WorldWideScience

Sample records for tipov preobrazovaniya izlucheniya

  1. UCF WP TIPOVER ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1998-04-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the structural response of the 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package (WP) to a tipover design basis event (DBE) dynamic load; the results will be reported in terms of stress magnitudes. Finite-element solution was performed by making use of the commercially available ANSYS finite-element code. A finite-element model of the waste package was developed and analyzed for a tipover DBE dynamic load. The results of this analysis were provided in tables and were also plotted in terms of the maximum stress contours to determine their locations.

  2. Household furniture tip-over deaths of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2011-07-01

    The potential for the injury or death of a child resulting from the tip-over of a piece of household furniture or a domestic appliance has not been previously well recognized. We reviewed nine accidental deaths of young children that resulted from avoidable residential hazards and/or lapses in supervision of the children by their caregivers. The offending household items included televisions, bedroom dressers, a kitchen stove, and a lounge chair. The causes of death were mechanical asphyxia, blunt trauma, and combined blunt head trauma and asphyxia. All of the deaths could have been prevented by appropriate anchoring of the piece of furniture and/or closer supervision of the child. A thorough multidisciplinary investigation is essential in establishing the cause and manner of death in such cases and in identifying risk factors that may aid in the prevention of future childhood deaths. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret

    2014-06-01

    Skid-steer teleoperated robots are commonly used by military and civilian crews to perform high-risk, dangerous and critical tasks such as bomb disposal. Their missions are often performed in unstructured environments with irregular terrain, such as inside collapsed buildings or on rough terrain covered with a variety of media, such as sand, brush, mud, rocks and debris. During such missions, it is often impractical if not impossible to send another robot or a human operator to right a toppled robot. As a consequence, a robot tip-over event usually results in mission failure. To make matters more complicated, such robots are often equipped with heavy payloads that raise their centers of mass and hence increase their instability. Should the robot be equipped with a manipulator arm or flippers, it may have a way to self-right. The majority of manipulator arms are not designed for and are likely to be damaged during self-righting procedures, however, which typically have a low success rate. Furthermore, those robots not equipped with manipulator arms or flippers have no self-righting capabilities. Additionally, due to the on-board camera frame of reference, the video feed may cause the robot to appear to be on at level ground, when it actually may be on a slope nearing tip-over. Finally, robot operators are often so focused on the mission at hand they are oblivious to their surroundings, similar to a kid playing a video game. While this may not be an issue in the living room, it is not a good scenario to experience on the battlefield. Our research seeks to remove tip-over monitoring from the already large list of tasks an operator must perform. An autonomous tip-over prevention behavior for a mobile robot with a static payload has been developed, implemented and experimentally validated on two different teleoperated robotic platforms. Suitable for use with both teleoperated and autonomous robots, the prevention behavior uses the force-angle stability measure

  4. Television tip-overs: the Starship Children's Hospital experience and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Jacques; Dansey, Rangi; Morreau, Philip; Hamill, James

    2011-05-01

    Injuries sustained from television (TV) sets tipping over onto children are uncommon when compared to other forms of trauma, but because of the weight of some TVs relative to the size of small children, severe and sometimes fatal injuries can result. The international literature is limited in describing this form of trauma and none is available for the Australasian region. The aims of the present paper are to describe the characteristics and immediate outcomes of children admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following TV tip-overs and review the international literature on this topic. Patients admitted to Starship Hospital were identified retrospectively from the Paediatric Trauma database, and the case notes reviewed. Structured telephone interviews were then conducted with each of the families involved. Over the 28-month period (June 2006-October 2008) reviewed, 13 children under 15 years of age were identified, with an almost even sex distribution. 5 required admission to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). 9/13 sustained head injuries and 1 patient died from their injuries. Mechanism of injury was in keeping with behaviour to be expected of toddlers. Parents and caregivers were unaware of the dangers posed by TV sets and no precautions had been taken to prevent injury. The injuries sustained by children from TV tip-overs are often serious and most commonly involve the head and upper body. This is a common finding in all papers reviewed, but numbers of patients studied are still limited. There is a need for both education of families and improvement in the design of TV sets, to prevent this form of trauma in the paediatric population. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Injuries From furniture tip-overs among children and adolescents in the United States, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Bethany L; McKenzie, Lara B; Conner, Kristen A; Smith, Gary A

    2009-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of pediatric injuries associated with furniture tip-overs in the United States. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were analyzed for patients furniture tip-over-related injury from 1990 through 2007. An estimated 264 200 furniture tip-over-related injuries occurred during the study period, yielding an average of 14 700 injuries annually, or 20.7 per 100 000 population per year. There was a significant increase in the number and rate of these injuries during the 18-year period. Three-quarters of injuries were to children furniture tip-overs are increasing. Pediatricians and caregivers should be aware of this important source of pediatric injury and the strategies for prevention.

  6. The Outcome and Patterns of Traumatic Brain Injury in the Paediatric Population of a Developing Country Secondary to TV Trolley Tip-Over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Javed, Gohar; Nathani, Karim Rizwan; Ujjan, Badar; Quadri, Syed A; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair

    2018-01-01

    Television (TV) trolley tip-over incidences are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern and outcomes of head injuries resulting from TV trolley tip-over. We conducted a medical chart review of children with TV trolley tip-over head injuries from January 2009 to April 2016. We collected data on demographics, the mechanism of injury, clinical and radiological features of the injury, and outcomes. Outcomes were measured by means of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 6 months (except in 1 case). A descriptive analysis was carried out using SPSS v19. Twenty-two children were included in the study (median age 23.5 months). Sixteen children were male. Most of the children (n = 16) were aged 12-35 months. The median Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission was 15. The median Rotterdam Score for the patients was 2.0. Common symptoms upon admission were vomiting, irritability, scalp laceration, and bruises. Median length of hospital stay was 3 days. Skull bone fractures were present in 12 children. Other CT findings included contusions, extradural and subdural haematomas, intraventricular haemorrhage, and pneumocranium. Surgical intervention was required in 4 cases. Although most of the patients made a good recovery (GOS = 5), 1 patient developed a mild disability and another died in hospital. TV trolley tip-over is most common in toddlers and can lead to significant head injury and mortality. This can be avoided by parental supervision and adjustments in the household. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Tip-over stability of spent fuel storage cask subjected to seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Ito, Chihiro; Saegusa, Toshiari; Ryu, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    Cask storage method is the most preferable to store spent fuel at a reactor site. Since the cask is vertically oriented within the storage facility, it is necessary to investigate the tipping-over stability of the cask subjected to seismic load. In this paper, an evaluation method of the seismic response of the cask subjected to earthquake motions is proposed. Firstly, shaking table tests were conducted using a scaled cask model on a reinforced concrete base, considering a similarity law. According to these test results, the characteristics of the tipping-over response of the cask under sinusoidal waves and natural earthquake waves were investigated, and the tipping-over stability of the cask subjected to seismic load was confirmed. Secondly, based on the assumption that the tipping-over behavior could be treated as a two-dimensional problem, the numerical simulations were carried out by means of distinct element method and compared with the experimental results. As a result, the applicability of this code for seismic response of the cask was made clear. (author)

  8. Lithogenic transformation of clay in zones of abnormally high stratal pressure. Litogeneticheskie preobrazovaniya glin v zonakh anomal'no vysokikh plastovykh davlenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zkhus, I.D.; Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    An examination is made of problems associated with the properties of clays as an mantles over petroleum and gas beds with abnormally high stratal pressures (AHSP), with changes in the clays that are characteristic of AHSP zones, with catagenetic transformations of clay minerals, and with their superimposed catagenesis under the influence of fluids in the interstitial coronas. The study of the lithogenetic transformations of clay was shown to be of practical use for forecasting AHSP zones and estimating stratal pressures as well as for the operative development of an optimal system for drilling deep wells. The gradient distribution of AHSP for the layer of clay mantles was demonstrated for the first time as was the coincidence of the maximum values of those gradients with the hydrodynamic threshold. The over-all effect of dispersing rock in the AHSP zones was shown to have a universal significance and importance to forecasting beds with AHSP and the safe drilling of boreholes by means of the timely identification of AHSP zones. Calculations were made for the first time on the effect that the thickness of mantles has on fracture time of the fluids. 150 references, 27 figures, 21 tables.

  9. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ... tv tip-overs. The force of a large television falling from tipping furniture can be staggering. A ...

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost ... accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a large television ...

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch ... reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of ...

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... impact can kill a child or cause severe injuries. About 16,000 (mostly young children) were treated in emergency rooms for tip-over related injuries in 2006, that’s about four times more injuries ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video ... impact can kill a child or cause severe injuries. About 16,000 (mostly young children) were treated ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... third story of a building. That kind of impact can kill a child or cause severe injuries. ... to prevent a tip-over tragedy. Share Post Facebook Twitter Google Plus Reddit Connect with Me:  Visit ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to prevent a tip-over tragedy. Share Post Facebook Twitter ... Security, and Legal Notice | Accessibility Policy | Open Government @ CPSC | ...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.17 - Banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... application to interior masonry walls, floors, etc., as a water repellant treatment and that are “extremely...) Large multiple-tube devices. Multiple-tube mine and shell fireworks devices that first enter commerce or... Laboratory (AFSL) has a standard for mines and shells intended to address the potential tip-over hazard...

  19. Oblici tradicijske arhitekture i kulture stanovanja u Baranji

    OpenAIRE

    Puntarović-Vlahinić, Jadranka

    1993-01-01

    Obrađeni su i prikazani podaci prikupljeni za Etnološki atlas koji se odnose na tipove naselja, osnovne značajke kućišta, te na oblike stambenih zgrada u Baranji. Tome su dodani zabilježeni podaci o rasporedu prostorija, njihovoj funkciji, te o njihovu unutarnjem uređenju i opremi (namještaj, oprema kuhinje, pravljenje ognja, peći i grijanje, rasvjeta).

  20. Structural evaluation of spent fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, K. H.; Pak, S. W.; Jung, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    In a various regulations and standards related to the spent fuel storage, the storage casks should be designed to sustain the structural integrity under the accident conditions of predicted operation and design criteria. These conditions for the structural evaluation requires the drop, tip-over, wind like tornado and typhoon, flood and earthquake. This paper describes the load cases and conceptual evaluation method for the structural evaluation. Preliminary safety analysis of the concrete storage system were performed

  1. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  2. Izravnava proizvodnje iz obnovljivih virov energije s črpalnimi hidroelektrarnami

    OpenAIRE

    PUŠNIK, URH

    2016-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je opisana problematika odstopanja moči vetrnih ter sončnih elektrarn od moči bremena. Za rešitev problema se v nalogi uporablja hranilnik električne energije. Izmed različnih tipov hranilnikov je uporabljena črpalna hidroelektrarna. V diplomski nalogi je predstavljen princip uporabe ČHE danes ter kakšen pomen bodo ti hranilniki energije imeli v prihodnosti. Izračunali smo, koliko vetrnih ter sončnih elektrarn bi potrebovali za oskrbo elektroenergetskega sistema osrednje N...

  3. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as

  4. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  5. An Improved Force-Angle Stability Margin for Radial Symmetrical Hexapod Robot Subject to Dynamic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Long

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on stability monitoring for a radial symmetrical hexapod robot under dynamic conditions. The force-angle stability margin (FASM measure method has been chosen as the stability criterion. This is because it is suitable for the stability analysis, in terms of external forces or manipulator loads acting on the body. Considering that a radial symmetrical hexapod robot can tumble along the contact point besides tip-over axis, this paper proposes an improved FASM measure method. Furthermore, it provides the method for calculating the stability angle of contact point and simplifies the algorithm of FASM. To verify the improved FASM measure method, three potential dynamic situations have been simulated. The simulation results confirm that, under dynamic conditions, the improved FASM is efficient, simple in terms of calculation cost and sensitive to manipulator loads and external disturbances. This means it has practical value in on-line controllers.

  6. Lázaro: Robot Móvil dotado de Brazo para Contacto con el Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo tiene por objetivo describir a Lázaro, el cual es un pequeño robot móvil que posee un brazo diseñado especialmente para propiciar un punto adicional de contacto con el suelo que puede utilizarse para mejorar la estabilidad al vuelco y superar obstáculos. Específicamente, se aborda la descripción de la estructura mecánica así como los componentes electrónicos destinados a percepción, comunicación y control. Posteriormente, se revisan las características de funcionamiento de este robot, en cuanto a su cinemática, arquitectura de control, modos de operación e interface. Finalmente, se hace una descripción de algunas pruebas de funcionamiento. Abstract: This paper aims to describe Lázaro, which is a small mobile robot that has an arm designed especially to provide an additional contact point with the ground that can be used to improve the tipover stability and to overcome obstacles. Specifically, the description of the mechanical structure and electronic components for perception, communication and control is discussed. Subsequently, the operating characteristics of the robot are reviewed in terms of kinematics, control architecture, operating modes and interface. Finally, a description of some performance tests is presented. Palabras clave: Robots móviles, estabilidad al vuelco, control de movimiento, tele-operación, Keywords: Mobile robots, tipover stability, motion control, teleoperation

  7. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  8. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Pérez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak ( Mycosphaerella fijiensis ) and Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis ); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi ), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot ( Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca ). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  9. Balance Analysis of the Mobile Anthropomimetic Robot Under Disturbances – ZMP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Antoska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of technological progress, attempts have been made to build a machine that looks and behaves like humans. This paper presents a semi-anthropomimetic robot. The robot structure consists of a human-like upper body mounted on a mobile platform (mobile base, cart. The robot uses the three-wheeled mobile platform with two driving wheels and one passive (caster wheel. The configuration and model of the upper body are represented as an anthropomimetic, compliant robot with antagonistically coupled drives. Robust control is evaluated in order to ensure stability of the robot position. The aim of this work is not the synthesis of control, but rather the examination of the limits of the adopted robot control strategy and the robot behaviour under disturbances (analysis of tip-over stability. The paper analyses both disturbances from the cart motion and external disturbances due to interaction with the environment (external impulse and long term external force. In order to analyse the balance of the robot and to avoid tipping over, different situations are tested and the appropriate dimensions of the cart are estimated (relying on the ZMP calculation.

  10. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages

  11. Injuries Associated With Strollers and Carriers Among Children in the United States, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Erica; Kobe, Christopher; Roberts, Kristin J; Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B

    To describe the incidence, rate, and characteristics of injuries associated with strollers and carriers among young children in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children 5 years of age and younger treated in emergency departments (1990-2010), who sustained an injury associated with a stroller or carrier. An estimated 360,937 (95% confidence interval: 294,279-427,594) children aged 5 years or younger were treated in emergency departments for stroller- or carrier-related injuries, an average of 17,187 annually. Overall, the rate of stroller- and carrier-related injuries decreased significantly during the study period. Regarding stroller-related injuries, patients were most commonly male (52.4%) and younger than 1 year of age (42.0%); the head (43.0%) and face (31.0%) were most commonly injured. The most common diagnoses were soft tissue injuries (39.4%) and traumatic brain injuries/concussions (24.6%). Similarly, for carrier-related injuries, patients were most commonly male (52.5%) and younger than 1 year of age (89.0%); the head (61.5%) and face (24.7%) were most commonly injured. The most common diagnoses were soft tissue injuries (48.1%) and traumatic brain injuries/concussions (34.9%). Carrier-related injuries resulted in more hospitalizations (6.5%) than stroller-related injuries (2.4%). Stroller- and carrier-related injuries, specifically those resulting from falls from the product or tip-overs, are important sources of injury for children 5 years of age and younger. Although injuries over the 21-year study period decreased overall, the considerable number of injuries annually shows the need to further reduce the potential for injury associated with these ubiquitous products. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic stability of forklift trucks in cornering situations: parametrical analysis using a driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, P.; Höppner, O.; Rebelle, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the examination of the vehicle dynamics and stability of four-wheeled forklift trucks (FLTs) in cornering situations. Cornering at excessive speed is one major reason for fatal accidents with forklifts caused by lateral tipover. In order to increase the lateral stability of this kind of working machinery, the influence of certain important design properties has been studied using an appropriate vehicle simulation model and a driving simulator. The simulation model is based on a multi-body system approach and includes submodels for the propulsion system and the tyres. The driving behaviour of the operator has not been modelled. Instead, a driving simulator has been built up and a real human driver was employed for ensuring adequate and realistic model input. As there have not been any suitable standardised test manoeuvres available for FLTs, a new driving test has been developed to assess the lateral stability. This test resembles the well-known J turn/Fishhook turn, but includes a more dynamic counter-steering action. Furthermore, the dimensions of the test track are defined. Therefore, the test is better adapted to the driving dynamics of forklifts and reflects the real driver behaviour more closely. Finally, a parametrical study has been performed, examining the influence of certain important technical properties of the truck such as the maximum speed, the position of centre of gravity, rear axle design features and tyre properties. The results of this study may lead to a better understanding of the vehicle dynamics of forklifts and facilitate goal-oriented design improvements.

  13. Določitev območij poselitve v Sloveniji po vodnogospodarskih vidikih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Gosar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveljavitev pravnega reda Evropske unije prinaša obsežno strokovno delo tudi v vodno gospodarstvo. Na vodilno, Okvirno direktivo o vodah (WFD se navezujejo številne druge. Izpolnjevanje določil Direktive o ravnanju z odpadnimi komunalnimi vodami (UWWTD in Direktive o celovitem preprečevanju in omejevanju onesnaževanja (IPPCD bo tudi v Sloveniji zahtevalo znatne investicije. Področje komunalnih voda na operativni ravni ureja občina, država pa mora izpolnjevati prevzete državne obveznosti do EU. Pravočasno doseganje ciljev zahteva koordinacijo aktivnosti, temelječo na strokovnih podlagah. V UWWTD je eden osnovnih parametrov aglomeracija kot zaokroženo območje tako zgoščene poselitve, da zanj veljajo posebna določila in dinamika iz direktive. Merilo zgoščenosti je število prebivalcev na hektar. Za Slovenijo so bili izdelani najprimernejša mreža eno-hektarskih kvadratnih celic in trije tipi celic poselitve. Območje posamezne aglomeracije sestavljajo celice dveh najgostejših tipov poselitve, ki se stikajo. Površina aglomeracij je mnogo manjša od površine naselij iz RPE, zato so skupne slovenske obveznosti iz direktiv manjše, kar pokaže tudi strokovna podlaga za nacionalni program zbiranja in čiščenja odpadnih komunalnih in padavinskih voda. Izdelane aglomeracije so osnovni element načrtovanja in ukrepanja tudi za druga vodnogospodarska načrtovanja (npr. proti poplavni ukrepi, lahko pa si bi jih uporabilo tudi za programe komunalnega opremljanja in druga razvojna načrtovanja v prostoru.

  14. Recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K J; Griffin, R; Rue, L W; McGwin, G

    2009-08-01

    To describe recent trends in television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years, and to compare injury rates with sales of newer digital televisions. Digital television sales data were obtained from marketing data provided by the Television Bureau of Advertising. Data regarding television tip over-related injuries among children aged 0-9 years were obtained from the 1998-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A Wald chi(2) test, estimated from logistic analysis, was used to determine whether the distribution of injury types differed by age group. Pearson's correlation was used to estimate the association between digital television sales and television tip over-related injuries. An estimated 42 122 (95% CI 35 199 to 49 122) injuries from television tip-overs were treated in US emergency departments from 1998 to 2007. The injury rate was highest for children aged 1-4 years (18.6/100 000). A majority of injuries (63.9%) involved the head and neck for children under 1 year of age, while a higher proportion of injuries among children aged 1-4 involved the hip and lower extremity (42.9% and 31.0%, respectively), and shoulder and upper extremity (16.8%) for children aged 5-9. A strong, positive correlation was observed between television sales and annual injury rates (r = 0.89, pdigital television sales were strongly correlated with increased injury rates, the lack of information regarding the type of television involved prevents inference regarding causation.

  15. Ars saturae: misli o satiri in njenih obrazih. Uvodnik v tematski sklop „o satiri“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Golob

    2011-12-01

    Evropski in slovenski okvir – izkušnje niso tako vsaksebi, da ne bi prepoznali večnih in vesoljnih zakonov človekovega dejanja in nehanja. Vendar: ali se še kdaj spomnimo na Pudelbal Feliksa Antona Deva (1732–1786, kjer je prek pustnega, maškeradnega plesa na pahljačo vseh mogočih tipov prižebljal ljubljansko »purgarijo« v literarni ringaraja, tako da je začetno lahkotno šopirjenje izzvenelo v nelahkotni antitezi o sprenevedanju, večnem laganju in podobnih značajskih odličnostih. Obolos baročnemu času je jezikovno bogastvo, kopičenje satirično-parodičnih oznak, ki jih je Dev nalepil paradirajočim osebkom na odru, iz katerih dehti moralna sprijenost. To je satira o malih dušah. In še brezkončni izvir, namreč briljantno pletenje Ivana Cankarja in mnogoobraznih satiričnih motivov, v dobršni meri izvirajočih iz politične odvisnosti in narodno-zavedne neurejenosti, tako da je v resnici »kostanj posebne sorte«, ki so se mu v različnih tonalitetah pridružila najboljša peresa prve polovice 20. stoletja. Cankarjevo satiropisje je veljalo »zlasti farizeju, hlapcu, dogmatiku, renegatu,« pravi Franc Zadravec, »maske snema z vsakršnih duhovnih in moralnih spak nekdanjih in sedanjih časov.«7 Satirik je po definiciji svojega početja brezkompromisni opazovalec človekovih dejanj. Izhodišče za tematske prispevke v tej številki Ars et humanitas je dalo polju satire, satiričnega, satirikov itd. odprte poti. Kakršno koli je že naše vsakdanje delo, vsi smo se s temi temami srečavali v raznih konceptualnih in oblikovnih izrazih in pri razrešitvi vprašanja največkrat ni zadoščal pogled samo ene stroke. To povezovanje disciplin je temeljna lastnost te revije, ki goji načelo medkulturnih in interdisciplinarnih perspektiv, zato so bili prispevki dolžni spoštovati le nosilno besedo »satira«.

  16. Failure points in the PKI architecture / Точки отказа в PKI архитектуре / Tačke otkaza u PKI arhitekturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir I. Prodanović

    2017-07-01

    татьи, и так как речь идет о значительно сложных инфраструктурах, в данной работе представлен лишь общий обзор главных потенциальных точек отказа, без подробного объяснения характеристик по каждому отдельному виду внедрения архитектуры. В статье исследуются общие характеристики PKI архитектур, на основании которых трактуется значение возможных отказов и предлагаются мероприятия по предупреждению и преодолению данного рода проблемы. / Tokom poslednjih 20 godina PKI arhitektura našla je široku primenu, posebno u oblastima koje su zahtevale uspostavljanje sigurnosne infrastrukture. S obzirom na to da se koristi radi sigurnosti jasno je da je njen nesmetan rad jedan od osnovnix zahteva koji se postavlja pri njenoj implementaciji, a već samim uvidom u brojne tipove arhitektura i različite implementacije uviđa se njena kompleksnost. Zbog toga je razmatranje potencijalnih tačaka otkaza od velike važnosti. Kako se radi o vrlo složenim infrastrukturama, ovaj rad daće samo osnovni pregled tačaka koje mogu biti tačke otkaza, bez detalja koji su karakteristični za pojedine primene i tipove implementacija.Tražiće se zajedničke karakteristike PKI arhitektura i na njima objašnjavati značaj otkaza koji se mogu desiti, a tamo gde je moguće biće navedeni i predlozi za njihovo prevazilaženje.