... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor...

  6. Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to…

  7. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  8. 78 FR 78384 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...; Shandong Linglong Tyre Co., Ltd. of Zhaoyuan City, China; Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of Batesville, Mississippi; Unicorn Tire Corp. of Memphis, Tennessee; West KY Customs, LLC...

  9. 78 FR 57882 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ..., China 265406 Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc., d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service, Eureka St. Extended, Batesville, MS 38606 Unicorn Tire Corp., 4660 Distriplex Drive West, Memphis, TN 38118 West KY Customs, LLC...

  10. Flexible and conductive waste tire-derived carbon/polymer composite paper as pseudocapacitive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-04-10

    A method of making a supercapacitor from waste tires, includes the steps of providing rubber pieces and contacting the rubber pieces with a sulfonation bath to produce sulfonated rubber; pyrolyzing the sulfonated rubber to produce a tire-derived carbon composite comprising carbon black embedded in rubber-derived carbon matrix comprising graphitized interface portions; activating the tire-derived carbon composite by contacting the tire-derived carbon composite with a specific surface area-increasing composition to increase the specific surface area of the carbon composite to provide an activated tire-derived carbon composite; and, mixing the activated tire-derived carbon composite with a monomer and polymerizing the monomer to produce a redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite. The redox-active polymer coated, activated tire-derived carbon composite can be formed into a film. An electrode and a supercapacitor are also disclosed.

  11. A study on the fatigue life prediction of tire belt-layers using probabilistic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Park, Jong Sang; Lee, Tae Won; Kim, Seong Rae; Sung, Ki Deug; Huh, Sun Chul

    2013-01-01

    Tire belt separation failure is occurred by internal cracks generated in *1 and *2 belt layers and by its growth. And belt failure seriously affects tire endurance. Therefore, to improve the tire endurance, it is necessary to analyze tire crack growth behavior and predict fatigue life. Generally, the prediction of tire endurance is performed by the experimental method using tire test machine. But it takes much cost and time to perform experiment. In this paper, to predict tire fatigue life, we applied deterministic fracture mechanics approach, based on finite element analysis. Also, probabilistic analysis method based on statistics using Monte Carlo simulation is presented. Above mentioned two methods include a global-local finite element analysis to provide the detail necessary to model explicitly an internal crack and calculate the J-integral for tire life prediction.

  12. Evaluation of Tire/Surfacing/Base Contact Stresses and Texture Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.vdM. Steyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire rolling resistance has a major impact on vehicle fuel consumption. Rolling resistance is the loss of energy due to the interaction between the tire and the pavement surface. This interaction is a complicated combination of stresses and strains which depend on both tire and pavement related factors. These include vehicle speed, vehicle weight, tire material and type, road camber, tire inflation pressure, pavement surfacing texture etc. In this paper the relationship between pavement surface texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress and area is investigated. Texture depth and tire/surfacing contact stress were measured for a range of tire inflation pressures on five different pavement surfaces. In the analysis the relationship between texture and the generated contact stresses as well as the contact stress between the surfacing and base layer are presented and discussed, and the anticipated effect of these relationships on the rolling resistance of vehicles on the surfacings, and subsequent vehicle fuel economy discussed.

  13. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the breaking away of pieces of the carcass or tread. Cracking means any parting within the carcass... some circumference of the tire, these measurements shall be taken at least six points around the tire...

  14. Trajectories of Symptom Clusters, Performance Status, and Quality of Life During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With High-Grade Brain Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hee; Byun, Youngsoon

    Symptom clusters must be identified in patients with high-grade brain cancers for effective symptom management during cancer-related therapy. The aims of this study were to identify symptom clusters in patients with high-grade brain cancers and to determine the relationship of each cluster with the performance status and quality of life (QOL) during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Symptoms were assessed using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the performance status was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Quality of life was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General. This prospective longitudinal survey was conducted before CCRT and at 2 to 3 weeks and 4 to 6 weeks after the initiation of CCRT. A total of 51 patients with newly diagnosed primary malignant brain cancer were included. Six symptom clusters were identified, and 2 symptom clusters were present at each time point (ie, "negative emotion" and "neurocognitive" clusters before CCRT, "negative emotion and decreased vitality" and "gastrointestinal and decreased sensory" clusters at 2-3 weeks, and "body image and decreased vitality" and "gastrointestinal" clusters at 4-6 weeks). The symptom clusters at each time point demonstrated a significant relationship with the performance status or QOL. Differences were observed in symptom clusters in patients with high-grade brain cancers during CCRT. In addition, the symptom clusters were correlated with the performance status and QOL of patients, and these effects could change during CCRT. The results of this study will provide suggestions for interventions to treat or prevent symptom clusters in patients with high-grade brain cancer during CCRT.

  15. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Francesco; Pepe, Gianluca; Roveri, Nicola; Carcaterra, Antonio

    2017-03-12

    The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  16. A Multisensing Setup for the Intelligent Tire Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Coppo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers the chance to experimentally measure, for the first time, the internal tire strain by optical fiber sensors during the tire rolling in real operating conditions. The phenomena that take place during the tire rolling are in fact far from being completely understood. Despite several models available in the technical literature, there is not a correspondently large set of experimental observations. The paper includes the detailed description of the new multi-sensing technology for an ongoing vehicle measurement, which the research group has developed in the context of the project OPTYRE. The experimental apparatus is mainly based on the use of optical fibers with embedded Fiber Bragg Gratings sensors for the acquisition of the circumferential tire strain. Other sensors are also installed on the tire, such as a phonic wheel, a uniaxial accelerometer, and a dynamic temperature sensor. The acquired information is used as input variables in dedicated algorithms that allow the identification of key parameters, such as the dynamic contact patch, instantaneous dissipation and instantaneous grip. The OPTYRE project brings a contribution into the field of experimental grip monitoring of wheeled vehicles, with implications both on passive and active safety characteristics of cars and motorbikes.

  17. Grip Analysis of Road Surface and Tire Footprint Using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    Road grip involve a touch between road pavement and the tire tread pattern. The load bearing surface, which depends on pavement roughness and local pressures in the contact patch. This research conducted to develop a Finite element model for simulating the experimentally testing of asphalt in Jl. AH Nasution Medan, North Sumatera Indonesia base on the value of grip coefficient from various tire loads and the various speed of the vehicle during contact to the road. A tire model and road pavement are developed for the analyses the geometry of tire footprint. The results showed that the greater the mass of car will increase grip coefficient. The coefficient of grip on the road surface contact trough the tire footprint strongly influence the kinetic coefficient of friction at certain speeds. Experimentally show that Concrete road grip coefficient of more than 34% compared to the asphalt road at the same IRI parameters (6-8). Kinetic friction coefficient more than 0.33 was obtained in a asphalt path at a speed of 30-40 Km/hour.

  18. Vibration Analysis of a Tire in Ground Contact under Varied Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Karakus Murat; Cavus Aydin; Colakoglu Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The effect of three different factors, which are inflation pressure, vertical load and coefficient of friction on the natural frequencies of a tire (175/70 R13) has been studied. A three dimensional tire model is constructed, using four different material properties and parts in the tire. Mechanical properties of the composite parts are evaluated. After investigating the free vibration, contact analysis is carried out. A concrete block and the tire are modelled together, using three different...

  19. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Shengze Zhu; Xiuyu Liu; Qingqing Cao; Xiaoming Huang

    2017-01-01

    Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by ...

  20. Ontario tire recycling and economic development (OnTRED) plan : a market approach to eliminating tire stockpiles and promoting recycled rubber product manufacturing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    Details of the Ontario Tire Recycling and Economic Development (OnTRED) plan were presented. The plan was developed to address deficiencies in the Ontario Tire Stewardship's (OTS) Scrap Tire Diversion Program plan. The OTS promotes the burning of scrap tires contrary to the Waste Diversion Act, and transfers the financial responsibility for scrap tire management from manufacturers to retailers. The OnTRED plan will attempt to improve the current 87 per cent recovery rate for passenger scrap tires in Ontario, and prevent the formation of any new tire stockpiles. The aim of the OnTRED plan is to ensure reuse and recycling consistent with provisions in the Waste Diversion Act and enhance the existing workings of the tire and scrap tire market through the promotion of reuse and recycling. In addition, the plan aims to minimize administration and compliance costs. A program summary of the OnTRED plan was presented, as well as details of market development plans and buy-recycled rebates. Issues concerning collector registration and transaction tracking were presented, as well as details of brand-owner and first importer pay-in models. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities were reviewed. A budget scenario was presented, as well as a rebate and diversion scenario. It was concluded that Ontario's 87 per cent scrap tire diversion rate can be improved through a focus on patterns of reuse and recycling. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  1. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Nicholas Y.

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relatively modest expense. This would provide a smaller sample set of tires for follow-up testing and thus save expense for automobile OEMs. The focus of this research was identifying key noise features from a tire/pavement experiment. These results were compared against a stationary tire test in which the natural response of the tire to a forced input was measured. Since speed was identified as having some effect on the noise, an input function was also developed to allow the tires to be ranked at an appropriate speed. A relative noise model was used on a second sample set of tires to verify if the ranking could be used against interior vehicle measurements. While overall level analysis of the specified spectrum had mixed success, important noise generating features were identified, and the methods used could be improved to develop a standard off-vehicle test to predict a tire's noise potential.

  2. Experimental and numerical study of friction and braking characteristics of rolling tires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, R. van der; Lopez, I.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Bruijn, B. de

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the tire industry, virtual testing has been widely adopted in the design process. Both static deformation and dynamic response of the tire rolling on the road must be accurately predicted to evaluate the handling performance of a tire. Unfortunately, experimental characterization of

  3. 75 FR 17827 - Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety performance standards. All of the markings related to tire service (load capacity..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0213; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  4. 77 FR 2775 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0033; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential.... SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company,(Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear...

  5. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... noncompliance has an inconsequential effect on tire performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the minimum performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139. In addition... performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by consumers for the...

  6. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... performance and motor vehicle safety because all of the affected tires meet or exceed all of the [[Page 27477... are ultra high performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by... these performance characteristics, the customers seek to ensure that their tires are installed correctly...

  7. 77 FR 11190 - Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ..., endurance and low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension...-0115; Notice 2] Yokohama Tire Company, Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance...: Yokohama Tire Company (YTC),\\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger car...

  8. 78 FR 35357 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... safety since the actual performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139...-0025; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  9. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... achieve the level of performance represented by each rating. (A) Ratings. Each tire shall be rated with... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program...

  10. 78 FR 47049 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... on the operational performance or safety of vehicles on which these tires are mounted. Bridgestone..., and tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings to assess performance capabilities of various tires...-0108; Notice 2] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of...

  11. 75 FR 51524 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... low inflation pressure performance. The tires also meet all of the physical dimension, resistance to...-0115; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Yokohama Tire Corporation (YTC) \\1\\ has determined that certain P215/60R15 93H AVID H4S passenger...

  12. 75 FR 28319 - Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... concludes in part that ``the actual tire performance is not inconsequential as it relates to motor vehicle safety because the actual tire performance is not affected by this noncompliance, and in the unlikely...-0056; Notice 1] Yokohama Tire Corporation, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

  13. 77 FR 20482 - Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... performance of the subject tires will not be affected by the mismarking. Bridgestone supports this belief by stating that the tires met the performance requirements of FMVSS No. 139 for endurance and high speed when...-0025; Notice 1] Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

  14. 76 FR 73007 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... tread wear, temperature, and traction ratings, to assess performance capabilities of various tires. In...-0080; Notice 2] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential... Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has...

  15. 75 FR 81712 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ..., all of the tires included in this petition meet or exceed the performance requirements of FMVSS No...-0174; Notice 1] The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (Goodyear) \\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear commercial...

  16. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... imported is less than 15,000, or are deep tread, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires... requirements for manufacturers of tires. For each reporting period, a manufacturer (including a brand name...

  17. 77 FR 71678 - The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...: The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (GOODYEAR),\\1\\ has determined that certain Goodyear brand tires... LT 275/65R18 brand tires manufactured between April 8, 2012, and May 12, 2012 at its plant in Gadsden.... Electronically: By logging onto the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) Web site at http://www.regulations...

  18. 78 FR 71032 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...-0063; Notice 2] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Denial of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...). ACTION: Denial of Petition. SUMMARY: Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS), as importer for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited, has...

  19. 75 FR 36472 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...-0080; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 14,826 passenger car tires manufactured between August of 2007 and May of 2009, do not fully comply with paragraph...

  20. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0030] RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims... Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be... also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained...

  1. 75 FR 32536 - Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...-0063; Notice 1] Foreign Tire Sales, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Foreign Tire Sales, Inc. (FTS) \\1\\, as importer of record for ProMeter brand medium truck radial replacement tires manufactured by Shandlong Linglong Rubber Company Limited has determined that certain...

  2. 76 FR 15045 - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-0033; Notice 1] Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, (Goodyear),\\1\\ has determined that approximately 26,224 Goodyear Assurance ComforTred Touring passenger replacement car tires manufactured between January 4, 2010 and...

  3. 75 FR 73159 - Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-0153; Notice 1] Continental Tire North America, Inc., Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Continental Tire North America, Inc., (Continental),\\1\\ has determined that certain passenger car replacement tires manufactured in 2009 do not fully comply with paragraph S5.5(b) of Federal...

  4. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pavement system with rubber tire chips in subgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtakala, B.; Hoque, A.K.M.M. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A pavement design method was developed in which shredded rubber tire chips mixed with sand were used as a material for pavement subgrade. Rubber tire chips are highly compressible and produce both elastic and plastic deformations under the application of loads. Sand was added to fill the void between the tire chips and make the mixture a strong material. The design method considered the vertical compressive strain produced by the design life traffic load 18k (80 KN) repetitions. The equivalent thicknesses of the layers above the subgrade corresponding to this vertical compressive strain were determined using contour charts. From this equivalent thickness, the thicknesses for asphalt pavement, base, and sub-base were determined by Odemark`s method. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  7. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  8. Adsorption of uranium on adsorbents produced from used tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahramanlioglu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Potential use of adsorbents produced from used tires for the removal of uranium from aqueous solutions is investigated. Two different adsorbents were used including char and activated carbon produced from used tires. The surface area was larger on activated carbon. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of time, adsorbent concentration, pH and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the Lagergren equation. The rate constants of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficients were calculated. It was shown that the equilibrium data could be fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The adsorption of uranium in the presence of different cations were also studied and the results were correlated with the ionic potential of the cations. It was demonstrated that the activated carbon produced from used tires can be considered as an adsorbent that has a commercial potential for uranium removal. (author)

  9. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  10. Tire inspection system with shielded x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisner, D.N.; Palermo, A. Jr.; Loyer, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    An automated tire inspection system is described which employs a penetrative radiation, such as x-radiation, to inspect the integrity of portions of tires fed sequentially along a feed path through a centering station and into a shielded enclosure where an inspection station is defined. Features of the system include a continuously operating x-ray source movable between inspection and retracted positions, and an x-ray shield for covering the source when it is retracted to permit the doors of the shielded enclosure to be opened without danger from escaping radiation. 19 Claims, 38 Drawing Figures

  11. Preventing Tire Blowout Accidents: A Perspective on Factors Affecting Drivers’ Intention to Adopt Tire Pressure Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Ying Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore whether risk perception or anticipated regret is responsible for intensifying the participants’ intention to adopt a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS to prevent a tire-related accident, and whether the optimism bias has a moderator effect between risk perception/anticipated regret and intention. With 274 valid questionnaires and PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis, the results indicate a significant positive relationship between risk perception and intention to adopt TPMS, but not between anticipated regret and intention. The moderator effect of optimism bias on risk perception and anticipated regret is not found in the model. The findings will prove useful for public service advertising campaigns by providing a basis for an understanding of the role of cognitive and emotional factors in tire-blowout accident prevention, thereby increasing the motivation for drivers in Taiwan to take advantage of the protection afforded them by using TPMS.

  12. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  13. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... evaluates resistance to heat buildup when the tire is run at stepped-up loads at or near its rated load... that involves a tire running on the roadwheel under specified conditions to allow for tire growth. The... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0132] RIN 2127-AK17 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5996 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5996 Section 63.5996 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5996 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6004 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.6004 Section 63.6004 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.6004 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire production...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6006 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.6006 Section 63.6006... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord... tire cord production affected sources? (a) You must demonstrate continuous compliance with each...

  17. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5999 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5999 Section 63.5999 Protection... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5999 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits for tire cord...

  19. The prediction of airborne and structure-borne noise potential for a tire

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Tire/pavement interaction noise is a major component of both exterior pass-by noise and vehicle interior noise. The current testing methods for ranking tires from loud to quiet require expensive equipment, multiple tires, and/or long experimental set-up and run times. If a laboratory based off-vehicle test could be used to identify the airborne and structure-borne potential of a tire from its dynamic characteristics, a relative ranking of a large group of tires could be performed at relativel...

  20. Forensic analysis of tire rubbers based on their sulfur chemical states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsuki, Atsushi; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Tamenori, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    The chemical states of sulfur in 11 tires were analyzed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) in order to discriminate between various tire rubbers. All tires had peaks around 2471.5 and 2480.5eV, and the shapes and heights of these peaks differed among tires, suggesting that the sulfur chemical state could be used for discrimination between tire rubbers. Based on t-tests on the results of XANES, 43 of 55 combinations were different at a significance level of 5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the effect of a third-party implementation of resolution recovery on the quality of SPECT bone scan imaging using visual grading regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter D; Smith, Julie; O'Connor, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits to SPECT bone scan image quality when applying resolution recovery (RR) during image reconstruction using software provided by a third-party supplier. Bone SPECT data from 90 clinical studies were reconstructed retrospectively using software supplied independent of the gamma camera manufacturer. The current clinical datasets contain 120×10 s projections and are reconstructed using an iterative method with a Butterworth postfilter. Five further reconstructions were created with the following characteristics: 10 s projections with a Butterworth postfilter (to assess intraobserver variation); 10 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR; and 5 s projections with a Gaussian postfilter with and without RR. Two expert observers were asked to rate image quality on a five-point scale relative to our current clinical reconstruction. Datasets were anonymized and presented in random order. The benefits of RR on image scores were evaluated using ordinal logistic regression (visual grading regression). The application of RR during reconstruction increased the probability of both observers of scoring image quality as better than the current clinical reconstruction even where the dataset contained half the normal counts. Type of reconstruction and observer were both statistically significant variables in the ordinal logistic regression model. Visual grading regression was found to be a useful method for validating the local introduction of technological developments in nuclear medicine imaging. RR, as implemented by the independent software supplier, improved bone SPECT image quality when applied during image reconstruction. In the majority of clinical cases, acquisition times for bone SPECT intended for the purposes of localization can safely be halved (from 10 s projections to 5 s) when RR is applied.

  2. Using a feed-grade zinc propionate to achieve molt induction in laying hens and retain postmolt egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Kim, W K; Birkhold, S G; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2004-11-01

    A commercial-feed-grade form of zinc propionate was examined as a potential feed amendment at a concentration of 1% zinc to induce molt in 90-wk-old hens. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 treatment groups of 28 birds each randomly assigned to either (1) molted conventionally by feed withdrawal, (2) 1% zinc as Zn acetate, (3) 1% zinc as Zn propionate, or (4) nonmolted control for 9 d. Ovary weights of hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were not significantly different from each other, but hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were significantly (phens. Zinc concentrations in the kidney and liver were significantly (phens when compared to either nonmolted control-fed hens or feed-withdrawal molted hens. Over the entire 3-mo postmolt period, there were no significant differences in interior or exterior egg qualities among the four treatments. Egg production of hens fed Zn acetate was significantly lower than feed-withdrawal hens, Zn propionate-fed hens, or nonmolted control hens (pfeeding a feed grade of Zn propionate (1% Zn)-supplemented diet can induce molt and retain postmolt egg quality and production comparable to hens molted by feed withdrawal.

  3. Review of experience gained in fabricating nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds and their analytical quality control at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Franca, J.M. Jr.; Ikuta, A.; Pueschel, C.R.; Federgruen, L.; Lordello, A.R.; Tomida, E.K.; Moraes, S.; Brito, J. de; Gomes, R.P.; Araujo, J.A.; Floh, B.; Matsuda, H.T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main activities dealing with the fabrication of nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo. Identification of problems and their resolutions, the experience gained in plant operation, the performance characteristics of an ion-exchange facility and a solvent extraction unit (a demonstration plant based on pulsed columns for purification of uranium and production of ammonium diuranate) are described. A moving-bed facility for UF 4 preparation and its operation is discussed. A pilot plant for uranium and thorium oxide microsphere preparation based on internal gelation for HTGR fuel type is also described. A solvent extraction pilot plant for thorium purification based on a compound extraction-scrubbing column and a mixer-settler battery and the involved technology for thorium purification are commented. The main products, namely ammonium diuranate, uranyl amonium tricarbonate, uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, thorium nitrate and thorium oxalate and their quality are commented. The development of necessary analytical procedures for the quality control of the mentioned nuclear grade products is summarized. A great majority of such procedures was particularly suitable for analyzing traces impurities. Designed for installation are the units for denitration of uranyl nitrate solutions and pilot plants for elemental fluorine and UF 6 . The installation of a laboratory-scale plant designed for reprocessing irradiated uranium and an experimental unit for the recovery of protactinium from irradiated thorium is in progress

  4. Studded and unstudded winter tires in fatal road accidents in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Mikko; Luoma, Juha; Porthin, Markus

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the study was to compare the safety effects of studded and unstudded winter tires based on fatal road accidents. The data included 958 road accidents involving a passenger car or van that occurred in Finland from November to March between 1997 and 2012. Comparing the proportions of winter tire type in accidents and in general traffic showed that the overall effect of tire type on the number of accidents was not significant, although studded tires reduced fatal accidents by 10-15%. Compared to unstudded tires, studded tires reduced accidents significantly only on bald ice in 2005-2012. Drivers using unstudded tires were more experienced and their profession was more frequently related to driving. In addition, the vehicle age was lower for vehicles with unstudded tires. On the other hand, the state of repair was less pertinent for unstudded than for studded tires. These confounding factors offset their effects to some degree. The risk of fatal road accidents in winter between studded and unstudded tires does not differ significantly. However, the accident risk has recently been substantially higher on bald ice for unstudded than for studded tires. The magnitude of this risk difference is difficult to determine without specific information on exposure by road surface.

  5. The influence of the tire inflation on pull properties of agriculture tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Katrenčík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractors are robust and versatile machines, which must comply with the basic requirements of users under various conditions. The main requirements include economical and reliable operation and high performance. Fuel economy could be improved using multiple methods, for example a well trained operator, adequate farming conditions and optimal tire inflation. Tractor tires transmit engine power to the surface and as such they are crucial to tractor operation. In the first part of the field measurement, all tires were inflated to 180kPa, while in the second part of the field measurements the tire pressure was set to 75kPa in front tires and to 65 kPa in rear tires. The results of the field measurement of the John Deere 6920S tractor with different tire inflation shows that pull performance increased by 9.9% and wheel slip decreased by 9.7%.

  6. A novel wireless piezoelectric tire sensor for the estimation of slip angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G; Alexander, L; Rajamani, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple approach for the analysis of tire deformation and proposes a new piezoelectric tire sensor for physically meaningful measurements of tire deformations. Tire deformation measurements in the contact patch can be used for the estimation of slip angle, tire forces, slip ratio and tire–road friction coefficient. The specific case of a wireless tire deformation sensor for the estimation of slip angle is taken up in this paper. A sensor in which lateral sidewall deformation can be decoupled from radial deformation is designed. The slope of the lateral deflection curve in the contact patch is used to calculate slip angle. A specially constructed tire test rig is used to experimentally evaluate the performance of the developed sensor. Results show that the developed sensor can accurately estimate slip angles up to values of 5°

  7. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  8. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  9. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Jong, P.F. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  10. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  11. Quality Assurance Grading Guidelines for Research and Development at DOE Facilities (DOE Order 5700.6C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, T.B.

    1992-01-01

    The quality assurance (QA) requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are established in DOE Order 5700.6C. This order is applicable for all DOE departmental elements, management, and maintenance and operating contractors and requires that documented Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) are prepared at all levels; it has one attachment. The DOE Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER) has issued a standard to ensure implementation of the full intent of this order in the ER community.

  12. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  13. Research of Sustainable Use of Tire Shreds in Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bazienė

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies are on-going to establish the suitability of tire shreds in the landfill bottom drainage layer, to minimize clogging. Four experimental columns were constructed in which were 500 mm long and 200 mm in diameter. They were filled with different fillers and with a different amount of tire shreds. The most important problem with drainage filler in landfills is clogging. Over long periods of time in landfill operation, the drainage layer clogs (the pores of the layer become smaller and the porosity of the layer becomes smaller. The experiment was carried out for 365 days. Although the landfill for this period represents only one-fiftieth or less of the operation time, the laboratory tests found that the drainage layer bandwidth of reduction in one year can have a negative impact in the long run over time. The main elements that influence the decrease of conductivity are the total suspended solids and calcium and iron compounds. The change of these compounds was observed during the column study, where the concentration of each month in all the columns was decreasing. The results showed that the waste of rubber (tire shreds used for creating fillers in columns provided greater porosity of the layer. It is a beneficial reason to use a rubble and tire shreds waste mix for forming the drainage layer in landfills.

  14. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  15. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine... the ISO 28580 procedure. 4. Future Production. To assist with estimating the potential benefits of the... will I have to speak at the public workshop? Once NHTSA learns how many people have registered to speak...

  16. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  17. Potential of waste tires as aggregates in concrete | Mutuku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of this kind of concrete includes nonstructural purposes such as lightweight concrete walls and blocks, building facades and crash barriers. Keywords: concrete aggregates, rubber chips, rubberized concrete, used tires, waste recycling. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 3(1) 2006: 75-84 ...

  18. Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustained Release of a Watermgoluble tiring from Directly Compressed Okra Gum Matrix. Tablets. Val). Mill, MA. Gilllllbll'ifl'l' AND KT. ... in near noromorder release of aspirin from the matrix tablets. The results indicate that okra gum is .... porous structure including alteration of the shape and size distribution of the pores.

  19. A Hybrid Soft Soil Tire Model (HSSTM) For Vehicle Mobility And Deterministic Performance Analysis In Terramechanics Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, Shahyar

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and efficient tire models for deformable terrain operations are essential for performing vehicle simulations. Assessment of the forces and moments that occur at the tire-terrain interface, and the effect of the tire motion on properties of the terrain are crucial in understanding the performance of a vehicle. In order to model the dynamic behavior of the tire on different terrains, a lumped mass discretized tire model using Kelvin-Voigt elements is developed. To optimize the computat...

  20. Six-sigma application in tire-manufacturing company: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikash; Jain, Rahul; Meena, M. L.; Dangayach, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    Globalization, advancement of technologies, and increment in the demand of the customer change the way of doing business in the companies. To overcome these barriers, the six-sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) method is most popular and useful. This method helps to trim down the wastes and generating the potential ways of improvement in the process as well as service industries. In the current research, the DMAIC method was used for decreasing the process variations of bead splice causing wastage of material. This six-sigma DMAIC research was initiated by problem identification through voice of customer in the define step. The subsequent step constitutes of gathering the specification data of existing tire bead. This step was followed by the analysis and improvement steps, where the six-sigma quality tools such as cause-effect diagram, statistical process control, and substantial analysis of existing system were implemented for root cause identification and reduction in process variation. The process control charts were used for systematic observation and control the process. Utilizing DMAIC methodology, the standard deviation was decreased from 2.17 to 1.69. The process capability index (C p) value was enhanced from 1.65 to 2.95 and the process performance capability index (C pk) value was enhanced from 0.94 to 2.66. A DMAIC methodology was established that can play a key role for reducing defects in the tire-manufacturing process in India.

  1. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  2. The microcirculation image quality score: development and preliminary evaluation of a proposed approach to grading quality of image acquisition for bedside videomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Michael J; Larochelle, Ethan; Najarro, Gabriel; Karmacharla, Adarsh; Arnold, Ryan; Trzeciak, Stephen; Angus, Derek C; Shapiro, Nathan I

    2013-12-01

    Side-stream dark-field microscopy is currently used to directly visualize sublingual microcirculation at the bedside. Our experience has found inherent technical challenges in the image acquisition process. This article presents and assesses a quality assurance method to rate image acquisition quality before analysis. We identified 6 common image capture and analysis problem areas in sublingual side-stream dark-field videos: illumination, duration, focus, content, stability, and pressure. We created the "Microcirculation Image Quality Score" by assigning a score of optimal (0 points), suboptimal but acceptable (1 point), or unacceptable (10 points) to each category (for further details, go to http://www.MicroscanAnalysis.blogspot.com). We evaluated 59 videos from a convenience sample of 34 unselected, noncritically ill emergency department patients to create a test set. Two raters, blinded to each other, implemented the score. Any video with a cumulative score of 10 or higher (range, 0-60) was considered unacceptable for further analysis. We created the Microcirculation Image Quality Score and applied it to 59 videos. For this particular set of 59 videos, the mean (SD) passing quality score was 1.68 (0.90), and the mean (SD) failing quality score was 15.74 (6.19), with 27 of 59 passing the quality score less than 10. Highest failure occurred from pressure artifact. The interrater agreement for acceptability was assessed using Cohen κ for each category: illumination (κ = 1.0), duration (κ = 1.0), focus (κ = 0.91), content (κ = 0.76), stability (κ = 0.71), and pressure (κ = 0.82) and overall pass-fail rates (score >10) (κ = 0.66). Our Microcirculation Image Quality Score addresses many of the common areas where video quality can degrade. The criteria introduced are an objective way to assess the quality of image acquisition, with the goal of selecting videos of adequate quality for analysis. The interrater reliability results in our preliminary study suggest

  3. Quality assurance grading guidelines for research and development at DOE facilities. DOE Order 5700.6C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, T.B.; Morris, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    The quality assurance (QA) requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) are established in DOE Order 5700.6C. This order is applicable for all DOE departmental elements, management, and maintenance and operating contractors and requires that documented Quality Assurance Programs (QAPS) are prepared at all levels; it has one attachment. The DOE Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER) has issued a standard to ensure implementation of the full intent of this order in the ER community. This report discusses order 5700.6C in relation to research with DOE.

  4. Development and applicability estimation of the tire contact pressure measurement system; Tire secchiatsukei no kaihatsu to oyosei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Y.; Amago, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sakuma, S.; Mori, N. [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Aichi (Japan); Nagae, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Yasuoka, M. [Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    A pressure sensor more reliable than the conventional types and a tire pressure measurement system using a plurality of sensors of the said reliable type have been developed. The sensor is an inverted T in shape, the upper surface of the vertical beam thereof receives the pressure, and the two ends of the horizontal beam are fixed. The load per unit area imposed on the pressure receiving surface is separated into three components, the X and Y components in the tangential direction are sensed by the vertical beam while the Z component in the vertical direction is sensed by a distortion gauge attached to the horizontal beam. For the measurement of the contact pressure distribution for the entire contact surface, a measuring device was developed, comprising a multiple point contact pressure gauge with 30 sensors of the reliable type discussed here embedded therein, a tire rolling tester, and a data processing unit. A tire wear estimation test was conducted using this pressure sensor and a contact probe type slip sensor, and it was found that a tire of a greater friction energy ratio is easier to experience abnormal abrasion and that the new pressure sensor is useful in estimating abnormal abrasion. Further, it was indicated that the present measuring device is applicable to the analysis of the mechanism wherein shaft force results from contact pressure on the soil. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Quality of School Life Scale: Means, Variances, Reliabilities, and Factor Analysis for Grades 10, 11, and 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.

    1979-01-01

    The Quality of School Life Scale (QLS) is an instrument designed to measure students' perceptions of their school experiences. Such an instrument may aid educators in evaluating students' perceptions in the three areas identified by the QSL: satisfaction, commitment to classwork, and reactions to teachers. (Author)

  6. Upscaling of a Batch De-vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis A.E.M.; Heideman, G.; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount

  7. Effects of tire leachate on the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus and the native congener Aedes triseriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo C. Villena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17 mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1% and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8% were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4% of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (λ′ was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0–8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0–10,000 mg/L tire leachate, but steeply declined to zero from 44.50–89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000–100,000 mg/L tire leachate. In contrast, A. triseriatus λ′ declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate, and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate. These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at

  8. Tire traces - discrimination and classification of pyrolysis-GC/MS profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueissaz, Line; Massonnet, Geneviève

    2013-07-10

    Tire traces can be observed on several crime scenes as vehicles are often used by criminals. The tread abrasion on the road, while braking or skidding, leads to the production of small rubber particles which can be collected for comparison purposes. This research focused on the statistical comparison of Py-GC/MS profiles of tire traces and tire treads. The optimisation of the analytical method was carried out using experimental designs. The aim was to determine the best pyrolysis parameters regarding the repeatability of the results. Thus, the pyrolysis factor effect could also be calculated. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be five time more important than time. Finally, a pyrolysis at 650°C during 15s was selected. Ten tires of different manufacturers and models were used for this study. Several samples were collected on each tire, and several replicates were carried out to study the variability within each tire (intravariability). More than eighty compounds were integrated for each analysis and the variability study showed that more than 75% presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5% for the ten tires, thus supporting a low intravariability. The variability between the ten tires (intervariability) presented higher values and the ten most variant compounds had a RSD value above 13%, supporting their high potential of discrimination between the tires tested. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to fully discriminate the ten tires with the help of the first three principal components. The ten tires were finally used to perform braking tests on a racetrack with a vehicle equipped with an anti-lock braking system. The resulting tire traces were adequately collected using sheets of white gelatine. As for tires, the intravariability for the traces was found to be lower than the intervariability. Clustering methods were carried out and the Ward's method based on the squared Euclidean distance was able to correctly group all of the tire traces

  9. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebert, G.M. [MEDTAP International, 27 Gilbert Street, London (United Kingdom); Curran, D. [EORTC Data Centre Brussels (Belgium); Aaronson, N.K. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bolla, M. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Grenoble (France); Menten, J. [University Hospital Gasthuisberg Leuven (Belgium); Rutten, E.H.J.M. [University Hospital St. Radboud, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nordman, E. [Turku University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland); Silvestre, M.E. [Hospital Santa Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Pierart, M. [EORTC Data Centre, Brussels (Belgium); Karim, A.B.M.F. [Free University Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Clinical-grade quality platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelet concentrates promoted expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, C; Agostini, F; Durante, C; Colombatti, A; Mazzucato, M; Aldinucci, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our study was to test a platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelets as a source of growth factors for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). PRP-R/SRGF, obtained with a low-cost procedure, is characterized by a reduced variability of growth factor release. PRP-R/SRGF is a clinical-grade quality solution obtained from CaCl2 -activated platelets. Its activity was evaluated by measuring the proliferation, the phenotype, the differentiation potential and the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT). PRP-R/SRGF was more active than FBS to expand BM- and AT-derived MSCs. PRP-R/SRGF treatment did not affect the expression of typical MSCs surface markers, neither MSCs differentiation potential nor their capability to inhibit activated T-cell proliferation. The clinical-grade PRP-R/SRGF may be used in the clinical setting for the expansion of MSCs. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Quality of life after radiation therapy of cerebral low-grade gliomas of the adult: results of a randomised Phase III trial on dose response (EORTC trial 22844)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebert, G.M.; Curran, D.; Aaronson, N.K.; Bolla, M.; Menten, J.; Rutten, E.H.J.M.; Nordman, E.; Silvestre, M.E.; Pierart, M.; Karim, A.B.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    In 1985, the EORTC Radiotherapy Co-operative Group launched a randomised phase III study comparing high-dose (59.4 Gy in 6.5 weeks) versus low-dose (45 Gy in 5 weeks) radiotherapy with conventional techniques in patients diagnosed with low-grade cerebral glioma. The primary endpoint of the study was survival. No difference in survival was observed between the two treatment strategies. A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire consisting of 47 items assessing a range of physical, psychological, social, and symptom domains was included in the trial to measure the impact of treatment over time. Patients who received high-dose radiotherapy tended to report lower levels of functioning and more symptom burden following completion of radiotherapy. These group differences were statistically significant for fatigue/malaise and insomnia immediately after radiotherapy and in leisure time and emotional functioning at 7-15 months after randomisation. These findings suggest that for conventional radiotherapy for low-grade cerebral glioma, a schedule of 45 Gy in 5 weeks not only saves valuable resources, but also spares patients a prolonged treatment at no loss of clinical efficacy. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Quality assurance in the EORTC 22033–26033/CE5 phase III randomized trial for low grade glioma: The digital individual case review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, Alysa; Weber, Damien C.; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Gulyban, Akos; Fenton, Paul A.; Stupp, Roger; Baumert, Brigitta G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The phase III EORTC 22033–26033/NCIC CE5 intergroup trial compares 50.4 Gy radiotherapy with up-front temozolomide in previously untreated low-grade glioma. We describe the digital EORTC individual case review (ICR) performed to evaluate protocol radiotherapy (RT) compliance. Methods: Fifty-eight institutions were asked to submit 1–2 randomly selected cases. Digital ICR datasets were uploaded to the EORTC server and accessed by three central reviewers. Twenty-seven parameters were analysed including volume delineation, treatment planning, organ at risk (OAR) dosimetry and verification. Consensus reviews were collated and summary statistics calculated. Results: Fifty-seven of seventy-two requested datasets from forty-eight institutions were technically usable. 31/57 received a major deviation for at least one section. Relocation accuracy was according to protocol in 45. Just over 30% had acceptable target volumes. OAR contours were missing in an average of 25% of cases. Up to one-third of those present were incorrectly drawn while dosimetry was largely protocol compliant. Beam energy was acceptable in 97% and 48 patients had per protocol beam arrangements. Conclusions: Digital RT plan submission and review within the EORTC 22033–26033 ICR provide a solid foundation for future quality assurance procedures. Strict evaluation resulted in overall grades of minor and major deviation for 37% and 32%, respectively.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental and organic carbon emissions from tire-wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatmeeyata; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-09-15

    Tire-wear is an important source of PAHs, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). The emissions of these pollutants have been studied in an experimental set-up, simulating a realistic road-tire interaction (summer tire-concrete road). The large particle non-exhaust emissions (LPNE; diameter greater than 10 microm) have been evaluated over 14,500 km run of the tire. An increasing linear trend with cumulative km run was observed for emissions of PAHs and carbon. Amongst PAHs in LPNE, pyrene has been observed to be the highest (30+/-4 mg kg(-1)) followed by benzo[ghi]perylene (17+/-2 mg kg(-1)). Different fractions of EC-OC for tire-wear have been analyzed, and unlike exhaust emissions, EC1 was observed to be 99% of EC whereas more than 70% of the OC was the high temperature carbon (OC3 and OC4). The overall emission factors (mass tire(-1) km(-1)) for PAHs, EC and OC from tire-wear are 378 ng tire(-1) km(-1), 1.46 mg tire(-1) km(-1) and 2.37 mg tire(-1) km(-1) for small cars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  15. Numerical Study of Tire Hydroplaning Based on Power Spectrum of Asphalt Pavement and Kinetic Friction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengze Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is a driving phenomenon threating vehicle’s control stability and safety. It happens when tire rolls on wet pavement with high speed that hydrodynamic force uplifts the tire. Accurate numerical simulation to reveal the mechanism of hydroplaning and evaluate the function of relevant factors in this process is significant. In order to describe the friction behaviors of tire-pavement interaction, kinetic friction coefficient curve of tire rubber and asphalt pavement was obtained by combining pavement surface power spectrum and complex modulus of tread rubber through Persson’s friction theory. Finite element model of tire-fluid-pavement was established in ABAQUS, which was composed of a 225-40-R18 radial tire and three types of asphalt pavement covered with water film. Mechanical responses and physical behaviors of tire-pavement interaction were observed and compared with NASA equation to validate the applicability and accuracy of this model. Then contact force at tire-pavement interface and critical hydroplaning speed influenced by tire inflation pressure, water film thickness, and pavement types were investigated. The results show higher tire inflation pressure, thinner water film, and more abundant macrotexture enhancing hydroplaning speed. The results could be applied to predict hydroplaning speed on different asphalt pavement and improve pavement skid resistance design.

  16. An Alternative Quality Control Technique for Mineral Chemistry Analysis of Portland Cement-Grade Limestone Using Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Zaini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortwave infrared (SWIR spectroscopy can be applied directly to analyze the mineral chemistry of raw or geologic materials. It provides diagnostic spectral characteristics of the chemical composition of minerals, information that is invaluable for the identification and quality control of such materials. The present study aims to investigate the potential of SWIR spectroscopy as an alternative quality control technique for the mineral chemistry analysis of Portland cement-grade limestone. We used the spectroscopic (wavelength position and depth of absorption feature and geochemical characteristics of limestone samples to estimate the abundance and composition of carbonate and clay minerals on rock surfaces. The depth of the carbonate (CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are linearly correlated with the contents of CaO and Al2O3 in the samples, respectively, as determined by portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF measurements. Variations in the wavelength position of CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are related to changes in the chemical compositions of the samples. The results showed that the dark gray and light gray limestone samples are better suited for manufacturing Portland cement clinker than the dolomitic limestone samples. This finding is based on the CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2 concentrations and compositions. The results indicate that SWIR spectroscopy is an appropriate approach for the chemical quality control of cement raw materials.

  17. Profiling and sorting Mangifera Indica morphology for quality attributes and grade standards using integrated image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Fausto, Janette C.; Janabajab, John Michael M.; Malicdem, Daryl James L.; Marcelo, Reginald N.; Santos, Jan Jeffrey Z.

    2017-06-01

    Mango production is highly vital in the Philippines. It is very essential in the food industry as it is being used in markets and restaurants daily. The quality of mangoes can affect the income of a mango farmer, thus incorrect time of harvesting will result to loss of quality mangoes and income. Scientific farming is much needed nowadays together with new gadgets because wastage of mangoes increase annually due to uncouth quality. This research paper focuses on profiling and sorting of Mangifera Indica using image processing techniques and pattern recognition. The image of a mango is captured on a weekly basis from its early stage. In this study, the researchers monitor the growth and color transition of a mango for profiling purposes. Actual dimensions of the mango are determined through image conversion and determination of pixel and RGB values covered through MATLAB. A program is developed to determine the range of the maximum size of a standard ripe mango. Hue, light, saturation (HSL) correction is used in the filtering process to assure the exactness of RGB values of a mango subject. By pattern recognition technique, the program can determine if a mango is standard and ready to be exported.

  18. Quality-grade evaluation of petroleum waxes using an electronic nose with a TGS gas sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ji; Gao, Daqi; Wang, Zejian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of an improved electronic nose to discriminate the quality of petroleum waxes based on their volatile profile was analyzed. Two datasets at 25 and 50 °C were collected from an experiment in order to compare influence by temperature. More fine-grained levels were further labeled for classification to meet various purposes. As petroleum waxes with lower odor levels are more difficult and important to identify than those with higher odor levels, we focus on the discrimination task for low-level ones. Principal component analysis was used for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine, and multilayer perceptron were employed to classify among different qualities of petroleum waxes. The leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed due to the small sample sizes. Results showed good performance on both datasets, and at a temperature of 50 °C all pattern recognition methods showed improved classification rates. The improved electronic nose can potentially be applied to discriminate the quality of petroleum wax. (paper)

  19. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its

  20. Normal Health-Related Quality of Life and Ability to Work Twenty-nine Years After in Situ Arthrodesis for High-Grade Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelson, Anders; Hedlund, Rune; Frennered, Karin

    2014-06-18

    The purpose of this mixed prospective and retrospective case series was to evaluate the long-term health-related quality of life and physical disability after in situ arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. Thirty-five of forty consecutive patients who had in situ spinal arthrodesis for high-grade isthmic spondylolisthesis at a mean age of fifteen years (range, nine to twenty-five years) completed validated questionnaires (Short Form-36 [SF-36], EuroQol-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D], Zung depression scale, Oswestry disability index [ODI], Million score, and back and leg pain visual analog scale [VAS]) and underwent physical examination twenty-nine years (range, twenty-three to thirty-five years) after surgery. The mean age at the time of follow-up was forty-three years (range, thirty-seven to fifty-one years). In the absence of a formal control group, the scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were compared with Swedish normative data. The proportion of patients at work was compared with an age-matched control group derived from official statistics of Sweden. The Million score at the long-term follow-up was compared with the corresponding results at the mid-term follow-up of the same patients at a mean age of twenty-two years. The scores on the SF-36 and EQ-5D were similar to the scores of the general Swedish population. The mean Zung depression scale score was 30 (range, 20 to 52), the mean ODI score was 10 (range, 0 to 34), the mean back pain VAS score was 13 (range, 0 to 72), and the mean leg pain VAS score was 9 (range, 0 to 60). The Million score averaged 28 (range, 0 to 109) and was slightly worsened compared with the score of 19 (range, 0 to 94) at the mid-term follow-up (p = 0.034). The proportion of patients at work was the same as that for the age-matched general Swedish population. Our study shows good outcomes in health-related quality of life, disability, pain, and ability to work at up to twenty-nine years after in situ lumbar spine arthrodesis for high-grade

  1. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  2. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  3. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  4. World's largest off-road tires to be recycled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-01

    Suncor Energy is the first company in Canada to use a new technology designed uniquely for tire recycling at oil sand facilities. The technology is owned by CuttingEdge Tire Recycling, a partnership between Denesoline Environmental Limited Partnership and Beaver Environmental Rubber Technologies Limited. Suncor has supported the development of this Aboriginal-owned and operated business by offering land, electricity, diesel fuel and stockpiles of used truck tires from its oil sand mining activities. These tires are the largest off-road tires in the world. In this new technology, tires that are worn-out through oil sand mining are shredded in a portable shredder before being recycled for subsequent use by the Alberta Recycling Management Association. 1 fig.

  5. Improving mechanical grip on winter tires. Finite element analysis on pressure profile of airless tire compared to conventional tire using ANSYS workbench

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsen, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The harsh climate of the arctic has always been one of the most difficult areas to drive cars in. The severe loss in traction due to snow and icing on the roads, has led to an increased risk of collisions. The winter tires for cars has developed through the years after their introduction in the 1930’s. There have been three revolutionary changes made since then; implement of studs, changing in tread pattern and optimizing rubber characteristics. The implementation of studs is being shied away...

  6. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  7. 26 x 6.6 radial-belted aircraft tire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.

  8. How wear affects road surface texture and its impact on tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical pavement wear in the Nordic countries is essentially influenced by the use of studded tires during long winter seasons. The abrasive effect of the studded tires is the cause of significant damage on the pavement and a contributor to rutting. In addition, the mechanical aggregate removal due to the studded tires is the reason for significant changes in the road surface texture. At traditional dense asphalt pavements, the mechanical wear is initiated by the abrasion of the mortar, wh...

  9. Proceedings of Four Symposia on Nondestructive Testing of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-25

    particular vein. They publish a process guide for their franchisees . It so happens that the Bandag Corp. is a member of TRI, and annually we go in and in...WHY THE CONCERN WITH NDT OF TIRES The population of the United States has historically been independent. We do not like being restricted by schedules...cords. This radiograph shows how lead acetate, carried by water, is restricted to those cords having access to the physically damaged region. FIGURE 4

  10. New developments in tire-derived fuels (TDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, G. [Kentucky Dept. for Environmental Protection, KY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Public opinion on the use of tire derived fuels (TDF) has been influenced by images of the large, uncontrolled tire fires at landfills that fill the atmosphere with heavy black smoke. This presentation discussed some of the issues and challenges related to the introduction of TDF in communities. The United States Environmental Protection Agency currently supports the responsible use of tires in Portland cement kilns and other industrial facilities if they have a storage and handling plan and have secured a permit for all applicable state and federal environmental programs. The use of TDF falls within the EPA resource conservation challenge (RCC) which has initiated a scrap tire workgroup and a TDF committee. The RCC has asked industry using TDF to assemble and share air, water, and product data to assist new TDF users and permitting agencies. TDF is currently used in cement production, by utility boilers, and pulp and paper manufacturers. A recent comparison of TDF and coal characteristics has shown that TDF releases fewer sulphur emissions than coal and produces more energy. While hydrogen emissions are typically higher, nitrogen emissions are lower. An elemental ash analysis has shown that wire-free TDF contains less aluminum than bitumens, as well as less iron. Particulate matter (PM) emissions and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from various plants using TDF are often lower than, or the same as, coal. It was concluded that in order to challenge preconceived notions about TDF, baseline compliance tests should be conducted before presenting data for a permit. Baseline tests should also be conducted with other fuels such as coal within the same timeframe. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  12. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Cruz, E; Martínez-López, M; Martínez-Barrera, G

    2013-01-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  13. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Do student self-efficacy and teacher-student interaction quality contribute to emotional and social engagement in fifth grade math?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel P; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined (a) the contribution of math self-efficacy to students' perception of their emotional and social engagement in fifth grade math classes, and (b) the extent to which high quality teacher-student interactions compensated for students' low math self-efficacy in contributing to engagement. Teachers (n = 73) were observed three times during the year during math to measure the quality of teacher-student interactions (emotional, organizational, and instructional support). Fifth graders (n = 387) reported on their math self-efficacy at the beginning of the school year and then were surveyed about their feelings of engagement in math class three times during the year immediately after the lessons during which teachers were observed. Results of multi-level models indicated that students initially lower in math self-efficacy reported lower emotional and social engagement during math class than students with higher self-efficacy. However, in classrooms with high levels of teacher emotional support, students reported similar levels of both emotional and social engagement, regardless of their self-efficacy. No comparable findings emerged for organizational and instructional support. The discussion considers the significance of students' own feelings about math in relation to their engagement, as well as the ways in which teacher and classroom supports can compensate for students lack of agency. The work has implications for school psychologists and teachers eager to boost students' engagement in math class. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of graded levels of available phosphorus on growth performance, muscle antioxidant and flesh quality of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, muscle composition, meat quality characteristics and antioxidant capacity in muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial weight 282.9 ± 3.3 g fed graded levels of phosphorus (1.0, 2.5, 3.8, 5.6, 7.8 and 9.5 g/kg diet for 8 wk were investigated. Results indicated that percentage weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were improved with optimal phosphorus supplementations (P < 0.05. Muscle protein content and water holding capacity were significantly elevated, while moisture, lipid and ash contents were significantly decreased with dietary phosphorus to a certain level (P < 0.05. The meat shear force value and hydroxyproline content were not influenced by different levels of phosphorus. Muscle anti-hydroxyl radical, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activities and glutathione content were significantly improved (P < 0.05. Conversely, anti-superoxide anion, glutathione reducase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased (P < 0.05 with dietary phosphorus to a certain level. These results indicated that suitable dietary phosphorus improved growth performance, meat quality and muscle antioxidant capacity. Dietary available phosphorus requirement of young grass carp for percentage weight gain was 4.0 g/kg diet.

  16. Visual grading analysis of digital neonatal chest phantom X-ray images: Impact of detector type, dose and image processing on image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, M H; Breysem, L; Mussen, E; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W; Cockmartin, L

    2018-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of digital detector, dose level and post-processing on neonatal chest phantom X-ray image quality (IQ). A neonatal phantom was imaged using four different detectors: a CR powder phosphor (PIP), a CR needle phosphor (NIP) and two wireless CsI DR detectors (DXD and DRX). Five different dose levels were studied for each detector and two post-processing algorithms evaluated for each vendor. Three paediatric radiologists scored the images using European quality criteria plus additional questions on vascular lines, noise and disease simulation. Visual grading characteristics and ordinal regression statistics were used to evaluate the effect of detector type, post-processing and dose on VGA score (VGAS). No significant differences were found between the NIP, DXD and CRX detectors (p>0.05) whereas the PIP detector had significantly lower VGAS (pProcessing did not influence VGAS (p=0.819). Increasing dose resulted in significantly higher VGAS (plevels but not image post-processing changes. VGA showed a DAK/image value above which perceived IQ did not improve, potentially useful for commissioning. • A VGA study detects IQ differences between detectors and dose levels. • The NIP detector matched the VGAS of the CsI DR detectors. • VGA data are useful in setting initial detector air kerma level. • Differences in NNPS were consistent with changes in VGAS.

  17. EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

    Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

  18. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  19. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  20. NUMERICAL MODELLING AND EXPERIMENTAL INFLATION VALIDATION OF A BIAS TWO-WHEEL TIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG KET THEIN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric study on the development of a computational model for bias two-wheel tire through finite element analysis (FEA. An 80/90- 17 bias two-wheel tire was adopted which made up of four major layers of rubber compound with different material properties to strengthen the structure. Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model was applied to represent the behaviour of incompressible rubber compound. A 3D tire model was built for structural static finite element analysis. The result was validated from the inflation analysis. Structural static finite element analysis method is suitable for evaluation of the tire design and improvement of the tire behaviour to desired performance. Experimental tire was inflated at various pressures and the geometry between numerical and experimental tire were compared. There are good agreements between numerical simulation model and the experiment results. This indicates that the simulation model can be applied to the bias two-wheel tire design in order to predict the tire behaviour and improve its mechanical characteristics.

  1. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  2. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  3. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  4. The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

  5. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-related quality of life of cranial WHO grade I meningioma patients: are current questionnaires relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanipoor Najafabadi, Amir H; Peeters, Marthe C M; Lobatto, Daniel J; Broekman, Marieke L D; Smith, Timothy R; Biermasz, Nienke R; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Peul, Wilco C; Taphoorn, Martin J B; van Furth, Wouter R; Dirven, Linda

    2017-11-01

    The clinical relevance of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in meningioma patients has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years. Various questionnaires have been used. However, almost none of these questionnaires has been particularly developed for and/or validated in this patient group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of existing HRQoL questionnaires used in meningioma research and to assess the agreement between patients and health care professionals (HCPs) on the most relevant and important HRQoL issues. A systematic literature search, following the PRISMA statement, was conducted to identify all HRQoL questionnaires used in meningioma research. Semi-structured interviews were organized with patients and HCPs to (1) assess the relevance of all issues covered by the questionnaires (score 0-3: not relevant-highly relevant), (2) assess the ten most important issues, and (3) identify new relevant HRQoL issues. Fourteen different questionnaires were found in the literature, comprising 140 unique issues. Interviews were conducted with 20 patients (median age 57, 71% female) and 10 HCPs (4 neurosurgeons, 2 neurologists, 2 radiotherapists, 1 rehabilitation specialist, 1 neuropsychologist; median experience 13 years). Meningioma patients rated 17-80% of the issues in each of the questionnaires as relevant, HCPs 90-100%. Patients and HCPs agreed on the relevance of only 49 issues (35%, Cohen's kappa: 0.027). Both patients and HCPs considered lack of energy the most important issue. Patients and HCPs suggested five additional relevant issues not covered by current HRQoL questionnaires. Existing HRQoL questionnaires currently used in meningioma patients do not fully cover all relevant issues to these patients. Agreement between patients and HCPs on the relevance of issues was poor. Both findings support the need to develop and validate a meningioma-specific HRQoL questionnaire.

  7. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  8. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined

  9. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  10. Recommendations to prevention, recovery and disposal of used tires; Recomendacion para la prevencion, recuperacion y disposicion de los neumaticos usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Every year the European Union produces 2.000.000 tm of used tires. Most of them are disposed in sanitary landfills. the tires are not hazardous wastes and can be used as raw material for different uses. (Author)

  11. 76 FR 4298 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  12. 75 FR 64259 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  13. Acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint injuries: quality of life comparison between patients managed operatively with a hook plate versus patients managed non-operatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera Cisneros, Luis Gerardo; Sarasquete Reiriz, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Surgical indication for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injuries still represents a reason for shoulder and trauma debate. In high-grade injuries, surgery is advocated because some of the non-operatively managed patients may have persistent shoulder pain that could make them unable to return to their previous activity. It has been shown that many of the patients with high-grade ACJ injuries that are managed non-operatively involve the development of scapular dyskinesis, situation that may result in loss of strength and weakness. On the other side, it has been widely reported that the period while the hook plate is present involves functional limitations and pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QoL) of patients with acute high-grade ACJ injuries (Rockwood grade III-V), managed operatively with a hook plate versus the QoL of patients managed non-operatively, 24 months or more after shoulder injury. Patients with acute high-grade ACJ injuries managed operatively (hook plate) or non-operatively, between 2008 and 2012 were included. The QoL was evaluated by means of the Health Survey questionnaire (SF36), the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, the Constant score and the Global Satisfaction (scale from 0 to 10) assessed at the last follow-up visit. The presence of scapular dyskinesis was assessed. Comparison between groups was made. Thirty-two patients were included: 11 hook plate-group (PLATE group) (5 Rockwood III and 6 V) and 21 conservative-group (CONS group) (4 Rockwood III and 17 V). The mean age was 41 [19-55] years old for the PLATE group and 38 [19-55] for the CONS group (p = 0.513). The mean follow-up was 32.50 ± 11.64 months for the PLATE group and 34.77 ± 21.98 months for the CONS group (p = 0.762). The mean results of the questionnaires assessed at the last follow-up visit were: (1) physical SF36 score (PLATE group 53.70 ± 4.33 and CONS group

  14. Mechanical grading in PGI Tropea red onion post harvest operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bernardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest expressed by consumers toward food products quality as well as toward their linkage to the territory, has led producers to fit to the continuous rising demand for “typical products”, and to look for new and more efficient production and marketing strategies. An emblematic case is represented by Tropea red onion that, as a typical product, plays an important role in economical and rural development of the territory to which it is linked. The organoleptic features offered by “Tropea Red Onion”, PGI certified (Calabria, have to be associated as well to the quality of services that accompanies its processing. Technology application in post-harvest operations, has certainly contributed to make faster and less tiring all processing tasks. The main problem related to the mechanization of Tropea red onion post-harvest operations lies in the removal of the various layers of the external tunic, making it impossible for optical or electronic grader to achieve this task in a satisfactory way since the sensors are not able yet to separate the “bulb” from its involucre. In this context, the current study aims to assess the productivity of three different machines used for round Tropea red onion grading, and determine their work efficiency. The carried out analysis highlighted the ability of the studied machines to ensure a high work capacity, while maintaining a high level of precision during calibration process. Such precision allows to decrease laborer employment and increase processing chain speed, rising as well the annual use of the machines, allowing consequently processing cost savings. For a more profitable employment of such graders, it is, however, necessary from one hand, to properly form the technicians responsible of processing plants management, and from the other hand, to be able to take advantage of a technical assistance network, able to serve users in a short time.

  15. 78 FR 51209 - Certain Tires and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... will be available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office... China; Dunlap & Kyle Company, Inc. d/b/a Gateway Tire and Service of MS; Unicorn Tire Corp. of TN; West... impact United States consumers. Written submissions must be filed no later than by close of business...

  16. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following statement in English: Each tire, including the spare (if provided), should be checked monthly when... level to trigger illumination of the TPMS low tire pressure telltale. [The following paragraph is.... If necessary, drive the vehicle until the telltale has extinguished. (o) The test may be repeated...

  17. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: rolling resistance and (wet)

  18. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  19. Understanding the Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the silica reinforcement of styrene–butadiene rubber compounds for passenger car tire treads, with the objective of gaining greater insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins. The major tire performance factors predicted are rolling resistance and (wet) skid

  20. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet)

  1. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  2. Stress-based viscoelastic master curve construction of model tire tread compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, S.; Dierkes, W.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Tolpekina, T.; Schultz, S.; Gögelein, C.; Wrana, C.; Gil-Negrete, Nere; Asier, Alonso

    2013-01-01

    One of the important aspects in the development of new tire compounds is the correlation between the dynamic mechanical properties of the rubber, measured on laboratory scale, and the actual tire performance. In order to predict wet traction, the viscoelastic behavior of the rubber materials at high

  3. Experimental Investigations on the Pull-Out Behavior of Tire Strips Reinforced Sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jun; Ferreira, Pedro Miguel Vaz; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Heng-Lin

    2017-06-27

    Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages.

  4. Evaluation of bifenthrin applications in tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy T; Whelan, Peter I; Shortus, Matthew S; Jacups, Susan P

    2009-03-01

    The efficacy of maximum label rates of bifenthrin applications to dry tires to prevent Aedes mosquito breeding was investigated by field colonization and bioassay trials in shaded and unshaded locations. Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were the most abundant species present in the field colonization trial. Colonization and survival of Ae. notoscriptus larvae to the late instar occurred significantly earlier in treated tires in shaded compared with unshaded locations (P = 0.002). Bifenthrin applications in shaded tires only prevented early instar survival for approximately 2.6 wk. Aedes notoscriptus late instars did not appear in the treated unshaded tires. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized treated tires from the 2nd wk in both shaded and unshaded treatments. In the bioassay, water from bifenthrin-treated tires, through extrapolation, was found to kill approximately 100% of late instar Ae. notoscriptus for only approximately 2.0-2.2 wk in shaded and unshaded tires. Under conditions optimal for Aedes breeding, such as shaded locations, high ambient temperatures, high relative humidity, and high amounts of leaf/organic matter accumulations, bifenthrin may not be effective as a larval control measure in tires for greater than 2.0-2.6 wk.

  5. Tire wear emissions for asphalt rubber and Portland cement concrete pavement surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, it has been the policy of the State of Arizona that the recycling and reuse of : waste tires are the highest priority. The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) : has long supported the use of recycled waste tire rubber in asphalt r...

  6. 3rd symposium on tires and chassis; 3. Symposium Reifen und Fahrwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, B.; Stumpf, H. (comps.)

    2005-07-01

    The present volume contains the talks, which were held at the 3rd symposium on ''Tires and chassis'' at the Institute for combustion machines at the Technical University Vienna on 26th September 2005 in cooperation with UAMTTC and Semperit Reifen Ges.m.H. Apart from technical improvements on chassis, tires and carriageway the overall perspective will get more important in the future, which also includes the driver, the neighbour, the environment and the traffic policy. Due to an increasing number of international participants, discussions can be expected, which will take into consideration extraordinary and manifold perspectives. The third symposium on ''Tires and chassis'' discusses the following developments, of which some are evolutionary. (a) Tire engineering; environmental aspects of tires, roll resistance of tires, driving comfort of tires, winter tires for passenger vehicles and trucks. (b) vehicle engineering, engineering of a race car chassis by means of telemetric measuring data acquisition; simulation of steering wheel vibrations on a complete vehicle test stand. (c) Vehicle steering; chassis of tracklaying vehicles; automatic air pressure control. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of Semi-Volatile Organic Chemicals from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled tire crumb rubber (TCR) is often used as infill material in synthetic turf playing fields as well as some playgrounds. Concerns have been raised about the safety of this material and a multi-agency Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Field...

  8. A multi-site recycled tire crumb rubber characterization study: recruitment strategy and field sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of tire crumb rubber infill used in synthetic turf fields. In response, the 2016 Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP) was developed to examine key envir...

  9. Association between Michelin tire baby syndrome and congenital panhyopituitarism in an Iranian girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Zahra; Tajziehchi, Leila; Ghavami, Fakhredin

    2014-08-01

    Michelin tire baby syndrome is a rare syndrome, diagnosed clinically by multiple circumferential skin folds. Multiple noncutaneous anomalies have been described with this syndrome. We report a case of Michelin tire baby syndrome with congenital panhypopituitarism. To date, there is no report of association between these two disorders.

  10. Characterization of Exposure Potential during Activities on Synthetic Turf Fields with Recycled Tire Crumb Rubber Infill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds (FRAP), released in February 2016, is a multi-agency research plan in response to concerns over the use of tire crumb rubber as infill on synthetic turf fields. The FRAP outlines specif...

  11. A brief description of the biomechanics and physiology of a strongman event: the tire flip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Payne, Amenda L; Anderson, Brad B; Atkins, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) characterize the temporal aspects of a popular strongman event, the tire flip; (b) gain some insight into the temporal factors that could distinguish the slowest and fastest flips; and (c) obtain preliminary data on the physiological stress of this exercise. Five resistance-trained subjects with experience in performing the tire flip gave informed consent to participate in this study. Each subject performed 2 sets of 6 tire flips with a 232-kg tire with 3 minutes of rest between sets. Temporal variables were obtained from video cameras positioned 10 m from the tire, perpendicular to the intended direction of the tire flip. Using the "stopwatch" function in Silicon Coach, the duration of each tire flip and that of the first pull, second pull, transition, and push phases were recorded. Physiological stress was estimated via heart rate and finger-prick blood lactate response. Independent T-tests revealed that the 2 faster subjects (0.38 +/- 0.17 s) had significantly (p tire flip performance and that this exercise provides relatively high degrees of physiological stress.

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Production...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord...

  14. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall. Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire... with a 12-inch or smaller rim diameter, each tire shall have not less than six treadwear indicators... mountain, there must be a six-sided snowflake having a minimum height of one-half the tallest peak...

  15. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available pavement design. Four different tire models were used to represent a single tire type in order to demonstrate its effect on road pavement response of a typical South African pavement structure. Only applied vertical stress was used for the analyses...

  16. 41 CFR 101-25.110-3 - Tires accompanying new motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 101-25.110-3 Section 101-25.110-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.110-3 Tires accompanying new motor vehicles. The tire identifications and recordkeeping regulations issued by the Department of Transportation require each motor...

  17. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and ex...

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.110-2 - Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Tires obtained through Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. 101-25.110-2 Section 101-25.110-2 Public Contracts... Federal Supply Schedules or regional term contracts. When tire manufacturers ship tires direct against...

  19. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel Assembly) Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its...; Now, therefore, the Board hereby grants authority for subzone status for activity related to tire and tire accessories warehousing and distribution and wheel assembly at the facility of Michelin North...

  20. 78 FR 22513 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (``OTR tires'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is September 1, 2010, through August 31, 2011. This review covers one...

  1. 76 FR 7816 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative... countervailing duty order on certain new pneumatic off-the-road tires (OTR Tires) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009, with respect to the one remaining...

  2. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  4. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  5. Prospective of Macedonia for treatment and recycling of tire waste with Pirolitic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafov Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry is one of the ever-developing branches of modern society and therefore collecting and recycling of old tires must not be ignored. It must be taken into consideration that tire waste is decomposing at an extremely low pace under the influence of climate factors, that waste from used tires not only is covering large areas, but there is also a possibility of spontaneous fire that is usually long-lasting and emits gasses that have negative effect on human health. Tires are made of complex polymeric materials and contain chemical additives. When burning tires on an open field highly toxic and cancerous organic compounds are being released (biphenyl, anthracene, fluoranthene and other toxins. Pyrolysis is a process that offers sustainable management of this type of waste which in continuation is to be explained in detail.

  6. Uncontacted tire explosion causing trauma to bilateral lower extremities: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Yang; Su, Yun; Meng, Xiang-Jun; Luan, Bo-Wu; Gu, Gui-Shan; Sun, Qiang; Zhao, De-Wei

    2017-06-01

    It is uncommon for tire explosion related injuries on the lower extremity. The bilateral lower extremities were injured by tire explosion when the patient was seated in a bus. She sustained an open fracture with partial bone loss in the right calcaneus (a comminuted fracture in the right ankle joint) and a closed comminuted fracture in the left tibia and fibula. This damage was caused by uncontacted tire explosion, thanks to a thick floor between the exploded tire and the patient's feet. This type of injury on lower extremity caused by uncontacted tire explosion was uncommon. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  8. The Online Market of Wheels and Tires in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Masienok, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines market situation of wheels and tires in Russia from 2014 until 2016. As the main type of cars were chosen passenger cars because they are used most. As a case study was chosen the biggest online store “Mosautoshina” and the most popular feedback site “Yandex.Market”. These sites possess real customers’ feedbacks, their opinion about each item and rating. To make right statistics for 2013 and 2014, I have used the work made by Discovery Research Group, which kind...

  9. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  10. Recycling of car tires by means of Waterjet technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holka, Henryk; Jarzyna, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of used car tires poses a threat to the environment. Therefore they need to be recycled. In this work a decomposition method that involves applying a stream of water at very high pressure (to 600MPa) is presented. This method is based on the authors' own patent from 2010 and the results have been provided from two year-long tests and calculations This study includes many diagrams, images and calculations that have been used to develop the discussed method which is competitive for currently used ones.

  11. Assessment of wheel propeller contact pressure upon soil with use of tire universal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Godzhaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum contact pressure is a key parameter characterizing a level of ecological impact of tractor propellers on the soil. The maximum pressure upon the soil varies with internal pressure in tires and vertical load of a wheel. An universal tire performance can be used at an assessment of change of contact pressure of a wheel propeller upon the soil. The authors offered a technique of definition and regulation of the maximum contact pressure of the wheel propeller upon the basic basis. This technique allows to set parameters for monitoring systems and regulation of the maximum pressure upon the soil by measurement of a tire deflection and change of pressure in tires. At statistical tests for determination of the maximum contact pressure it is necessary to consider the universal performance of the tire nomographically. This nomogram allows to consider visually influence of loading and internal pressure in the tire on a size of the maximum contact pressure. An internal pressure decrease in the tire makes it possible to reduce the maximum pressure upon the soil at constant loading. The authors investigated universal performances of the tires in the range of change of internal air pressure from 160 to 90 kPas. Change of internal pressure from 150 to 100 kPas reduce for the tire 15,5R38 the maximum contact pressure upon 13 kPas (9,6 percent: from 135 to 122 kPas. That corresponds to the admissible level of pressure upon the soil at its humidity in a layer of 0-30 cm: 0,5-0,6 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the spring period and 0,6-0,7 minimum moisture-holding capacity during the autumn period. In case of use of the tire 16,9R38 the maximum pressure upon the soil decreases from 84 to 75 kPas, that is by 10,4 percent.

  12. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.M.; Casey, R.E.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Lev, S.M.; Landa, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg-1) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Impacts of weathered tire debris on the development of Rana sylvatica larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, Kimberly M; Casey, Ryan E; Snodgrass, Joel W; Lev, Steven M; Landa, Edward R

    2009-02-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems including stormwater retention ponds where highway particulate matter can accumulate following runoff events. Tire wear particles, which contain about 1% Zn by mass, make up approximately one-third of the vehicle derived particulates in highway runoff and therefore may serve as a stressor to organisms utilizing retention ponds as habitat. In this study, we focused on the potential contribution of tire debris to Zn accumulation by Rana sylvatica larvae and possible lethal or sublethal impacts resulting from exposure to weathered tire debris during development. Eggs and larvae were exposed to aged sediments (containing either ZnCl2 or tire particulate matter, both providing nominal concentrations of 1000 mg Zn kg(-1)) through metamorphosis. Water column Zn was elevated in both the ZnCl2 and tire treatments relative to the control treatment, indicating that aging allowed Zn leaching from tire debris to occur. Tissue Zn was also elevated for the ZnCl2 and tire treatments indicating that Zn in the treatments was available for uptake by the amphibians. Exposure to both ZnCl2 and tire treatments increased the time for larvae to complete metamorphosis in comparison with controls. We also observed that the longer the organisms took to complete metamorphosis, the smaller their mass at metamorphosis. Our results indicate that Zn leached from aged tire debris is bioavailable to developing R. sylvatica larvae and that exposure to tire debris amended sediments can result in measurable physiological outcomes to wood frogs that may influence population dynamics.

  14. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  15. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Niskanen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  16. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Oxman, Andrew D; Santesso, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    such choice is presenting evidence from low-quality randomized trials or high-quality observational studies. When in doubt, a reasonable approach is to present both sets of evidence; if the two bodies of evidence have similar quality but discrepant results, one would rate down further for inconsistency...

  17. Analysis on nondestructive temperature distribution of tire tread part in a running using infrared thermal vision camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yeol; Yang, Dong Jo; Ma, Sang Dong; Park, Byoung Gu; Lee, Ju Wan

    2001-01-01

    The experimental method which investigates validity of numerical simulation for wheeling tires has not developed until now. Separation of belt caused by sudden temperature increase is the most serious problem with wheeling tires. Actually, separation of belt is closely related with the life cycle and design of tires. It is important to investigate the temperature history of tires because sudden temperature increase on belt accelerates the thermal fatigue and then causes the destruction of bending area in the radial direction. Therefore, in the present study, finite element method (FEM) was used to obtain the accurate temperature distribution of tire. Its results were compared with experimental data acquired by infrared thermal camera.

  18. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  19. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  20. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  1. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  2. A technical survey on tire-road friction estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyedmeysam KHALEGHIAN; Anahita EMAMI; Saied TAHERI

    2017-01-01

    Lack of driver's knowledge about the abrupt changes in pavement's friction and poor performance of the vehicle's stability,traction,and ABS controllers on the low friction surfaces are the most important factors affecting car crashes.Due to its direct relation to vehicle stability,accurate estimation of tire-road friction is of interest to all vehicle and tire companies.Many studies have been conducted in this field and researchers have used different tools and have proposed different algorithms.This literature survey introduces different approaches,which have been widely used to estimate the friction or other related parameters,and covers the recent literature that contains these methodologies.The emphasize of this review paper is on the algorithms and studies,which are more popular and have been repeated several times.The focus has been divided into two main groups:experiment-based and model-based approaches.Each of these main groups has several sub-categories,which are explained in the next few sections.Several summary tables are provided in which the overall feature of each approach is reviewed that gives the reader the general picture of different algorithms,which are widely used in friction estimation studies.

  3. Use of recycled tires in non-structural concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rawahi Zamzam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the issue of tire waste management and natural aggregate resource depletion. It investigates use of commercially produced recycled tire rubber as replacement for fine and coarse aggregate in non-structural concrete. Two replacement levels of 10% and 20% were considered for fine aggregate with 0% or 10% of coarse aggregate. The study employed a mix proportion of 1:5:4 (cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.25, which is normally utilized in concrete block manufacturing in Oman. The mixes were tested for their thermal conductivity, water absorption and compressive strength. The behavior of mixes exposed to 100 and 200°C was also studied and the samples were later tested for compressive strength. The results showed improvements in compressive strength after exposure to heat. Thermal conductivity was reduced as the percentage replacement increased for both fine and coarse aggregate. During heat exposure, the temperature rise was faster in rubberized mixes, and the compressive strength of all mixes improved after the exposure to heat. Water absorption and void content increased with increase in replacement percentage. The compressive strength did not show a clear trend with the replacement and this is due to the sensitivity of the stiff mix used in the study and its inherent lean nature. The results indicate that the lean nature of the mix makes it insensitive to small replacement investigated in this research.

  4. Deformability of Oxide Inclusions in Tire Cord Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Guo, Changbo; Yang, Wen; Ren, Ying; Ling, Haitao

    2018-04-01

    The deformation of oxide inclusions in tire cord steels during hot rolling was analyzed, and the factors influencing their deformability at high and low temperatures were evaluated and discussed. The aspect ratio of oxide inclusions decreased with the increasing reduction ratio of the steel during hot rolling owing to the fracture of the inclusions. The aspect ratio obtained after the first hot-rolling process was used to characterize the high-temperature deformability of the inclusions. The deformation first increased and then decreased with the increasing (MgO + Al2O3)/(SiO2 + MnO) ratio of the inclusions. It also increased with the decreasing melting temperatures of the inclusions. Young's modulus was used to evaluate the low-temperature deformability of the inclusions. An empirical formula was fitted to calculate the Young's moduli of the oxides using the mean atomic volume. The moduli values of the inclusions causing wire fracture were significantly greater than the average. To reduce fracture in tire cord steel wires during cold drawing, it is proposed that inclusions be controlled to those with high SiO2 content and extremely low Al2O3 content. This proposal is based on the hypothesis that the deformabilities of oxides during cold drawing are inversely proportional to their Young's moduli. The future study thus proposed includes an experimental confirmation for the abovementioned predictions.

  5. Harmonic filter design consideration for a tire-rubber factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebardast, A. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Abhar Branch]|[Sharif Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mokhtari, H. [Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear loads and arc furnace loads are the main sources of harmonic currents in power distribution systems. Harmonic currents can cause reductions in system efficiency, and shorten the lifespan of transformers and capacitor banks. This paper provided details of a filter designed to attenuate harmonic currents at a tire company in Iran. The tire company was supplied by 3 distribution transformers and an emergency transformer. Main supply was through a 132 kV/20 kV transformer, which was connected to 2 A and B stations. The AC/DC drivers generated harmonics. Harmonic measurements were performed to determine the type and size of the required filters. A summary of site harmonic measurements was provided. A passive filter was placed at a medium voltage location. A sensitivity analysis was then performed in order to assess loading effects on filter performance. The analysis was performed on all possible configurations in the plant, including load change, capacitor bank step change, and transformer energization. Resonance conditions were also examined. Results showed that attention must be paid to the filter component rating in addition to potential resonant conditions. It was concluded that resonant conditions alter when system operating conditions change. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  6. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  7. Development of tire road noise chassis-dynamometer simulator. Effect of ISO surface replica model pad on tire road noise; Shisakushita tire romen soon shiken`yo jissha daijo simulator ni tsuite. ISO romen mogi pad wo sochakushita koka ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Murakami, T; Ogata, S; Sakamoto, I [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a new test facility to clarify noise reduction method of tire road noise, Tire Road Noise Chassis-Dynamometer Simulator was developed. ISO surface replica pads made by copying the texture of ISO surface were attached on the roller surface of this system to simulate tire road noise. This paper described the specifications and characteristics of this system, and the effects of ISO surface replica pads on tire noise measurement by comparing the sound intensity in horizontal plane of tire noise measured in this system with that measured in a single drum tester with safety walk surface. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinik, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

  9. Oral hygiene grade and quality of life in children with chemotherapy-related oral mucositis: a randomized study on the impact of a fluoride toothpaste with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, E; Amadori, F; Majorana, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the use of a fluoride toothpaste (Bioxtra ® , Biopharm, Milan, Italy) with salivary enzymes, essential oils, proteins and colostrum extract versus a fluoride toothpaste without menthol on the oral hygiene grade and on the quality of life (QoL) of children with oral mucositis (OM) grade 1 or 2 receiving chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL). Patients between 6 and 14 years with OM were randomly assigned to two groups, group A (Bioxtra ® toothpaste) and group B (fluoride toothpaste without menthol). The patients were instructed to brush their teeth at least twice a day using a soft toothbrush with a small head. Oral hygiene grade was assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-s); quality of life was assessed using the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaires. The patients were evaluated on day 1(diagnosis of OM-T0) and on day 8 (T1). Statistical analysis was performed. A total of 64 patients were enrolled. A significant difference (P oral hygiene grade. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Göhlich, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN) and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  11. Influence of Tire Characteristics of Interurban Taxis on Exposure Level to Drivers Whole-Body Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Derakhshanjazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taxi drivers’ exposure to repeat whole-body vibrations can cause back pain and digestive disorders. Since this type of vibration depends on the car components, this study was carried out to determine the influence of tire characteristics on the amount of whole-body vibrations transmitted to the Peugeot 405 taxi drivers. Methods: In this experimental study, vibration characteristics were measured according to the ISO2631-1 with each of the statuses: tubeless tires fixed and fluid in it (normal air or nitrogen and also the fluid in the tires fixed with tubes or tubeless on asphalt-paved road. Other variables including tire pressure, engine speed, road gradient, number of passengers, springs, and shock absorbers were kept constant. Then the effect of changes was analyzed using an appropriate statistical test. Results: After changing nitrogen to normal air and tubeless tires to tube, the average of RMS in Z-axis, eight-hour equivalent acceleration A(8 and crest factor were reduced (P 0.9 m/s2 to caution zone (0.45-0.9 m/s2 with a value of 0.8 m/s2. Conclusions: The amount of vibration transmitted to the whole body is sensitive to existence of tubes and tires inflation so that we can reduce the amount of whole-body vibration to lower than the upper limit of the health risk by changing the characteristics of the tire

  12. A hierarchical estimator development for estimation of tire-road friction coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhang

    Full Text Available The effect of vehicle active safety systems is subject to the friction force arising from the contact of tires and the road surface. Therefore, an adequate knowledge of the tire-road friction coefficient is of great importance to achieve a good performance of these control systems. This paper presents a tire-road friction coefficient estimation method for an advanced vehicle configuration, four-motorized-wheel electric vehicles, in which the longitudinal tire force is easily obtained. A hierarchical structure is adopted for the proposed estimation design. An upper estimator is developed based on unscented Kalman filter to estimate vehicle state information, while a hybrid estimation method is applied as the lower estimator to identify the tire-road friction coefficient using general regression neural network (GRNN and Bayes' theorem. GRNN aims at detecting road friction coefficient under small excitations, which are the most common situations in daily driving. GRNN is able to accurately create a mapping from input parameters to the friction coefficient, avoiding storing an entire complex tire model. As for large excitations, the estimation algorithm is based on Bayes' theorem and a simplified "magic formula" tire model. The integrated estimation method is established by the combination of the above-mentioned estimators. Finally, the simulations based on a high-fidelity CarSim vehicle model are carried out on different road surfaces and driving maneuvers to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method.

  13. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dong I.; Nam, Kyongphile; Park, Jae W.; Khim, Jee H.; Kim, Yong K.; Kim, Jae Y.

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs

  14. Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Cubed Waste Tire Rubbers as Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Y.; Hermanto, N. I. S.; Pamudji, G.; Wardana, K. P.

    2017-11-01

    One feasible solution to overcome the issue of tire disposal waste is the use of waste tire rubber to replace aggregate in concrete. We have conducted an experimental investigation on the effect of rubber tire waste aggregate in cuboid form on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. The test was performed on 72 cylindrical specimens with the height of 300 mm and diameter of 150 mm. We found that the workability of concrete with waste tire rubber aggregate has increased. The concrete density with waste tire rubber aggregate was decreased, and so was the compressive strength. The decrease of compressive strength is up to 64.34%. If the content of waste tire rubber aggregate is more than 40%, then the resulting concrete cannot be categorized as structural concrete. The modulus of elasticity decreased to 59.77%. The theoretical equation developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete with rubber tire waste aggregate has an accuracy of 84.27%.

  15. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong I. [Division of R and D Planning and Management, Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyongphile [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae W. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jee H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong K. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Y. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs.

  16. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  17. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of an Optical Test Bench for Tire Properties Measurement and Tread Defects Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire characteristics and behavior are of great importance in vehicle dynamics since the forces transmitted in the tire-road contact are the main contributors to global vehicle performance. Several research groups have focused on the study and modeling of tires. Some of the most important factors that need to be known are tread characteristics and pressure distribution in the tire-ground contact patch. In this work, a test bench has been used to adequately determine the aforementioned factors. The measurement principle of the test bench is the frustration of total internal reflection (FTIR of light. It makes use of a laterally illuminated glass on which the tire leans. An interposed plastic interface between them causes the reflection of light. Finally, a video camera captures the bright image formed through the glass. The brightness level in each pixel of the image is related to existing normal pressure. A study of the parameters that affect the test bench calibration such as type of interface material used, diffuse light, hysteresis, creep and transverse light absorption is performed. Experimental tests are conducted to relate tire inflation pressure and camber angle to the pressure distribution. Furthermore, the test bench is used to detect and evaluate the influence of defects in the tire on the contact pressures.

  19. Predicting the compressibility behaviour of tire shred samples for landfill applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warith, M A; Rao, Sudhakar M

    2006-01-01

    Tire shreds have been used as an alternative to crushed stones (gravel) as drainage media in landfill leachate collection systems. The highly compressible nature of tire shreds (25-47% axial strain on vertical stress applications of 20-700 kPa) may reduce the thickness of the tire shred drainage layer to less than 300 mm (minimum design requirement) during the life of the municipal solid waste landfill. There hence exists a need to predict axial strains of tire shred samples in response to vertical stress applications so that the initial thickness of the tire shred drainage layer can be corrected for compression. The present study performs one-dimensional compressibility tests on four tire shred samples and compares the results with stress/strain curves from other studies. The stress/strain curves are developed into charts for choosing the correct initial thickness of tire shred layers that maintain the minimum thickness of 300 mm throughout the life of the landfill. The charts are developed for a range of vertical stresses based on the design height of municipal waste cell and bulk unit weight of municipal waste. Experimental results also showed that despite experiencing large axial strains, the average permeability of the tire shred sample consistently remained two to three orders of magnitude higher than the design performance criterion of 0.01cm/s for landfill drainage layers. Laboratory experiments, however, need to verify whether long-term chemical and bio-chemical reactions between landfill leachate and the tire shred layer will deteriorate their mechanical functions (hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, strength) beyond permissible limits for geotechnical applications.

  20. Increased efficiency in the second-hand tire trade provides opportunity for dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego Pliego, Emilene; Velázquez-Castro, Jorge; Eichhorn, Markus P; Fraguela Collar, Andrés

    2018-01-21

    Dengue fever is increasing in geographical range, spread by invasion of its vector mosquitoes. The trade in second-hand tires has been implicated as a factor in this process because they act as mobile reservoirs of mosquito eggs and larvae. Regional transportation of tires can create linkages between rural areas with dengue and disease-free urban areas, potentially giving rise to outbreaks even in areas with strong local control measures. In this work we sought to model the dynamics of mosquito transportation via the tire trade, in particular to predict its role in causing unexpected dengue outbreaks through vertical transmission of the virus across generations of mosquitoes. We also aimed to identify strategies for regulating the trade in second-hand tires, improving disease control. We created a mathematical model which captures the dynamics of dengue between rural and urban areas, taking into account the movement and storage time of tires, and mosquito diapause. We simulate a series of scenarios in which a mosquito population is introduced to a dengue-free area via movement of tires, either as single or multiple events, increasing the likelihood of a dengue outbreak. A persistent disease state can be induced regardless of whether urban conditions for an outbreak are met, and an existing endemic state can be enhanced by vector input. Finally we assess the potential for regulation of tire processing as a means of reducing the transmission of dengue fever using a specific case study from Puerto Rico. Our work demonstrates the importance of the second-hand tire trade in modulating the spread of dengue fever across regions, in particular its role in introducing dengue to disease-free areas. We propose that reduction of tire storage time and control of their movement can play a crucial role in containing dengue outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A North American model to contain the spread of Aedes albopictus through tire legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R J

    1995-12-01

    The introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in the United States has been facilitated by used or waste tires. This species has not only caused considerable concern among public health officials but also highlighted that the growing accumulations of used tires are a serious solid waste problem and a challenge to the recycling industry. This paper illustrates how the State of Illinois addressed the public health and solid waste problems associated with waste tires, mosquitoes and mosquito-borne pathogens. The goal of the State was to develop and implement through legislative process the Illinois Waste Tire Act. The purpose of the Waste Tire Act is: 1) to ensure that used and waste tires are collected for disposal and recycling, 2) to provide for the abatement of used and waste tire dumps and associated threats to public health, 3) to encourage the development of used and waste tire processing facilities and technologies, including energy recovery, and 4) to provide for research on vectors associated with used and waste tires, and the diseases they spread. The discussion will include key statutes from the Act and the model used to coordinate the effort of five different governmental agencies. An up-to-date presentation of vector-related research, mandated by the Act, ranging from applied investigations on mosquito control to more basic studies investigations on virus identification using molecular technology will be discussed. Finally a discussion of problems that have been encountered along with solutions dealing with legislative language, multidisciplined agency efforts and interactions with the general public are presented.

  2. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  3. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    OpenAIRE

    Moinuddin Sarker; Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml an...

  4. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used

  5. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 mum. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about I gm for the bitumen particles. This size range enables the possibility for far range transport and inhalation by humans. Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway...... indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. Concentrations in soil that has not been touched for at least 30 years show a decrease in tire concentration...

  6. "Well, I'm tired of tryin'!" Organizational citizenship behavior and citizenship fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolino, Mark C; Hsiung, Hsin-Hua; Harvey, Jaron; LePine, Jeffery A

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to identify workplace conditions that influence the degree to which employees feel worn out, tired, or on edge attributed to engaging in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and also how this phenomenon, which we refer to as citizenship fatigue, is associated with future occurrences of OCB. Using data collected from 273 employees and their peers at multiple points in time, we found that the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue depends on levels of perceived organizational support, quality of team-member exchange relationships, and pressure to engage in OCB. Specifically, the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue is significantly stronger and positive when perceived organizational support is low, and it is significantly stronger and negative when the quality of team-member exchange is high and pressure to engage in OCB is low. Our results also indicate that citizenship fatigue is negatively related to subsequent acts of OCB. Finally, supplemental analyses reveal that the relationship between OCB and citizenship fatigue may vary as a function of the specific facet of OCB. We conclude with a discussion of the key theoretical and practical implications of our findings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Devulcanization of Waste Tire Rubber Using Amine Based Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walvekar Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project focuses on an alternative pathway of devulcanizing waste tire rubber by using amine based chemicals. Waste tire rubbers are known to be as toxic, non-degradable material due to their vulcanized crosslink carbon structure, and disposing of such waste could impose hazardous impacts on the environment. The current rubber recycling methods that are practiced today are rather uneconomical, non-environmentally friendly, and also producing recycled rubber with low quality due to the alteration in the main polymeric chains of waste rubber. This project aims to answer the question of whether the usage of amine can produce high quality rubber, where the properties of recycled rubber is almost the same as new/virgin rubber. With known potential of amine, it is a challenge for the chemical to selectively cleave the sulfur bonds without affecting the main carbon backbone chain in the rubber structure and diminishing much of the rubber properties. To study this research, amine-treated rubber must undergo devulcanisation process by applying heat and sonication energy. Then, the properties of the amine-treated rubber were determined through a set of characterization tests and analysis which are: gel content test to determine the weight of rubber before and after devulcanization, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to determine the thermal degradation and stability of rubber, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to determine any structural change of the rubber. In this research so far, the first two preliminary analysis tests have been performed. The gel content test has shown that tertiary amine samples possessed a lower gel content (% of (77 – 63 %, compared to primary amine samples (falls within the range of 80%, as well as the TGA test in which tertiary amine samples degrade faster than primary amine samples (suggesting a higher degree of rubber structure breakdown. For each type of amine, the concertation of amine did

  8. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Ho [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system.

  9. Tumor grading of adult astrocytic glioma on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Choong Gon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Seon Kyu; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul; Choi, Kyu Ho; Byun, Hong Sik; Choi, Woo Suk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine predictive MR features for grading of astrocytic gliomas and to evaluate the accuracy of MR grading in these tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 135 cases of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult (age > 15 years), all of which were proved by open biopsy. Two observers analysed MR images independently with criteria of margin, edema, mass effect, signal heterogeneity, necrosis, cyst formation, hemorrhage, tumor vascularity, enhancement degree, and enhancement size. The patterns of enhancement were categorized into no, homogeneous, heterogeneous, thin smooth rim, thin irregular rim, and thick irregular rim enhancement patterns. Observers finally diagnosed each case as one of low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme. Statistically significant MR features for grading of these tumors were revealed as necrosis (p < 0.001), edema (0.008), and signal heterogeneity (p < 0.025). When compared with histopathologic grading, MR graded correctly 76%- 77% of cases in two tired system(low-grade astrocytoma versus high-grade astrocytoma), but only 67%-69% of cases in three tiered system(low-grade astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme). No contrast enhancement was seen in 45% and 23% of low-grade astrocytoma and anaplastic astrocytoma respectively. Glioblastoma multiforme frequently showed thick irregular rim enhancement (57%), but no enhancement at all in 8%. We have concluded that necrosis and edema are significant predictive MR features for grading of supratentorial astrocytic gliomas in adult, and MR was correct in 76%-77% of cases for predicting pathologic grading astrocytomas in two tiered system

  10. Fatigue of cord-rubber composites for tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaehoon

    Fatigue behaviors of cord-rubber composite materials forming the belt region of radial pneumatic tires have been characterized to assess their dependence on stress, strain and temperature history as well as materials composition and construction . Using actual tires, it was found that interply shear strain is one of the crucial parameters for damage assessment from the result that higher levels of interply shear strain of actual tires reduce the fatigue lifetime. Estimated at various levels of load amplitude were the fatigue life, the extent and rate of resultant strain increase ("dynamic creep"), cyclic strains at failure, and specimen temperature. The interply shear strain of 2-ply 'tire belt' composite laminate under circumferential tension was affected by twisting of specimen due to tension-bending coupling. However, a critical level of interply shear strain, which governs the gross failure of composite laminate due to the delamination, appeared to be independent of different lay-up of 2-ply vs. symmetric 4-ply configuration. Reflecting their matrix-dominated failure modes such as cord-matrix debonding and delamination, composite laminates with different cord reinforcements showed the same S-N relationship as long as they were constructed with the same rubber matrix, the same cord angle, similar cord volume, and the same ply lay-up. Because of much lower values of single cycle strength (in terms of gross fracture load per unit width), the composite laminates with larger cord angle and the 2-ply laminates exhibited exponentially shorter fatigue lifetime, at a given stress amplitude, than the composite laminates with smaller cord angle and 4-ply symmetric laminates, respectively. The increase of interply rubber thickness lengthens their fatigue lifetime at an intermediate level of stress amplitude. However, the increase in the fatigue lifetime of the composite laminate becomes less noticeable at very low stress amplitude. Even with small compressive cyclic

  11. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired.

  12. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  13. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-01-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites

  14. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  15. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun; Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-01-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na 2 CO 3 , NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) ∼205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na 2 CO 3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H 2 , CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 6 . Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher

  16. Slip Control of Electric Vehicle Based on Tire-Road Friction Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojian Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The real-time change of tire-road friction coefficient is one of the important factors that influence vehicle safety performance. Besides, the vehicle wheels’ locking up has become an important issue. In order to solve these problems, this paper comes up with a novel slip control of electric vehicle (EV based on tire-road friction coefficient estimation. First and foremost, a novel method is proposed to estimate the tire-road friction coefficient, and then the reference slip ratio is determined based on the estimation results. Finally, with the reference slip ratio, a slip control based on model predictive control (MPC is designed to prevent the vehicle wheels from locking up. In this regard, the proposed controller guarantees the optimal braking torque on each wheel by individually controlling the slip ratio of each tire within the stable zone. Theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed controller is effective for better braking performance.

  17. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  18. FEM BASED PARAMETRIC DESIGN STUDY OF TIRE PROFILE USING DEDICATED CAD MODEL AND TRANSLATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a finite element method (FEM based parametric design study of the tire profile shape and belt width is presented. One of the main obstacles that similar studies have faced is how to change the finite element mesh after a modification of the tire geometry is performed. In order to overcome this problem, a new approach is proposed. It implies automatic update of the finite elements mesh, which follows the change of geometric design parameters on a dedicated CAD model. The mesh update is facilitated by an originally developed mapping and translation code. In this way, the performance of a large number of geometrically different tire design variations may be analyzed in a very short time. Although a pilot one, the presented study has also led to the improvement of the existing tire design.

  19. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  20. Real-Time Dispatching of Rubber Tired Gantry Cranes in Container Terminals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNary, Bradley S

    2008-01-01

    ... significant growth in container traffic. Efficiently managing of rubber tired gantry cranes and planning container placement within the terminal are two ways to increase the overall efficiency of a terminal...